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CHALLENGE José Francisco Guevara Campos Hazel Mora Rodriguez Diddctica Apartado 410-1002, San José San José, Costa Rica Primera Edicién, mejorada y renovada, 2020 Libro al cuidado de Lic. Sofia Rodriguez Alfaro. Challenge 10°: Un Enfoque Préctico Pavia Reine Gomater GRAPE TAS E-mail: ‘para Didéctica Multimedia Autores: José Francisco Guevara Campos Hazel Mora Rodriguez Derechos Reservados. Prohibida la reproduccién total © parcial para cualquier medio, Unit 1. Love what we do! Help wanted Warm up activity. . Vocabulary. . Reading Grammar: The Simple Future Tense / The use of Will...... Practice... Creative Practice. Extensive Practice. Self Evaluation, gom> 2. Jobs Warm up activity. ......2.0+5 Vocabulary. ....2.0.s0sese+e Presentation... Practice... , Controlied Practice. ....... 2N6 Practice... anne Grammar: Time Words. . Procilonssédiii;ccistioletecsecn Creative Practice......... Final Practice... Self Evaluation. mo om> 3. Interviewing A. Warm up activity Practice... C. Grammar: Comparative and Superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs........27 D. Controlied Practice... E. Creative Practice Oral Production Self Evaluation... 4. Working to Live or Living to Work? ‘A. Vocabulary... = suse pe B. Warm Up 33 ©. Presentation... 3 D. Reading...... 33 E. Grammar: Past Perfect Tense 2.34 Practice... ensue F . Controlled Practice. 36 Self Evaluation... sis 38 Unit 2. Stories Come in All Shapes and Sizes 1. Tell me a Story A. Vocabulary... a 40 B. Presentation. 000. cose cceeees eee 2 Practice, ©. Controlled Practice Practice... 4. EE CONTENTS D. Grammar: Present Tense. . 4s Practice. 46 Past Tense : 46 Practice, - a7 E. Reading Time... iicircer: F. Grammar; Second Conditional. 49 Practice... Third Conditional. Practice. . . -5t ‘Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down A. Vocabulary... - B. Presentation... Practice... ©. Controlled Practice. D. Creative Practice. .... E. Controlled Practice. . The Reviews Are In A. Presentation Practice, 8. Grammar. Practice... C. Controlled Practice. D. Creative Practice. You should read this. ‘A. Warm Up... B. Presentation. . = C. Controlled Practice... 65 ©. Grammar 6s Practice, 66 E. Mini Project 66 Unit 3. A world of differences ‘These are my People A. Warm up activity 70 B: Vocabulary 70 C. Presentation 72 Practice. 74 ©. Grammar: Conditionals 74 E. Controlled Practice s F. Grammar; Intensifiers too and enough. . 7S Practice 76 G. Creative Practice 76 H. Consolidation 7 . Cultures, Subcultures and Cliques A. Warm up activity 78 B. Vocabulary, 78 C. Contiolled Practice. 80 D. Grammar: Simple past questions, 82 Practice 83 E. Consolidation a3 Cultural Norms and Cultural Storms ‘A. Warm up activity a4 B. Vocabulary a4 C. Controlled Practice 85, D. Grammar: Phrasal verbs to agree and disagree 87 E. Creative Practice 88 ES OO eee not my hair 8. Presentation. ‘A. Warm up activity 89 Practice... B. Presentation 89 C. Grammar: Present Perfect Continuous . Controlled Practice 20 D. Creative Practice ot E. Consolidation 93 Unit 4. Caution: Fragile World! 3. Tech Tools for Positive panes: Handle with Care A. Vocabulary, B. Presentation. 1. What Makes Something Sustainable ‘A. Vocabulary 96 c B. Presentation or . Grammar: Comparative and D Superative Rules. 29 Practice. 99 D. Consolidation 1004. My Practice 101 A. Warm up... B. Vocobulary......... 2. Products and Practices around . Controlled Practice. the World D. Grammar: Imperatives. A. Presentation... 102 Pilon ij yittssiaassiescaseee B. Vocabulay..--- ees 103 E. Creative Practice. 00 00. sos esse N6Y Practice 104 F Consolidation. .....ssecscssssesseessees162 ©. Controlled Practice 106 D. Grammar: Future Continuous. 108 Unit 6. What comes next? Practice 2 hoa 4. Pass or Fait? E. Creative Practice . 110 ‘A. Vocabulary 164 B. Presentation 165 3. Products and Practices in Costa Rica ©. Grammer: Past Tense. 167 ‘A. Vocabulary ne Practice 168 B. Presentation 113 D. Controlled Practice 169 . Controlled Practice... 13 E. Grammar: Word order in wh questions. .171 Practice 15 F. Create Practice 72 D. Grammar: Modals of Possibility... 117 G. Consolidation 175 Practice 07 E. Creative Practice 18 2. College or Career? Practice 19 ‘A. Warm up. 7s B. Vocabulary 176 4, Am | Environmentally Friendly? Practice ww ‘A. Presentation 120 C. Grammar: Modals to Express Possibly. 180 8. Grammar: Tag Questions... 125 Practice 180 Practice 126 D. Controlled Practice tat C. Creative Practice 126 Practice 183 Self Evaluation v8 E. Creative Practice . 184 F Consolidation 195 Unit 5. HighTech - HighTouch a 3. Study Here or Abroad? A. ‘A. Vocabulary. 106 8 B Presentation 187 c. ©. Controlled Practice 188 D. Controlled Practice... D. Grammar: Present Continuous Tense... 191 E. Grammar: Passive Voice with Simple Practice 192 Present Tense. ait 134 E. Consolidation 193 Practice Sage F. Creative Practice L135 4. Getting By or Getting Ahead? Pitti aoacreomeneaayncucomasel 3 A. Vocabulary 195 . Consolidation iiss B. Presentation 196 C: Controlled Practice 198 2. Danger Zones in a Digital World D. Consolidation 202 ‘A. Vocabulary... iiivssmeail Help Wanted The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don't have any. Alice Walker Find out what you like doing best, and get someone to pay you for doing it. Katharine Whitehorn If opportunity doesnt knock, build a door. Milton Berle The future depends on what you do today. Mahatma Gandhi The only way to do great work isto love what you do, Iyou haven't found it yet, keep looking, Don't settle. Steve Jobs Whatever you decide to do, make sure it makes you happy: Paulo Coetho Answer these questions with your own opinions: |. Which is the best profession you want to study’ . Where will you study that profession? . How could you do to study that profession? . What is the worst profession you want to study? od On B. Vocabulary Go through the vocabulary emphasizing on the correct pronunciation of each of the words. ie hoe F RS Accountant Architect Astronomer 7 , 2.C, 3.A, 4.3, 5,B nti Co= - | ecrrr aS Languages, Literature & Linguistics ‘An English literature degree will incorporate elements of history, sociology, philosophy. critical thinking, visual culture and more, teaching students to place works in their proper context and providing an understanding of how societies create art and how ideas in great works of writing can create profound changes in society. Most degrees also include an element of critical analysis which is invaluable; students take ideas from philosophers and critics and lear how to apply them not only to texts but to the societies which created them, including their own. By the end of the degree you should be able to deconstruct ideas and see how and why they work. You will also have vastly improved your written and spoken communications skills, learned how to put together or take apart a convincing argument and have developed the ability to absorb new and complex ideas quickly and effectively. It does provide transferable skills and Literature graduates go on to a wide range of careers. Many become writers, copywriters, newspaper or magazine journalists, some even make it as script writers or novelists. Others find work as teachers, editorial assistants or work in the arts, marketing ‘or PR, The English language is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world, with over 360 milion native speakers and many more who speak English as a second language. Thousands of students choose to study the past and present uses of the English language, with all of its idiosyncrasies, faults and contradictions. The content of an English Language degree will usually include focus on the finer points of the spoken language, for example syntax, lexis, grammar and tenses. Later on, you will study the historical and social context of the language, such as leaming how and why certain phrases or linguistic quirks have become commonplace and how and why some disappear and are rarely used. A degree in English language offers multiple career paths. Most associated with an English language degree is teaching, at primary or secondary level, but it also lends itself to teaching English as a foreign language, provided you have the appropriate foreign language skills. Journalism or writing is ‘also @ common path, often following 2 postgraduate course. Marketing and public relations are also good options, where a strong grasp on the finer details of the English language is invaluable. Practice 1. Pre-Reading a. Make a list of at least three careers you want to b, Write the best study option you have in mind: c. Mention the posible place you could study it: . «, Mention the posible place you could work after studying it: 2. While Reading a, Read the text and find out Three main ideas. Three supporting details 3. Post Reading. Complete the following information. a. Find out three elements included in lingustics studies: b, Write three areas where you could work after studying lingustics: ©. Write three uses to give to lingusties studies: 4. Personal opinion a Write out the possitive or negative opinion you have about studying lingustics. nti C11 4 | 0. Grammar The Simple Future Tense / The use of Will Read the following information about the simple future tense in English then solve the practices. Will to is used when we want to talk about things we have to decide to do right now (rapid decisions), when we think or believe something about the future but we are not certain of it, to make promises or offers and to describe habits that are predictable behaviors. We form affirmative statements with the following formula. Affirmative ‘cubjoct * wilt + Statements oe bg E.g. | will teach at tech high school. We form affirmative statements with the following formula. me CNeaative subject + will + not + verb. Statements E.g. | will not graduate with the rest of my class. We form yes/no questions with the following formula: Yes/No will + a subject + a base verb.+ complement? Questions | A: will you like your new office? B: Yes, | will. / No, | won't. e We use the wh words: what, where, how, which, why, who, and — whom before the auxiiar to form wh- questions. Questions: E.g. Who will help you with the enrollment process? ‘Some examples * The sun will rise at 6.30 tomorrow. « Ifyou help me, I will help you. * Lunch break today will be 10 minutes + Do you think she will come soon? longer than usual. * You won't pass your exams if you don't + In the year 2050 all students will have start working harder, their own computers in school Practice —— 1. Fill in the will - future of the following verbs: have — go— meet — visit — walk — have — buy — not be ~ have Tomorrow I my friend George. We to the movies and then we our dinner at the new fast-food place. In the afternoon we George’s uncle and play table tennis in his garden, Then we around in the shopping mall where we look at the shops. Maybe I new jeans. We back before 6 o'clock. | think we a great day. 12) eet —— OOOO E. Creative Practice Complete the following chart with your personal ideas about careers. What would you like to be? T want to be a (an) when I grow up Why? Because What is your dream job like? think being a (an) adjective Extensive Practice 1. Write the name of three jobs 2. Write the name of three national universities we have in our country: 3. Write the name of three private universities we have in Costa Rica What will you have to do? I will have to Self Evaluation Grade your own participation from 1 to 5 (Sis the highest grade) during the lessons about this topic: + Personal participation + Assistance + Oral interaction + Writen production + Learning vocabulary * Organization + Exe class work + Advance Total Score The teacher must check this chart and take notes to determine your personal scores and help you out Finally write an aspect you need to reinforce: ere Qu Jabs + Why do we have to study? + What does government need from us? + What kind of jobs do we want? are they different form the ones we need? 8. Vocabulary Do You Qualify for the Job? Join the adjectives with their definitions A. Organized ( ) Is willing to talk and give information, B. Energetic (_) Is always on time. C. Resourceful (_) Wants to be more successful than others. D. Responsible (_.) Has knowledge or skills through experience. E. Cooperative (_.) Reliable, can be trusted. F. Disciplined (_) Works well with others. G. Aggressive (. ) Has good self control H. Experienced (_ ) Hard working, tireless. 1, Punetual (_.) Needs few things to fix something, J. Communicative | (_) Forceful, pushy. C. Presentation Read the following information about the actual top five jobs we could do. Software Developer $i re #1 in 100 Best Jobs Software developers need to be innovative, creative and, of course, technical in order to succeed in this field. They might write new code or fix bugs in code to make it work better. Projected Jobs 255,400 Median Salary $101,790 Unemployment Rate 1.9% 14 Statistician #2 in 100 Best Jobs Statistics is the science of using data to make decisions. This is relevant in almostall fields of work and there are many opportunities for employment. Projected Jobs 12,600 Median Salary $84,060 Unemployment Rate 0.9% Physician Assistant. #3 in 100 Best Jobs Physician assistants work under doctors to care for the sick or injured by interpreting tests and conducting exams. Projected Jobs 39,600 Median Salary $104,860 Unemployment Rate 0.8% Dentist #4 in 100 Best Jobs From filling cavities to whitening teeth, dentists primarily examine and treat issues involving the mouth, gums and teeth. Projected Jobs 25,700 Median Salary $151,440 Unemployment Rate 0.9% Numrse Armestretist mm #5 in 100 Best Jobs (tie) As a type of advanced practice registered nurse, nurse anesthetists work with patients regarding anesthetic treatment before, during and after surgery, as well as with therapy or other medical procedures that use anesthesia, Projected Jobs 6,800 Median Salary $165,120 Unemployment Rate 0.4% ‘WORD BANK id aim or result, in & computer program. f someone being paid to work far a company or o especially one who has general sill and is nat a ‘of firm pink flesh inside the mauth that cover the b eet i y al “~ Practice 1, What job from the list would you like to do? 2. How much do you want to get from a job? 3. How many hours per week would you like to work? 4. Where would you like to work? ee 5. Organize the following aspects according to your preferences: money you earn things you want to get free time to enjoy life family prestige because what you do D. Controlled Practice This information is about the government initiative to reform our educational system and the labor market Ticos have when they finish their studies. Dual Education to Reduce Unemployment In the Central American region, the average unemployment rate for those aged between 1S and 24 is estimated to be around 11%, with lack of work experience being the main barrier to accessing the first job. Friday, December 14, 2018 ‘According to figures from the Central American Observatory of Social Development, Costa Rica and Panama are the countries in the region with the highest rates of youth unemployment, with 27% and 15%, respectively. Followed by Honduras, with a rate of 12%, El Salvador and Nicaragua, with 8% each, and Guatemala, with 5%. In Costa Rica, the business sector has insisted for many years on the need to make more fiexible the conditions for hiring young people for certain jobs, in compensation schemes and flexible hours, for them to continue studying and at the same time be trained in the company. Finally, @ law that could begin to solve part of the problem reached the Congress. The law, called Dual Education in Costa Rica. has already received the unanimous opinion of the Science and Technology Commission, but its discussion is pending in the Congress. The proposed law that seeks to modify educational programs so that students combine theoretical classes with assisted professional practices in private companies and public institutions, is one of the govemment's priorities for next year. ‘On the matter, Gonzalo Delgado, president of the Costa Rican Union of Chambers and Associations of the Private Business Sector (UCCAEP) said to that "... Dual education 16] een a ‘and training should be part of a bigger set of public policy measures to ensure quality education, job training for young people and a successful transition into the workforce.” The proposal is already supported by the business sector, since according to a survey conducted by UCCAEP, 72 of every 100 private companies are interested in supporting this ‘educational program, ‘The law establishes that young people who could access the dual education system would be students from technical colleges, community institutes and universities, as well as from the National Learning Institute (INA), but who have at least an approved elementary school. details that other requirements to apply is that”... Must be at least 15 years old, except when the occupational risks of the career require that the students are of legal age. All interested parties must pay a mandatory student insurance, which would range between ¢5.500 ($9) and ¢19.000 ($32) per month. In addition, they would have to complete requirements agreed between educational center and company that trains talent.” ‘nat occur. ‘company. pay @ company maney and they for a job, activity. or sport, by’ Practice Scan the given text and complete the following information, 1, What does these numbers refer to? 15 years old 8% 1% 12% 12% so $32 2. What is the meaning of UCCAEP and INA? 3. Explain with your own words the Government plan: + Main purpose: + Financial support: * Positive aspects: + Negative aspects: 4. Write your personal opinion about dual education. £. Grammar Time Words Simple present Simple past Simple future Present Progressive —. 18) een This is a list of time words used according with each tense. + Every day, month, week, year; always; sometimes; never; frequently + George jogs three miles every day. + Mary always has salad for lunch. + [sometimes go to New York City. + Yesterday; # years, weeks, months, days, hours ago; in (past year); + last (month, week, year) + Tom went to Los Angeles yesterday, * Charles Lindbergh flew to Paris in 1927. * Tomorrow; in (future year, month, week); on (future day); next (month, week, year, name of day); # days, months, weeks, years from now; this month, week, afternoon, year; someday * Mary will go to Hawaii in two weeks + Ed will drive to Toronto next Saturday. * George will paint his house six days from now. + Now; right now; at this moment + You are reading sentences about verb tenses right now. * Many students are taking calculus this semester. + [will be cleaning my house. Present Perfect Present perfect progressive | ° Rita has been jogging for two hours. Practice 1. Sue does the ironing . 9. Hehas __ made a sculpture. 17. He's been working j on Monday 2. yet 2. now b. yesleriay sal ball day . tomortow cha «. rarely 2. Tammy went shopping __. 10. The new stadium is__ready.18.He's helped many people a. never ‘yet : b. next week b. almost a. now c. last month . for b. yet ©. $0 far 3.1'm busy buying fruit . 11. twas used a long time a.ago 19. It's the cutest cat now a. ever ©. usvally b: never . abways 4. Will it rain a. tomorrow ‘a. now 20. She was in the garden ght now b. aways | was her. — c. recently €. recently a. wile wen ‘5. Sam is late for class. 13. Have you been abroad? c. Since 2.6000 a. ever ogo b. never 21. Jim was. daydreaming ©, always ‘¢. before he was having @ lesson. a. when 6.1 have hed my laptop 144 have @ soled for b. while almost 3 year. dinner, c. after a. since 2. last bh fer b. since 22.How long has she been c. almost . usually ‘sunbathing 2 2. for 7. He has __trought my box. «15. How _do you eat burgers? ib. since ready =. long 000 b. yet b. rarely ©. always ©. often 23. he was swimming he ‘saw many fish. 8, She's at the beauty salon 16.Sam___¢ats ica creams. a. When ght now a. now DAS b. tis week b. sometimes «AS soon ‘¢. tomorrow c. yesterday, recently; already + Sam has visited Hawaii many times. + Paul has been here for six hours. * Yoko has known Mary since 1994. * Thave already written a letter to the president. * For; since; latels recently nti 19 - | Pre-reading: How much do you know about the unemployment problem in our country? Is the government doing something to solve this problem? How? While Reading: * Undermline all new words you find in the text. + Pay attention to the quantities they present. * Notice the solutions they mention. Unemployment Keeps Rising in Costa Rica From April to December 2018, the unemployment rate recorded a clear upward trend, rising from 8.7% to 10.2% between the second and third quarters and rising to 12% at the end of the year. Monday, February 4, 2019 The National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC) reports that for the fourth quarter of 2018, unemployment increased by 89 thousand people year-on-year, since it was estimated ‘at 294 thousand people, of whom 148 thousand were men and 146 thousand women. The increase in the unemployed population is a result of the strong increase in supply in the labor market, where most people by the fourth quarter of 2018, either got a job or joined the unemployed labor force, explains the document. The report details that ~... At the national level, the unemployment rate for this quarter was 12.0% increased over the fourth quarter of 2017 by 2.7 pp. The unemployment rate of the male population increased statistically by 2.4 p.p. with respect to the same period of the previous year and was 10%. On the other hand, the female unemployment rate was 14.9% and increased significantly by 2.6 percentage points. According to the residence zone, it was estimated that 222,000 unemployed people residing in the urban zone and 72,000 unemployed people in the rural zone were living in this quarter, In both urban and rural areas, there are significant changes in the unemployed population, increasing by 72,000 and 18,000 people, respectively. The unemployment rate was 12.1% in urban areas and 11.4% in rural areas, with 2.9 pp year-on-year variations in urban ‘areas and 1.9 pp in rural areas with respect to the fourth quarter of 2017.” Post reading: Which are 3 problems they present, one solution to each problem and a follow up idea presented in the text. — 20] een The Wrong Recipe Against Unemployment In Costa Rica a law iniatiative pretends to force companies to have 25% of their workforce ‘composed by young people aged between 17 and 24 years old. The problem of unemployment that affects thousands of young people in Costa Rica and the Central American countries will not be solved simply by forcing private companies to hire @ certain proportion of young employees, regardless of their qualifications and skills, or even worse, without considering whether there is an actual need for hiring or not. A bill in Costa Rica reflects the myopia with which the public sector visualizes @ problem a8 serious as youth unemployment one is. In their limited vision of the economic reality of the ‘country, congressmen are proposing to solve the problem with a law that would force companies to give one free hour per day for training and make 25% of their hirings consist of employees aged between 17 and 24 years old. ‘As Costa Rican industrialists point out, the solution to youth unemployment is in the implementation of 2 dual education model, and not in a law that will only raise production costs for the private sector, and continue to deteriorate the already delicate competitiveness of the ‘country’s economy. Taken from: hups.//en.centralamericadata,com Which are your perspectives about job possibilities in our country? Explain, for discussion. DETERIORATE: ‘ALREADY: use or intellectual | 7855 mPa f (someone) for an ecrrr aS Job Opportunities Read the given adds, then complete the chart, Bll Melee le cic ‘Our client, having countrywide operations is offering career positions in sales: ‘Senior Sales Executive /Sales Executive (KARACHI) + Education: Graduate / Intermediate or Equivalent. (Salary + Commission + Fuel & Mobile Allowances) will be given to the selected candidates. Please apply within 7 days to Box 847 do Daily Jang Karachi OR by Email at URGENTLY WANTED FOR SAUDI ARABIA ‘CVs of the following Urgently Required by our Valued Principal + ACCOUNTANTS. ‘Age Maximum 25 Years B.Com with 1-2 Years Experience of Industry ‘Accounts + AIRCONDITIONING ENGINEERS: Be mechanical with minimum 7 Years Maintenance Work Exp. + COMPUTER ENGINEERS Having minimum 3 Years Experience 35 Programmer/ System Analyst/DBA + ELECTRO/MECH ENGINEERS ‘Be mechanical with minimum 5 Years Exp 05 HVAC Supervisor Tahir & Company Overseas employment promoters ‘110-Uni Plaza, Chundrigar Road, Karachi Tel: 3241-2718, 3241-2444 Direct: 3243-2495 Cell; 0345-603-8554 Email: dob ‘Computer engineers 22 Saudi Arabia F. Creative Practice Write an add about a job your company is offering to a new employee you are looking forward to hire. Requirements: include education, experience, any especial skill, place of living. Include an illustration. What do you offer? include salary, schedule, place of work, conditions, any other requisite. How to contact you: include your phone number, e-mail, address and person of contact. Final Practice Self Evaluation —— 1. How could your ideal job be? Grade your own participation from I to 5 (5 is the highest grade) during the lessons about this topic: + Personal participation + Assistance * Oral interaction 2. How much would you like to earn in that job? + Writen production * Leaming vocabulary + Organization 3. Where would you like to work? + Extra class work + Advance Total Score 4. Is your ideal work place close to home? Is it something important to you? The teacher must check this chart and take notes to determine your personal scores and help you out 5. What another aspect do you consider Finally write an aspect you need to reinforce: important when you ask for a job? Interviewing + How do you prepare for an interview? + Which is the most important detail when going ‘0 an interview? + What is the first impression? B. Presentation ‘Work with another classmate, choose who will be the interviewer and who will be the interviewed. ‘Work on questions 1 to 10, then switch. My first interview 1, What's your name? 2. Where are you from? 3. Where do you study? . What days and hours can you work? 5. Do you have transportation? . Why do you want to work here? - Do you have any work experience for this job? 8, What is your salary expectation? a 9. What languages do you speak? 10. What are your plans for the future? Pre-reading Think about some important things you need before an interview. Are you ready for one interview? While Reading Read the following text. There are 7 facts to take into account for an interview. Select in each description the main idea and underline it, 24] een = 7 Steps to P Now that you have an interview, there are certain things you will want to do in advance to prepare for it. This article will provide practical tips on how to prepare for 2 job interview. Remember, you never get a second chance to make a first impression, so you'll want to do your best in preparing for your interview in advance. 1. Pick your outfit: What you wear on your interview is an absolutely crucial part of how to prepare for a job interview. After you choose your outfit, make sure it is cleaned and pressed and you have the appropriate accessories and shoes to go with it. It doesn't hurt to try the outfit on ahead of time, just to make sure everything fits and you look grea Then put your outfit aside for the day of your interview and have it ready to go. Now that you have this crucial step out of the way, you can concentrate on the rest. 2. Practice greeting your interviewer: You should always greet your intervi a friendly smile and firm handshake. If you do this right, you will set off the right eneray and the chances of the interview going well will increase. This is a small and simple step that you should always to do to prepare for your interview. 3. Study your resume and know everything about it: ‘Any work experience or skills you have listed on your resume are fair game to talk about during the interview. Your resume is all the interviewer has to go by in order to get to know you. They may pick things ‘out from it and ask you to elaborate. Even though you may have a previous job listed that was many years ago, the interviewer may ask you to explain what you did at that job and you are responsible for providing —— OOOO are for Your Job Interview an answer. This is one step you absolutely won't want to skip on how to prepare for a ob interview. Practice your answers to the most ‘common interview questions: If you don’t know what these are, do your research and find out or see one of my other atticles. You'll want to have your answers ready and practice them. You should always be able to answer “Tell me about yourself” and "Why do you think you would be great for this job?” The employer doesn't know, 80 it's up to you to sell it. Don't completely memorize your answers so they come out rehearsed, but have a clear idea of what you are going to say. When you are asked, you want your answer to come out intelligently and natural. Be open to other questions as well and really know what you can offer to the company. . Research the company and the job position you are applying for: Write down any questions you may have about either so you can ask during the interview. If there any requirement of the job that you are unsure of, you should definitely ask during the interview. It always looks nice when you go into an interview with inteligent questions. It shows you put effort into preparing for the interview. However, ever ask questions just to ask questions. The interviewer will see right through that. Your questions should be genuine and relevant. Find out the type of interview you will be going on: There are several common types of interviews such as one on one, group, and behavioral. You shouldn't assume you will get a certain one. Don't be afraid to ask “~ your recruiter what kind of interview will have if you don't know - the interview will be more beneficial to both parties if you are prepared. 7. Print out the directions to the interview and be on tim Allow enough time to get there and anticipate traffic. I's ok to be up to 10 minutes early, but no more than that. Otherwise, the Interviewer may not be ready for you. Bring the phone number of your interviewer just in case you get lost or are going to be late. If you are going to be late, call to let the interviewer know. Follow these tips and you will successfully know how to prepare for a job interview. Interviewers can tell whether or not a candidate has prepared for it or not and they will appreciate it if you did. Taken from: hapss/meundercverrecratercom ‘WORD BANK typically fora particular occasion ving that you have made an a other's right hand: id a reasonable target for you should do: ta leave someone it they are the one to make a decision ‘real and exactly what it appears ta enlist or enell people as employees. Practice Enlist five questions that you could ask an interviewer if you are the recruiter of a company. 1 4 5. Then try to give your possible responses to the questions you just create. is b. Os a. & 26) een a C. Grammar Comparative and Superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs Adjectives and adverbs have forms called comparative and superlative that are used for comparisons, Use the comparative form when comparing two items, people, places, or ideas. Use the superlative when comparing more than two. For short adjectives (with one syllable or two syllables ending in -y or -le) and one-syllable adverbs, add the ending -er for the comparative and -est for the superlative. (Change -y to -i if the -y is preceded by a consonant: icy, icier, iciest.) Generally the is used before the superlative form. Word Comparative | Superlative short shorter shortest pretty prettier prettiest With longer adjectives and with adverbs ending in -ly, add more and most. Note: less and least are used with adjectives of any length (such as bright, less bright, least bright), Word Comparative | Superlative intelligent | more intelligent | most intelligent carefully more carefully | most carefully Irregular Forms The following are irregular comparative and superlative forms. Word Comparative | Superlative ‘good better best bad worse worst much/many more most well better best badly worse worst Practice Create sentences related to work environment by using the comparative and superlative forms of the following adjectives or adverbs. Good Carefully Intelligent ‘Comparative | Superlative | Comparative | Superlative | Comparative | Superlative Ces (27 0. Controlled Practice General Dos and Don'ts for Writing a CV: + DO NOT include anything that can be viewed as political, religious, or controversial * DO double check your contact information and make sure your email address sound professional. + DO NOT include an explanation of why you left a prior position + DO proofread your CV several times and ask a friend to do the same. * DO NOT rely on spelicheck. Double and triple check to make sure grammar and spelling are correct. Spelicheck will not correct homonyms * DO take the time to download your document as a PDF and read it for widows and orphans; a widow is when the last line of a paragraph appears at the top of the next page, whereas an orphan is when the first line of a paragraph appears at the bottom of the first page. This also gives you the opportunity to adjust formatting issues prior to submitting your CV to a potential employer. + DO NOT use third-person writing on the CV (for example, “lead high-performing teams” vs. “leads high-performing teams.” Psychometric tests are designed to measure candidates’ suitability for a role based on the required personality characteristics and aptitude (or cognitive abilities). They identify the extent to which candidates' personality and cognitive abilities match those required to perform the role ‘The most commonly used are numerical reasoning tests, verbal reasoning tests, diagrammatic reasoning tests, situational judgement tests and personality tests. ‘Top Tips for Passing your Psychometric Tests + Practice as many aptitude tests you can, the more you practice the better you will get at them. * Practice online aptitude tests, most aptitude tests you're likely to sit will be online so get used to the format, timer etc rather than working on paper o with a book. + Keep to time, if you get stuck, move on, Now, here you have a few examples of some typical questions in a psychomettical test. Example 1 Which 2 of the items below do not belong with the others? ees 23] een ~~ “~~ The correct answer is (B) and (E). All the items except item (B) and (E) have identical counterparts: (A) and (F) are identical (C) and (D) are identical. Items (B) and (E) are the only ones that do not have identical counterparts, Example 2 Billy has been driving for 4 hours. If Billy has driven 140 km, what has Billy’s average driving speed been? kmh The correct answer is 35 km/h, Average Speed = Distance / Time. So, Average Speed = 140km / 4h=35 km/h, ‘Therefore, the correct answer is 35 km/h. Example 3 4 of the following are alike in some way. Please choose the other 2: A) Journalist B) Essay ©) Dictate D) Novel E) Article F) Autobiography (The correct answers are (A) and (C). Essay, novel, article and autobiography are writing genres. Journalist and Dictate are words which relate to writing but are not writing genres. Example 4 Please identify the missing symbol: Logical sequence @@ @t& &%E S&S || $~# 2 1&% %~% Altematives @#& |) #&H# || &%~) | S~S SHS || ~&S a~# #S# | %~&||1&%) | #@H nti O= - | The correct answer: # @ # In cach row the right cell consists of a duplication of the right symbol from the middle cell and an addition of a new symbol between the two identical symbols. ‘The complete logic: In each row, the symbols in the middle cell are a combination of the symbols from the left and right outer) cells so that: + The left symbol in the middle cell is identical to the outer symbols in the left cell. + The right symbol in the middle cell is identical to the outer symbols in the right cell. + The middle symbol in all three cells is different from all the other symbols in the row. Example § Please indicate to which extent you agree or disagree with the following statement. It’s better to be polite and rule-obedient rather than carefree. 1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3, Neutral 4.Agree ‘Strongly agree For more tests and tips go to: hitps://www, E. Creative Practice Now write your first CV taking into account these suggestions. Aspect Your information Include all details to contact you. Nobody wants to know Personal | ‘ere your parents or Hf you deta have a digestive problem. Include languages = and Your proficiency. Additionally your digital competence. Only studies relevant from the oldest to the recent ones . Include Details of your last Your job | jobs. include only relevant experience | oes and those who help others know who you are now. i 20] eed _ = — Richie Norton — Michael Thomas Sunnarborg Health and Wellness VeiIvVEYUJSFKVSXMSSERTSQLBAE GANLVOHEWFSFORBOEPTFREEL Working to Live or Living to Work? "A true balance between work and life comes with knowing that your life activities are integrated, not separated.” "if you live for money, no amount will ever satisfy you.” A. Vocabulary JoB LAUTICELLETNI GECAWSSENLLEWQFZLQRA HAQYGEL GHSOGSE Jicia J 1 TCAACNMI olclclulpialt oo ONAL PNY KNINRUQQaDdcCcO wserpveFy YPAREHTMDBBZE GFOOR EOZEMXWCRREMGSPGTG QseBsSYHVYSAEQMESJNYRNZCOLWK JONISSEADK c\alo|alaic|a|r|x|T u GoKRKHLWPUGEEFWNDPNPSNOL I TOHA BAEMKDAZDEMS JOR LACRRM ° A es T 1 SKENWMXWXKRETGOTWOVH CAL NPYFPHYS L S.NIOP SERV L tiwlaltiyir sais r EGLUKMEX WOEMCUANEBL POPBZPAHEFJSSV vcl\YNFNHSYNIZN HAO EHASMKAJSZHCJTLWHUUNL cCRWYVOTGSIN ziclele KAEXLUTANVCR HRUKBOKAPLQSCEWLKKT NGEIYAZY CHURCHGFWUROF KBD FKYNLBAJSHEFWALK FSDNZALCGHEFEAT XVGONLQ@ HDHK NGHEALTHY OoaKEONMAXTNZSHYEOBH 32 Stress Coping Activities Intellectual Physical Reliable Occupational Mental Spiritual Balance Give back Yoga ‘Swimming Hydrate Biking Debt free Eating healthy No Smoking Emotional Volunteer Financial Savings Laugh ‘Theraphy Walking Exercise Hygiene Goals Church ‘Wellness Pray Prescriptions Social Responsability B. Warm Up In groups of four come up with a proposal on how to improve work-life balance, create a poster to promote this possible solution, then present it to the class. C. Presentation Asa group discuss the possible health issues that not having a balanced life can lead to. D. Reading Read the following text about jobs. Negative Effects of Unhealthy Work-Life Balance Work life has increasingly grown to disrupt and conflict with family time, This conflict can ‘occur in instances when someone prioritizes their work over their personal life. Issues can be ‘created within families and can lead to stressful living situations. Poor work-life balance can also contribute to emotional instability due to the stresses of trying to balance it all. According to Erik Erikson, @ famous psychologist, the fullest lives are those that master an inner balance between work, love, and play. Tips For Having A Better Work-Life Balance 1. Striving for work-life effectiveness. Achieving work-life effectiveness is making work fit in with other aspects of life. It is hard to have an equal balance between work and life. Adjusting things in your work and life to make them coincide better can lead to gains with emotional and physical energy as well as better focus with work. An example of this could be when your children inspires you with an idea that could be helpful in the workplace. 2. Take time to define successes in life. This has to do with home life and work life. If you look at your home life and map out all the successes that do not necessatily involve work, it can enable growth in appreciation for life outside of work. This could possibly lead for a desire to strive for a better work-life balance, 3. Keep work at work as best as you can. This is probably one of the hardest things to do depending on your job and whom you work for. If possible, keep home and work life separate but not letting one spill into the other. This includes trying to be as productive as possible while at work this way when it's time to go home at the end of the day, there’s not much more for you to do. ‘Obviously depending on where you live or who you work for, achieving a healthy work-life balance can be hard. But by adjusting a few simple things in your life and shifting priorities slightly, you can get closer to having one. Striving for work-life effectiveness, redefining successes, and keeping work at work afe good places to start when achieving a healthier work-life balance. This post was co-authored with Gabrielle Bruno of James Madison University. ta be the most important s effrts to da something ‘you have been trying to do. Think about some other negative effects of this problem. Write another solution to this specific problem. E. Grammar Past Perfect Tense The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does not matter which event is mentioned first, the tense makes it clear which one happened first. Exg, They were very tired because they hadn't slept well Affirmative Statements Negative Statements ‘Yes/No Questions Practice We form affirmative statements with the following formula subject + had + past participle of verb + complement. E.g. She had given him very litle time to complete the task ‘We form affirmative statements with the following formula subject + had + not + past participle of verb + complement. E.g. He hadn't asked her for the financial report We form yes/ no questions with the following formula Had + subject + past participle of verb + 2 A: Hod they arrived? B: Yes they had. / No they had not. Complete the following sentences using the Past Perfect Tense L.A: Jim ever (fly) before his flight last week? B: Yes, he 2A: your sister (eat) breakfast before she left? B: No, she 3. James said he already (see) the movie last year. 4.1 got lost because I (forget) to bring a map. 5. They (not study) English before last year. 6. She (live) Leeds before she moved to London. 7. The baby (fall asleep) before eight o'clock. ‘8. 1 (mot think) of that question before. 9. Sue got wet because she (not bring) an umbrella. 10, He (own) his car for a year before he sold it. 11. I didn’t notice that the traffic light (turn) red. 12. He (order) rice, but the waiter served him soup. Intensifiers An adverb that makes the meaning of another word stronger. More intense, more powerful, Extremely Very Really The problem is extremely difficult. Itisa very interesting book. She was really angry with me. Crd 35 al Strong Rather ‘The exam was rather difficult. Quite ‘The water is quite cold. To a limited ext Fairly My brother is fairly tall. Pretty The film was pretty good. Somewhat — We were somewhat tired. F. Controlled Practice 1. Find out in the following text the next information: a. A sentence with an intensifier b. A positive sentence in past perfect tense, If you think about it, work-life balance is a strange aspiration for a fulfiling life. Balance is about stasis: if our lives were ever in balance — parents happy, kids taken care of, work working — then our overriding thought would be to shout “Nobody move!” and pray all would stay perfect forever. This false hope is made really bad by the categories themselves. They imply that work is fairty bad, and life is good; we lose ourselves in work but find ourselves, in life; we survive work, but live life. And so the challenge, we had told, is to balance the heaviness of work with the lightness of lite. Yet work is not the opposite of life, It is instead a part of life — just as family is, as are friends and community and hobbies. All of these aspects of living have their share of wonderful, uplifting moments and their share of moments that drag us down. The same had been true of work, yet when we think of it as an inherent bad in need of a counterweight, we lose sight of the possibilty for better. 2. Read the following text and underline the main idea in each paragraph. the first one is done for you. ‘There's a new shift that suggests companies and their employees will have to start thinking in a different way when it comes to the way we work and live. This isn't only because there are fewer of us to do more work, but because the workforce in 2020 is going to be occupied by five generations. We'll have to work side by side, which will make it necessary for companies to To get as much as possible out of our human resources, it is vital that we put the work-life balance in focus. If you look at the classic perception of balance, the starting point is that work and spare time are two irreconcilable components. For a lot of jobs, that might be a necessary distinction, but that doesnt change the fact that many of us fight to maintain this distinction even though it doesn't necessarily benefit them in their professional (or their personal) life. This is especially true for jobs that require creative solutions, knowledge and innovation. Employees in these fields fight — 36) een ~ = ee OOO—— to reach the ideal balance with set patterns, when in fact they would benefit significantly from breaking the pattern of working from nine to five and instead of following a system based on the individual tasks and their own energy levels, A lot of families with kids might think it would be difficult to break with this pattem because their kids need to be picked up before 4:30 pm. But the truth is that breaking this pattem would likely result in more time - and energy - to devote to family. Instead of looking at your career a8 @ marathon, you could try to look at it as @ series of sprints. You break into @ sprint when, you come across a demanding task with a fast-approaching deadline or when your industry is In @ busy period. Break into a sprint when the task needs as much attention as possible, even if that happens to be at night when your kids are tucked into bed. ‘When the sprint is over, you can take a breather. Take a day off. Spend the day with your kids or start working shorter days, bracing yourself for the next sprint. Building a balance based on ‘energy and the requirements of the task rather than the nine-to-five rhythm has its own side effects. You'll need to sacrifice family time during high-intensity periods, and you'll need to be able to handle small doses of stress and not the long-term kind of stress that has a terrible impact on your mental health, but the short-term stress that doesn’t linger. WORD BANK ina country or region who they need or want. da nat have to work and you can do hich a particular task must be frished far a shart time and have a rest. TOIEC The TOEIC (Test of English for Intemational Communication) English is the primary test used in the world today. For students of intermediate to advanced English, which measures the ability to speak, read and understand Business English or English used in the workplace. Under the ETS. the ‘creators of the TOEIC test, more than 4.5 milion people @ year take the test to gain employment or advance their careers in business, educational insittons and government agencies. The TOEIC test has changed to reflect new test approaches. These changes are not the same in all countries, so it is important to review the current situation in their own country. TOEIC Listening Overview: The Listening section of classic and new TOEIC Listening and Reading test is paper and pencil based, and takes about 45 minutes, It contains 100 questions, divided into four parts: 1. Photographs: 10 questions 3. Brief Conversation: 30 questions 2. Question-Answer: 30 questions 4, Short Talks: 30 questions Remember also that the listening section of the New TOEIC Listening and Reading test, you will hear a variety of accents - American, Canadian, Australian and British ~ so you must practice listening and understanding them. nti 7 4 Photographs: In this part, you see a picture and hear four statements about it. The same picture can represent people, things, actions and places. You must select the phrase that best describe what you see in the picture, You hear the sentences only once, and must make your choice immediately after that, otherwise you lose the information related hearing next image. Question-Answer: In this part, you can be asked a question about almost any subject related to people, events, place, time, emotions, reasons, opinions or activities. You need to choose the answer that makes sense. Brief Conversation: In this part, you hear a short dialogue, followed by a brief general question about the conversation. You must then choose from four possible answers, which may be related to activity, location, relationship, or the thrill of the speakers. ‘Short Talks: In this part, you hear @ short monologue, like a weather forecast, the ad or ads. ‘You should then choose an answer related to the speaker, location, time, reason, or event. The reading section of the listening and reading TOEIC test has four parts Incomplete Sentences: In this section of multiple choice, you have to choose the best answer to complete a sentence. The knowledge of grammar and vocabulary are important to help understand the correct context of prayer and in choosing the correct answer. For example, you should be familiar with the forms of words as nouns, adjectives, adverbs, etc. to see which fits the sentence correctly. Recognition of Errors: This is the section that tests your knowledge of grammar and its impact ‘on the meaning of the phrase. ‘Complete the Texts: In this case, you are asked to fil in the blanks, as in the section above incomplete sentences. The difference is that the blanks are part of the larger pieces of writing Such as a letter or an essay. Reading Comprehension: The reading comprehension section presents texts from a wide variety of contexts, such as newsletters, announcements, reports, tables, announcements, notes, etc. Reading skills such as skimming, scanning and understanding of vocabulary in context are useful here. For extra information and examples 0 to :hups:/englishtevipreprevien:comtocic-overview/taci-averview. Self Evaluation —_———————— Grade your own participation from 1 to 5 (5 is the The teacher must check this chart and take highest grade) during the lessons about this topic: notes to determine your personal scores and help you out, * Personal participation . wm Aealatarice Finally write an aspect you need to + Oral interaction reinforce: * Writen production + Learning vocabulary * Organization “ea clone Wor * Advance Total Score — 38) een Themes: Enduring Understanding: L Tell me a Stor Everything from tweets, memes, poems . ¥ posts, blogs, comics, short stories. videos 2. Thumbs Up/Thumbs Dawn and more reveal traths and belies about the 3. The Reviews Are In writers and their culture 4. You should read this. Essential Question: What do the stories we share say about us? Stories Come in All Shapes and Oo Tell me a Story story ideas every day. The good writers are the ones who see don’ see any. | your words will flow like a river.” — Lisa See = Orson Scott A. Vocabulary © Aesthetics: a sct of principles underlying and guiding the work of a particular artist or artistic movement. * Anthropology: the study of human societies and cultures and their development. * Art: the various branches of creative activity, such as painting, music, literature, and dance. + Author: a writer of a book, article, or report. * Book: a number of pieces of paper, usually with words printed on them, which are fastened together and fixed inside a cover of stronger paper or cardboard. * Dictionary: a book or electronic resource that lists the words ofa language (typically in alphabetical order) and gives their meaning, or gives the equivalent words in a different language, often also providing information about pronunciation, origin, and usage. * Drama: A drama is a serious play for the theatre, television, or radio. ‘+ Essay: ashort piece of writing on a particular subject. ‘+ Fletiom: literature in the form of prose, especially short stories and novels, that describes imaginary events and people. © eet —<—a, + Historiography: the study of historical writing. + History: the study of past events, particularly in human affairs. * Language: the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way. «+ Literacy: the ability to read and write. + Literature: written works, especially those considered of superior or lasting artistic merit. + Novel: A novel is a long written story about imaginary people and events. + Philology: thebranch of knowledge that deals with the structure, historical development, and relationships of a language or languages * Philosophy: the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline. + Poems: a piece of writing that partakes of the nature of both speech and song that is nearly always rhythmical, usually metaphorical, and ofien exhibits such formal elements as meter, rhyme, and stanzaic structure, + Poet: a person who writes poems Prose: written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure * Religion: is belief in a god or gods and the activities that are connected with this belief, such as praying or worshipping in a building such as a church or temple. * Romanticism: a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual. * Scholar: a specialist in a particular branch especially the humanities; a distinguished academic. g——<<—— ee * Short story: a story with a fully developed theme but significantly shorter and less elaborate than a novel. *Soclology: the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. *Symtax: the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language. * Textbook: a book used as a standard work for the study of a particular subject. * Treatise: a written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject. * Writer: a person who writes books, stories, or articles as a job or regular occupation, Now find out some of those words in the following chart of finding words puzzle. E G Y N A N 8 R Lt wt ° € M s elu olceloale ° el[ritlo G — v y R 7 ° Y N E N ALY elelmla ° alolaltr ule tie|riM 4 si RiulA GS iH ' 1 N A ' Ss ° T x N ' K f ° R N E R H bl A t ° —e — o T A ° ° c _t lo _o| ni sit e fo ° t 8B T L t E c = c t o ve s R ' R t E N H s c E K N ° N ht ' °o Y s A R t N N 1 K F 1 ¥ 1 ° N w T Ee R Literney Philology Drama Book Romanticism Essay Syntax Author Prose Aesthetics Poetry Writer Textbook Language Novel Ant Poems Fiction NN — B. Presentation Short Stories A short story is a work of short, narrative prose that is usually centered around one single event, It is limited in scope and has an introduction, body and conclusion, Although a short story has much in common with a novel, it is written with much greater precision. Any time you are asked to write an essay that is based on a piece of fiction, the following guide and questions may help you. Setting Setting is a description of where and when the story takes place. In a short story there are fewer settings compared to a novel. The time is more limited. Ask yourself the following questions: * How is the setting created? Consider geography, weather, time of day, social conditions, etc. * What role does setting play in the story? Is it an important part of the plot or theme? Or is it just a backdrop against which the action takes place? + Does the setting change? If so, how? Study the time period, which is also part of the setting, and ask yourself the following: © When was the story written? * Does it take place in the present, the past, or the future? ‘* How does the time period affect the language, atmosphere or social circumstances of the short story? Practice Create an appropriate setting for a short story How to Identify the Sequence of Events ‘One way to identify the sequence of events is to keep your eye out for time order words. These include words like “first,” “then.” “following that,” and more. Especially if i's a short story, the author might use these signal words to indicate the progression of a story from beginning to end, In lieu of @ search for sequence words, you can ask yourself what has to happen for ‘something else to happen. Remember our highlander on the field? He has to reach a certain age before he can be called off to war. So, we travel with him through childhood until his untimely death on the battlefield. The same goes for Bella and Edward. Something has to happen to shift them from their ‘awkward encounter to a blossoming romance. Her near-death experience is the trigger that sets things in motion. ‘Sequence of Events Worksheet Using the worksheet in the next page, write your own story following a logical sequence of events, (2) Pn ee Sequence of Events Using the sequence words in the box, write our the correct order of events as they took place in the story. You can also add your own twist to the tale ‘Sequence Words: First / A little while later / Next / Towards the end / Then / Finally C. Controlled Practice Now read a short story | 1. “The Bogey Beast” by Flora Annie Stee! ‘A woman finds a pot of treasure on the road while she is returning from work. Delighted | with her luck, she decides to keep it. As she is taking it home, it keeps changing. However, her enthusiasm refuses to fade away. What Is Great About It: The old lady in this story is one of the most cheerful characters anyone can encounter in English fiction. Her positive disposition (personality) tries to make every negative transformation seem like a gift, and she helps us look at luck as a matter of perspective rather than events. 2. “The Tortoise and the Hare” by Aesop This classic fable tells the story of very slow tortoise (another word for turtle) and a speedy hare (another word for rabbit). The tortoise challenges the hare to a race. The hare laughs at the idea that a tortoise could run faster than him, but when the two actually race, the results are surprising What Is Great About It: Have you ever heard the English expression, “Slow and steady wins the race"? This story is the basis for that common phrase. This timeless short story teaches a lesson that we all know but can sometimes forget: Natural talent is no substitute for hard work, and overconfidence often leads to failure Taken from: htps:/ —_—_ eco WORD BANK or eylindrical and of ceramic ware an pleasure impartence. or becoma weaker: ie without payment: 2 present. brought by chance rather than ‘balanced: not shaking or maving. af time or changes in fashion Practice 1 Select one of the short stories. 2.. Write in three paragraphs the possible full story. 3. Remember to write the setting and the good sequence of events. At the end make a good conclusion to the story. 4. Draw an illustration for the story. 0. Grammar Present Tense { Affirmative | We form affirmative statements in the | | sie that book. wit Statements eaent enies ashe Tom likes that book. ‘subject + a verb / a verb +-s/ -es. We form negative statements in the | We don't like horror stories. Present tense with a Karla doesn't like romantic subject + don't / doesn't + a verb. | movies. Negative Statements We form yes/no questions in the | Did you go to the movies last ‘Yes/No present tense with night? Questions doldoes + a subject + a base verb. We use the wh- words what, where, when, how, why, which, who and whom 9s to form wh-questions in the simple e Present tense in two ways 1.if the wh- word is the subject of the teem | MSc on contin te ate , verbs do or does, and we do not | Who wants to read this book? ‘change the world order of the subject and the verb. 2.If the wh= word is not the subject of the question, we use the Why do you like that kind of wh- word +do/ does + a subject+ the | comedy? base verb. SE Practice SN Fill in the blanks to complete the sentences. Use the words in the box below. does - watches - travel - drinks - walk - eats - don’t - doesn't 1. John breakfast at six o’clock in the morning. 2.1often _ books in my free time. 3.A: you like to study English? B: Yes, I do. 4. My father always songs in the shower, 5. A: Does Julie work on Saturdays? B: No, she 5 6. Would you like to to Hawaii on our next holiday? 7. Llive close to my company, so I can to work. 8. Mr. Smith always tea in the afternoon. Past Tense Gitstementa simple past tense with a | enjoyed the movie last night, + ‘Affirmative | Ye form affirmative statements in the ‘subject + the past form of a verb. We form negative statements in the | Our team wasn't the champion simple past tense with 2 this year. subject + did not + the past form of a verb, They were not happy with the Exception: The negative form of be is | ending. wasn't and weren't Negative Statements We form the past form of regular verbs | We walked so fast to the park. with @ base verb + -d or -ed, regular | she saw them at the party. verbs form their past forms in different ways. ‘We form yes/no questions in the | Did you go to the movies last ‘Yes/No simple past form with night? did + a subject + a base verb. We use the wh- words what, where, Information when, how, why, which, who and What you buy at the candy whom to form wh-questions in the | Shop! ‘simple past tense. ee: ——_—_—_—_—llCOO Practice ed Find and correct the mistakes in the sentences below. 1, They eat dinner at six o'clock yesterday. 2. Did Maria drove to work this morning? 3, [not finished my homework last night. 4. Did you busy last Monday? 5, Was she buy a new car yesterday? 6, wanted to went to Montreal two years ago. 7. Was you late for the mecting? 8. Who did you talked to? 9, Where was you stay in Washington? 10. 1 was read that book last year. 11. John flied to Argentina last week 12, He weren't at home last night. 13. [not see the movie last weekend? 14. What do you did last night? 15. Did they has a good time at the party? 16. Did you in class yesterday? E. Reading Time Read the following FABLES and write another phrase by your own experience to use each one. FABLES The word fable is derived from the Latin word fibula, which means “a story,” and a derivative of the word fari, which means "to speak.” Fable is a literary device that can be defined ‘as @ concise and brief story intended to provide @ moral lesson at the end. In literature, it is described as a didactic lesson given through some sort of animal story. In prose and verse, & fable is described through plants, animals, forces of nature, and inanimate objects by giving them human attributes wherein they demonstrate a moral lesson at the end. Features of a Fable * A fable is intended to provide a moral story. + Fables offen use animals as the main characters. They are presented with anthropomorphic characteristics, such as the ability to speak and to reason. ‘+ Fables personify the animal characters, Challange 10* 47) A.The Crooked Tree It was @ dense forest. All trees were straight and tall. ‘Their trunks were broad and shapely. But, there was one tree which was having @ crooked and shapeless trunk. ‘The crooked trunk tree was sad. He thought “How ugly | am! All others are straight and ‘shapely. | alone have crooked trunk.” ‘One day a wood-cutter came there. He looked around and said “I will cut all trees here, ‘except that crooked tree. That is of no use to me”. He cut away all other trees, Now, the crooked tree was happy for its crookedness. Moral: Be happy with what you are. Your own phrase: B. The Farmer and The Sparrows Maniappa was a farmer. He worked from dawn to dusk in his field. ‘Amidst the crops in the field, a sparrow had built a nest. She roosted in the nest. She got two children. The litle sparrows lived with their mother happily Days passed by. And the harvesting season fast approached. The coms were ripe. And everywhere people started their harvests. The litle sparrows said to their mother, "Mummy! We will have to flyaway” ‘The mother sparrow replied, “Not so soon babies! The farmer is not ready. ‘One day, they heard the farmer saying "I must call my neighbors and make them do the harvest.” The litle sparrows said, "Mummy, tonight we shall fly away.” The mother said, “Not so soon babies. The farmer won't make it.” The words of the mother came true. The neighbors. did not tum up the next day. The fermer was heard saying, “| will call my relatives and make them do the harvest". This time also the little ones wanted to flyaway. But the mother asked them to relax. Once again, the words of the mother came true. Now, they heard the farmer saying "Tomorrow | will do the harvest myself’. On hearing these words, the mother said, “Come my children. It is time for us to leave this field” Moral: Self-help is always respected. ‘Your own phrase: €. The King Cobra and The Ants ‘Once there lived a king cobra in a small hole. When he was small he ate litle creatures. ‘As he grew up he began to eat eggs, lizards, frogs and rabbits. And when he grew up further he started to eat even other smaller snakes. His pride grew with him. ‘All small animals began to fear the king cobra. This boosted up his pride. He began to think "Now | am the most powerful creature. | am the king of the forest. All animals fear me. Let me move from this small hole to a bigger place”. He searched for a place to suit his size and status. Finally he came across a big tree, He selected the tree for his house. He saw an ant hill near the tree Challange 10* ~ She asked me where I worked. et © Practice 1. “What time is it?” Roberto .... me what time it was, a) ask b) asks ©) asked 2. “Alaska is very cold.” Our teacher said Alaska ... cold. a) if it was very b) was very ©) very 3. “Ihave a new job.” Samantha said she ... a new job. a) had b) have ©) has 4. “What's the capital of Bolivia?” John asked me a) if the capital of Boli b) what the capital of Bol ) what the capital of Bolivia was 5. “I'm a student” Sam said he a) was a student b) a student ©) does a student 6. “Do you know the answer?” Cindy asked me if... the answer. a) knew by) she knew ©) she knows 7. “Do you work at night?” Maria asked ... at night. a) if she works a) can spoke ) if | worked b) could spoke ©) does she work c) could speak 8. “Fan speak three languages.” ‘Thomas said he ...three languages. 1) can spoke ) could spoke ©) could speak E. Mini Project Read about Arthur Conan Doyle and his stories in “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes”. here you have the summary of the first three stories. The appeal of Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories comes from their skillful blend of intelligence and entertainment. The stories challenge readers to hunt for clues and develop their own hypotheses as each narrative unfolds, but in the time between the crime and the resolution, readers come across all sorts of enchantingly drawn characters. The long friendship between Sherlock Holmes and Dr. John Watson is particularly remarkable and gives each story a sense of continuity. The men spend much time making witty banter, but their connection is heartfelt and offers readers an affirming antidote to the double-crossing that Holmes so frequently encounters in his Co) Challange 10° investigations. In The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes each story is self-contained, although certain characters appear in more than one story. A Scandal in Bohemia This short story is told in three chapters and features the reunion of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson after a period of separation. The action revolves around the King of Bohemia. He is getting married, and he must recover compromising letters. and a photo that are in the hands of an ex-lover, the enchanting opera singer Irene Adler. The intelligent and witty Adler, however, proves too elusive for the king and even for the great Holmes as she herself gets married and makes her escape with the photo—just in case she ever needs to use it in the future. The Red-Headed League A red-headed pawnbroker named Jabez Wilson is encouraged by his assistant, Vincent Spaulding, to join @ secretive organization dedicated to honoring red-headed men. Wilson is chosen by the Red-Headed League to copy an encyclopedia by hand for four hours daily at a good rate of pay, with the stipulation that he not leave the office. After eight weeks, however, the office is closed suddenly, so Wilson comes to Sherlock Holmes to learn if he is the victim of a ruse. The organization tums out to be a sham concocted by Spaulding, who is actually a notorious criminal named John Clay. He needed Wilson to be away from the shop so he could build a tunnel from the basement to 2 nearby bank that he intended to rob. A Case of Identity ‘A young woman named Mary Sutherland is tricked into keeping her inheritance under the control of her stepfather and mother in a cruel case of deception. Her controlling stepfather, James Windibank, disguises himself as 2 man named Hosmer Angel. Mary falls in love with this mysterious man and pledges to remain true to him no matter what. On the day they are supposed to be married, Angel disappears. When Sherlock Holmes figures out the scam, he doesn't have the heart to break it to the ‘woman, but he threatens violence on Windibank and tells Dr. Holmes that he believes. the man will soon tun to a life of crime. Project: - Select one of them = Read it - In the next page, write the plot of it - Draw an illustration or a photo that explains the story. Pet el F Themes: ° a 1. These are my People ‘> 2. Cultures, Subcultures and cs Cliques 3. Cultural Norms and Cultural oo fF 9 Storms 4, | am not my hair Understanding: ‘The world is made up of diverse people groups who nurture one another, Essential Question: How does understanding people's differences help us all become better human beings? Oo These are my people A. Warm up activity type may be negative ive, but even positive present two problems cliches, and they present being as far more simple ym than any human lly is + What do you think is a stereotype’ + Mention 3 of them *+ Look at the following picture and express your opinion, “As a woman, I of course also had to find my way like any other, so that one day we Nancy Kress would really find your way to gender parit Parity in all areas just ‘judge people through of our own stereotypes. Queen Rania of Jordan seems logical to me” Angela = Merkel, = The oe ore eee write these male ss, and it makes it ten jore interesting if a woman lines. of Germany during an interview with German Newspaper “Die Ziet” Is it true + Is she using stereotypes? + Is she fighting against stereotypes? * What kind of stereotype does she mention? Sigourney Weaver B. Vocabulary Classify the Adjectives you will find in the next exercise into positive (+) and negative (-) personality traits. (70) Pe Fa L ° x xox -ws Ps x li 430 AFUM J c w> = oxo SNOCQE RAS CBJ OAB zor J x 4 a> xr Jwrzeues ziultirivyieirio za0 DWoDR J zoo DON UMJGUADE NTOFTES GCcRKHZO 403 ZELYAECK FEC L 4 [a ex a NRSUSYODNBTE @WsJGxAYPALWR J MMcCHSEXYTLK zoo J z>> PDACYMMBPRTUBO SNOPSERGAHZSNOD KWNY SO I Me8GGWBRENBDRA QEOHCAH Character Trails 4 Se) LE HH K CF ea woo tly|pleleltialrielo t PMBSGR vkKasya (Us TWOR|THY FMM TLEOV PLHWGNFSLQKMX HR PO DoT Y GoD ao< az0 OEA (¢ Dw B xX KIN P TM A SABFESO xX ARS xh x 4 MVUHS SUCNOAERTVWBO rae viele uK xX HTS ENONS 4 x26 yiueljn[clelrieluls Ne A. Vocabulary * Habitat: place or site an animal lives. + Ecosystem: community of interrelated plants and animals in a given environment. + Bag Limit; Amount of game an individual can take, + Composting: Technique of placing organic matter in favorable environment — for decomposition, + Conservation: Use of a natural resource to minimize waste. + Environment: all the physical surroundings of an organism. * Extinet: no longer exists. * Biome: major land area characterized by dominant plant life forms * Forage: leaves and stems of plants that are eaten by animals, * Biodiversity: the differences in all living things. * Cover Crop: a crop planted to protect soil and increase fertility. * Migration: the movement of individuals from one area to another, .ereplacementofonecommunity a fairly definite sequence. + Estuary: the area where fresh water meets salt water. nen ~~ ~ What Makes Something Sustainable 0 leave for future generations: a planet that is healthy and Sir David Attenborough + Ecology: the study of how living organisms exist in their natural environment. * Geologist: a person that studies rock formations. + Hydrologist: a person who studies rainfall, its rate of filtration in the soil, and its return to the ocean. + Mulching: the use of dead plant material to cover an exposed soil surface * Point Source: the direct introduction of contaminants into a water supply from an identifiable source. + Pathogen: a disease causing agent. + Permeability: the ability of the soil to allow water to pass through it + Range: the geographic area in which an organism lives and moves about. + Refuge: an area set aside for the protection of wildlife. * Reservoir: a devise used to control flood waters. * ‘Transpiration: the process of evaporation of water through the leaves of a tree. + Thinning: the process of removing, normally harvesting, part of trees in a stand to provide room for other trees. + Wilderness: an area that has not been changed by human activity. B. Presentation 1. Read the following text, then answer the questions. Sustainable Business Practices - Are You Doing Your Part? May 29, 2019 by Patricia Lotich There seems to be more and more education on the importance of corporate social responsibility in support of sustainable business practices. The increasingly popular green approaches to business practices is what sustainability is all about. Sustainability is a term that has grown in popularity and has become a catchphrase for green business practices that has been incorporated into many corporate strategies. The definition of sustainability is: “The quality of not being harmful to the environment or depleting natural resources, and thereby supporting long-term ecological balance.” The EPA defines sustainability as: “Everything that we need for our survival and well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural environment. Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in the productive harmony, that permit fulfiling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations. Sustainability is important to making ‘sure that we have and will continue to have, the water, materials, and resources to protect human health and our environment.” There is more and more research that suggests that customers care about sustainability and want to partner with businesses who incorporate social responsibilty into their business strategy. AS consumers become more educated, they look for businesses that share their values. Regardless of the size of the organization, there are things we can all do to participate in conserving resources. 2. Questions. Work in groups of three and discuss the following statements. Write the answers on the space provided. a, What would happen if all students take action together around the world? b. What would happen if politicians start caring about our planet? Cr Q= y “a c. What could be possible if we become aware of what we are doing to the planet? 3. Match the vocabulary with their corresponding definitions. () Acid rain 1. Poisonous gas. 2. The cutting down of trees in a large area. '3.Animals or plants which might soon not exist because there are ( ) Biodiversity very few now alive. 4.A mountain with a large circular hole at the top through which lava gases, steam and dust are or have been forced out. (_ ) Biodegradable (_) Carbon monoxide () Climate 5. Unwanted matter or material of any type: trash. 6.Number and variety of plants an animal species in an specific area. (_ ) Desertification 7.It decays naturally. 8.1t contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil (_) Endangered species | 9. An extremely large wave caused by movement of the Earth under the sea, often caused by an earthquake. (__ ) Deforestation (_ ) Disposable product () Fumes 10. The process in which the land changes into desert. () Global warming 11.General weather conditions usually found in a particular place. () Natural resources | 12:!t prevents harmful ultraviolet light from the sun from reaching the Earth, (_) Renewable energy | 43. it covers a large area of the surface of the sea, usually because an accident has caused it to escape from a ship or container. () Oil spill 14. Things such as minerals, forest, coal, etc. which exist in a place ( ) Ozone layer ‘and can be used by people. (Potton 15. Strong, unpleasant and sometimes dangerous gas. 16. An article that is intended to be thrown away after use. (|) Recycle, 17.A gradual increase of world temperatures caused by polluting gases such as carbon dioxide which are collecting in the air preventing heat escaping into the air. (_) Tsunamy (_) Volcano 18. t can be produced as quickly as it is used. (Waste 19.Damage caused to water, air or soil by harmful substances or waste. 20. To collect or treat rubbish to produce useful materials which can be used again. enna ~~ ~ C. Grammar Comparative and Superlative Rules As we studied in previous units comparatives and superlatives are words used to describe things (nouns) or actions (verbs). Comparative terms are used when comparing two things while superlatives are used when describing one thing as being something to the highest degree or lowest degree. Previously you discovered how to create the comparative and superlative forms of most adjectives and adverbs, in this unit you will learn about the irregular comparatives and superlatives. Irregular comparatives and superlatives play by their own rules. The adjective “good’, for example, becomes the comparative ‘better’ and the superlative ‘best’ (not ‘gooder’ and *goodest”). Other irregular terms include: Base Adjective/Adverb ‘Comparative Superlative Good/Well Better Best Bad/Badly Worse Worst Much/Many/Some More Most Little Less Least Far Further/Farther Furthest/Farthest Practice 1. Correct the sentences below. Rewrite the correct sentences on the space provided. a. The more dangerous material for marine life is plastic. b. The country that recycles the more waste in the world is Switzerland. . Spain is hottest in spring than England. 4d, The better way to keep our oceans clean is not to throw any rubbish into the sea, ¢. Lying down in bed is comfortabler than sitting on a hard chair. £. Plastic bags from supermarkets are probably the more harmful type of rubbish there is. Cr Oo= y “a 2. Complete the sentences with the superlative form of the adjectives in brackets. a, Droughts and floods are some of the (bad) natural disasters to affect the planet. b. (strange) thing I found while doing a beach cleanup was a microwave. ©. Pollution and human activity are (serious) threat to wildlife and ecosystems. d. Two of (useful) things to help the environment are to recycle and plant new trees. 5. Wind farms are (good) way of producing electricity without harming the environment, ©. Cycling or walking instead of getting the bus is (healthy) way to go to work. 0. Consolidation 8 Sustainable Business Practice Examples 1. Be Intentional About Sustainability: Sustainability needs to be incorporated into corporate strategies and reflected in organizational business goals. This means making this a priority in every aspect of organizational operations. ‘As with any other business initiative, you need to make a plan of action and assign accountability. Hold people accountable and measure the results, Once that is done, do it again. This will create momentum in your sustainability efforts. 2. Partner with Employees: Invest the time in training employees on the importance of sustaining the environment and share what the organization is doing to help conserve resources. Solicit additional ideas from employees for resource conservation. You might be surprised at what employees are experiencing and can offer ideas to reduce waste and improve their work environment Case Study: Walmart had a manager in one of its stores that noticed that employee vending machines had lights that ran all the time even though employees could see the products without the additional lighting. Walmart made some changes, tumed off those lights in all employee lounge vending machines and saved a staggering $1 million dollars a year in energy costs! What similar ideas do your employees have? 3. Water And Electric Conservation: Conserving our water is something we can all participate in by reducing the opportunities for wasting this valuable resource. For example, converting to energy efficient faucets, toilets and lighting can be a great way to save water, energy and budget dollars. — 100) enna a — 4. Supply Chains: Statistics show that customers prefer working with sustainable companies that are environmentally friendly. Maintain a list of sustainable friendly vendors and make it a priority to only use organizations that embrace sustainable business practices. Negotiate contracts with this expectation made clear. 5. Develop a Recycling Program: Develop an in-house program for recyclable products like: + fluorescent light-bulbs + electronics + computers and monitors + paper products + supplies, Use your waste management vendor to help create a process for this, 6. Chemical Management: We are learning more and more about the impact of chemicals on our environment. Strive to use green cleaning products and non-chemical products for pest control and weed management. Use your chemical vendors to help train employees on the proper use and disposal of chemicals. If you outsource your facility cleaning to a professional cleaning company, insist on the use of green products. 7. Purchase Only Energy Efficient Products: Look for energy efficient electronic products and use environmentally friendly settings on office equipment. Choose computer, electronic and IT acquisition products that are EPEAT registered to ensure the highest levels of efficiency. 8. Develop Sustainability Work Policies: Develop sustainability policies and procedures to reinforce the efforts. Things like, power down equipment at the end of the day and enable energy savings settings on all computers and desktops, are examples of policies that can support the cause. The challenge to sustain the environment can be overwhelming, but if each of our organizations, large or small, does its part, we can all contribute to conserving this great planet that we call home. What are some things your organization does to help sustain the environment? ‘hps:/ custainable-business-practice’ Practice Create a poster using one the last 8 recommendations to reinforce the concept of preservation in ‘our school, Cr C= y “a -~,, { ) Products and Practices around the World "Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not every man's greed. — Mahatma Gandhi “Water and air, the two essential fluids on which all life depends, have become global garbage cans.” — Jacques-Yoes Cousteau "The Barth should not be a worse place afier my life than it was when I was born here.”” — Rob Stewart A. Presentation Read the “global goals” from the UN for 2019 to be develop in our world ‘00 cr b. Are they enough to save us? ©. Would you suggest to add any other to that list? Which one? B. Vocabulary * Acid rain: (noun) rain hat contains harmful chemicals that collect in the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. * Carbon-dioxide or carbon (collog.): (noun) a gas that’s released by plants and by buming fossil fuels. * Carbon footprint: (noun) a measurement of the amount of carbon-dioxide a person adds to the atmosphere. * Carpool: (verb) to share a car instcad of driving one alone. * Climate change: (noun) global changes in temperature, wind patterns, rainfall, ete. mainly caused by the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil. * Compost: (verb) to put organic waste like vegetable peels, uneaten food, grass clippings and leaves into a large container that breaks it down into healthy soil * Conservation: (noun) the protection and preservation of natural environments and resources. * Consume: (verb) to use things like energy, fuel, materials, food, water, etc. * Contaminated: (adj.) carrying harmful bacteria or toxins that can cause disease or death, * Developing country: (noun) a poor nation that’s gradually becoming richer and more advanced. * Donate: (verb) to give money or goods to an organization you want to help or support + Eco-community or ecovillage: (noun) a community with environmentally-friendly buildings, clean technology and renewable energy like solar and wind. * Endangered species: (noun) animals or plants in danger of becoming extinct or disappearing in the near future. Environmentalist: (nown) a person who protects the natural world and educates others about environmental problems. Ecosystem: (noun) the complex system of relationships between living things and their environment. Enilt: (verb) to release or project something (cg. light, sound, smoke, gas, radiation, etc.). Extinet: (adj.) no longer existing or lost forever (of an animal, bird or plant species). Fertilize: (verb) to add chemicals or organic material to soil so that plants grow better. Food chain: (noun) the order in which organisms in an ecosystem eat one another. Fossil fuel: (noun) fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis. Global warming (also climate change): (noun) is the long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system. Habitat: (noun) is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. Hazardous waste: (noun) is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment Pesticide: (noun) a chemical that’s sprayed on crops to stop inseets from destroying them. Pollution: (noun) the contamination of the environment, esp. by industrial waste products and chemicals like pesticides. Preserve: (verb) to keep something in its original state. Recycle: (verb) to make something new from materials that have been used before. Reduce: (verb) to use less or make something smaller, net C= P “a * Reforestation: (noun) the planting of trees. and plants to help a damaged or destroyed forest recover. Renewable: (adj.) can be used without running out, esp. of energy sources like solar and wind + Reuse: (verb) to use again. *Self-sufficient: (adj) able to function, or produce all that’s needed, without outside help. + Smog: (noun) a thick dirty cloud at ground level caused by pollutants reacting to sunlight. Practice * Toxin (toxic chemical): (noun) a poisonous substance that damages health or the environment. + Use up: (verb) to use something until there’s none left. ‘+ Waste: (verb) to use more than necessary, or to use inefficiently. + Wildlife: (noun) animals, bit living naturally in the wild, + Zero-emission: (adj.)_ releasing no greenhouse gases like carbon-dioxide or methane, insects, ete. 1. Find the words in the puzzle. tis|yi/wiiicio|ciileieiajolalcirialy wie|niviil|rio|mje|nirialelalci|K(zia Flple|clois|yisitie|mialoivislaluic dlelolulrimi{celjululrlelci|yiciclelsir xisirictirieleloirielsitialriilolnip cluleisiuwieinlolvaleldulvielvic slo o|/z|ijulv ais|miai s/o olFlily|yv Alaluljalyit|rlelols|si|ii{cjeluleliele umicisly)sittwiclo mip o/s tialR Blele|x oO wiwiz olP WH /AlB IT ATT tlalc|Fly|o|/s Rie|NiEWAlB LiElAly viniolclH cl alR|Plolo twlelsliisin Carpool Fossil Fuel Reduce Compost Habitat Reforestation Ecosystem Pollution Renewable Enviromental Poverty Smog Fentilize Recycle Wildlife 2. Use the words in the vocabulary box to complete the chart, illustrate each concept. Concept Definition Any substance that contaminates the environment. The careful use of resources to avoid wasting them and damaging the environment; includes reducing and recycling practices. Picture An area of land where waste is deposited. Waste that is dangerous to organisms because it is poisonous,cancer causing or radioactive. The piling up of grass clippings, dead leaves, and other organic matter so they can slowly decompose. The total number of individuals of 4 particular species that exist in a specific area. Items that can be processed and used again, Cr C= y “a C. Controlled Practice 1. Read about the global goal 11: “Sustainable cities and communities”. Sustainable cities and communities The world's population is constantly increasing.To accommodate everyone, we need to build modem, sustainable cities. For all of us to survive and prosper, we need new, intelligent urban planning that creates safe, affordable and resilient cities with green and culturally inspiring living conditions. The targets Everyone can help to make sure that we meet the Global Goals. Use these ten targets to create action to make cities and communities sustainable, 1. Safe and affordable housing: By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe ‘and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums. 2. Affordable and sustainable transport systems: By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with ‘Special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons. 3. Inclusive and sustainable urbanization: By 2030, enhance inclusive and ‘sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries. 4. Protect the world’s cultural and natural heritage: Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world's cultural and natural heritage. 5. Reduce the adverse effects of natural disasters: By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations. 6. Reduce the environmental impact of cities: By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management. 7. Provide access to safe and inclusive green and public spaces: By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities 8. Strong national and regional development planning: Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning. 9. Implement policies forinclusion, resource efficiency and disaster risk reduction: By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels. 10. Support least developed countries in sustainable and resilient building: Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials. 2. Answer the questions based on the previous text. a, Which is the most important goal from the list? Why? >, Would you like to implement one of those goals? Which one? ¢. What other related goal could you add to the list? . Look at the information on the infographic about how to make eco-bricks and complete the table, ‘Save non-recyclables, ike: coldink bot with @ ha + Fol from teabags How to make an Eco Brick Cr C= y “a Eco - bricks a new eco friendly building alternative What is an eco-block? Steps to build one Why are they important? 0. Grammar Future Continuous Form + She will be studying. — She will not be studying, ? ‘Will she be studying? Functions Examples The future continuous can be used to project ourselves into the future. This time next week | will be sun-bathing in Bali The future continuous can be used for predicting | 461) be coming to the meeting, 1 expect. oF guessing about future events. In the interrogative form, the future continuous can be used to ask politely for information about the future, Will you be bringing your friend to the pub tonight? The future continuous can be used to refer to continuous events that we expect to happen in the future. il be seeing Jim at the conference next week. When combined with still, the future continuous refers to events that are already happening now and that we expect to continue some time into the future. — 108) nen % ~ In an hour 1 still be ironing my clothes. ‘hips. on brew english-renourcen english grammar fulure-continnon Practice SS Use the words in brackets to make sentences using the corresponding future continuous structure. 1. (/ not travel / next week) 2. (Sam / study / at two o’clock) 3. (you / work / tonight?) 4. A: (she / study?) ?. B: No, she 5. (they / not drive / tomorrow) 6. A: (you / sleep?) — B: Yes, 1 7. (we / watch TV / tonight) 8. (Mr. Smith / fly to Italy / soon) 9, (the sun / set / at seven o’clock) 10. Az (we / eat / soon?) B: Yes, we 11. (where / you / stay?) 12. (1/ do my homework / tonight) hetps:/ Using words to compare and contrast + Common words used to compare two or more elements: salso + too + the same as + similarly + most important + like + just as + in addition + aswell as + way + both + comparatively + in the same way + Common words that signal that two elements are being contrasted: + although * though + regardless + rather than + otherwise * less than + instead + besides + in contrast to + however + furthermore + even though *yet + while but * unlike * conversely * compared with» more than + differ + nevertheless + unless + on the other hand + notwithstanding Cr C= y “a E. Creative Practice 1. Read the passage. Find a word in the word bank that could replace each umber. Write the word ‘on the matching line below. Use each word only once. People use a lot of Earth's (1). Sometimes people (2) resources away. But many things people throw away can be conserved or (3). Conserving makes @ resource last a lot (4). One way people can help (S) resources is to recycle. When people (6), resources can be processed and used ‘again. For example, (7) aluminum cans can be processed into (8) cans. Recycling also helps save (9) and reduce (10). Reusing resources saves the energy needed to find and produce new resources. Making new (11) can pollute the air and water. Sometimes making materials from recycled items causes (12) pollution, Word Bank conserve nergy less longer materials new pollution recycle resources saved throw used 1 oA 2 & 9% 10. %. i. 6. 12. 2. Read the following poster about the Earth Day. Now create your own version of that celebration with another ilustration and messages to celebrate this important day. You can use the box below to write down your ideas, EEL’) Challange 10° 10 Ea Green Yes, you can do your bit even while at the office Bring Greenery At Work Make yur ofcs gran iendy by heaping ow prison ir eesk and around. ey help ep ne ca thy and re rere t a ‘indoor Say no to Printing Recycle ole met Tests gee wh Tose > ones ote ie vettas an Srrepupened tome Seadtaerets, rs Conserve Water Ther ig no nsec to tush the tole before use ‘lean. Sirlrty eveid ssepng eto on wh fing tne woe, Join Green Initiatives Never say rato any green intatives by your Share this at work & with your friends 0°o98s Qo @ Ways To Go t Work Don't waste food Vrs of the worlds Yood gets “wasted! = m4 "at feed wee es connor Energy Turn ot a electron paints even whi Turn of the Ughts lees carleence rooms Bike/Carpool to Work Biking to work i heathy are polition an ‘net to mention Cronin ser et fi 5 EF Avoid Disposable Cups Can't do without cups end cups of chair coffee? Use a disposable img everytime you sp water? Carty your own reusebie water botte and a ceramic mug stead fone pein ge Lend Your Support ‘Sian. or cae around the caret petitions. Spread wor media. Every voce mailers ” OFFICECHAI.. News, Reviews, Humour Inspiration. Your = ‘one stop website for all in anys we ro o= P “a Products and Practices in Costa Rica Paifafinimanity—3.5 billion people lives in cities today and 5 billion people are projected to live in cities by 2030. © 95 per cent of urban expansion in the next decades will take place in developing world = 883 million people live in slums today and most them are found in Eastern and South- Eastern Asia. © The world’s cities occupy just 3 per cent of the Earth's land, but account for 60-80 per cent Of energy consumption and 75 per cent of carbon emissions. A. Vocabulary Find the following words in the word search. percapita - living standards - carrying capacity - fertility rate - developing world - surplus - fossil fuel - environmental footprint - consumption - foreign policy - domestic policy - scarcity - natural resources - sustainability - renewable - emissions a<|o-|-\o vo -/4\0 mie ol mizimola|m aio >ioi= 4)>|m ie Zolmaalaciriwnic ai<|imo m|=|o lee lo ole fale le |mle|a|m e|alelel-|-|x|-[e]a[-la]z lolx > vp Oxo a0 selva >\o oo v-|> alelvo ciclo mio|zo|-|@/o/o &\4|a/= |m{»|-|m|a|-|2[olo|-[4|x lo lols ele lele|-[olo|<|-/2|/m| oz > 402 -/ = la |—|m|a|>[>|- -z2> 0-4 < B. Presentation Read the following information. Four pillars make up the Costa Rican National diversity Strategy BIOFIN in Resource Mobilization To comply with the actions set out in the strategy, BIOFIN formulates National Projects to be founded by the State tied to specific actions. Questions: a. Is Costa Rica well prepared for these goals and projects? b. Which of the pillars is the most important to do? ©. Which of the National Projects is the best one to do? C. Controlled Practice 1. Read the information on some of the best known sustainability programs in Costa Rica, use the following terms to label cach of them accordingly. Certification for Sustainable Tourism (CST) / The Bandera Azul Ecological Program / The Payments for Environmental Services (PES) program This program helps keep Costa Rica's communities - and the natural areas that surround them ~ healthy, safe and clean. It awards communities across Costa Rica with a “Blue Flag” when they meet certain requirements. There are categories for beaches, watersheds, forests, and towns. The program encourages: environmentally friendly practices and active civic engagement. Cr C= y “a This program is aimed at helping Costa Rican businesses take a long- term perspective on maintaining the country's environment, culture, and communities. The program rates businesses based upon how well they comply with certain sustainable practices. It measures the interaction between the company and the surrounding environment; the operation systems and infrastructure of the company; the degree to which the company allows their clients to become active contributors in sustainable policies: and the way in which the company interacts with local communities and the general population. This program provides payments to landowners who maintain healthy, robust land. Landowners who adopt forest management practices that do not hurt the environment - and which help maintain the quality of life for local residents ~ receive direct payments from the government. These payments are for the ecological services that healthy land produces. These include maintaining clean water, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, conserving biodiversity, and providing areas for recreation and ecotourism. 2. Read the following text to get some information about the Costa Rican conservation process. What does Costa Rica need? In addition to being one of the world's Blue Zones (longevity hot spots), Costa Rica is also one of the world's leading nations for ecological sustainability. Green Energy Thanks to hydropower and abundant geothermal power, and investment in wind and solar power, Costa Rica's electricity is largely carbon neutral. It is among a few other countries, like Germany, Iceland, and Switzerland, who are showing the rest of the world how to generate electricity without continuing to pollute the atmosphere. Carbon Neutral by 2050 Electricity use is only part of a nation’s carbon emissions and environmental impact. Transportation in Costa Rica is still based on buming fossil fuels. The nation has taken the important step of pledging to be carbon neutral by 2050. If they reach their goal, they would be the first carbon-neutral nation. No Recreational Hunting In 2012, Costa Rica became the first Central American nation to ban sport hunting. Under the law. which passed unanimously. violators can face up to four months in prison or fines up to $3,000. Prior to the ban, illegal hunting tours aimed at foreign tourists targeted jaguar, puma, and parrots and were priced at $5,000 per person, Hunting and fishing is still allowed for the local population, some of whom are dependent on it. Saving Forests & Oceans Over the past 25 years, Costa Rica tripled its gross domestic product while doubling the amount of forest cover. Currently, 25 percent of the forests in Costa Rica are protected. In 2011, the country created the Seamounts Marine Management Area, ‘a marine protected area larger than Yellowstone National Park. It surrounds Cocos Island off Costa Rica's Pacific coast and is second in size only to the Galapagos Islands protected area. They're Happy & They Know It Much like measuring environmental sustainability, measuring happiness is as much an art of interpretation as it is based on statistics and hard data. One of the Prominent measurements of happiness is the New Economics Foundation’s Happy Planet Index. Costa Rica has topped this list three times in recent years, achieving top scores in well-being and life expectancy. In the latest rankings (from 2016) Costa Rica was first out of the 140 nations examined in the survey. Practice 1. Read the statements related to sustainability in Costa Rica, rate them from 1 to $ according to what you consider is the most important (5). 2018, in an effort to counteract the additional waste that tourists produce, Costa Rica committed to completely ban single-use plastics by 2021. | b.____ Over the last 30 years, the country has completely reversed its deforestation. In fact, they have doubled their forest cover from 26% to $2% of the country. c.___ 25% of Costa Rica’s territory is protected area. | 4.__ 100% of the country’s energy production comes from renewable sources. €.___ By 2021 Costa Rica hopes to be the first carbon neutral country in the world. 2. Read the following text and write your onw definition about sustainability. | Sustainability Sustainability in Costa Rica is already a way of life. An attitude and a set of consolidated habits. Sustainability in Costa Rica is as embedded as political peace and not having an army. We just don't know another way of doing things anymore. Golfo Dulce In just the first half of 2017, Costa Rica has attained a new record in clean energy generation and got their latest Biosphere Reserve declaration by UNESCO (United Cr C= y “a consolidating an already known compromise to sustainability Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) Sa SOS7, During the first six months of the year, 99 percent j& of Costa Rica's electricity came from renewable sources, = according to data from the National Energy Control s Center (CENCE). % é. In the last 30 years, renewable sources such as % ee Geothermal, solar, wind, and hydro electric have been “Apa oe responsible for the generation of nearly 93 percent of Costa mys SOS yno 8 Rica’s energy, but this July Costa Rica broke their own record. Sustainable practices can be recognized in every area of the country, across all industries, embraced by all citizens and adopted by visitors. With almost all of its energy being provided by renewable resources, it's quite easy to witness that sustainability is embedded deeply in the culture and attitudes of Costa Ricans. Another win for sustainability was earned in June when UNESCO declared Savegre River, located in the Zona de los Santos (Zone of the Saints), a Biosphere Reserve Biosphere reserves are specifically selected areas for sustainable development that adjust the conservation of biodiversity with the proper use of natural sources. As stated on the UNESCO website: Biosphere reserves are ‘Science for Sustainability support sites’ - special places for testing interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and managing changes and interactions between social and ecological systems, including conflict prevention and management of biodiversity. Costa Rica already has four reserves, but this is the first with coastal marine components, a it includes the marine part of the Manuel Antonio National Park, in Quepos. Write your own definition about the word “sustainability” based on the text Sustainability: 116 ed 0. Grammar Modals of Possibility Structure Function ‘We use these modals to describe a possible action. Because of the uncertainty, these modals are often used to May / Might / Could + Base Verb talk about the future, though sometimes we want to express possibility in the present. May | may go traveling next year. Might My keys might be in the car. Could The bags could be outside. Thapeseslbrarycom blog modal-of possbiliy may Oghr cond Practice 1. Complete the sentences below by using the modals in parenthesis to express possibility. Follow the example provided. 1, There are some dark clouds in the sky. (may) Example: It may rain. b. It’s nine-thirty and Jack feels tired. (might) , My class starts soon, but I’m not sure where the classroom is. (may not) 4d. Sarah has some money and she is at a clothing store. (might) ¢. Kelly and Jenny are friends, but they live in different cities. They are both traveling to Washington this summer. (may) £. It’s cold outside, but James isn’t wearing a jacket. (might) g. My brother is at a restaurant and he feels a little hungry. (may) hh. Tshould go to work today, but I feel a little sick. (might not) Cr G= y “a E. Creative Practice Savegre Hotel Nature Reserve and Spa The Savegre River stands out for its magnificent biodiversity. The reserve houses 20% of Costa Rica’s flora, 54% of the country’s mammals and 59% of its birds. The area also includes seven protected wilderness areas: Manuel Antonio National Park. Cerro Nara Protective Zone, Portalén Mixed Wildlife Refuge, Hacienda Bart Mixed Wildife Refuge, Los Santos Forest Reserve, Quetzales National Park and Cerro Vueltas Biological Reserve. It is clear that Costa Ricans are proud to live amongst and protect their country's rich environment. ‘As small as it is, Costa Rica holds five percent of the world's known biodiversity, 3.5 percent of all marine life and 30 percent of the country’s territory is protected tropical nature. With a forest cover of over 50% of the total land. A pioneer in the area of sustainability, Costa Rica is a model for sustainable practices for many industries around the world The tourism trade has had a huge hand in giving ground for growth in this area. Through the Certification for Sustainable Tourism (CST) program, which was designed by the Costa Rica Tourism Board (ICT), entrepreneurs can receive credit and ‘compensation for their sustainable practices to help differentiate businesses within the tourism sector. Based on the degree Based on the degree in which they commit with a sustainable model of natural, cultural and social resource management, a large selection of attractions, hotels and restaurants can be officially classified as sustainable. You can also read: CST and the five leaves, Why is it important? Businesses in the CST program receive recognition by being awarded “leaves” or level markers. One leaf indicates that a business engages in minimal sustainable practices, and a distinction of five leaves indicates that a business exemplifies the highest standard of sustainable practices in its respective sector. Businesses that hold five level markers (leaves) in the CST program are carbon neutral, integrate authentic locally made products into its offerings, give back to Costa Rica's rural community and more. CST was introduced in 1997 and has continued to evolve and change with the advancement of technologies over the years. As of May, more than 347 companies, ranging from lodging, tour companies, restaurants and car rentals, in Costa Rica eamed CST certification. The program hopes to reach its goal of certifying 425 companies by the end of 2017. With these two latest wins, its clear that sustainabilit Rica; it is a way of life. is not only a practice in Costa 1. Create a poster for tourists about our biodiversity using the given information, Present itto your teacher to be paste in your classroom. You could do it in groups. (no more than 4 students per poster). Connectors Showing Cause and Effect + Because: Everybody likes her because she’s very kind and friendly. ‘+ As and since: As | was very tired, | went to bed early, Since you are not interested, | won't tell you about it, For: We listened eagerly, for he brought news of our families. Connectors followed by a noun, a noun phrase, a pronoun or a gerund + Because of: They have had problems raising cash because of the credit crunch. + Due to and owing to: The game was cancelled owing to torrential rain. The cancellation of the game was due to torrential rain, * On account of: The nurse had to keep the baby in another room on account of my illness. * Thanks to: She was given a scholarship thanks to her excellent grades. Cause + Thus (very formal): He was the eldest son, and thus, heir to the title. + Therefore (formal, used mainly in written English): She is only seventeen and therefore not eligible to vote. + As a result: There has been a rise in the number of accidents. As a result, the goverment has decided to lower the speed limit. * So (less formal): There was nothing on TV, so | decided to go to bed. * That's why: Cold temperatures kill mosquitos. That's why you won't see them in winter. * For this reason: The Colonel was confident that war was impending, and for this reason he hurried his preparations to leave the country. + Consequently: This poses a threat to the food chain, and consequently to human health. Effect Practice 1. Read the cause and write an effect.Then, write one full sentence that states the cause and effect using the connectors provided in the chart above, one per sentence Example: — Cause: A blizzard hit the city. Effect: All the schools were closed. Sentence: A blizzard hit the city, so all the schools were closed. 1, Cause: I planted some redwood pine trees. Effect: Sentence: 2. Cause: My sister stayed up past midnight. Effect: Sentence: 3. Cause: The ship had an oil spill. Effes Sentence: Cr C= y “a Am | Environmentally Friendly? st conditions of happiness is n man and nature shall —Leo Tolstoy a fine place and worth —Ernest Hemingway A. Presentation Do the quiz and find out if you behave in a proper way to help our planet. 1. Do you sort out glass, paper, plastic bottles and cans? 2. Do you buy organic or local food? Yes, always bb, Sometimes ©. Never, its too expensive 43. Do you use your own shopping bags? a. Yes, always b. Often ©. Once in a while 4.Do you recycle light bulbs and used Pd a7 5. Do you always dispose of garbage in a proper way? a. Yes, always of course bb, Most of the times . Sometimes I don't pay attention 6. Do you switch off the lights when you leave a room? a. Yes always b. Sometimes . Never 7. Do you switch off other electric appliances at night? (TV,computer...) a. Yes, always b. Sometimes ©. Never 8. Do you put on warmer clothes when its cold instead of putting on the heating at home? a. Yes, always b. Sometimes . Never, I prefer putting the heating on 9. Do you have showers instead of baths? 10. Do you close the tap while you brush your tecth? a. Yes, always. 'b. Sometimes ¢. I never think about it 11. Do you use public transportation, a bike or walk when possible? a. Yes, always. b. Sometimes. ¢. Never 12, Do you have/use a composter at home? a Yes (2 pt) b. No (0 pt) Results Check the number of points you have and sceif you are green ‘points b: 1 point c: 0 point (Except question 12) + From 18 ¢o 24: Congratulations, you are making real good efforts to help save our planet. Keep up the good work! + From 9 to 17: Well, you should do better, the environment is not really your priority but you can improve, can’t you? + Below 9: No, no, no! That’s not possible, you should definitely do a lot more to leave an acceptable environment to your children and grandchildren! “Environmentally friendly, environment-friendly. eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green are marketing claims referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that inflict reduced, minimal, or no harm at all, upon ecosystems or the environment.” Being environmentally friendly simply means having a lifestyle that are better for the environment. Its all about taking small steps towards mother earth so as to make this planet a better place for our communities and generations to come. A good way would be to start with conserving water, driving less and walking more, consuming less energy, buying recycled products, eating locally grown vegetables, joining environmental groups to combat air pollution, creating less waste, planting more trees and many more. Why it’s Important to Become Environmentally Friendly You can't just point towards one business or practice and blame them for all of our environmental woes, everything fits together like a puzzle. The more that we all do our part - the faster we will create an entire ecology of living that promotes sustainability. The first step is to begin to understand the basics of what each part of life can do to become more environmentally friendly. The next step is to begin to learn to make different choices on a personal level that start to change your awareness, and consumption of resources. The changes are surprisingly easy to make, there are more ways than you can imagine to begin to practice conservation. The Environmentally Friendly Business Becoming an environmentally friendly business is more complicated than just signing on to a cap and trade agreement. Everything from the way that products are displayed and advertised, how waste is recycled, whether or not changes can be made to the basic operations of a business will all work towards making them more environmentally responsible. A large emphasis for non-producing businesses can be placed on the management of supplies. Buying local may not always be the most responsible way to get supplies, but Cr C= y “a it can be as well. How a business works to support their community in their environmental conservation efforts is also another important task of the environmentally friendly business. The Environmentally Friendly Community In the environmentally friendly community there is more than just a good recycling program in place. Communities that are committed to conservation and preservation of resources work to encourage options like community playgrounds, public transportation, green construction and work to change the way that fossil fuels and other resources are used to support community services. The Environmentally Friendly Person The environmentally friendly person is the person who moves through life with an awareness of how natural resources are used to create and support the life that they live. They recycle, conserve water and fuel and make other choices that not only lessen their impact on the environment, but also support industries that are working towards being more environmentally responsible. Are you environmental friendly? Explain In order to be sustainable, countries should follow certain guidelines put by environmental interest groups (i.¢. EPA), such as: ~ Conserving Water Conserving Energy improving Air Quality (in/out) ~ Reducing waste ~ Reducing the Use of Raw Materials ~ Reducing the Use of Private Cars creasing Dependency on Renewables, and. ~ Build Better Buildings! 1. Is it important to follow this simple recommendations? Why? 2, What other practices do you implement? 122] nen —— ~~ Energy efficiency and Renewable Energy Water Efficiency ironmentally Preferable Building Material Waste Reduction Toxies Reduction Indoor Air Quality 1, Would you like to live in a green building? Why? 2. Do you know one of those structures in our country? 3. Draw/Design a simple graphic icon to represent Green Building as you see it. 4. Select a strong slogan to express and support your perception. There are many alternative renewable methods to produce energy: - Solar energy - Geothermal energy - Wind energy - Water energy (Hydropower) = Biomass - Among others Is it possible to use those kinds of energy? Is our country a place to use them? Explain - It is a renewable resource since the radi: of the sun does not end. ~ Photovoltaic cells are used to capture the radiation of the sun and then transforms it into electrical energy. Since the core of the Earth is very hot, it is used to heat water that is circulating in pipes. - This heated water (Steam) is, then, used to tum turbines that generate heat which produce el I purposes such as ~ It is used for pra generating electricity, charging batteries, pumping water and grinding grain. =It is the use of flowing water to create energy that can be captured and tumed into electricity ~ Dams are built to trap and store water. When needed, this water is released causing a strong flow of water. ~ Consists of organic material such as plants, residue from agriculture, forestry, or the organic biodebradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste. ~ This organic waste is broken down to extract the stored energy from it. 1. Do we use some of them? Which ones? 2. Could we use more ecological energy? B. Grammar Tag Questions + Tag questions (or question tags) turn a statement into a question. They are often used for checking information that we think we know is true. + Tag questions are made using an auxiliary verb (for example: be or have) and @ subject pronoun (for example: 1, you, she). Negative question tags are usually contracted: It's warm today, isn't it (not ‘is it not’) + Usually if the main clause is positive, the question tag is negative, and if the main clause is negative, its positive. For example: It's cold (positive), isn't it (negative)? And: It isn’t cold (negative), is it (positive)? + If the main clause has an auxiliary verb in it, you use the same verb in the tag question. if there is no auxiliary verb (in the present simple and past simple) use do / does / did (just like when you make @ normal question). I may go traveling next year. My keys might be in the car. The bags could be outside. Positive sentences with negative tags She's Italian, isn’t she? They live in London, don’t they? Negative sentences with positive tags We aren't late, are we? ‘She doesn't have any children, does she Cr C= y “a