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Eg`grmkd Fumøds.
\gvmsmûo `g ch cmtgrhturh kmgotæemkh sdlrg ch h`mkkmûo h cds vm`gdjugids y dtrhs vhrmhlcgs gstu`mh`hs go su rgchkmûo
 
{
^[
DKMHC} | vdc. 0 | ord. < | <>82 | pp. ;<-05 ;<
\
GUM[MÛO @G CH CMPG\HPW\H KMGOPÆEMKH [DL\G CH H@MKKMÛO H CD[ UM@GDJWGID[ ] DP\H[ UH\MHLCG[ G[PW@MH@H[ GO [W \GCHKMÛO
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G@G\MKD
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HRMFMCMHOD
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* Womvgrsm`h` `g Ecdrgs (Hrigotmoh)
eg`grmkd.fumodsNuecd.g`u.hr
M[[O <0<<-58=R
\gsufgo.
Ch h`mkkmûo h cds vm`gdjugids tdfh, húo fès, rgcgvhokmh go gc kdrrmgotg hød trhs gc hvmsd `g ch Drihomzhkmûo Fuo`mhc `g ch [hcu` `g qug edrfhrè phrtg `g cds trhstdrods `g h`mkkmûo go ch dokghvh g`mkmûo `g ch Kchsmemkhkmûo Motgrohkmdohc `g Goegrfg`h`gs. Hc tgogr gstd go kugoth, sg rghcmzû uoh rgvmsmûo `g ch cmtgrhturh kmgotæemkh `g cds úctmfds 8> høds sdlrg dtrhs vhrmhlcgs gstu`mh`hs go rgchkmûo h ch h`mkkmûo h cds vm`gdjugids. ^hrh, `g gsth fhogrh, kdfprgo`gr fgjdr cds ehktdrgs qug moecuygo go gstg trhstdrod y sus pdsmlcgs kdosgkugokmhs. Hciuohs `g chs vhrmhlcgs qug sg gokdotrhrdo gstu`mh`hs sdo: pgrsdohcm`h`, hosmg`h`, `gprgsmûo, sæ fmsfd, rgo`mfmgotd hkh`ífmkd, ecumr, fdtmvhkmûo, edlmh sdkmhc, gotrg dtrhs.
^hchlrhs Kchvgs.
 H`mkkmûo
 Um`gd jugids
^grsdohcm`h`
 Hutdgstmfh
 Hlstrhkt.
Pbg h``mktmdo td vm`gd ihfgs bhs ihmo fdrg rgkdiomtmdo mo rgkgot yghrs hetgr Ydrc` Bghctb Drihomzhtmdo h`vmsgs tbht mt wmcc lg phrt de h``mktmdo `msdr`grs mo tbg gcgvgotb g`mtmdo de tbg Motgrohtmdohc Kchssmemkhtmdo de @msghsgs. Ybgo thamoi tbms motd hkkduot, h rgvmgw de tbg skmgotmemk cmtgrhturg de tbg chst 8> yghrs do dtbgr vhrmhlcgs stu`mg` mo rgchtmdo td h``mktmdo td vm`gd ihfgs whs fh`g. Pd lgttgr uo`grstho` tbg ehktdrs tbht moecugokg tbms `msdr`gr ho` mts pdssmlcg kdosgqugokgs. [dfg de tbg vhrmhlcgs tbht wgrg stu`mg` hrg: pgrsdohcmty, hoxmgty, `gprgssmdo, sgce, hkh`gfmk pgredrfhokg, ecdw, fdtmvhtmdo, sdkmhc pbdlmh, hfdoi dtbgrs..
Agywdr`s.
 H`mktmdo
 Um`gd ihfgs
 ^grsdohcmty
 [gce-Gstggf
Govmh`d.
>5-8<-<>82 |
Hkgpth`d.
<2-8<-<>82
Go gc kdrrmgotg hød, ch Drihomzhkmûo Fuo`mhc `g ch [hcu` (DF[) mo`mkû qug mokcumrè go ch dokghvh g`mkmûo `g ch Kchsmemkhkmûo Motgrohkmdohc `g Goegrfg`h`gs (KMG-88) ch H`mkkmûo h cds Um`gdjugids h ch sgkkmûo `g Prhstdrods `g H`mkkmûo. Gstg ougvh g`mkmûo gotrh go vmigokmh `gs`g gc 8 `g gogrd `g <><< (DF[, <>82). Bgkbd `g irho mfpdrthokmh sm sg tmgog go kugoth qug, h omvgc ohkmdohc, gc 8=% `g ch pdlchkmûo bhkg usd `g cds UJs ([mstgfh `g Moedrfhkmûo Kucturhc `g ch Hrigotmoh, <>89). [g krghrdo `megrgotgs gskhchs (Cgffgos, Uhcagoluri y ^gtgr, <>>=1 Uho \ddmj, [kbdgofhagrs, vho `go Gmjo`go, Ugrfucst y vho `g Fbggo, <>8<1 Ydoi y Khrsdo Bd`imos, <>8;1 Kbhfhrrd gt hc., <>801 Abhzhhc gt hc., <>851 Cmos
Cgfds, Khr`dsd y Ldtgcbd [duigy, <>851 ]ĸcfhz,
Irmeemtbs y Aho, <>891 Ccdrgt Mrcgs, Fdrgcc Idfms, Fhrzd Khfpds y Pmrh`d Idozècgz, <>82) phrh pd`gr gsthlcgkgr sm uo vm`gdjuih`dr pdsgg h`mkkmûo h cds UJs d od. [mo gflhrid, ´kuècgs sdo sus kdosgkugokmhs4 ´Bhy ehktdrgs prdtgktdrgs d `g rmgsid4 ´[g pug`g prg`gkmr qumío tmgog fès pdsmlmcm`h`gs `g pdsggr uo usd phtdcûimkd `g cds UJs4 Hc tgogr go kugoth gsths prgiuoths, sg `gkm`mû ccgvhr h khld gsth rgvmsmûo `g ch cmtgrhturh kmgotæemkh (go gsphødc g moicís) sdlrg cd gstu`mh`d go cds úctmfds 8> høds.
 
Eg`grmkd Fumøds.
\gvmsmûo `g ch cmtgrhturh kmgotæemkh sdlrg ch h`mkkmûo h cds vm`gdjugids y dtrhs vhrmhlcgs gstu`mh`hs go su rgchkmûo
 
{
^[
DKMHC} | vdc. 0 | ord. < | <>82 | pp. ;<-05 ;;
H`mkkmûo h cds UJs sgiúo su iíogrd
Kbûcmz y Fhrkd (<>8>) tuvmgrdo kdfd dljgtmvd hohcmzhr gc phtrûo `g usd y `gpgo`gokmh go UJs `urhotg ch moehokmh y ch h`dcgskgokmh. ^hrh gccd rgkurrmgrdo h uoh fugstrh `g 5<8 omøds y h`dcgskgotgs (;<9 vhrdogs y <=0 fujgrgs) gotrg cds 8> y 85 høds, td`ds gccds gstu`mhotgs go Uhcgokmh, Gsphøh. Pd`ds gccds rgspdo`mgrdo uo kugstmdohrmd hutdh`fmomstrhlcg `g @gpgo`gokmh h cds UJs lhsh`d go gc @[F MU P\ y cds krmtgrmds `g `gsûr`gogs `g `gpgo`gokmh. H`gfès, kdfpcgthrdo uoh prgiuoth sdlrg su hutdpgrkgpkmûo `g `gpgo`gokmh h cds UJs (uoh gskhch `gc > hc 8>>). Cds rgsucth`ds mo`mkhrdo qug cds kbmkds jugiho fès sgium`d y fès tmgfpd qug chs kbmkhs. H`gfès, cds prmfgrds prgemgrgo cds jugids `g `gpdrtgs, khrrgrhs, `msphrd y cds qug pdsgho vmdcgokmh irèemkh. Fmgotrhs qug chs kbmkhs sugcgo juihr vm`gdjugids kdo hspgktds sdkmd-hegktmvds, g`ukhkmdohcgs y `g hkkmûo hrkh`g. Gokdotrhrdo qug ch h`mkkmûo h cds UJs sg gokugotrh fès rgchkmdoh`h kdo kuhtrd ehktdrgs: tdcgrhokmh, ehcth `g kdotrdc, prdlcgfhs khush`ds pdr gc usd gxkgsmvd y gc gstrís khush`d pdr od pd`gr juihr UJs1 cds kbmkds sugcgo prgsgothr fès prdlcgfhs `g jugid phtdcûimkd qug chs kbmkhs. \ghf, Gccmdt y @uochp (<>8;) gstu`mhrdo ch rgchkmûo gotrg ch h`mkkmûo h cds UJs y su rgchkmûo kdo cds iíogrds `mspdomlcgs `urhotg gc trhoskursd `g ch vm`h. ^hrh gccd utmcmzhrdo uoh gotrgvmsth pgrsdohc hsmstm`h pdr kdfputh`drh `g moedrfhkmûo `gfdirèemkh hktuhc g bmstûrmkh qug fg`æh: usd `g vm`gdjugids, kdosufd `g hzúkhr y khegæoh y kdfprdfmsd kdo ch gskugch y/d trhlhjd. Ch fmsfh kdosucthlh gstds `htds `gs`g cds 5 høds `g g`h` bhsth ch hktuhcm`h`. ^hrtmkmphrdo 5=< pgrsdohs `g Ougvh ]dra qug tgoæho gotrg 82 y <= høds. Cds rgsucth`ds mo`mkhrdo qug `urhotg ch moehokmh buld uo hufgotd `g cds iíogrds `g UJs h cds qug juihlho, qug `urhotg ch sgiuo`h `íkh`h hckhozhlh su puotd fèxmfd y `gkcmohlho `urhotg ch h`uctgz gfgrigotg. Gc úomkd prg`mktdr kdosmstgotg go ch prg`mkkmûo `g prdlcgfhs `g jugid eug ch lúsqug`h `g sgoshkmdogs. H`gfès, ch rgchkmûo gotrg jugid prdlcgfètmkd y g`h` y cds `megrgotgs iíogrds eug ogihtmvh d mosmiomemkhotg. Lrhuo, [tdpegr, Fóccgr, Lgutgc y Gicdee (<>85) gstu`mhrdo ch rgchkmûo gotrg cds iíogrds `g UJs, h`mkkmûo y Kmokd Irho`gs Ehktdrgs gotrg vm`gdjugih`drgs y od vm`gdjuih`drgs. ^hrh gccd hkkg`mgrdo h uoh fugstrh `g <2=8 pgrsdohs (<0<8 bdflrgs y 09> fujgrgs) qug tgoæho gotrg 8; y 57 høds. ^hrh gccd ushrdo gc Movgothrmd `g cds Kmokd Irho`gs [DG^ (LEM-[), ch Gskhch `g Gvhcuhkmûo `g h`mkkmûo h ch motgrogt y jugids `g kdfputh`drh y uo kugstmdohrmd sdkmd`gfdirèemkd. Cds rgsucthrdo mo`mkhrdo qug bhy rgchkmûo gotrg Ogurdtmkmsfd y cds vm`gdjuih`drgs kdo prdlcgfhs `g h`mkkmûo, pgrd sg gokdotrhrdo rgsucth`ds smfmchrgs phrh od- juih`drgs. ^hrh vm`gdjuih`drgs rgiuchrgs gokdotrhrdo lhjds omvgcgs `g Ogurdtmkmsfd. Ch gxtrhvgrsmûo sg rgchkmdoh `g edrfh ogihtmvh kdo ch h`mkkmûo h UJs. Od sg gokdotrû rgchkmûo gotrg Hpgrturh h ch Gxpgrmgokmh y h`mkkmûo h cds UJs. Bhcchrdo uoh rgchkmûo ogihtmvh gotrg \gspdoshlmcm`h` y h`mkkmûo h cds UJs. Go kuhotd h cds iíogrds, chs pgrsdohs kdo fhydrgs omvgcgs `g Ogurdtmkmsfd prgegræho cds jugids `g rdc y smfuch`drgs1 cds juih`drgs kdo fhydrgs omvgcgs
 
Eg`grmkd Fumøds.
\gvmsmûo `g ch cmtgrhturh kmgotæemkh sdlrg ch h`mkkmûo h cds vm`gdjugids y dtrhs vhrmhlcgs gstu`mh`hs go su rgchkmûo
 
{
^[
DKMHC} | vdc. 0 | ord. < | <>82 | pp. ;<-05 ;0
`g Gxtrhvgrsmûo prgemgrgo cds jugids `g hkkmûo1 Gxtrhvgrsmûo sg `mstrmluyû `g fhogrh smfmchr gotrg td`ds cds iíogrds1 Fhydrgs omvgcgs `g \gspdoshlmcm`h` sg gokdotrhrdo gotrg juih`drgs `g [mfuch`drgs.
H`mkkmûo h cds UJs pgrsdohcm`h` y sus khrhktgræstmkhs
Amf, Ohfaddoi, Au y Amf (<>>2) hohcmzhrdo ch rgchkmûo gotrg h`mkkmûo, hutd-kdotrdc, hirgsmûo y ohrkmsmsfd pdr sgr kdosm`grh`hs khrhktgræstmkhs rgchkmdoh`hs kdo pdlchkmdogs go rmgsid phrh  jugid go cæogh h`mktmvd. ^hrh gccd, rgkurrmgrdo h uoh fugstrh `g 8098 juih`drgs (8<85 vhrdogs y <77 fujgrgs) kdrghods `g Ydrc` de Yhrkrhet, Cmoghig y Fhlmodim. Cds kuhcgs rgspdo`mgrdo uo kugstmdohrmd h`-bdk (g`h`, sgxd, dkuphkmûo y phtrdogs `g usd `g motgrogt d UJ go cæogh, ch khcm`h` `g rgchkmûo pgrkmlm`h kdo sus phrgs, ehfmcmhrgs y sus omvgcgs `g hosmg`h` sdkmhc)1 ch gskhch `g h`mkkmûo hc jugid go cæogh `g Ybhoi (<>><) qug gs uoh vgrsmûo fd`memkh`h `g ch gskhch `g h`mkkmûo h motgrogt `g ]duoi (8===)1 gc kugstmdohrmd `g hirgsmûo `g Luss-^grry (8==<)1 ch gskhch `g hutd-kdotrdc `g Idtterg`sdo y Bmrskbm (8==>)1 y ch gskhch `gc `gsdr`go `g pgrsdohcm`h` ohrkmsæstmkd `g Bwhoi (8==7). Go gc hoècmsms `g cds rgsucth`ds gokdotrhrdo qug bhy uoh kdrrgchkmûo pdsmtmvh gotrg ch h`mkkmûo h cds UJ y ch hirgsmûo y gc ohrkmsmsfd. Fmgotrhs qug gc hutd-kdotrdc gstè kdrrgchkmdoh`d `g edrfh ogihtmvh kdo ch h`mkkmûo h cds jugids go cæogh. Fgbrdde y Irmeemtbs (<>8>) hkkg`mgrdo h uoh fugstrh `g 8<; gstu`mhotgs uomvgrsmthrmds (9< bdflrgs `g <<,; høds `g fg`mh y 78 fujgrgs `g <8,5 høds `g fg`mh). Gc dljgtmvd eug gstu`mhr ch h`mkkmûo h cds UJs (IH[), hutd-kdotrdc (Gskhch `g Hutd-kdotrdc), hirgsmûo (Kugstmdohrmd `g Hirgsmûo `g Luss ^grry), lúsqug`h `g sgoshkmdogs (Movgothrmd `g Lúsqug`h `g [goshkmdogs `g Hrogtt), hosmg`h` kdfd rhsid d gsth`d (Movgothrmd phrh h`uctds `g Hosmg`h` Gsth`d-\hsid) y pgrsdohcm`h` (Kugstmdohrmd `g ^grsdohcm`h` `g Gysgoka). Cds rgsucth`ds mo`mkhrdo rgchkmdogs smiomemkhotgs gotrg rhsids `g hirgsmûo y h`mkkmûo h chs hpugsths go cæogh, lúsqug`h `g sgoshkmdogs, Ogurdtmkmsfd, gsth`d `g hosmg`h` y rhsid `g hosmg`h`. Ch lúsqug`h `g gfdkmdogs tuvd uoh rgchkmûo pdsmtmvh kdo ch h`mkkmûo h UJs. Cd fmsfd dkurrmû kdo ch hirgsmûo. ^dr su phrtg, ch hosmg`h` (gsth`d y rhsid) sg gokdotrhrdo rgchkmdogs smiomemkhtmvhfgotg gc  jugid gxkgsmvd. Kbdd gt hc. (<>8>) gstu`mhrdo ch h`mkkmûo h cds UJs go <==2 jûvgogs `g [moihpur (<89= bdflrgs y 28= fujgrgs). Cds kuhcgs hlhrkhlho gstu`mhotgs `g prmfhrmh y sgkuo`hrmh kdo uo fg`mh `g g`h` `g 88,< høds. Pd`ds gccds rgspdo`mgrdo h 8> sultgst qug hlhrkhlho: moedrfhkmûo `gfdirèemkh, usd `g UJs, edrthcgzhs pgrsdohcgs, hktmtu`gs sdkmhcgs, rhsids `g hirgsmûo y bdstmcm`h`, usd phtdcûimkd `g UJs, gxpgrmgokmh go UJs, gotdrod ehfmcmhr, kdotrdc phrgothc y sæotdfhs sdfètmkds. Gc rgsucth`d `g chs fg`mkmdogs eug qug 2,9% `g ch fugstrh prgsgotû usd phtdcûimkd `g cds UJs, prgsgotho`d cds kbmkds fès sæotdfhs phtdcûimkds qug chs kbmkhs. Phflmío, sg gokdotrû qug ch kdfpgtgokmh sdkmhc, ch bdstmcm`h`, prdlcgfhs `g kdotrdc `g mfpucsd, `hød hc euokmdohfmgotd
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