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The instant consolidated petitions seek to annul and set aside
the Decisions of the Regional Trial Court of Olongapo City, Branch
72, in Civil Case No? 20-0-04 and Civil Case No? 22-0-04, both dated
May 24, 2004; and the February 14, 2005 Decision of the Court of
Appeals in CA-G?R? SP? No? 83284, which declared Article 2, Section
3?1 of Executive Order No? 156 (EO 156) unconstitutional? Said
executive issuance prohibits the importation into the country,
inclusive of the Special Economic and Freeport Zone or the Subic
Bay Freeport (SBF or Freeport), of used motor vehicles, subject to a
few exceptions? 

The undisputed facts show that on December 12, 2002,


President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, through Executive Secretary
Alberto G? Romulo, issued EO 156, entitled ³PROVIDING FOR A
COMPREHENSIVE INDUSTRIAL POLICY AND DIRECTIONS FOR
THE MOTOR VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM AND ITS
IMPLEMENTING GUIDELINES? The challenged provision states:


,-."'-/0%/10 23-
" 3 '11 %"  3 0 # . 2-/1    "-$#
(/"3-31145!

3?1?1 A vehicle that is owned and for the personal use of a
returning resident or immigrant and covered by an authority to
import issued under the No-dollar Importation Program? Such
vehicles cannot be resold for at least three (3) years;

3?1?2 A vehicle for the use of an official of the Diplomatic
Corps and authorized to be imported by the Department of Foreign
Affairs;

3?1?3 Trucks excluding pickup trucks;
1? with GVW of 2?5-6?0 tons covered by an
authority to import issued by the DTI?
2? With GVW above 6?0 tons?

3?1?4 Buses:
1? with GVW of 6-12 tons covered by an
authority to import issued by DTI;
2? with GVW above 12 tons?

3?1?5 Special purpose vehicles:
1?fire trucks

2?ambulances

3?funeral hearse/coaches

4?crane lorries

5?tractor heads and truck tractors

6?boom trucks

7?tanker trucks

8?tank lorries with high pressure spray gun

9?reefers or refrigerated trucks

10?mobile drilling derricks 

11?transit/concrete mixers

12?mobile radiological units

13?wreckers or tow trucks

14?concrete pump trucks

15?aerial/bucket flat-form trucks

16?street sweepers

17?vacuum trucks

18?garbage compactors

19?self loader trucks

20?man lift trucks

21?lighting trucks 

22?trucks mounted with special purpose equipment

23?all other types of vehicle designed for a specific use?




The issuance of EO 156 spawned three separate actions for


declaratory relief before Branch 72 of the Regional Trial Court of
Olongapo City, all seeking the declaration of the unconstitutionality of
Article 2, Section 3?1 of said executive order? The cases were filed by
herein respondent entities, who or whose members, are classified as
Subic Bay Freeport Enterprises and engaged in the business of,
among others, importing and/or trading used motor vehicles?

  : 

On January 16, 2004, respondents Southwing Heavy


Industries, Inc?, (SOUTHWING) United Auctioneers, Inc? (UNITED
AUCTIONEERS), and Microvan, Inc? (MICROVAN), instituted a
declaratory relief case docketed as Civil Case No? 20-0-04,[1] against
the Executive Secretary, Secretary of Transportation and
Communication, Commissioner of Customs, Assistant Secretary and
Head of the Land Transportation Office, Subic Bay Metropolitan
Authority (SBMA), Collector of Customs for the Port at Subic Bay
Freeport Zone, and the Chief of the Land Transportation Office at
Subic Bay Freeport Zone? 


SOUTHWING, UNITED AUCTIONEERS and MICROVAN
prayed that judgment be rendered (1) declaring Article 2, Section 3?1
of EO 156 unconstitutional and illegal; (2) directing the Secretary of
Finance, Commissioner of Customs, Collector of Customs and the
Chairman of the SBMA to allow the importation of used motor
vehicles; (2) ordering the Land Transportation Office and its
subordinates inside the Subic Special Economic Zone to process the
registration of the imported used motor vehicles; and (3) in general, to
allow the unimpeded entry and importation of used motor vehicles
subject only to the payment of the required customs duties? 

Upon filing of petitioners¶ answer/comment, respondents


SOUTHWING and MICROVAN filed a motion for summary judgment
which was granted by the trial court? On May 24, 2004, a summary
judgment was rendered declaring that Article 2, Section 3?1 of EO
156 constitutes an unlawful usurpation of legislative power vested by
the Constitution with Congress? The trial court further held that the
proviso is contrary to the mandate of Republic Act No? 7227 (RA
7227) or the Bases Conversion and Development Act of 1992 which
allows the free flow of goods and capital within the Freeport? The
dispositive portion of the said decision reads:

WHEREFORE, judgment is hereby rendered in favor of


petitioner declaring Executive Order 156 [Article 2, Section] 3?1 for
being unconstitutional and illegal; directing respondents Collector of
Customs based at SBMA to allow the importation and entry of used
motor vehicles pursuant to the mandate of RA 7227; directing
respondent Chief of the Land Transportation Office and its
subordinates inside the Subic Special Economic Zone or SBMA to
process the registration of imported used motor vehicle; and in
general, to allow unimpeded entry and importation of used motor
vehicles to the Philippines subject only to the payment of the
required customs duties?

SO ORDERED?[2] 

From the foregoing decision, petitioners sought relief before this


Court a  a petition for review on certiorari, docketed as G?R? No?
164171?



  *!



 On January 20, 2004, respondent Subic Integrated Macro


Ventures Corporation (MACRO VENTURES) filed with the same trial
court, a similar action for declaratory relief docketed as Civil Case No?
22-0-04,[3] with the same prayer and against the same parties[4] as
those in Civil Case No? 20-0-04?

In this case, the trial court likewise rendered a summary


judgment on May 24, 2004, holding that Article 2, Section 3?1 of EO
156, is repugnant to the constitution?[5] Elevated to this Court a  a
petition for review on certiorari, Civil Case No? 22-0-04 was docketed
asG?R? No? 164172?

  +



On January 22, 2003, respondent Motor Vehicle Importers


Association of Subic Bay Freeport, Inc? (ASSOCIATION), filed
another action for declaratory relief with essentially the same prayer
as those in Civil Case No? 22-0-04 and Civil Case No? 20-0-04,
against the Executive Secretary, Secretary of Finance, Chief of the
Land Transportation Office, Commissioner of Customs, Collector of
Customs at SBMA and the Chairman of SBMA? This was docketed
as Civil Case No? 30-0-2003,[6] before the same trial court? 

In a decision dated March 10, 2004, the court  granted the
ASSOCIATION¶s prayer and declared the assailed proviso as
contrary to the Constitution, to wit: 


WHEREFORE, judgment is hereby rendered in favor of
petitioner declaring Executive Order 156 [Article 2, Section] 3?1 for
being unconstitutional and illegal; directing respondents Collector of
Customs based at SBMA to allow the importation and entry of used
motor vehicles pursuant to the mandate of RA 7227; directing
respondent Chief of the Land Transportation Office and its
subordinates inside the Subic Special Economic Zone or SBMA to
process the registration of imported used motor vehicles; directing
the respondent Chairman of the SBMA to allow the entry into the
Subic Special Economic Zone or SBMA imported used motor
vehicle; and in general, to allow unimpeded entry and importation of
used motor vehicles to the Philippines subject only to the payment
of the required customs duties?

SO ORDERED?[7] 

Aggrieved, the petitioners in Civil Case No? 30-0-2003, filed a


petition for certiorari[8] with the Court of Appeals (CA-G?R? SP? No?
83284) which denied the petition on February 14, 2005 and sustained
the finding of the trial court that Article 2, Section 3?1 of EO 156, is
void for being repugnant to the constitution? The dispositive portion
thereof, reads:

WHEREFORE, the instant petition for certiorari is hereby


DENIED? The assailed decision of the Regional Trial Court, Third
Judicial Region, Branch 72, Olongapo City, in Civil Case No? 30-0-
2003, accordingly, STANDS?

SO ORDERED?[9] 


The aforequoted decision of the Court of Appeals was elevated


to this Court and docketed as G?R? No? 168741? In a Resolution
dated October 4, 2005,[10] said case was consolidated with G?R? No?
164171 and G?R? No? 164172?

Petitioners are now before this Court contending that Article 2,


Section 3?1 of EO 156 is valid and applicable to the entire country,
including the Freeeport? In support of their arguments, they raise
procedural and substantive issues bearing on the constitutionality of
the assailed proviso? The "/#0'1  0 are: the lack of
respondents¶ O 
 to question the validity of EO 156, the
propriety of challenging EO 156 in a declaratory relief proceeding and
the applicability of a judgment on the pleadings in this case? 

Petitioners argue that respondents will not be affected by the


importation ban considering that their certificate of registration and
tax exemption do not authorize them to engage in the importation
and/or trading of 0 #/' ? They also aver that the actions filed by
respondents do not qualify as declaratory relief cases? Section 1,
Rule 63 of the Rules of Court provides that a petition for declaratory
relief may be filed before there is a breach or violation of rights?
Petitioners claim that there was already a breach of respondents¶
supposed right because the cases were filed more than a year after
the issuance of EO 156? In fact, in Civil Case No? 30-0-2003,
numerous warrants of seizure and detention were issued against
imported used motor vehicles belonging to respondent
ASSOCIATION¶s members?

Petitioners¶ arguments lack merit?


The established rule that the constitutionality of a law or
administrative issuance can be challenged by one who will sustain a
direct injury as a result of its enforcement[11] has been satisfied in the
instant case? The broad subject of the prohibited importation is ³'11
%" 30 #.2-/1 ? Respondents would definitely suffer
a direct injury from the implementation of EO 156 because their
certificate of registration and tax exemption authorize them to trade
and/or import new and used . 2-/1  '# "' "' ,
except ³used cars? [12] Other types of motor vehicles imported and/or
traded by respondents and not falling within the category of 0 #
/' would thus be subjected to the ban to the prejudice of their
business? Undoubtedly, respondents have the legal standing to assail
the validity of EO 156?

As to the propriety of declaratory relief as a vehicle for assailing


the executive issuance, suffice it to state that any breach of the rights
of respondents will not affect the case? In |      
  
a  |aa  |,[13] the Court entertained a
suit for declaratory relief to finally settle the doubt as to the proper
interpretation of the conflicting laws involved, notwithstanding a
violation of the right of the party affected? We find no reason to
deviate from said ruling mindful of the significance of the present
case to the national economy? 


So also, summary judgments were properly rendered by the
trial court because the issues involved in the instant case were pure
questions of law? A motion for summary judgment is premised on the
assumption that the issues presented need not be tried either
because these are patently devoid of substance or that there is no
genuine issue as to any pertinent fact? It is a method sanctioned by
the Rules of Court for the prompt disposition of a civil action in which
the pleadings raise only a legal issue, not a genuine issue as to any
material fact?[14]

At any rate, even assuming the procedural flaws raised by


petitioners truly exist, the Court is not precluded from brushing aside
these technicalities and taking cognizance of the action filed by
respondents considering its importance to the public and in keeping
with the duty to determine whether the other branches of the
government have kept themselves within the limits of the
Constitution?[15]

We now come to the 0$ '2  0 , which are: (1)


whether there is statutory basis for the issuance of EO 156; and (2) if
the answer is in the affirmative, whether the application of Article 2,
Section 3?1 of EO 156, reasonable and within the scope provided by
law?


The main thrust of the petition is that EO 156 is constitutional
because it was issued pursuant to EO 226, the Omnibus Investment
Code of the Philippines and that its application should be extended to
the Freeport because the guarantee of RA 7227 on the free flow of
goods into the said zone is merely an exemption from customs duties
and taxes on items brought into the Freeport and not an open
floodgate for all kinds of goods and materials without restriction?

In G?R? No? 168741, the Court of Appeals invalidated Article 2,


Section 3?1 of EO 156, on the ground of lack of any statutory basis for
the President to issue the same? It held that the prohibition on the
importation of used motor vehicles is an exercise of police power
vested on the legislature and absent any enabling law, the exercise
thereof by the President through an executive issuance, is void? 

Police power is inherent in a government to enact laws, within


constitutional limits, to promote the order, safety, health, morals, and
general welfare of society? It is lodged primarily with the legislature?
By virtue of a valid delegation of legislative power, it may also be
exercised by the President and administrative boards, as well as the
lawmaking bodies on all municipal levels, including the barangay?[16]
Such delegation confers upon the President ü0' )15 1'2"4
which may be defined as the authority delegated by the law-making
body to the administrative body to adopt rules and regulations
intended to carry out the provisions of the law and implement
legislative policy?[17] To be valid, an administrative issuance, such as
an executive order, must comply with the following requisites:

(1) Its promulgation must be authorized by the legislature;

(2) It must be promulgated in accordance with the prescribed


procedure; 

(3) It must be within the scope of the authority given by the legislature;
and 

(4) It must be reasonable?[18]

Contrary to the conclusion of the Court of Appeals, EO 156


actually satisfied the 3 ü0  of a valid administrative order? It
has both constitutional and statutory bases? 

Delegation of legislative powers to the President is permitted in


Section 28(2) of Article VI of the Constitution? It provides:

(2) The Congress may, by 1'4, authorize the President


to fix within specified limits, and subject to such limitations and
restrictions as it may impose, tariff rates, import and export quotas,
tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or imposts within the
framework of the national development program of the
Government?[19] (Emphasis supplied)



The relevant statutes to execute this provision are:




1) The '33 '# 0 .  # which authorizes the


President, in the interest of national economy, general welfare and/or
national security, to,  O , prohibit the importation of any
commodity? Section 401 thereof, reads:

Sec? 401? Flexible Clause? ²



a?  -   3 ''1 /.% 5'1
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3#  '  cÔ   -$% ."4#! x x x (2) 
 '$1 -."ü0'$'." 3'%/..#%' 
.'% $ / '%8 x x x Provided, That upon periodic
investigations by the Tariff Commission and recommendation of the
NEDA, the President may cause a gradual reduction of protection
levels granted in Section One hundred and four of this Code,
including those subsequently granted pursuant to this section?
(Emphasis supplied)

2) Executive Order No? 226, the Omnibus Investment Code


of the Philippines which was issued on July 16, 1987, by then
President Corazon C? Aquino, in the exercise of legislative power
under the Provisional Freedom Constitution,[20] empowers the
President to approve or reject the prohibition on the importation of
any equipment or raw materials or finished products? Pertinent
provisions thereof, read:


ART? 4? Composition of the board? The Board of
Investments shall be composed of seven (7) governors: The
Secretary of Trade and Industry, three (3) Undersecretaries of
Trade and Industry to be chosen by the President; and three (3)
representatives from the government agencies and the private
sector x x x?

ART? 7? Powers and duties of the Board?

x x x x

(12) Formulate and implement rationalization programs for
certain industries whose operation may result in dislocation,
overcrowding or inefficient use of resources, thus impeding
economic growth? For this purpose, the Board may formulate
guidelines for progressive manufacturing programs, local content
programs, mandatory sourcing requirements and dispersal of
industries?  '"""' /'   '# 0" '""2'1 3 -
 #-'#.'% /-'11%"''11%-
."' 3 '% ü0".  '4 .''1   3 -#
"#0/  212#  - ''19' "5'.8 (Emphasis
supplied)

3) Republic Act No? 8800, otherwise known as the


³Safeguard Measures Act ( ), and entitled ³An Act Protecting
Local Industries By Providing Safeguard Measures To Be Undertaken
In Response To Increased Imports And Providing Penalties For
Violation Thereof, [21] designated the Secretaries[22] of the Department
of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the Department of Agriculture, in
their capacity as O  of the President, as the implementing
authorities of the safeguard measures, which include,  O ,
modification or imposition of any quantitative restriction on the
importation of a product into the Philippines? The purpose of the SMA
is stated in the declaration of policy, thus:

SEC? 2? Declaration of Policy? ± The State shall promote
competitiveness of domestic industries and producers based on
sound industrial and agricultural development policies, and efficient
use of human, natural and technical resources? In pursuit of this
goal and in the public interest, the State shall provide safeguard
measures to protect domestic industries and producers from
increased imports which cause or threaten to cause serious injury
to those domestic industries and producers?

There are thus explicit constitutional and statutory permission


authorizing the President to ban or regulate importation of articles
and commodities into the country? 

Anent the /# ü0 , that is, that the order must be
issued or promulgated in accordance with the prescribed procedure,
it is necessary that the nature of the administrative issuance is
properly determined? As in the enactment of laws, the general rule is
that, the promulgation of administrative issuances requires previous
notice and hearing, the only exception being where the legislature
itself requires it and mandates that the regulation shall be based on
certain facts as determined at an appropriate investigation?[23] This
exception pertains to the issuance of 15 1'2 01 as
distinguished from "'2 01 which give no real
consequence more than what the law itself has already prescribed;[24]
and are designed merely to provide guidelines to the law which the
administrative agency is in charge of enforcing?[25] A 15 1'201,
on the other hand, is in the nature of subordinate legislation, crafted
to implement a primary legislation? 


In |        O a  a |   O,[26]


and |        O a  a  O   OO 
   ,[27] the Court enunciated the doctrine that when an
administrative rule goes beyond merely providing for the means that
can facilitate or render less cumbersome the implementation of the
law and substantially increases the burden of those governed, it
behooves the agency to accord at least to those directly affected a
chance to be heard and, thereafter, to be duly informed, before the
issuance is given the force and effect of law? 

In the instant case, EO 156 is obviously a legislative rule as it


seeks to implement or execute primary legislative enactments
intended to protect the domestic industry by imposing a ban on the
importation of a specified product not previously subject to such
prohibition? The due process requirements in the issuance thereof
are embodied in Section 401[28] of the Tariff and Customs Code and
Sections 5 and 9 of the SMA[29] which essentially mandate the
conduct of investigation and public hearings before the regulatory
measure or importation ban may be issued?

In the present case, respondents neither questioned before this


Court nor with the courts below the procedure that paved the way for
the issuance of EO 156? What they challenged in their petitions
before the trial court was the absence of ³substantive due process in
the issuance of the EO?[30] Their main contention before the court 
 is that the importation ban is illogical and unfair because it
unreasonably drives them out of business to the prejudice of the
national economy?

Considering the settled principle that in the absence of strong


evidence to the contrary, acts of the other branches of the
government are presumed to be valid,[31] and there being no objection
from the respondents as to the procedure in the promulgation of EO
156, the presumption is that said executive issuance duly complied
with the procedures and limitations imposed by law?

To determine whether EO 156 has complied with the third and


fourth requisites of a valid administrative issuance, to wit, that it was
issued within the scope of authority given by the legislature and that it
is reasonable, an examination of the nature of a Freeport under RA
7227 and the primordial purpose of the importation ban under the
questioned EO is necessary?

RA 7227 was enacted providing for, among other things, the


sound and balanced conversion of the Clark and Subic military
reservations and their extensions into alternative productive uses in
the form of Special Economic and Freeport Zone, or the Subic Bay
Freeport, in order to promote the economic and social development
of Central Luzon in particular and the country in general? 

The Rules and Regulations Implementing RA 7227 specifically


defines the territory comprising the Subic Bay Freeport, referred to as
the Special Economic and Freeport Zone in Section 12 of RA 7227 as
"a separate customs territory consisting of the City of Olongapo and
the Municipality of Subic, Province of Zambales, the lands occupied
by the Subic Naval Base and its contiguous extensions as embraced,
covered and defined by the 1947 Philippine-U?S? Military Base
Agreement as amended and within the territorial jurisdiction of
Morong and Hermosa, Province of Bataan, the metes and bounds of
which shall be delineated by the President of the Philippines;
provided further that pending establishment of secure perimeters
around the entire SBF, the SBF shall refer to the area demarcated by
the SBMA pursuant to Section 13[32] hereof?"

Among the salient provisions of RA 7227 are as follows:

SECTION 12?
 
 O   ? ² 

x x x x

The abovementioned zone shall be subject to the following
policies: 

x x x x

(a) Within the framework and subject to the mandate and
limitations of the Constitution and the pertinent provisions of the
Local Government Code, the Subic Special Economic Zone shall
be developed into a self-sustaining, industrial, commercial, financial
and investment center to generate employment opportunities in and
around the zone and to attract and promote productive foreign
investments; 

(b) The Subic Special Economic Zone shall be operated
and managed as a separate customs territory ensuring free flow or
movement of goods and capital within, into and exported out of the
Subic Special Economic Zone, as well as provide incentives such
as tax and duty-free importations of raw materials, capital and
equipment? However, exportation or removal of goods from the
territory of the Subic Special Economic Zone to the other parts of
the Philippine territory shall be subject to customs duties and taxes
under the Customs and Tariff Code and other relevant tax laws of
the Philippines;

The Freeport was designed to ensure free flow or movement of


goods and capital within a portion of the Philippine territory in order to
attract investors to invest their capital in a business climate with the
least governmental intervention? The concept of this zone was
explained by Senator Guingona in this wise:

Senator Guingona? Mr? President, the special economic


zone is successful in many places, particularly Hong Kong, which is
a free port? The difference between a special economic zone and
an industrial estate is simply expansive in the sense that the
commercial activities, including the establishment of banks,
services, financial institutions, agro-industrial activities, maybe
agriculture to a certain extent?

- #1' -'/2 -'401#-'2-1' 3
52. 2 '# - 05 3- '33'  3-
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2  -. 12  .1''-0 5 0$#2 4-
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50#1 

 401# 1:   0$/ '' /2#  ' 11
j5 ;5   # 4- -   ' -0$ 3 3 "
'# 3 % 3 #0  '# '/2   ' .'(.0. "0
5'32 .'#7$ 

While the investor is reluctant to come in the Philippines, as
a rule, because of red tape and perceived delays, we envision this
special economic zone to be an area where there will be minimum
government interference?

The initial outlay may not only come from the Government or
the Authority as envisioned here, but from them themselves,
because they would be encouraged to invest not only for the land
but also for the buildings and factories? As long as they are
convinced that in such an area they can do business and reap
reasonable profits, then many from other parts, both local and
foreign, would invest, Mr? President?[33] (Emphasis, added)

With minimum interference from the government, investors can,


in general, engage in any kind of business as well as import and
export any article into and out of the Freeport? These are among the
rights accorded to Subic Bay Freeport Enterprises under Section 39
of the Rules and Regulations Implementing RA 7227, thus ±


SEC? 39? Rights and Obligations?- SBF Enterprises shall
have the following rights and obligations:

a? To freely engage in any business, trade, manufacturing,
financial or service activity, and to import and export freely
all types of goods into and out of the SBF, subject to the
provisions of the Act, these Rules and other regulations that
may be promulgated by the SBMA;

Citing, O , the interpellations of Senator Enrile, petitioners


claim that the ³free flow or movement of goods and capital only
means that goods and material brought within the Freeport shall not
be subject to customs duties and other taxes and should not be
construed as an open floodgate for entry of all kinds of goods? They
thus surmise that the importation ban on motor vehicles is applicable
within the Freeport? Pertinent interpellations of Senator Enrile on the
concept of Freeport is as follows:

Senator Enrile: Mr? President, I think we are talking here of


sovereign concepts, not territorial concepts? The concept that we
are supposed to craft here is to carve out a portion of our terrestrial
domain as well as our adjacent waters and say to the world: ³Well,
you can set up your factories in this area that we are
circumscribing, and bringing your equipment and bringing your
goods, you are not subject to any taxes and duties because you are
not within the customs jurisdiction of the Republic of the
Philippines, whether you store the goods or only for purposes of
transshipment or whether you make them into finished products
again to be reexported to other lands? 

x x x x

% 0# '#5 3 ' <3 "=   4 '  33/
/'25 0 ' "' 3 0 % '# .':  '  3  4
35 % 3 "0"   3 0 /0 .  1'4  '# -'
""1 /' /. $5 - 5#   -. - '#
$5 -. 0 '5' '  15 '  -% #  /.  -
#. //../3- "0$1/

We do not really care whether these goods are stored here?
The only thing that we care is for our people to have an
employment because of the entry of these goods that are being
discharged, warehoused and reloaded into the ships so that they
can be exported? That will generate employment for us? For as
long as that is done, we are saying, in effect, that we have the least
contact with our tariff and customs laws and our tax laws?
Therefore, we consider these goods as outside of the customs
jurisdiction of the Republic of the Philippines as yet, until we draw
them from this territory and bring them inside our domestic
commerce? In which case, they have to pass through our customs
gate? I thought we are carving out this entire area and convert it
into this kind of concept?[34]

However, contrary to the claim of petitioners, there is nothing in


the foregoing excerpts which absolutely limits the incentive to
Freeport investors only to exemption from customs duties and taxes?
Mindful of the legislative intent to attract investors, enhance
investment and boost the economy, the legislature could not have
limited the enticement only to exemption from taxes? The minimum
interference policy of the government on the Freeport extends to the
kind of business that investors may embark on and the articles which
they may import or export into and out of the zone? A contrary
interpretation would defeat the very purpose of the Freeport and drive
away investors?

It does not mean, however, that the right of Freeport


enterprises to import all types of goods and article is absolute? Such
right is of course subject to the limitation that articles absolutely
prohibited by law cannot be imported into the Freeport?[35]
Nevertheless, in determining whether the prohibition would apply to
the Freeport, resort to the purpose of the prohibition is necessary?

In issuing EO 156, particularly the prohibition on importation


under Article 2, Section 3?1, the President envisioned to rationalize
the importation of used motor vehicles and to enhance the
capabilities of the Philippine motor manufacturing firms to be globally
competitive producers of completely build-up units and their parts and
components for the local and export markets?[36] In justifying the
issuance of EO 156, petitioners alleged that there has been a decline
in the sales of new vehicles and a remarkable growth of the sales of
imported used motor vehicles? To address the same, the President
issued the questioned EO to prevent further erosion of the already
depressed market base of the local motor vehicle industry and to
curtail the harmful effects of the increase in the importation of used
motor vehicles?[37] 

Taking our bearings from the foregoing discussions, we hold


that the importation ban runs afoul the -# ü0  for a valid
administrative order? To be valid, an administrative issuance must
not be O a  or beyond the limits of the authority conferred? It
must not supplant or modify the Constitution, its enabling statute and
other existing laws, for such is the sole function of the legislature
which the other branches of the government cannot usurp? As held in
¦ 
   !    a   ?:[38] 

The rule-making power of a public administrative body is a


delegated legislative power, which it may not use either to abridge
the authority given it by Congress or the Constitution or to enlarge
its power beyond the scope intended? Constitutional and statutory
provisions control what rules and regulations may be promulgated
by such a body, as well as with respect to what fields are subject to
regulation by it? It may not make rules and regulations which are
inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution or a statute,
particularly the statute it is administering or which created it, or
which are in derogation of, or defeat, the purpose of a statute?



In the instant case, the subject matter of the laws authorizing


the President to regulate or forbid importation of used motor vehicles,
is the #. /#0 %? EO 156, however, exceeded the scope of
its application by extending the prohibition on the importation of used
cars to the Freeport, which RA 7227, considers to some extent, a
foreign territory? The #. / #0 % which the EO seeks to
protect is actually the ³/0 . % which is defined under the
Rules and Regulations Implementing RA 7227, as follows:

³-"3--1"" 0 #- 0$/'%"


4- - '33 '# 0 .  # 3 - -1""  '#
- ''1 '33 '# /0 .  1'4  '  3/ '#
33/? [39]


The proscription in the importation of used motor vehicles
should be operative only outside the Freeport and the inclusion of
said zone within the ambit of the prohibition is an invalid modification
of RA 7227? Indeed, when the application of an administrative
issuance modifies existing laws or exceeds the intended scope, as in
the instant case, the issuance becomes void, not only for being O
a , but also for being unreasonable?

This brings us to the 30- ü0 ? It is an axiom in


administrative law that administrative authorities should not act
arbitrarily and capriciously in the issuance of rules and regulations?
To be valid, such rules and regulations must be reasonable and fairly
adapted to secure the end in view? If shown to bear no reasonable
relation to the purposes for which they were authorized to be issued,
then they must be held to be invalid?[40]

There is no doubt that the issuance of the ban to protect the


#. / #0 % is a reasonable exercise of police power? The
deterioration of the local motor manufacturing firms due to the influx
of imported used motor vehicles is an urgent national concern that
needs to be swiftly addressed by the President? In the exercise of
delegated police power, the executive can therefore validly proscribe
the importation of these vehicles? Thus, in —"  #  
 O a
 —   ,[41] the Court held that a
regulation phasing out taxi cabs more than six years old is a valid
exercise of police power? The regulation was sustained as
reasonable holding that the purpose thereof was to promote the
convenience and comfort and protect the safety of the passengers?

The problem, however, lies with respect to the application of the


importation ban to the Freeport? The Court finds no logic in the all
encompassing application of the assailed provision to the Freeport
which is outside the customs territory? As long as the used motor
vehicles do not enter the customs territory, the injury or harm sought
to be prevented or remedied will not arise? The application of the law
should be consistent with the purpose of and reason for the law?
    O"   O"? When the reason for the law
ceases, the law ceases? It is not the letter alone but the spirit of the
law also that gives it life?[42] To apply the proscription to the Freeport
would not serve the purpose of the EO? Instead of improving the
general economy of the country, the application of the importation
ban in the Freeport would subvert the avowed purpose of RA 7227
which is to create a market that would draw investors and ultimately
boost the national economy? 

In similar cases, we also declared void the administrative


issuance or ordinances concerned for being unreasonable? To
illustrate, in Ô O |$ a ,[43] the Court held as unreasonable
and unconstitutional an ordinance characterized by overbreadth? In
that case, the Municipality of Bocaue, Bulacan, prohibited the
operation of all night clubs, cabarets and dance halls within its
jurisdiction for the protection of public morals? As explained by the
Court:


x x x It cannot be said that such a sweeping exercise of a
lawmaking power by Bocaue could qualify under the term
reasonable? The objective of fostering public morals, a worthy and
desirable end can be attained by a measure that does not
encompass too wide a field? Certainly the ordinance on its face is
characterized by overbreadth? The purpose sought to be achieved
could have been attained by reasonable restrictions rather than by
an absolute prohibition? The admonition in Salaveria should be
heeded: ³The Judiciary should not lightly set aside legislative action
when there is not a clear invasion of personal or property rights
under the guise of police regulation? It is clear that in the guise of
a police regulation, there was in this instance a clear invasion of
personal or property rights, personal in the case of those individuals
desirous of patronizing those night clubs and property in terms of
the investments made and salaries to be earned by those therein
employed? 



 a|  O,[44] is a case involving a resolution


issued by the Professional Regulation Commission which prohibited
examinees from attending review classes and receiving handout
materials, tips, and the like three days before the date of examination
in order to preserve the integrity and purity of the licensure
examinations in accountancy? Besides being unreasonable on its face
and violative of academic freedom, the measure was found to be
more sweeping than what was necessary, viz: 


Needless to say, the enforcement of Resolution No? 105 is
not a guarantee that the alleged leakages in the licensure
examinations will be eradicated or at least minimized? Making the
examinees suffer by depriving them of legitimate means of review
or preparation on those last three precious days ² when they
should be refreshing themselves with all that they have learned in
the review classes and preparing their mental and psychological
make-up for the examination day itself ² would be like uprooting
the tree to get rid of a rotten branch? What is needed to be done by
the respondent is to find out the source of such leakages and stop it
right there? If corrupt officials or personnel should be terminated
from their loss, then so be it? Fixers or swindlers should be flushed
out? Strict guidelines to be observed by examiners should be set up
and if violations are committed, then licenses should be suspended
or revoked? x x x

In  %
| O— O a |  ,[45] the
Court likewise struck down as unreasonable and overbreadth a city
ordinance granting an exclusive franchise for 25 years, renewable for
another 25 years, to one entity for the construction and operation of
one common bus and jeepney terminal facility in Lucena City? While
professedly aimed towards alleviating the traffic congestion alleged to
have been caused by the existence of various bus and jeepney
terminals within the city, the ordinance was held to be beyond what is
reasonably necessary to solve the traffic problem in the city?

By parity of reasoning, the importation ban in this case should


also be declared void for its too sweeping and unnecessary
application to the Freeport which has no bearing on the objective of
the prohibition? If the aim of the EO is to prevent the entry of used
motor vehicles from the Freeport to the customs territory, the solution
is not to forbid entry of these vehicles into the Freeport, but to
intensify governmental campaign and measures to thwart illegal
ingress of used motor vehicles into the customs territory? 

At this juncture, it must be mentioned that on June 19, 1993,


President Fidel V? Ramos issued Executive Order No? 97-A, ³Further
Clarifying The Tax And Duty-Free Privilege Within The Subic Special
Economic And Free Port Zone, Section 1 of which provides:


SECTION 1? The following guidelines shall govern the tax
and duty-free privilege within the

  of the Subic Special
Economic and Free Port Zone:

1?1? The

 consisting of the presently fenced-
in former Subic Naval Base shall be the only completely tax and
duty-free area in the SSEFPZ? Business enterprises and
individuals (Filipinos and foreigners) residing within the


 are free to import raw materials, capital goods, equipment,
and consumer items tax and dutry-free? Consumption items,
however, must be consumed within the

 ? Removal of
raw materials, capital goods, equipment and consumer items out of
the

  for sale to non-SSEFPZ registered enterprises
shall be subject to the usual taxes and duties, except as may be
provided herein?

In —  a |   O[46] as reiterated in |  # O


        a —,[47] this provision limiting the
special privileges on tax and duty-free importation in the presently
fenced-in former Subic Naval Base has been declared valid and
constitutional and in accordance with RA 7227? Consistent with these
rulings and for easier management and monitoring of activities and to
prevent fraudulent importation of merchandise and smuggling, the
free flow and importation of used motor vehicles shall be operative
only within the ³secured area? 

In sum, the Court finds that Article 2, Section 3?1 of EO 156 is


void insofar as it is made applicable to the presently secured fenced-
in former Subic Naval Base area as stated in Section 1?1 of EO 97-
A? Pursuant to the separability clause[48] of EO 156, Section 3?1 is
declared valid insofar as it applies to the customs territory or the
Philippine territory outside the presently secured fenced-in former
Subic Naval Base area as stated in Section 1?1 of EO 97-A? Hence,
used motor vehicles that come into the Philippine territory a  the
secured fenced-in former Subic Naval Base area may be stored,
used or traded therein, or exported out of the Philippine territory, but
they cannot be imported into the Philippine territory outside of the
secured fenced-in former Subic Naval Base area?

 jc c c, the petitions are       cÔ and


the May 24, 2004 Decisions of Branch 72, Regional Trial Court of
Olongapo City, in Civil Case No? 20-0-04 and Civil Case No? 22-0-04;
and the February 14, 2005 Decision of the Court of Appeals in CA-
G?R? SP No? 63284, are  Ô  cÔinsofar as they declared Article 2,
Section 3?1 of Executive Order No? 156, void in its entirety?


Said provision is declared
 Ô insofar as it applies to the
Philippine territory outside the presently fenced-in former Subic Naval
Base area and
Ô with respect to its application to the secured
fenced-in former Subic Naval Base area? 



 Ôc cÔ?



 c   c )    

Associate Justice


c  :

 c 
   

Chief Justice




c    c  Ô >  
        

 c   Ô
) c c   

Associate Justice Associate Justice


    )  c c   

Associate Justice Associate Justice




 j   ) c  c &c&  

Associate Justice Associate Justice

Ô    Ô c  

        



 
j  )      

      


 

  


Pursuant to Section 13, Article VIII of the Constitution, it is


hereby certified that the conclusions in the above Decision were
reached in consultation before the case was assigned to the writer of
the opinion of the Court?


 c 
   

Chief Justice





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