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and Impact in Developing Countries

Dr. M. A. Rahman, Life Fellow, IEB and IEEE

Memorial University of Newfoundland

St. John’s, Newfoundland, A1B 3X5 Canada

Abstract—The past thirty years have been an exciting period consumption; and thereby reduce Co2 gas emissions, which

for tremendous advances in the development of interior cause global warming.

permanent magnet (IPM) electrical machines. Over the course The objective of this invited paper is to provide a brief

of this time, interior permanent magnet synchronous machines introduction to the recent emergence of high efficiency and high

(IPMSM) have expanded their presence in the commercial performance interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous

marketplace from few specialized niche markets such as motors. Highlights of IPM motor drives include wide spread

machine tool servo drives to mass-produced applications application in Japanese hybrid electric vehicles, which are just

including high-efficiency electric traction drives for the latest one of many items of ac motor drive in passenger automobiles

generation of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV). Power ratings of to save precious electric energy.

available IPM motor drives have dramatically expanded by

approximately three orders of magnitude during this period,

now reaching power levels up to 1 MW ratings. What are the II. ANALYSIS

factors that made such impressive progress possible? Closer

examination reveals that several different knowledge-based The principle of operation of any rotating electric motor is

technological advancements and market forces have combined, derived from Lorenz force. A current carrying conductor placed

sometimes in fortuitous ways, to accelerate the development of in a magnetic field is acted upon by a force by way of the BLI

the impressive IPMSM drives technology that we find available rule. For a conventional synchronous motor the stator is fed

today. The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad from 3-phase balanced voltage source and rotor field winding is

explanation of the various factors that lead to our current state- supplied by dc excitation current through slip rings. The

of-the-art IPM technology. This highly efficient energy machine starts as an induction motor, and when it attains near

conversion technology has enormous impacts on the world synchronous speed, the dc excitation current is switched on. The

electrical energy supply and demand utilizing conventional rotor is snapped into synchronism and it runs at synchronous

fossil fuel sources like oil, coal and gas. Examples will illustrate speed. The obvious disadvantage is that the motor needs two

commercial successes of Toyota’s hybrid electric vehicles like sources of power; one ac from the stator and dc through the

PRIUS, utilizing the latest developments in knowledge based rotor involving brushes and slip rings. Unlike in induction

highly efficient and smart automobiles now and in the very motor, the speed of a synchronous motor is constant irrespective

future. of loads. But an induction machine is a singly fed motor. The

I. INTRODUCTION rotor is squirrel cage, simple and robust. The disadvantage is

Electric power system forms the backbone of modern society. that it cannot operate at synchronous speed Ns, and the rotor

Electricity and its accessibility are the greatest engineering speed Nr decreases with load.

achievements in the past century. In the 21st century, global Thus an induction motor is an inherently inefficient motion

warming has become an important issue. Carbon dioxide (Co2) control device, because the ideal efficiency is 1-S, where S =

gas emissions should be reduced to preserve the correct air (Ns-Nr)/Ns. These disadvantages of both the conventional

quality as per Kyoto protocol, implemented on February 16, doubly fed synchronous motor and the singly fed induction

2005 by most of the countries. Modern human beings, who need motor can be overcome by means of a permanently excited

electric energy technologies for climate controlled home and singly fed IPM motor. An IPM is an induction start but

work place environments via air conditioners and mass synchronously run high efficiency motor. It is sometimes

transportation using cars as necessities, cannot put up with the referred as induction-synchronous motor. It must overcome the

inconveniences of the past. In order to maintain and develop magnet brake torque at line starting. However, there are many

this energy consuming technologies, availability of sustainable challenges to overcome. Some are given as follows:

energy sources and their effective uses through efficiency

improvements are of paramount importance. Power electronics • Create variation of d-q axis inductances without

and electric motor drives are the enabling technologies crucial varying air gap.

for industrial competitiveness in the world market place. One of • Vary and control of excitation of permanently

the most valuable achievements in power electronics is to excited rotor of IPM.

introduce degree of freedom to variable frequency from the • Optimum variation of PM torque and reluctance

fixed value of the generated ac power supplies. Over 60 % of torque for specific applications.

the generated energy is consumed by electric motors. Variable • Reduction of cost, weight and size of IPM motor.

ac speed drive, which regulates the speed of the motor by • Intelligent converter and inverter for IPM drive.

controlling the frequency, can significantly reduce the energy

consumption, particularly in heavy-duty cycle fans, pumps, The developed power Pd in a 2-pole 3-phase salient pole

compressors and traction in hybrid electric vehicles. Thus synchronous motor can be given as;

improvements in efficiency of the electric motor drive systems

are the most effective measures to reduce primary energy

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magnets appeared in the 1970s with (BH) max at about 4 and 6

3Vp E 0 3Vp 2 (X d − X q )

Pd = sin δ + sin 2δ (1) MG Oe., respectively. The latest quantum jump occurred in

Xd 2X d X q early 1980s,when Neodymium Boron Iron (NdBFe) magnets

with (BH) max. at 14 MG Oe. became commercially available.

Where Vp is terminal voltage/per phase, Eo is excitation Now a days NdBFe magnets with (BH) max. at 58 MG Oe. are

voltage/per phase; Xd and Xq are d-q axis reactances per phase, routinely manufactured and marketed by the Japanese

manufactures like Neomax Co, Japanmagnets Inc., Aichi Steels

respectively and δ is angle between Vp and Eo. Co, TDK Co., etc .The critical properties of permanent magnets

In conventional salient pole synchronous machines, the airgap for IPM motors are very high coercive force Hc, high residual

length at the direct (d) axis is small and the airgap length at the magnetic flux density Br and highest (BH) max. energy product.

quadrature (q) axis is large. Thus there exists physical All PM materials except NdBFe magnets are found not quite

variation of the airgap, which in turn causes reluctance changes suitable for high efficiency IPM motor drives. Merrill

of the motor as the rotor rotates. introduced an earlier IPM motor using Alnico-5 in 1955[2].

The equation (1) can be rewritten as; Binn, Barnard, Jabbar presented a series of flux focused IPM

Pd = Pe sin δ + Pr sin 2δ (2) motor using ferrite PM materials in 1978[3]. Rahman designed

2

Where, Pe = [3VpEo]/ Xd and Pr = [3Vp (Xd -Xq)]/ 2 Xd Xq and built the first large 45 kW high efficiency IPM motor

Pe is the peak power component due to dc field excitation and utilizing NdBFe magnets in 1982 [4,6]. Rahman, Little and

Pr is the peak power component due to reluctance variation at Slemon provided analytical models for IPM in 1985[7-8]. Jahns

the airgap. The latter is called the reluctance power. The incorporated the flux-weakening regime in 1987[11,13].

contribution of each power component to the total power Pd is Sebastian and Slemon presented inverter driven IPM drives in

significant for the optimum design of a salient pole synchronous 1987[15]. Fratta, Vagati and Villata provided design criteria of

motor. For fixed parameter values it is obvious that the first IPM for field weakening operation in 1990 [20]. Zhou and

term of Eqn (2) is maximum when δ is 900, and the second Rahman presented the finite element analysis of IPM motor

incorporating field and circuit coupling in 1994[28]. Sustained

term of Eqn (2) is maximum for δ = 450 . The salient pole and extensive research, development, analysis, control and

synchronous motor develops more stable power for a given application of IPM motors are progressing in leaps and bounds

excitation level, because the total developed peak power Pd peak for the past two decades [12-47], perhaps even exceeding

is greater than each of the Pe and Pr components individually. Merrill’s dream [2] and Alger’s expectation.

The challenge for designers for an IPM motor is to create

reluctance variation of the motor by keeping airgap length III.DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

constant. This has been done by inserting permanent magnets in

various arrangements and magnet polarity orientations below The key requirements of IPM motors and generators for

the conduction cage of the IPM rotor such that the machine traction applications in hybrid electric vehicles are:

reluctance variations are made possible but keeping the airgap Large torque and higher power density,

length uniformly constant [1]. For some specific applications High torque at low speeds for starting and uphill climb

the squirrel/conduction cages can be dispensed with for new High power at high cruising speeds

IPM rotors for air conditioners and hybrid electric vehicles. Maximum efficiency over wide speed and torque ranges

The developed torque Td is obtained by dividing Eqn (2) by Wide speed range with constant power mode, exceeding

angular synchronous speed. An IPM motor develops its driving 2- 4 times the base speed

torque due to both the permanent magnet excitation and Optimum compromise between motor peak torque and

reluctance variation. inverter volt-ampere ratings

Short term overload capability, typically twice the rated

torque over short duration

Low cogging torque, low ripple and low acoustic noise

Optimum stator winding design

New rotor design with magnets orientation for maximum

variation of d-q inductances

Reduction of magnetic saturation due to cross-coupling

Limits to open circuit voltage and total harmonic contents

Low copper and iron losses at high speeds

High reliability for all operating conditions

Minimum weight and smallest size

Low fuel consumption rate (litre/km),

Clean and environmentally benign

Quiet, smooth and comfortable ride

Better battery power and self-charging

Smart sensors and interfaces

Least magnet flux leakage

Magnet demagnetization withstand with respect to

armature reaction

Fig. 1: History of Permanent Magnet Material Developments Temperature and surface corrosion constraints of magnets

The history of development of IPM motors is linked to the Minimum gear and more direct drive

advancement of high-energy permanent magnet materials over Regenerative braking and short charging cycle

the past 50 years. Fig.1 illustrates the brief history of the No plug-in and hybrid transmission

development of permanent magnet (PM) materials. In the 1950s Plug-in in off peak periods

the most promising material was the Alnico (Aluminum Nickel Solar panel body and hybrid transmission

Cobalt) magnet with (BH) max at around 5 MG Oe. Next, Seamless transfer between engine and electric traction

Barium Ferrite magnets came by 1960s, and Samarium Cobalt Minimum maintenance and high efficiency

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Lowest initial and operating cost Is If

Im

IV. MOTOR TORQUE

Vp

The developed torque Td for an IPM motor can also be Xm If

expressed for synchronously revolving d-q axis reference frame

as [6];

3p

Td =

2

[

λ m i q + (L q − L d )i d i q (3) ]

Where, λ m is flux linkage due to permanent magnet Fig.3: Norton’s Equivalent Circuit of IPM Motor

excitation, Ld and Lq are d-q axis inductances, respectively; id

and iq are d-q axis currents, respectively and p is number of pole

pairs. It is also to be noted that the torque equation (3) is quite

non-linear, because λ m , Ld, Lq, id and iq are not usually

constants. All these five quantities vary during dynamic

operating conditions.

It is to be noted that the first term of equation (3) is identical

to the separately excited dc motor. It is important for indirect Fig.4: Current Phasor Diagram of IPM Motor

vector control of an IPM motor. The second term is the

reluctance torque. Efficient utilization of this reluctance torque Unlike conventional wire-wound synchronous machines, the

component of equation (3) is most critical for intensive flux rotor of an IPM motor is permanently excited. The rotor

weakening operations and efficiency improvements in hybrid permanent magnet can be modeled by equivalent current source,

electric vehicles (HEV) and electric traction drives [45]. as indicated by If in Fig. 3. The excitation current If due to rotor

Finite element (FE) analysis is a requirement for fine-tuning permanent magnets for IPM synchronous motor is constant.

the parameters determination of the IPM motors for optimum However, the IPM motor can be operated by controlling

efficiency in high-speed operation using smart inverter and the angle β between the magnetizing current Im and constant

control systems. Figure 2 shows the finite element based d-q excitation current If. This is explained by means of the current

axis magnetic flux distribution due to flux focusing phasor triangle. An IPM motor can be operated in leading, unity

arrangements of rotor permanent magnets [26]. Design and lagging power factor modes of operation by varying the

optimization of the IPM motor drive system can also be carried angle β, as shown in Fig.4. This eliminates another constraint

out by various methods. for its wide spread applications in industry as the singly fed

permanently excited variable power factor IPM synchronous

motor. Fig 5 shows an alternate method of varying power factor

of an IPM synchronous motor. The direct and quadrature axis

(d-q) components of the stator current may be controlled by the

The operation of a synchronous motor is conventionally Fig.5 : D-Q Currents Vector Diagram of IPM Motor

explained by using the Thevenin’s per phase equivalent circuit

model. The applied phase voltage Vp and the excitation vector control (field weakening) technique, in which the d-axis

voltage Eo at the airgap due to dc field current in the rotor of the current is varied to operate the IPM motor in leading, lagging

motor is connected by series reactance X, neglecting stator and unity power factor modes of operation.

resistance drop. The phasor voltage triangle is governed by the

Kirchoff’s voltage law. For the sake of better insight of dc field VI. ROTOR DESIGN FOR LINE START IPM

current supplied in its rotor, the Thevenin’s equivalent can be

The earlier design of the rotors for IPM motors using Ferrite

replaced by its dual Norton’s equivalent circuit model.

magnets was geared to increase the air gap flux by arranging the

Fig.3 shows the per phase Norton’s equivalent circuit of an

magnets and their orientation. Different old topologies had been

IPM motor. The phasor current triangle of the Norton’s

tried by Binns [3-4]. Modern NdBFe magnets having high Br

equivalent circuit of a synchronous motor is governed by the

and very large Hc lead the recent trend for new rotor designs.

Kirchoff’s current law of If + Is = Im. Note that Is is the stator

current per phase, Im is the magnetising current per phase and If

is the phasor current arising out of the rotor permanent magnet

excitation. It is quite well known that a conventional

synchronous motor can be operated at variable power factor

modes by regulating its dc field current Ifdc. It is well known that

the dc excitation current If is varied by controlling the rotor

field current Ifdc to operate the motor at unity, leading and

lagging power factor modes of operation. It is not possible for

IPM synchronous motors. Fig.6: IPM Rotors for Line Start Motor.

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peak torque and inverter volt-ampere ratings, short term

overload capability, typically twice the rated torque over short

(a) duration, low acoustic noise, low cogging torques, low torque

(b) ripples, optimized stator distributed winding with minimum

total harmonic distortion factor, innovative rotor design

topology with magnets orientation for maximum variation of d-

q axis inductances, reduction of cross-coupling magnetic

saturation, least magnet flux leakage, magnet demagnetization

Fig. 7: Magnet flux distribution withstand with respect to armature reaction, temperature and

(a) FE grids (b) magnetic flux contours

surface corrosion constraints, excessive open circuit back–emf,

load and no load stator iron loss at high speeds, high reliability

Fig.6 shows the experimental rotor for an IPM motor with line and robustness for various operating conditions, minimum

start provision [41]. The left hand picture depicts the IPM rotor, weight and smallest size, low fuel consumption rate (litre/km),

and the right hand figure provides details of dimensions and clean, quiet, smooth, powerful, efficient and low cost. It is

permanent magnet orientation over one quadrant of 4-pole IPM obvious that many of the above mentioned design requirements

rotor [41]. Figure 7 shows the finite element grids and magnet are complex, some times conflicting and interlinked for specific

flux density contours for one quadrant of the IPM rotor of Fig.6. HEV applications. Furthermore, these design criteria cannot be

The design data for an experimental 3-phase, 4-pole, Y- isolated from their control strategy including power electronic

connected, 200V, 1 hp IPM motor with NdBFe magnets converter and battery. Figure 8 shows the per unit torque/power

(Neomax –32) are given as; stator : OD= 128mm, ID = 77mm, and efficiency over wide speeds for hybrid electric vehicles [30].

stack length = 70 mm, number of slots = 24, conductors/slot =

56. rotor: OD = 76.2 mm, core length = 70 mm, inertia = 0.0015

kgm2 and load inertia = 0.0263 kgm2.. The rotor consists of 2

cages of aluminum bars with lower cage of 7.5 mm depth [41].

Table-1 shows the comparative test performance results of

the IPM synchronous motor and induction motor (IM). Both the

motors were run at 140V (L-L) and 200V (L-L) voltages. It is

quite evident from the test results of Table-1 that the IPM motor

outperformed in every category of performances.

Table-1: Performance Results of IPM and Induction Motors

Quantity IPM Rotor IM Rotor Fig. 8: Torque/power and efficiency requirements for HEV

Input voltage: V (V) 140 200

Input current: I (A) 2.91 3.43

Input power: W (W) 696 818

Rotor speed: n (rpm) 1500 1434

Torque: T (Nm) 3.82 4.00

Efficiency: η (%) 86.2 73.3

Power factor: pf (%) 98.6 68.8

Output power: P (W) 600 600

Fig.9: IPM Rotors for Toyota Hybrid Electric Vehicles [45]

Off. X pf product (%) 85.0 50.4

Max output: Pmax. (W) 1115 1240 Figure 9 shows the IPM rotors for Toyota Prius 2000 model and

sports utility vehicles (SUV2005) model of hybrid electric

The significant conclusion is that the efficiency and power vehicles [45]. Table-2 shows the utilization of IPM motors for

factor as well as their product of the IPM motor is over 35% Toyota Prius and sports utility vehicles (SUV) to create

better than that for an identical rated induction motor. The variation of d-q inductances of the rotor magnets topology for

energy efficiency aspect is a key factor for wide spread reluctance torque. However, the V type arrangements are

applications of high performance IPM motor drives. preferred for hybrid electric vehicle applications, where the

reluctance torque component is critical for high-speed operation

VIII. APPLICATIONS in flux weakening regime.

IPM motors with intelligent power module (IPM) are now Table-2: d-q axis inductances (mH) [45]

widely used for heavy duty cycle loads, which include Axis Straight IPM (Prius) V- IPM (SUV)

ventilation fans, blowers, air conditioner, heat pumps, d-axis Ld 1.06 0.86

compressors, cranes, elevators/escalators, blood pumps, ship q-axis Lq 2.26 2.23

propellers, locomotive traction drives, electric and hybrid Lq –Ld 1.20 1.37

electric vehicles (HEV). The ratings span from few watts to few Lq/Ld 2.13 2.59

megawatts range. For SUV 2005 Toyota models the reluctance torque

Double IPM motors are now increasingly used for energy component is about 63% of the total driving torque at a speed of

saving applications in hybrid electric vehicles. The key 12,400rpm. The torque to weight ratio significantly improves by

requirements of IPM propulsion motors for HEV applications operating the IPM motor at 650 Vdc from smart dc-dc converter.

include the following [25,30,32,38]: high torque and power The light load stator iron loss also decreased primarily by

density, high torque at low speeds for staring and uphill climb employing high-grade silicon steel for IPM motors.

but high power at high cruising speeds, maximum efficiency Figure 10 provides an illustration of a 123kW IPM

over wide speed and torque ranges including at low torques, motor/generator set for the Toyota hybrid electric car. The back

wide speed range with constant power mode, exceeding 2-4 wheel IPM motor is rated at 50 kW for the 4-wheel drive model.

times the base speed, optimum compromise between motor The sophisticated and intelligent control in a hybrid electric

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vehicle forms the key to successful utilization of IPM motors.

Smart power electronic modules as well as new nickel metal

hydride battery are the enabling technology for the popular

Toyota ‘Prius’ sedans and 4-wheel SUV models. The design of

Toyota hybrid system (THS) includes gasoline engine, new

transmission system, IPM traction motor, IPM generator,

converter/inverter module, battery and control units. Figure 11

shows the complete transmission layout of the Toyota hybrid

system (THS) for its popular hybrid electric vehicle models.

This innovative THS transmission is geared to achieve

maximum fuel efficiency and a high degree of driving

comfort.PM traction drive motors are crucial for fulfilling the Fig. 13: Ratio of Magnet and Reluctance Torques

power characteristics required for high performance

automobiles.

IPM

Generator

Front IPM

Motor

Fig. 14: Efficiency Contour for SUV 2005

Table-3: Application of IPM Motor drives in Japanese Hybrids

Fig 10: IPM Motor / Generator Set for Toyota Hybrid Car

Year Company Brand Vehicle type Power Voltage km/liter

1997 Toyota Prius Sedan 30kW 274V 22

2000 Toyota Prius-1 Sedan 33kW 288V 22.5

2004 Toyota Prius-2 Sedan 50kW 500V 25.0

2005 Toyota Camry Sedan 60kW 650V 25.6

2005 Toyota Kluger* V6-SUV 123kW 650V 17.8

2005 Toyota Estima* V6-Van 123kW 650V 18.6

2005 Toyota Harrier* V6-SUV 123kW 650V 17.8

2007 Toyota Lexus Sedan 147kW 650V 20.0

Fig. 11: Toyota Hybrid System (THS) Transmission * Japanese 4WD, front motor/generator, 123 kW, 12400 rpm,

rear motor, 50 kW, nickel metal hydride battery

covered. On line and soft starting provisions are included.

Operation of IPM motors at variable power factor is illustrated

with the help of Norton’s equivalent circuit and phasor

Fig. 12: Layout for Motor/Generator, dc/dc converter diagrams. Comparative performances of IPM and induction

motors are summarized. An example of successful traction

Figure 12 shows the layout of IPM traction motor, IPM application is given. Highlight of IPM motor drives includes its

generator, dc/dc converter and batter systems. Fig.13 wide spread application in Japanese hybrid electric vehicles,

graphically shows the contributions of electric torque due to which are just one of many items of ac motor drives in

permanent magnet and the reluctance torque produced within passenger automobiles to save precious energy. The paper

the IPM rotor for the 2000 Prius and 2005 SUV models. This opens up the debate on plug-in, solar and auto-charged smart

confirms the better choice of IPM motors technology for HEVs. hybrid electric vehicles [48-49]. It concludes by hinting on the

Perhaps it ends the debate of using either the induction motors economic, environmental and social impacts in poor countries.

or reluctance motors for efficient traction drives for mass

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