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EJEMPLO 3 tonf ≔ 1000 kgf

Diseñar la sección central de la viga rectangular que se muestra en la figura. La viga está sometida a
una carga permanente Wp (no incluye peso propio) y a una sobrecarga .

kgf kgf kgf tonf


Datos Es ≔ 2000000 ―― f'c ≔ 210 ―― fy ≔ 4200 ―― ϕ ≔ 0.9 γc ≔ 2.4 ――
cm 2 cm 2 cm 2 m3

tonf tonf
b ≔ 25 cm h ≔ 40 cm L≔5 m WP ≔ 1.5 ―― sobrecarga ≔ 1.4 ――
m m

Solución

tonf
Wv ≔ b ⋅ h ⋅ γc Wv = 0.24 ――
m
tonf
WD ≔ WP + Wv WD = 1.74 ――
m
tonf
WL ≔ sobrecarga WL = 1.4 ――
m
tonf
Wu ≔ 1.4 ⋅ WD + 1.7 ⋅ WL Wu = 4.816 ――
m
Wu ⋅ L 2
Mu ≔ ――― Mu = 15.05 tonf ⋅ m
8

d ≔ h - 9 cm = 31 cm

ϕt ≔ 0.9

Diseño de viga

a. Momento último
Mu = 15.05 tonf ⋅ m

b. Parámetro Rn
Mu kgf
Ku ≔ ―― Ku = 62.643 ――
b ⋅ d2 cm 2

c. Cuantía necesaria

0.85 ⋅ f'c ⎛ ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾


2 ⋅ Ku ⎞
ρ ≔ ―――⋅ ⎜1 - 1 - ――――⎟ ρ = 2.26%
fy ⎜⎝ 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ ϕt ⎟⎠

d. Área de acero

As ≔ ρ ⋅ b ⋅ d As = 17.48 cm 2

e. Fuerza de tracción
T ≔ As ⋅ fy T = 73.432 tonf

f. Altura del esfuerzo rectangular


de compresión T
a ≔ ―――― a = 16.455 cm
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b
f. Altura del esfuerzo rectangular
de compresión T
a ≔ ―――― a = 16.455 cm
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b

g. Cuantía balanceada β1 = 0.85


⎛ kgf ⎞
⎜ 6117 ―― ⎟
⎛ 0.85 ⋅ β1 ⋅ f'c ⎞ cm 2
ρb ≔ ⎜――――⎟ ⋅ ⎜―――――⎟
fy ⎜ kgf ⎟
⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 6117 ―― + fy ⎟
⎜ ρb = 2.14%
⎝ cm 2 ⎠

h.1 Cuantía máxima


ρmax ≔ 0.75 ⋅ ρb ρmax = 1.61%

h.2 Condición de cuantía

ρ = 2.26% ρmax = 1.61% ρ < ρmax Condicióncuantía = “Cuantía incorrecta”

Escoger

As1 ≔ ⎛⎝0.9 ⋅ ρmax⎞⎠ ⋅ b ⋅ d As1 = 11.205 cm 2

As1 ⋅ fy
Distancia "a" a ≔ ―――― a = 10.546 cm
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b

⎛ a⎞
Mn1 ≔ As1 ⋅ fy ⋅ ⎜d - ―⎟ Mn1 = 12.107 tonf ⋅ m
⎝ 2⎠

Mu
Mn2 ≔ ―― - Mn1 Mn2 = 4.615 tonf ⋅ m
ϕt

d' ≔ 6 cm

⎛ ⎛ kgf ⎞⎞
⎜ ⎜ 6117 ―― 2
+ fy ⎟⎟
kgf d' cm kgf
Esfuerzo del acero f's ≔ 6117 ――⋅ ⎜1 - ―⋅ ⎜―――――⎟⎟ f's = 4120.161 ――
cm 2 ⎜ d ⎜ kgf ⎟⎟ cm 2
en compresión ⎜ ⎜ 6117 ―― ⎟⎟
2
⎝ ⎝ cm ⎠⎠

Condición de fluencia para f's ≔ if f's > fy|


el acero en compresión ‖f |
‖ y |
|
else |
‖ f' kgf
| f's = 4120.161 ――
‖ s | cm 2
Mn2
As2 ≔ ―――― As2 = 4.395 cm 2
fy ⋅ ((d - d'))

As2 ⋅ fy
Área de acero 2 A's ≔ ――― A's = 4.481 cm 2
f's

As ≔ As1 + As2 As = 15.6 cm 2

A's ≔ 2 ⋅ 2.84 cm 2 = 5.68 cm 2

As ≔ 2 ⋅ 5.1 cm 2 + 2 ⋅ 2.84 cm 2 = 15.88 cm 2


PROCEDIMIENTO DE ANÁLISIS

a. Momento resistente

Valor β1 β1 = 0.85 εc ≔ 0.003

⎛ ⎛ kgf ⎞⎞
⎜ ⎜ 6117 ―― 2
+ fy ⎟⎟
kgf d' cm kgf
Esfuerzo del acero f's ≔ 6117 ――⋅ ⎜1 - ―⋅ ⎜―――――⎟⎟ f's = 4120.161 ――
cm 2 ⎜ d ⎜ kgf ⎟⎟ cm 2
en compresión ⎜ ⎜ 6117 ―― ⎟⎟
2
⎝ ⎝ cm ⎠⎠

Condición de fluencia para f's ≔ if f's > fy|


el acero en compresión ‖f |
‖ y |
|
else |
‖ f' kgf
| f's = 4120.161 ――
‖ s | cm 2

⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞
⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
―――――― - d'
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 kgf
f's ≔ ――――――― ⋅ εc ⋅ Es f's = 2845.888 ――
⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ cm 2
⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
――――――
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1

⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ ⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞


⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy ⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
―――――― - d' ―――――― - d'
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 kgf 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 kgf
f's ≔ ――――――― ⋅ εc ⋅ Es = 3297.668 ―― f's ≔ ――――――― ⋅ εc ⋅ Es = 3153.095 ――
⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ cm 2 ⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ cm 2
⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy ⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
―――――― ――――――
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1

⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ ⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞


⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy ⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
―――――― - d' ―――――― - d'
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 kgf 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 kgf
f's ≔ ――――――― ⋅ εc ⋅ Es = 3201.014 ―― f's ≔ ――――――― ⋅ εc ⋅ Es = 3185.311 ――
⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ cm 2 ⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ cm 2
⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy ⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
―――――― ――――――
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1
⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ ⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞
⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy ⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
―――――― - d' ―――――― - d'
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 kgf 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 kgf
f's ≔ ――――――― ⋅ εc ⋅ Es = 3201.014 ―― f's ≔ ――――――― ⋅ εc ⋅ Es = 3185.311 ――
⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ cm 2 ⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ cm 2
⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy ⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
―――――― ――――――
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1

⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ ⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞


⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy ⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
―――――― - d' ―――――― - d'
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 kgf 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 kgf
f's ≔ ――――――― ⋅ εc ⋅ Es = 3190.476 ―― f's ≔ ――――――― ⋅ εc ⋅ Es = 3188.779 ――
⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ cm 2 ⎛ A's ⋅ f's ⎞ cm 2
⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy ⎜As - ――― ⎟ ⋅ fy
⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ fy ⎟⎠
―――――― ――――――
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ β1

A's ⋅ f's
Área de acero 2 As2 ≔ ――― As2 = 4.312 cm 2
fy

Área de acero 1 As1 ≔ As - As2 As1 = 11.568 cm 2

As1 ⋅ fy
Distancia "a" a ≔ ―――― a = 10.887 cm
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b

⎛ a⎞
Momento nominal Mn ≔ As1 ⋅ fy ⋅ ⎜d - ―⎟ + As2 ⋅ fy ⋅ ((d - d')) Mn = 16.944 tonf ⋅ m
⎝ 2⎠

Momento resistente reducido ϕ ⋅ Mn = 15.25 tonf ⋅ m

b. Condición de fluencia

Valor β1 β1 = 0.85 εc ≔ 0.003

a
Distancia c c≔― c = 12.808 cm
β1

d-c
Deformación del acero en tracción εt ≔ ――⋅ εc εt = 0.0043
c

Condición de falla εt > 0.005 Cond2 = “Falla no desea”


εt > 0.005

c. Condición de cuantía

As
Cuantía de la viga ρ ≔ ―― ρ = 2.049%
b⋅d
⎛ kgf ⎞
⎜ 6117 ―― ⎟
⎛ 0.85 ⋅ β1 ⋅ f'c ⎞ ⎜ cm 2
Cuantía balanceada ρb ≔ ⎜――――⎟ ⋅ ―――――⎟ ρb = 2.142%
fy ⎜ kgf ⎟
⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 6117 ―― + fy ⎟
⎜ 2
⎝ cm ⎠
A's
Cuantía del acero en ρ' ≔ ―― ρ' = 0.733%
compresión b⋅d

f's
Cuantía máxima ρmax ≔ 0.75 ⋅ ρb + ρ' ⋅ ― ρmax = 2.163%
fy

‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾
kgf
0.8 ⋅
f'c ⋅ ――
cm 2
Cuantía mínima ρsmín ≔ ―――――― ρsmín = 0.276%
fy

Condición de cuantía ρsmín < ρ < ρmax Condcuantia = “OK dentro de los limites”

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