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2

DIGITAL
CONTENT Aquapedia Aquapedia
FICHA TÉCNICA TECHNICAL DATA
Diseño web responsive
Responsive Web Design
50 temas (base) themes (as base)

Todo el conocimiento sobre el agua en un


contenido digital. Aquapedia nace de ese
sueño y de la simple necesidad de tener
un conocimiento más profundo sobre este
recurso, indispensable para la vida. Esta
aventura de codificación virtual y marcado
carácter multimedia ha sido realizada por
expertos de diferentes campos vinculados
al agua. Su propuesta educativa consiste
en un panel interactivo que trata cuestiones
científicas, pedagógicas y divulgativas
relacionadas con el agua. Cual enciclopedia
de grandes dimensiones, incluye el más
exhaustivo contenido, publicado en formato
“síntesis”. Aquapedia es apta para todos los
dispositivos y está dirigida al público masivo
y a las comunidades educativas en especial.
En sus más de 50 bloques temáticos
independientes -cantidad que se incrementa
constantemente- se combinan galerías de
imágenes, ilustraciones, gráficos interactivos
y vídeos, entre otros recursos, para cubrir
disciplinas muy diversas como biología,
tecnología, historia, ingeniería y medio
ambiente. Derechos disponibles para Europa
(excepto España), América Latina y Asia.

What separates Earth from every other


planet is the existence of water. This
digital educational content provides a
better understanding of the scientific,
technological and informative aspects of
the most important natural resource on our
world. Aquapedia is a multimedia proposal
consisting of an interactive website about
issues related to water. The content appeals
to a curious audience and, particularly, to
the educational community. It is presented
in more than 50 independent thematic
blocks covering diverse disciplines such as
technology, biology, history, engineering
and environment. Each block engages the
audience as a comprehensive depository
of the latest information through a wide
range of resources such as image galleries,
interactive graphics, infographics, videos
and much more. Rights available for Europe
(except Spain), Latin America and Asia.
DIGITAL
CONTENT

TEMAS THEMES

El ciclo del agua, un viaje con retorno


The water cycle, a return trip
¿Por qué el agua del mar es salada?
Why sea water is salty?
Tsunamis, la furia de los océanos
Tsunamis, the fury of the oceans
Glaciares, vestigios de la Edad de Hielo
Glaciers, remnants of the Ice Age
¿Cómo se originan los icebergs?
How do icebergs emerge?
El Niño: un fenómeno devastador
El Niño: a devastating phenomenon
Géiseres: erupciones de agua subterránea
Geysers: rash groundwater
Nubes: cuando el agua flota en el cielo
Clouds: when the water floats in the sky
Toshka, un proyecto para salvar Egipto
Toshka, a project to save Egypt
Troll A, un coloso anclado bajo el mar
Troll A, a colossus anchored under the sea
Obras maestras de la ingeniería hidráulica
The greatest works of hydraulic engineering
El nuevo Canal de Panamá
The New Panama Canal
Cómo funciona una depuradora de aguas
How does a waste water treatment plant work
Las mareas como fuente de energía
Tides as power source
Pólderes: tierras conquistadas al mar
Polders: land conquered to the sea
Qanat’: el agua que fluye por el desierto
Qanat’: water flowing through the desert
Agujeros azules, paraísos submarinos
Blue holes: underwater paradises
Los lagos más asombrosos del mundo
The most amazing lakes in the world
Cascadas y cataratas, un espectáculo
natural Waterfalls, a natural spectacle
H2O: mucho más que una fórmula química
H2O: much more than a chemical formula
La fotosíntesis: agua + luz = energía
Photosynthesis: water + light = energy
El plancton que alimenta al mundo
Plankton that feeds the world
¿Por qué necesitamos agua para vivir?
Why do we need water to live?

... entre otros.


... among others.

3
4

SINGLE
BOOKS Cómo funciona la Tierra How the Earth Works

FICHA TÉCNICA TECHNICAL DATA


1 libro book
Formato Format 215,9x279,4 mm
256 páginas pages

Cómo funciona la Tierra pone el mundo


a nuestro alcance. Ahora sí podremos
entender las reglas que rigen nuestro
entorno. Esta es la mejor guía ilustrada
sobre los hechos y mecanismos naturales
de nuestro planeta. Mediante infografías,
fotografía documental e ilustraciones 3D que
incluyen sorprendentes cortes de sección,
este libro explica la función de cientos de
organismos y sistemas naturales y también
los fenómenos atmosféricos, geográficos
y geológicos. Desde cómo ocurren los
eclipses, hasta cómo pueden volar los
murciélagos en total oscuridad.

How The Earth Works puts the world on the


hands of all readers. Now we can understand
the laws that rule our environment. With
infographics, 3D illustrations and surprising
cutaways, this illustrated guide explains the
most surprising nature facts of our planet
and the function of thousands of organisms,
natural systems and atmospheric,
geographical and geological phenomena.
From how a solar eclipse occurs to how can
bats fly at night in near-total darkness.
SINGLE
BOOKS Cómo funcionan las cosas How Things Work
HOW THINGS WORK Communication 97 HOW THINGS WORK Energy 113

HOW THINGS WORK Space exploration 189

Digital TV Nuclear reactor


Space Probes
Satellites PICTURE QUALITY URANIUM
Sound is received in Digital TV’s base concept is that image quality Uranium appears naturally in nature, embed-
channels, separated by is the most important thing to consumers. ded with other minerals. In addition, only 0.7
the relative position of The system eliminates distortions and errors percent of uranium is the isotope uranium-235,
each, allowing a three- in the colors. Image quality is determined by necessary for nuclear fission. The proportion of ON MARS
dimensional effect if

370,000 The main objective of the MRO was to


two things: screen resolution and the propor- uranium-235 must be increased 3 to 5 percent
The invention of liquid crystal display (LCD) televisions, especially high definition the viewer uses a home tions of the image.
One of the most efficient and cleanest methods for obtaining electric energy is in a process called enrichment.
theater system.
televisions, caused picture quality to rise to new heights. However, a concurrent through a controlled nuclear reaction. Although this technology has been used find evidence of water on the surface
Analog TV Digital TV The power, in megawatts (MW), High gain parabolic antenna
development made this revolution possible—digital television. Digital TV has replaced Lower detail. Greater detail. for half a century, it continues to be at the center of debate because of the risks generated by nuclear energy
Its data transfer capacity is 10 of Mars. In doing so, the evolution of
throughout the world.
the traditional analog television system. The concept involves the digitization of the 5 it poses to the environment and health and because of the highly toxic waste it times greater than the capacity the planet could be explained. The They also move
entire television process, from capturing the images in a complex series of zeroes and creates. Nuclear power generates a huge amount of radioactivity that can cause of previous orbiters. probe’s devices facilitate high-resolution from left to right.
INTERACTIVITY
ones, to the conversion from the ones and zeroes to colored pixels. irreparable damages if released. Mobile crane imagery of the surface and analysis of
Unlike analog TV,
digital transmissions Moves the mechanism
that replenishes the
Since the first spacecraft in the 1960s, the contribution minerals. It also created daily climatic
are two-way trans-
APPROACH TO MARS
to science made by space probes has been considerable.
reactor with nuclear fuel.
missions, allowing the
user some interactiv- 4:3 16:9 maps of Mars.
p MODERATOR 1
4 ity with the station.

1 2
To break down the nucleus, the neutrons
must collide with it at a specific speed, Fission The original min-
eral is treated until a Mostly solar-powered, these unmanned machines are Poner en photoshop con
A digital world DECOMPRESSION
which is governed by a moderating substance called yel- transparencia

equipped with sophisticated instruments that make it


IMAGE STORAGE The information is The picture is The image is formed lowcake is obtained.
decompressed and substance, such as water, heavy water, The nuclei of certain atoms, like
High resolution digital The information is formed by about by more than two mil- Yellowcake is 80
Digital TV, like analog, begins in a studio. It is processed by a decoder graphite, and so on.
cameras take video and transmitted to computers 211,000 pixels. lion pixels. uranium-235, can be broken percent uranium.
5 OPENING
generally transmitted by cable or satellite to encode the information
in binary, a language of
working at high-speeds
to transfer it to online
before being interpret-
ed and converted into a apart when bombarded by neu-
Separators
Separates the 2 possible to study planets, moons, comets, and asteroids MRO made
C
THE PANELS
Once unfolded,
they use an axis.
every TV capable of receiving its signal. ones and zeroes. servers. picture by the TV. trons. In doing so, they release liquid water from During conversion, first Final orbit
x Neutron great amounts of energy and the steam. uranium tetrafluoride
(UF4) and then uranium UF4 in detail. One particularly renowned probe is the Mars 500 orbits It travelled along The panels are
Neutron new neutrons that can break Steam to the hexafluoride (UF6) are an almost circular opened while
Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which was launched
Sound On Demand They begin to
3 The sound is received in If the provider down the nuclei of other atoms, turbines
obtained.
orbit, suitable for
in orbit. unfold upwards.
separate channels according to offers, this allows Nucleus of a Energy creating a chain reaction. obtaining data.
LCDs
3
to study Mars in 2005.
TRANSMISSION relative position, which allows the viewer to uranium-235 atom 5
Performed in compressed a three-dimensional effect. choose between Hot water The gaseous uranium hexa-
digital formats allowing different program- pipes fluoride is spun repeatedly
Liquid crystal display technology E in a centrifuge until it attains UF6
one to send huge flows of BL OR ming options. The
has been applied to television CA AT the desired concentration of
information at very high ER viewer can also
sets, causing a revolution in size speeds, whether by cable
OP
consult channel
Cold water
uranium-235.
Solar panels The panels are
and image quality. LCD televisions
are flat-screen and lighter than
or by satellite. guides and buy
pipes 4 Orbit The probe’s main power source almost closed.
programs to watch
conventional sets and need less at one’s leisure. GENERATION OF ENERGY The enriched uranium is the Sun. The craft has two
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
power to operate. gas is solidified again.
The purpose of nuclear fission is to create very hot steam to operate turbines and electrical generators. Pump B solar panels with a total surface Radar
The high temperatures are achieved by using nuclear energy from the reactor. Maintains the circu-
lation of the fluids
5
Braking area of 430 sq ft (40 m2). SHARAD
Through compaction, Mars
in the system. pellets of enriched To get closer to the
2009
Decoder uranium are obtained
In digital television, the TV
Reactor that can be used as fuel The main objective of this orbiting probe is to seek out traces planet, the space-
plays a role similar to that of Turbine Generator in nuclear reactors. craft slowed down
The year in which all TV
stations in the United
a computer monitor. In tradi- of water on the surface of Mars. The probe was launched in over a six-month
tional analog TV, the television 6
States were required to plays a much more active role, The pellets are put into hollow bars summer 2005 by NASA and reached Mars on 10 March 2006. It period. A
broadcast digitally. receiving the signal broadcast that are later placed in the core of
directly from the station. the nuclear reactor. Start
Exchanger
Transformer
travelled 116 million km (72 million miles) in seven months. NASA The probe’s first
orbit travelled along
Fuel rod believes the spacecraft can still perform well until at least 2015. an enormous ellipti-
Cooling Reactor core
tower Contains the radioactive fuel x cal path.

3.744
5 MULTIPLE FORMATS, and is where the nuclear
MULTIPLE CHANNELS reaction takes place.
One of the most WATER STEAM ELECTRICITY RECYCLING TRANSPORT
DIFFERENT FORMATS
important characteristics 1 Pressurized water, to- 2 The resulting steam 3 The steam enters the tur- 4 The steam condenses 5 Before transmitting
of digital TV is the ability of TV
stations to subdivide their signal into
Pixels
Analog

211,000
SDTV

307,200
EDTV

337,920
HDTV

921,600
HDTV

2,073,600
gether with the moderator, is
pumped through the core of
enters an exchanger,
where it heats water
bines, making them spin.
The turbines drive the
into liquid water and
is reused.
electricity, a trans-
former increases its 438 cells on each panel convert
channels in lower resolution with different Resolution 640x480 640x480 704x480 1280x720 1290x1080
the reactor, and the tempera- until it too is con- generator that produces voltage. The number of nuclear plants Uranium solar energy into electricity.
programming, or to broadcast a single Format scanning 480 lines 480 lines 480 pixels 720 pixels 1080 lines
ture of the core increases by verted into steam. electricity. operating throughout the world in pellets Mar’s
hundreds of degrees. 2012. More than 63 are in various
channel in the best resolution, due to the Screen
Quality
4:3
Common
4:3
Good
4:3 o 16:9
Very good
16:9
Excellent
16:9
Excellent stages of construction.
orbit
high speed of data transmission.
Poner en photoshop con
Poner en photoshop con
transparencia
transparencia

Mars
Earth’s
orbit
Sun

Earth

HiRISE high-resolution camera


5 Provides details on geological
structures and has considerably CTX Context Camera
Scientific phase
4 The probe began its improved resolution when com- Offers panoramic views
Arrival on Mars analysis phase on the pared to previous missions. that help to provide
HOW THINGS WORK Everyday Technology 47 HOW THINGS WORK Machines of War 245 3 context to the images
In March 2006, MRO passed surface of Mars. It found
2 Path correction evidence of water. captured by HiRISE and
into the southern hemisphere

3-D Printers Unmanned Aerial


Four maneuvers
1 Cruising of Mars. The probe slowed CRISM.
were made to en-
The probe travelled down considerably.
COMPUTERIZED SCULPTING 5 NORTHROP Top speed: High subsonic h NORTHROP Launch sure the correct orbit HiRISE MGS
for seven and a was reached.
3-D printing builds objects layer by layer, GRUMMAN RQ-4 Range: 2,417 mi (3,890 km) GRUMMAN X-47B Took place on Au-
GLOBAL HAWK Created by Northrop half months before MGS
from the base to the top. It is a slow pro-
This is the first
Altitude: 40,000 ft (12,192 m)
Grumman, its first
gust 12, 2005, from
reaching Mars. CRISM Spectrometer
cess, but it is quicker and cheaper than
Observes Mars’s

Vehicles (UAV)
building models in the traditional way. high-altitude drone flight was in 2011. Cape Canaveral, Divides visible and infra-
The recent rise of 3-D printers brought an inexpensive and practical alternative used by the US Air It was designed to USA. atmosphere. red light in the images

72 million miles
Force. Developed operate from aircraft
to large industrial modeling machines. Of similar size to—or even smaller than—a 1 by Teledyne Ryan carriers and in 2013 into various colours
photocopier, they can quickly and easily create three-dimensional objects. THE DESIGN
Aeronautical became the first drone that identify different
(now Northrop to land on one.
minerals.
(116 million km)
Created on a computer screen, using
Models can be printed in a wide range of formats, from the very simple to the a 3-D modeling program.
Grumman), it made
Powder tray its first flight in 1998. Top speed: 497 mph (800 km/h)
highly complex, and can even be printed in color. They are controlled by a normal Powder

computer using special 3-D modeling software and are very efficient because they 2 These state-of-the-art, unmanned aircraft are controlled by a ground crew located Range: 14,155 mi (22,780 km)

in military bases miles from the dangers of combat. They are capable of carrying out
Altitude: 60,039 ft (18,300 m)
Travelled by the Mars Reconnaissance
have the option to reuse waste materials. THE BASE 12 in (30 cm)/pixel 60 in (150 cm)/pixel
The print head sprays a fine reconnaissance, attack, and support missions in the harshest of scenarios. Popularly Orbiter on its journey to Mars.
layer of powder into the
modeling tray. known as “drones,” the UAV came into military use in the 1990s.
Print head Adhesive tube Modeling
Moves around the frame’s Carries the adhesive tray
The printer axis perpendicularly, inject- material to the print head.
Powerplant
The four-stroke and
DIMENSIONS
ing the adhesive material four-cylinder engine
onto the powder, accord- Fuel tanks gives it 100 horse-
Can build 3-D objects from 8 to 12 in (20—30 ing to the instructions from
Communication systems The MQ1 Predator has a range power at 5,500 rpm.
cm) in length, depending on the model, using a the processor.
The Predator communicates of 675 miles (1,100 km). 6 ft 11 in
Powder tray (2.1 m)
special powder of fine particles and an adhe- with its controllers through a Materials
sive material that acts like glue. Ku-band satellite dish, which Carbon fibers interwoven
allows it to be controlled over 27 ft
x 3 with aramid fibers are (8.22 m)

FICHA TÉCNICA TECHNICAL DATA


long distances and in adverse used for the construc-
weather conditions. tion of the fuselage
THE PRINT PROCESS and wings. The interior
The leftover The quick-drying adhesive structure is formed from
powder is stored material is then injected onto carbon fiber and alumi-
Modeling tray
and reused. the layer of powder. This num ribs.
process is repeated for each

76 ft
)
m
(16. 55
layer of the object.
Mobile frame Inertial navigation Wing area:
The frame moves from left to system / GPS 123.8 ft2

1 libro book
right covering the whole work (11.5 m2)
area, allowing the print head
to move over and around the
object being built.

Powder tray

Formato Format 215,9x279,4 mm Powder tray


Stores the powder
Inertial navigation
system / GPS
Units built: 360
Top speed: 135 mph (217 km/h)
Service celling: 25,000 ft (7,620 m)
Endurance in combat: 40 hours

Infrared electro-
used to build the

256 páginas pages


optical sensor
object. During printing, This multi-purpose
the tray slowly rises to system provides a
ensure a continuous high target-detection
supply of powder. range, through infra- RQ-1/MQ-1 Predator
0.004 in
Armament
4 reds and other sensors.

$4 million
It tracks the targets in Under the wings it carries
A medium-altitude, long-range aircraft. Although its main two air-to-surface AGM-
real time and uses a
Modeling tray
Collects the powder, layer by layer, while (0.1 mm) FINISHING STAGES
Once completed, the object is laser to guide the at-
tached Hellfire missiles.
function is reconnaissance, it can also be adapted for of- 114 Hellfire guided missiles
(above) or two air-to-air The cost of each RQ1/MQ1 Predator.
the print head models the object with the removed from the modeling tray. fensive missions. Since 1995, it has served in conflicts in AIM-92 Stinger missiles. The entire program cost 2.38 billion.
L WORKING 3-D printer adhesive material. During printing, the tray The average thickness of each layer Finally, it is dipped in various liquids
with bright green filament. in the construction of a 3-D object. Bosnia, Serbia, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Iraq.
moves downward. When the printing is to achieve the desired rigidity.
done, the tray contains the finished object. A model 1 ft (30.5 cm) tall, needs, L
on average, 3,000 layers.

En tiempos de constante evolución


tecnológica, este libro propone no perder
de vista aquellos avances que cambiaron
la historia de nuestra vida cotidiana, y
HOW THINGS WORK Transportation 25

The ship
que incluso revolucionaron la historia. HOW TO MOVE BOATS
Moving efficiently over the water has been a
Explicaciones dinámicas y sencillas sobre el constant concern for sailors. Here is a summary of
the main methods.

funcionamiento de decenas de máquinas, Although airplanes have replaced ships as the main method of moving Sail
Another primitive

dispositivos y sistemas tecnológicos como people across the world’s oceans, they remain very important in
moving people across short distances. Today thousands of ferries
way to drive ships,
sails take advantage
of wind’s force.
Experienced sailers Paddlewheel

ordenadores, teléfonos móviles, transportes and ships of all sizes constantly sail across rivers and seas. The big Oar
One of the most primitive
can guide ships
against the direction
The first ships with engines used
steam power to move a paddlewheel.
The paddlewheel is always half below
Propellers
Modern ships use propellers that are com-
pletely submerged and are much more
transatlantic liners, which had their golden age before the Second ways to move ships, oars rely of the wind.
the water and half above it. efficient than paddlewheels.

y satélites a través de infografías,


on people to provide energy.
World War, have evolved into huge luxurious floating hotels dedicated
to tourism and enjoyment: modern cruise ships.
ilustraciones y cutaways... En Cómo Enjoyment 1,187 ft (362 m)
funcionan las cosas no queda invento sin
It has golf, tennis, and basketball The biggest passenger ship in the world is a
Bridge courts, a 25,026 ft2 (2,325 m2) cruise ship that is 1,187 ft (362 m) long and
A floating city The ship and all
onboard activities are
gymnasium, 5 swimming pools,
a museum, night club, casino, 14
197 ft (60 m) wide. It’s name is the Allure

entenderse.
of the Seas and it can hold up to 6,400
directed from here. bars, a cinema theatre, theatre, passengers.
Launched in 2004, the Queen Mary II is the and an auditorium.
biggest transatlantic liner in the world, but
the third-largest recreational cruise chip, with
a length of 377 yards (345 metres). It can hold

In times of constant technological evolution, up to 2,620 passengers and a crew of 1,253.


x

it is important to not forget the great HOW THINGS WORK Energy 127 HOW THINGS WORK Machines of War 247

advances which have changed our daily


Technology Biodigesters HIMARS Rocket Launcher
Employs a hydraulic lift
system. It takes around
15 minutes to prepare
Light
The truck weighs just
10,000 lb (5 tons),
meaning it can be
SATELLITE-GUIDED MISSILES
The US Army used the GPS satellite navigation system

lives, even revolutionizing the history of


Organic wastes \ ECOLOGICAL CYCLE the shot, but less than 20 transported on a Her- for the first time in the Gulf War, from 1990–91, to

Launchers
Can be used both seconds to take aim. cules C-130, one of the locate and position its troops. At the same time, its
As a way of recycling, biodigsters
Large ships today have sophisticated in urban and rural offer an alternative answer to the most common US Air Russian counterpart, the GLONASS, was under devel-
opment. Today, both systems are used for missile and
When anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that do not require oxygen to live) decompose regions. Force aircraft.
navigation and communication systems, problem of organic trash, with
which more and more large cities
bomb guidance, among other functions.
organic material, through processes such as rotting and fermentation, they release
including radar, GPS, and the automation and agro-industries must contend.

mankind. This book explains the operation


biogas that can be used as an energy resource for heating and for generating
of many operations. electricity. They also create mud with very high nutritional value, which can be
Fish-farming
used in agriculture or fish farming. This technology appears promising as an energy development
alternative for rural and isolated regions, where, in addition to serving the energy The arms industry evolves to respond to current warfare, as has been
the case in regions of conflict such as Iraq or Afghanistan. An example

of dozens of machines, devices, and


needs of the populace, it helps recycle organic wastes.
of this is the US Army’s HIMARS (High Mobility Artillery Rocket
System) rocket launcher: a light, easily transportable vehicle capable
of hitting its target from a great distance with maximum precision and
Exeter The reactor Armored cabin

technological systems such as computers,


Dome efficiency. Since their deployment in 2005, these sophisticated trucks Only three people
—the driver, the
In 1895, this English city was the Is built underground
and can be lined Is a closed chamber where the bacteria breaks equipped with rocket launchers have fired 2,500 projectiles. gunner, and the
first to inaugurate a public lighting Soil treatment section chief— 5 M31 MISSILES The first
system powered by biogas (from a with concrete, brick, down the waste. The generated gas (called biogas)
or stone. travel in this cabin, M26 projectile models used
water-purification plant). and the fertilizing mud are collected for later use. ers protected against by HIMARS, with a range of
rtiliz

mobile phones, satellites through true-to-life


p Fe small weapons and
just 20 mi (32 km), would
Waterline Deadly weapon
gases.
eventually give way to the
Gas for new GMLRS M31 guided
domestic use missiles. One of the main
1 3
HIMARS was developed in the United States by Lockheed advantages of this extremely
Martin (missile launcher) and BAE Systems (vehicle). It is a accurate weapon, with just a

infographics, illustrations and other graphic


WASTE Biog Biofertilizers 33 ft (10 m) margin of error,
The organic waste is intro- as as device designed to attack artillery positions, anti-aircraft
duced into the reactor and Biog Industrial
defences, military or logistics vehicles or concentrations of
is that it reduces collateral
Biogas Plant damage.
mixed with water. Produces great quanti- troops from a given distance (up to 186 miles/300 km), with
ties of gas and fertilizer.
THE PROPELLER 1 2
the advantage of being able to abandon its firing position
quickly, before being located and counter-attacked.
GPS

resources... In How Things Work there are no


Guide and control device,
5
The propeller spins due DIGESTION CHAMBER
with GPS antenna.

to the power provided by Where the bacteria ferment 1 Generation of Electricity


Hull the engines.
the waste. They produce gas
and fertilizing mud.
Biogas can be used to pro-
duce electricity, although
Explosive core
Each M31 contains around
Hollow structure made of on a small scale.

inventions left unexplained.


198 lbs (90 kg) of controlled
PAD fragmentation explosives.
welded steel sheets, its in- Cabins Lifeboats Blade 3 4 HIMARS can launch six guided missiles (GMLRS) to a distance of

terior is divided into floors, HOW BOATS FLOAT Air Out of a total of 1,310 cabins, They are located 82 ft (25 BIOGAS
Is a product of the process
up to 43 miles (70 km), or a tactical ATACMS missile, with a range
of up to 186 miles (300 km). Its level of accuracy is excellent,
Multifuse
Equipped with three differ-
Gas for
or decks. Boats float because the volume of 920 have ocean views, 293 m) above the waterline to 2 3
that contains methane and
carbon dioxide. It is used for
automotive use Electricity for
thanks to the GPS system incorporated on the projectiles. ent adjustments, depend-
ing on the target: bunkers,
domestic use
water they displace has a weight have interior views, and 97 avoid being damaged by The water is driven The reactionary force
cooking, heating, and gener-
ating electricity. 2
open-air target, etc.

higher than their own. A steel hull is are suites. Cabins range in the North Sea’s waves. backwards. pushes the boat forwards. GMLRS motor

much denser than water, but be- size from 59 ft2 (18 m2) to 686 4
cause it has air inside, it floats. ft2 (209 m2). FERTILIZING MUD
Pathogens
Laboratory tests demonstrated that
\ BIOGAS The gaseous product
of biodigestion, it is made up of a
mixture of gases whose makeup
Very rich in nutrients
The water pushes and odorless, it is the biodigestion process kills up to depends on the composition of
the wastes and the break-down
85 percent of the harmful pathogenic
the boat up Water ideal for agricultural
uses. agents present in organic waste, process: 55-70% Methane (CH4), 6X6 drive
pathogens which would otherwise be 30-45%Carbon Dioxide (CO2), 1-10% Unlike tracked vehicles, on
Six in less than a minute Compatibility which rocket launchers were
released into the environment. Hydrogen (H2), 0.5-3% Nitrogen (N2), The launch sequence for The launch pad can be used
0.1% Sulfuric Acid (H2S). previously installed, these
a six GMLRS-missile load for different 8.93 in (227 mm)
is around 45 seconds. MLRS-type missile models. trucks are extremely fast and
can cross complex terrain.

5
6

SINGLE
BOOKS Maravillas Wonders

FICHA TÉCNICA TECHNICAL DATA


1 libro book
Formato Format 215x275 mm
256 páginas pages

De la majestuosidad del Taj Mahal y las


pirámides de Egipto a la inmensidad de la
selva Amazónica, este libro nos acerca al
inigualable espectáculo que nos brindan las
grandes obras creadas por el hombre y la
naturaleza a través de impresionantes fotos
y explicativas infografías.

From the majesty of the Taj Mahal and the


pyramids of Egipt to the vastness of the
Amazon jungle, this book opens the reader’s
mind to the wonders created by humankind
and nature through impressive photos and
explanatory infographics.
SINGLE
BOOKS Grandes ciudades del mundo World’s Greatest Cities

FICHA TÉCNICA TECHNICAL DATA


1 libro book
Formato Format 215x275 mm
256 páginas pages

Nueva York, San Francisco, Buenos Aires,


Río de Janeiro, Berlín, Bruselas y Sidney son
algunas de las 30 grandes ciudades que se
describen en esta obra. Los textos vienen
acompañados de atractivas fotografías,
planos de las zonas más populares de cada
ciudad e infografías de los monumentos
más característicos.

New York, San Francisco, Buenos Aires, Rio


de Janeiro, Berlin, Brussels and Sydney are
among the 30 large cities that are featured
in this work. The texts are accompanied by
attractive photographs, maps of the most
popular areas in each city and infographics
of the most characteristic monuments.

7
8

SINGLE
BOOKS Máquinas de guerra War Machines
26 CHARIOTS LAND 27 32 Siege Machinery LAND 33

60 Armour LAND 61
Bridges

The Hittite Chariots The Macedonian Helepolis and Catapult


Warrior it is very likely that, once on the Parapet
Shield-bearer wall, two platforms would be
He was the only one to use archers were probably emplaced here
He protected the plate armour and an iron lowered providing an entry to help destroy the defences of the
warrior and auriga. He helmet. He could throw point into the enemy fortifications from a raised position.
could also jump from fortification.
The Hittites, from Anatolia (modern Turkey), extended their empire throughout the Middle East between the chariot, giving
spears and fire arrows. The Macedonians built devices designed to break down a fortified city’s defences and penetrate its walls, Soldiers, also on the parapet, would then
take over the attack.
while minimizing the number of casualties. The helepolis were known for their remarkable structures and

The War Machines of Leonardo


the eighteenth and twelfth centuries BCE. Chariots were a fundamental piece of their powerful army. At the support in battle.
Fragmentation bombard machine gun or ‘organ gun’ height of its power, the Hittite army had more than 3,000 combat chariots in its ranks. With a crew of three mechanisms, while catapults could fire stones or incendiary missiles over many metres.
Although this kind of muzzle-loading This innovative machine, with men - an auriga, shield-bearer and warrior - their heavy chariots served as powerful shock forces, breaking the
enemy’s infantry lines.
mortar already existed, Da Vinci invented several guns grouped together
a system to regulate on three racks, could be fired at
The brilliant and multi-faceted Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) designed a number of inventions for warfare, the firing angle with very brief intervals.
Bolt The helepolis
This mobile siege tower had a
Steering
By way of a capstan, around 45 Protection
The height could be auriga men could turn the wheels to
although most of his projects were too advanced for his time to be brought to fruition. His war machines greater precision and adjusted by turning The auriga was the
driver of the chariot.
square floor plan and tapered
pyramidal shape, which
drive the tower in any direction.
Three of its exterior
sides were clad in
iron plates.
ensured stability. It weighed
included giant crossbows, siege towers, cluster bombs, a ‘machine gun’ and even an armoured car, added ammunition the bolt.
Horses
The success of an attack
depended largely on
his skill.
around 150 tonnes.

considered to be the precursor to modern tanks. that fragmented like The introduction of the horse,
instead of the asses used
Oxybeles
This weapon was like a large
cluster bombs. by other peoples, gave the
chariots greater mobility and crossbow and fired arrows
power than those of their Chariots Openings capable of piercing shields
enemies. and wood.
They had a solid structure These were
with a centred axle, which covered by
allowed them to transport leather-lined
up to three men. wooden shutters
9m
and opened on
(29 ft 6 in)
hinges from the
Lookout inside.

Armoured car Armour tower 37 – 45 m


(121–147 ft)
This was planned as a well-protected, Like a dome-shaped Movement Wheels
moving vehicle, well-equipped to weaken tortoise shell, it protected THe HiTTiTe TaCTiC around 600 men were needed to
move it, positioned half a metre apart
There were eight,
made of solid wood
enemy infantry with its 16 light cannons. the car from projectiles. The Hittite chariots were designed to carry
out powerful charges at the enemy infantry.
beneath the tower, while others and reinforced with
22 m
(72 ft 2 in)
Ammunition Their effectiveness increased on flat, open
pushed from behind. iron. They measured
some 4 m (13 ft) in
terrain, where their power and speed
once fired, it opened and significantly increased. The warrior began
diameter.
Armament
by firing arrows, and during the charge used
released small bullets. spears, axes or swords.
The tower was
armed with 82 and
27-kg (180 and
The catapult Projectile 60 lb) catapults on
Levels There were various types the lower floors
Crossbar and oxybeles and
While the first rack and sizes of catapult. Those scorpios on the top
fitted with a bow worked floors.
of cannons fired, the by tension.
Tension
bow
Spoon-shaped
arm
second was loaded, and
the third was cooling to
Armament be fired again.
Launch
The cannons were Levers were operated to
apply tension to a bow which,
arranged in a circle once released, drove a spoon-
shaped arm forwards. a
Structure
The main beams were fir
to obtain a 360º crossbar stopped the arm and or pine wood, while the
the missile was shot forwards. horizontal beams and wheels
firing angle. Wheels lined
with iron Lever were made from oak.

Springarde with mantlet


Leonardo drew the plans for
this shielded springarde, which
incorporated a blocking wedge that
allowed it to be breech loaded – three
centuries ahead of its application in the
arms industry – by way of a cartridge.
DIMENSIONS

3.6 m
(11 ft 10 in)

Adjustable
212 Helicopters AIR 213
The cannon could
6.5 m turn to both sides and
(21 ft 4 In) its height could be
adjusted.

Mantlet
A wooden cover over
Boeing CH-47 Chinook Hold capacity
The cargo capacity is 42 m3 (1,483 ft3)
the cannon protected
Wheels the gunner. Since it entered service more than 50 years ago, the CH-47 Chinook has been the primary transport helicopter with a surface area of 21 m2 (226 ft2). It
The cogs could be
can transport two Humvee vehicles or a
turned with cranks, to
move the four wheels. Mobility of the United States Army. Different versions have been deployed since the Vietnam War, right up to recent Humvee and a 105-mm (4.13 in) howitzer.
The vehicle was designed to
transport eight men, and moved
Cartridge
made from a mix
operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. This twin-engine, tandem rotor, heavy-lift transport helicopter is used
forwards or back depending on
the direction the cranks were
of gunpowder and
projectiles.
mainly to move troops, artillery, ammunition, fuel, water, materials and battlefield supplies and equipment.
turned in.

Ramp

Tandem rotors
these allow it to operate in
adverse weather conditions
that other helicopters would

FICHA TÉCNICA TECHNICAL DATA


116 Battleships SEA 117
be unable to cope with.
Hold
Command posts Able to transport between Fuel tanks

1 libro book Battleship Bismarck located forward, aft 33 and 55 soldiers, or 24


and on the maintop they these are mounted on
Anti-aircraft battery stretchers for medical
commanded the main the external fairing on
and secondary artillery Comprising: 16 105-mm (4.1 in) missions.
The Bismarck was the largest ship of the Kriegsmarine, the navy of the Third Reich. Her armour and fire. they had an optical guns, 16 37-mm (1.5 in) guns and the sides of the fuselage
rangefinder and radar. 12 20-mm (0.8 in) guns. and have a capacity of

Formato Format 220x275 mm


armament made her the most powerful battleship of her time. Her life, however, was short-lived. She took
DIMENSIONS 3,900 litres.
part in just one operation, the Rheinübung (May 1941) with the mission of destroying the allied convoys that
were travelling between North America and the United Kingdom. She sank the British battlecruiser HMS
Hood and caused damages to HMS Prince of Wales. Soon after, however, after a three-day pursuit by the British

256 páginas pages


navy, she was sunk. 5.8 m
(19 ft)

DIMENSIONS
30.2 m
(99 ft)

Desde el primitivo carro de guerra hitita 251 m


(823 ft 6 in)
36 m
(118 ft 1 in)

hasta el moderno tanque T-34, desde la


trirreme griega al portaaviones Nimitz, y Rotor
diameter:

desde el Fokker Dr. 1 de la Gran Guerra 18.28 m


(60 ft)
Fire-control
unit
LIFT CAPACITY

al ultraequipado caza F-14 Tomcat, esta Secondary battery


the secondary armament
It has a triple-hook cargo system: the centre
hook can carry up to 12,000 kg (26,455 lb),
and the other two, 7,500 kg (16,535 lb) each.

antología analiza 60 máquinas de guerra de


was formed by 12 150-mm
(5.9 in) l55 sK C/28 guns
(arranged in six twin-gun arado ar 196 a3 floatplanes Electric
turrets). She carried four three-blade generator

todos los tiempos en los frentes terrestre,


Armour reconnaissance floatplanes,which were
the total weight of the armour
Manufacturer Boeing Vertol / Boeing Crew 3 (pilot, co-pilot, flight engineer) + Rate of climb 7.7 m/s (25 ft/s)
launched using a 32-m (105 ft) long
was 19,082 tonnes, exceeded
twin catapult system, which could be
Rotorcraft Systems 3 gunners. Multiple
only by the Japanese Yamato-
class battleships. the most telescopically extended to 48 m (157 ft 6 in). Powerplant 2 x Textron Lycoming T55-L712 cannons

marítimo y aéreo. Gruppenhorchgerät


Hydrophones (GHG)
these detected the sound
protected areas were the bridge
(350 mm/13.8 in) and the main
belt (320 mm/12.6 in).
First flight 21 September 1961 Maximum takeoff weight
(50,000 lb)
22,680 kg turboshaft engines Machine guns
On the US Army version it
of torpedoes, submarines Shipyard Blohm & Voss (Hamburg) Sunk 27 May 1941 Standard displacement 43,900 tonnes Entry into service 1962 Combat range 741 km (460 mi) carries a 7.62-mm (0.3 in)
and other ships and could
then determine their speed, Type Bismarck-class battleship Crew 2,065 (more than 2,200 during Maximum speed 30.5 knots Service ceiling 5,639 m (18,500 ft) M134 Minigun mounted on
Hull Main battery
she was protected by Mes
direction and engine type.
Composed of eight 380-mm Operation Rheinübung) Units built More than 1,000 Endurance 2.3 hours the forward position and
From the primitive Hittite chariot war to
Laid down 1 July 1936 Propulsion 12 Wagner boilers, 3 Blohm &
(Magnetischer eigenschutz)
‘magnetic self-protection
(15 in) l52 sK C/34 guns, it
was the most powerful ever Weight 56,000 tonnes Voss steam turbines, 3 three-blade propeller Top speed 315 km/h (196 mph) two 7.62-mm (0.3 in) M-60,
system’, which demagnetized
her hull against magnetic
mounted on a German ship.
there were two forward and
Launched 14 February 1939 Empty weight 10,185 kg (22,454 lb) one on the rear position
Fuel capacity 7,900 tonnes
and another on the ramp.
modern T-34 tank, from the Greek trireme
mines and torpedoes. two rear turrets.
Commissioned 24 August 1940
Draught 9.3 m (30 ft 6 in) M134 Minigun

to the Nimitz carrier-class aircraft carrier,


and from the Fokker Dr. 1 of the First World
9.080 kg 9.080 kg

12.712 kg

War to highly equipped F-14 Tomcat, this


anthology analyzes 60 war machines of all 180 Fighters AIR 181 200 Fighters AIR 201

time in the land, sea and air fronts. Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a ‘Schwalbe’ Cockpit DIMENSIONS Grumman F-14 Tomcat Tail
the single-seat cockpit the twin-tail gave it greater
opened on one side. stability. A butterfly-shaped
This was the world’s first jet-powered fighter. Its development could have allowed Germany to recovery the Me 262B-1a/U night
3.83 m
Designed to replace the F-4 Phantom II, this supersonic, variable-sweep wing fighter- airbrake was installed here
fighter version was for two which made it easier to land
its air supremacy, had it not been for its late introduction and the extremely high level of maintenance occupants.
(12 ft 7 in) bomber of the US Navy had advanced weapons control and navigation systems and on aircraft carriers.
the aircraft required. Development began in 1939, but it was not until 1944 that it entered into combat. electronic countermeasures (ECM) and could carry almost 6,000 kg (13,200 lb) of missiles,
The Me 262 was superior to any other aircraft of its time, although it proved to be vulnerable during 10.58 m
rockets and bombs. Designed for air superiority in all scenarios and weather conditions and for
takeoff and landing manoeuvres. (34 ft 9 in) naval defence, it also performed ground-attack missions and tactical reconnaissance (with the
incorporation of optical and infrared cameras).
Machine guns
Four 30-mm (1.18 in)
Wing area :
rheinmetall-Borsig Mk 108.
21.73 m2
(234 ft2)

(4 .5 m
Dimensions

)
1 ft
12
Cockpit
4.87 m this housed the pilot and
(16 ft) the radar interceptor
officer. its elevated
Fuel position gave the crew
19.20 m

n
pa
Contained in two tanks, all-round visibility.
(63 ft)

gs
one forward of the cockpit

in
W
the other behind. Fuel Wing area:
consumption was very high. 52 m2
(560 ft2)

Air-to-air
Jumo 004 turbojet
The world’s first turbojet engine produced

(37 ft 5 in)
19.50 m
Beneath each wing it carried

(64 ft)
11.4 m
a battery of 12 55-mm (2.17 and used in combat operations and the first
in) rockets. with an axial compressor. Each turbojet gave
the Me 262 a thrust of 8.8 kN (1,978 lbf).
GBU-10 LGB
Air-to-air missiles
it could carry up to four sidewinders GBU-12
(short range), six sparrows (medium mK-82 LGB
range) and six Phoenixes (long range).
Wingspan GBU-16
mK-83 LGB
Radar
the night fighter 5 Exhaust GBU-24
version, the Me 262B-1a/ in the nozzle,
U1, included a Fug 218 2 Compression the gases mK-84 LGB
radar interceptor and A series of blades sucks in the expand, multimode radar
four-mast hirschgeweih air, compresses it and sends it acquire speed Contained in the nose was the Aim-7 Bombs and rockets
to the combustion chamber.
antenna.
Bombs
1 Starter and generate
thrust.
hughes AWg-9 pulse doppler sparrow the tomcat was also
starts a two-cylinder, 10-hp radar, capable of tracking 24 adapted for ground attack,
the fighter-bomber version riedel engine, which starts targets while at the same time Aim-9 capable of carrying general-
carried two 250-kg (551 lb) bombs spinning the turbine while the directing attacks against six sidewinder purpose (MK) and laser-
beneath the fuselage. aircraft is still on the ground. of them. guided (gBU) bombs.
Aim-54
Phoenix
Manufacturer Messerschmitt AG, Augsburg Crew 1 Top speed 869 km/h at 6,000 m (540 mph
at 19,685 ft)
Manufacturer Grumman/Nortrhop Crew 2 Top speed 2.484 km/h (1,543 mph)*
First flight 18 July 1942 Empty weight 3,795 kg (8,367 lb)
Cruise speed 440 km/h (273 mph)
4 Turbine Grumman
this turns when the mK-82
Weight 18,191 kg (40,104 lb)* Combat radius 2.963 km (1,841 mi)*
Entry into service 1944 Maximum takeoff weight 6,387 kg air goes through
First flight 21 December 1970 (227 kg /500 lb)
(14,081 lb) Range 1,050 km at 9,000 m (652 mi at it. it is connected
29,528 ft) by a shaft to the Maximum takeoff weight 27,086 kg Powerplant 2 x Pratt & Whitney TF-30P- Wings mK-83
Retired 1945 (for Germany)
Service ceiling 12,190 m / 39,993 ft
3 Fuel compressor which Entry into service 1973 (59,714 lb)* 414A afterburning turbofans, 9,480 kg the sweep could be varied, (454 kg/1,000 lb)
this compressed air is injected with fuel again produces (20,900 lb) of thrust each* automatically and in flight,
Units built More than 1,400 (version 1A) Powerplant 2 x Junkers Jumo-004 turbojets and burnt. the fuel generates energy mK-84
air suction and Retired 22 September 2006 Service ceiling more than 15,200 m between an angle of 20º and
which is directed towards the exhaust compression. 68º. (908 kg/ 2,000 lb)
nozzle. (49,869 ft)*
*Data for F-14A mK-20 cluster
bomb
SINGLE
BOOKS Batallas y ejércitos Battles & Armies

FICHA TÉCNICA TECHNICAL DATA


1 libro book
Formato Format 215x270 mm
256 páginas pages

Los ejércitos de la Antigüedad, la Edad


Media, la Edad Moderna y contemporánea
desfilan por este libro, confeccionado con
documentadas infografías. Hoplitas griegos,
legionarios romanos, vikingos, cruzados en
Tierra Santa, jinetes mongoles, jenízaros
otomanos, guerreros zulúes, soldados
napoleónicos y efectivos de la Wehrmacht
forman parte de las fuerzas militares que
se analizan en estas páginas, junto a su
armamento y las principales batallas en las
que participaron.

The armies of Antiquity, the Middle Ages,


the Modern Age and Contemporary
Era gathered in this book, made with
documented infographics. Greek hoplites,
Roman legionnaires, Crusaders in the
Holy Land, Mongol horsemen, Janissaries
Ottomans, Zulu warriors, Napoleonic
soldiers and troops of Wehrmacht are part
of the military forces are displayed in these
pages, along with their weapons and the
major battles in which they contended.

9
10

SINGLE
BOOKS Planeta Tierra Planet Earth
FICHA TÉCNICA TECHNICAL DATA 48 Planet earth OUR SOLAR SYSTEM 49
156 PlaneT eaRTh a world of plants 157

1 libro book The Blue Planet


aXIS
InClInatIOn
23.5°
CHARACTERISTICS Density 3.2 ounces per cubic
inch (5.52 g/cu cm)

Anatomy of a Tree
COnVentIOnal average
Planet temperature 59° F (15° C)
SYMBOl
rOtatIOn *In both cases, earth = 1
this is the inclination of
the earth is known as the blue planet because of the color of the oceans

Formato Format 215x270 mm


aXIS the earth’s axis from the eSSentIal Data

that cover two thirds of its surface. this planet, the third planet from vertical. as the earth
orbits the Sun, different
average distance 93 million miles
aXIS InClInatIOn

nOrth to the Sun (150 million km)


the Sun, is the only one where the right conditions exist to sustain life, POle
regions gradually receive
revolution around
23.5°
more or less sunlight, The leaves
something that makes the earth special. It has liquid water in abundance, the Sun (earth year) 365.25 days One rotation

a mild temperature, and an atmosphere that protects it from objects


causing the four seasons. Diameter at
the equator
7,930 miles
(12,756 km)
lasts 23.56
hours. The oak tree is the undisputed king of the Western world. It is absorb CO2 and
produce sugars

256 páginas pages


that fall from outer space. the atmosphere also filters solar Orbiting
speed
17 miles per second
(27.79 km/s.) known for its lobed leaves and the large cap of its acorn, a nut by means of
radiation thanks to its ozone layer. Slightly flattened at its poles photosynthesis.
found on all trees of the genus Quercus. The tree’s main
Mass*

3.
1
PRECIPITATION Gravity* 1
and wider at its equator, the earth takes 24 hours to revolve the atmosphere
once on its axis. loses water through
condensation. Gravity
Magnetism and Gravity trunk grows upward and branches out toward the top.
causes rain, snow, and
hail. Dew and frost
the earth’s magnetic field originates in the planet’s outer core,
where turbulent currents of molten iron generate both electric
Oaks are a large group, containing many types of
Transpiration
directly alter the state
of the surface they
and magnetic fields. the orientation of the earth’s magnetism varies
over time, causing the magnetic poles to fluctuate.
deciduous trees. Under optimal conditions oaks can (the loss of

70% grow to a height of more than 130 feet (40 m) and water vapor) in
The Phenomenon of Life cover.
Magnetic the leaves pulls
live an average of 600 years.
Este libro es un recorrido fascinante por
Water, in liquid form, makes it possible for life The Earth’s
of the earth’s surface core works as
force the xylem sap
to exist on the earth, the only planet where upward.
is water. From space, a magnet.
temperatures vary from 32° F to 212° F (0° C to the planet looks blue.
100° C), allowing water to exist as a liquid. the
Solid core
earth’s average distance from the Sun, along with

nuestro planeta. Una guía visual para


certain other factors, allowed life to develop 3.8
billion years ago. Mantle

2. CONDENSATION
the earth’s winds transport
moisture-laden air until
the earth’s magnetic
field is created by the liquid flowers
descubrir las particularidades y secretos de
convective currents outer core is The tree produces
weather conditions cause the
in its outer core. in constant
water vapor to condense into hanging male
clouds and eventually fall to motion.
flowers, whereas
-76° F 32° to 212° F Above 212° F
the ground as rain or other
forms of precipitation. WHAT IT DOES female flowers are

la Tierra a través de un fantástico despliegue


(-60° C) (0° to 100° C) (100° C) Some particles are
attracted to the poles. hidden among the
ONLY ICE 3 STATES ONLY STEAM
The magnetic Van allen belt
field protects the leaves.
Mars is so far from On the earth, water is On Mercury or Venus, which
the Sun that all its found in all three of its are very close to the Sun,
Earth from the
water is frozen. possible states. water would evaporate.
radiation of the

gráfico con más de 600 imágenes 1.


solar wind.
EVAPORATION
Because of the Sun’s
energy, the water Solar wind Magnetic
EARTH MOVEMENTS evaporates, entering the field lines

espectaculares, asombrosas ilustraciones en


atmosphere from oceans
The Earth moves, orbiting and, to a lesser extent, Magnetosphere
the Sun and rotating on from lakes, rivers, and
its own axis. other sources on the the Van allen belts
continents. trap the particles from axis Magnetic field tail

3D y atractivos esquemas visuales.


the solar wind, causing
earth
phenomena like the
auroras.
SUN 93,500,000
miles
(149,503,000
km)

24 (11 kg) 154 (70 kg) 390 (177 kg)


pounds pounds pounds
GRAVITY AND
the Moon, our only natural
WEIGHT

This book is a fascinating tour to our planet.


satellite, is four times SOUth ON THE MOON ON EARTH ON jÚPITER
ROTATION: the earth REVOLUTION: It takes the earth smaller than the earth and Weight is the force of the Moon has less mass than the object is drawn toward Jupiter has 300 times more
POle
revolves on its axis in 23 365 days, 5 hours, and 57 minutes takes 27.32 days to orbit the gravity that acts the earth and, as a result, the earth’s center. mass than the earth and
hours and 56 minutes. to travel once around the Sun. the earth. on a body. less gravity. therefore more gravity.

A visual guide to discover the features and Buds


are formed by protective scales
Climate

secrets of the Earth through a fantastic


that fall off in the spring. They
Trees grow in any place where there is sufficient
grow into new leaves and
water in the soil.
branches.

graphical display with more than 600 204 Planet earth Weather and Climate 205

spectacular images, amazing 3D illustrations


Atmospheric Dynamics + POlar Cell
Jet Stream StratOSPhere trunk
at the poles, cold air descends The trunk is strong and grows
Velocity 55 to 250 miles per

and attractive visual schemes.


-- -- and moves toward the equator. hour (90-400 km/h) 10 miles straight upward. The top of the tree
(16 km)
1,000 to 3,000 miles widens with branches, which may
Length (1,610-4,850 km) be twisted, knotted, or bent.
Polar jet
the atmosphere is a dynamic system. temperature changes and the earth’s motion stream Width
1 to 3 miles 6 miles Jet stream
(1.6-4.8 km)
are responsible for horizontal and vertical air displacement. here the air of the (10 km)
Spring Summer
atmosphere circulates between the poles and the equator in horizontal bands Discovered in the 19th trOPOSPhere The cycle begins as the The oak blossoms. It
-- century through the use of Bark Growth Rings first leaves appear. increases in height, and
within different latitudes. Moreover, the characteristics of the earth’s kites. airplanes can shorten its trunk grows thicker.
surface alter the path of the moving air, causing zones of differing air their flying time by hitching
a ride on them. their paths Woodpeckers
densities. the relations that arise among these processes influence the are observed to help predict earth’S
drill holes in the
the weather. SUrFaCe
climatic conditions of our planet. tree with their
Subtropical jet
beaks as
stream they look
+ + for insects.
rotation of COriOliS FOrCe
the Coriolis effect is an apparent deflection Ferrel Cell
the earth
a part of the air in the hadleY Cell
of the path of an object that moves within
hadley cells follows its Warm air ascends in the equatorial region and
a rotating coordinate system. the Coriolis course toward the poles moves toward the middle latitudes, in which
effect appears to deflect the trajectory of to a latitude of 60° n the Sun’s average angle of incidence is lower autumn autumn Winter
the winds that move over the surface of the and 60° S. than in the tropics. The cells at the low temperatures The leaves fall away;
Winter
equator earth, because the earth moves beneath the
winds. this apparent deflection is to the right Intertropical equator
leaves Summer
end of each leaf
stem weaken. The leaf falls
weaken the branches. the tree is dormant until
spring.
in the northern hemisphere and to the left in Convergence
-- -- are arranged one leaf to The leaves away, and the Spring
the Southern hemisphere. the effect is only a stem on alternating sides of tree remains new leaves The xylem
Zone (ItCZ) Weather SYStemS analYSiS undertake
noticeable on a large scale because of the
rotational velocity of the earth.
the continuous lines are isobars (in this case, in
the Southern hemisphere), imaginary lines that
the twig. They have rounded
lobes on either side of the
photosynthesis, and
the rest of the tree
dormant. begin to
replace the
transports water
and minerals from Oak-Tree
connect points of equal pressure. they show old ones. the roots to the
Products
600
depressions—centers of low pressure relative to main vein. uses the sugars it
rest of the tree.
the surroundings—and an anticyclone, a center of produces.
High and Low Pressure
trade WindS high pressure.
acorns Beginnings The bark is rich in

years
these winds blow The phloem
toward the equator. + + In its first year of life an transports sugars tannin, which is used
Warm air rises and causes a low-pressure have dark stripes along oak tree’s roots can grow from the leaves in curing leather and as an
area (cyclone) to form beneath it. as the their length. Their caps nearly 5 feet (1.5 m). to the rest of the astringent. The wood is strong
air cools and descends, it forms a high-pressure have flat scales. tHE aVEraGE lIfE tree.
area (anticyclone). here the air moves from an -- low-pressure span of an oaK and resists rotting.
anticyclonic toward a cyclonic area as wind. the 6 area

Energy source
warm air, as it is displaced and forced upward, high-pressure
the masses of
leads to the formation of clouds. cold air lose
+ area The chlorophyll traps energy
their mobility.
-- -- from sunlight and uses it to
achene: a hard
convert water and carbon
seed that does
1 Jet-stream
Remains of the not split open dioxide into food.
Masses of cold currents
Carpel (female at maturity
air descend and Westerlies reproductive part) surface
prevent clouds Mosses use the bark of oak
from forming.

5 the rising air