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UNIT 1A: “To Be”, Positive and negative.

Usamos el verbo "to be" (ser/estar en españ ol) en diferentes casos, como describir a alguien o algo,
o decirle a alguien el lugar donde se encuentra alguien o algo. Tiene muchos otros usos, pero en esta
unidad, solo necesitamos estos dos casos.

Forma del “to be” en presente positivo: Forma del “to be” en presente negativo:

I am I am not
He, she, it Is He, she, it Is not / isn’t
You, we, they are You, we, they Are not / aren’t

Examples:

I am a You are a He /She is a


It is a car. We are all teachers. They are students
teacher. student. student.
You are
I am not a He /She isn’t a They are
not a It isn’t a car. We aren’t all teachers.
teacher. student. not students
student.

UNIT 1B: “To Be”, Questions and short answers.

El verbo “to be” se usa para crear preguntas simples de sí/no simplemente invirtiendo el
orden del sujeto y el verbo "To be".

Example

Am/Are Is
Question - ? "Am I disturbing you?" "Is this your coat?"
Positive Answer - Yes "Yes, you are." "Yes, it is"
Negative Answer - No "No, you're not." "No, it isn't"
UNIT 2A: Present Simple, positive and negative
Usamos el tiempo presente:

1. Para acciones repetidas o regulares en el período actual.


2. Para hechos.
3. Para há bitos.
4. Para cosas que son generalmente ciertas.

Verb Conjugation & Spelling

Formamos el tiempo presente usando la forma base del infinitivo (sin el TO). En general,
en la tercera persona (He, She, It) agregamos 'S' al final del verbo.

Subject Verb The Rest of the sentence


I / you / we /
speak / learn English at home
they
speaks /
he / she / it English at home
learns

La formació n del verbo en terceras personas difiere segú n el verbo:


1. Para verbos que terminan en -O, -CH, -SH, -SS, -X, o -Z agregamos -ES al final.
2. Para verbos que terminan en consonante + Y, quitamos la Y y agregamos -IES.
3. NOTA: Paraa verbos que terminan en vocal + Y, solo agregamos -S.

Para hacer oraciones negativas en inglés, normalmente usamos “DON’T” y “DOESN’T” con
todos los verbos a excepción de “TO BE” y Modal verbs (can, might, should etc.).

Se agrega don't entre el sujeto y el verbo. Se usa Don't cuando el sujeto es I, you, we,


o they. Y Doesn’t cuando el sujeto es He, She o It. Al hacer oraciones negativas las
terminaciones (-s, -es, -ies) desaparecen.

Examples:
You don't speak French.
I take the train to the office. He doesn't speak German.
A dog has four legs.
They get up early every day.

UNIT 2B: Present simple, questions and short answers


En oraciones interrogativas, agregaos el verbo auxiliar “do” para I, You, We, They y “does”
para He, She, It al comienzo de la oracion, en este caso el verbo auxiliar no cambia:

Do / I, you, we, they Verb in present simple Complement


Does she, he, it

Para responder este tipo de preguntas, usamos la siguiente estructura:

Yes, I, you, she, he, it, we, they Do /does


No, I, you, she, he, it, we, they Don’t/ doesn’t

Examples:
Do you know French? Does he like cats?
Yes, I do. No, he does.
No, I don’t. No, he doesn’t.
UNIT 3A: Position of adverbs of frequency

Adverbios de frecuencia:

Adverb of Frequency Example Sentence

always- siempre I always go to bed before 11 p.m.


usually - usualmente I usually have cereal for breakfast.
normally / generally - normalmente I normally go to the gym.
often* / frequently - frecuentemente I often surf the internet.
sometimes - A veces I sometimes forget my wife's birthday.
occasionally - ocasionalente I occasionally eat junk food.
seldom - raramente I seldom read the newspaper.
hardly ever / rarely - casi nunca I hardly ever drink alcohol.
never - nunca I never swim in the sea.

Un adverbio de frecuencia va antes del verbo principal (exepto con TO BE).

Subject + adverb + main verb


I always remember to do my homework.

Subject + to be + adverb
She isn't usually bad tempered.

Cuando usamos un verbo auxiliar (have, will, must, might, could, would, can, etc.), el
adverbio se coloca entre el verbo auxiliar y el verbo principal.

Subject + auxiliary + adverb + main verb


She can sometimes beat me in a race.
I would hardly ever be unkind to someone.
They might never see each other again.

UNIT 3B: Have got (tener):

La estructura general para las frases positivas con "have got" es:
Have lo usamos para I, You, We, They, y has para He, She, It:

I, you, he, she, it, we, they Have got / has got Something complement

En la forma negativa la estructura es:

I, you, he, she, it, we, they Haven’t got / Hasn’t got Something complement

Para preguntas:

Have / Has I, you, he, she, it, we, they got Something Complement?

Examples:

I have got a dog.


She has got an apple.
He hasn’t got a cellphone
Have you got a cow?
UNIT 4A: Countable and uncountable nouns (a/an, some, any)

La mayoría de los sustantivos tienen formas singulares y plurales. Son sustantivos


contables.
 There is a letter on the table for you. (singular)
 There are letters on the table for you. (plural)

Algunos sustantivos solo tienen una forma. Son sustantivos incontables.


Example: Money

Muchos sustantivos incontables se refieren a substancias: (Chocolate, water, coffee, milk,


sugar, salt, cheese, bread, rice, wood, glass, plastic, soap, toothpaste)

Puedes usar a/an (uno, una) con sustantivos singulares: (an umbrella, a wheel, a
mistake).

Puedes usar substantivos plurales contables solos. Example: apples, bees, clouds.

No puedes utilizar un artículo con un sustantivo incontable. Example: time, sand,


electricity.

Es muy comú n usar some/any con sustantivos plurales y sustantivos incontables.


Example: They don't listen to any advice.

Mira los siguientes ejemplos:

Countable Uncountable
I'm looking for a job. I'm looking for work.
What a beautiful view! Is there milk in the refrigerator?
It's a nice day today. It's nice weather today.
We had a lot of bags and
Do you have money?
suitcases.
These chairs are mine. I don’t like coffee.

UNIT 4B: Quantifiers: much, many, a lot of, any

“A lot of” y “lots of” = mucho/as muchos/as son usados para expresar que hay una gran
cantidad de algo.

Se usa “a lot of” en oraciones positivas. Esta expresió n puede ser usada con sustantivos
contables e incontables.

Much = mucho/a y Many = muchos/as.


Much y Many son usadas en preguntas y negaciones.
Any = nada es usada para oraciones negativas.

Examples:

 There are a lot of dogs in the street.


 I have a lot of time to answer your questions.
 I don't have any CDs in my collection.
 They don't have much money to buy a present.
UNIT 5A: There is / there are

There is = hay (para singular) y there are = hay (para plural).

 There is one table in the classroom. = Hay un pizarró n en el saló n de clases.


 There are three chairs in the classroom. = Hay tres sillas en el saló n de clases.

Podemos usar there is con sustantivos incontables usando un cuantificador seguido de of:

 There is a litter of milk in the fridge.

La forma negative se forma negando (not) “is” y “are”:

 There is not a horse in the field.


 There are not eight children in the school.

Para formar preguntas, colocamos is/are al principio de la oració n.

También se usa there is/are en respuestas cortas

 Is there a dog in the supermarket? - No, there isn't.


 Are there any dogs in the park? - Yes, there are.

UNIT 5B: Possessive pronouns and possessive ‘s

Subjec Possessive Traducción


t Pronouns
I Mine El mio
You Yours Tuyo
He His De el
She Hers De ella
It --- *
We Ours Nuestro
You Yours De Ustedes
They Theirs De Ellos

Example:
I didn't bring my umbrella, so Marta lent me hers.
No traje mi paraguas, así que Marta me presté el de ella.

Cuando queremos mostrar que hay algo que pertenece a alguien o algo, usualmente
agregamos un apostrofe y s (‘s) a un sustantivo singular y un apostrofe (‘) a un sustantivo
plural.
Example:

 the boy's ball (one boy) = La pelota del niñ o.


 the boys' ball (two or more boys) = La pelota de los niñ os.
UNIT 6A: Past simple be.

Subject Positive Negative Traducción


I was was not/wasn’t Yo fui/estuve
You were were not/weren’t Tu fuiste/estuviste
He was was not/wasn’t É l fue/estuvo
She was was not/wasn’t Ella fue/estuvo
It was was not/wasn’t Eso Fue/estuvo *
We were were not/weren’t Nosotros fuimos/Estuvimos
You were were not/weren’t Ustedes Fueron/Estuvieron
They were were not/weren’t Ellos Fueron/Estuvieron

Para hacer preguntas con “To Be”, se pone el verbo antes del sujeto.

Questio
Were you happy?
n
 Complemen
  Verb Subject
t

Examples:

Was I late? : Yes, you were/No, you weren’t.


They were happy that you came.
He was surprised.
She wasn’t famous.

UNIT 6B: past simple positive


Para cambiar un verbo regular a su forma pasada, normalmente se agrega -ED al final del
verbo, pero existen algunas excepciones que se explican a continuació n.

 play – played - jugué  rain – rained - llovió


 cook – cooked - cocino  wait – waited – espero

Most verbs  + -ed 
Play            watch          show   Played       watched           showed 
Ending in -e  + -d 
Live              phone       agree       love  Lived       phoned       agreed        loved 
Stressed vowel + consonant (not w, x, y)  2x consonant and + -ed 
Stop           plan      prefer  Stopped     planned     preferred 
Consonant –y  -y, +ied 
Marry      study      try  Married       studied      tried     worried 

Examples:
**NOTA: Para los verbos irregulares revisar el vocabulario de esta unidad.
 She went to the zoo. – Ella fue al zooló gico.
 They went to the library. – Ellos fueron a la biblioteca.
 You worked a lot last night. – Tu trabajaste mucho anoche.
 She lived in Japan last year. – Ella vivió en Japón el año pasado.
 I painted my house last weekend. – Yo pinte mi casa el fin de semana pasado.
UNIT 7A PAST SIMPLE (NEGATIVE & QUESTIONS) 
Usamos el pasado para hablar de acciones y situaciones que ya han sido terminadas.
 I went to Greece last summer. It was amazing. 
 I didn´t want to leave. 
 Where did you stay? 

Para formar la negació n y preguntas, usamos como auxiliar el verbo “do” en su forma
pasada “didn’t” y “did” respectivamente y el verbo se queda normal.

  I/YOU/WE/THEY/HE/SHE/IT 
Negative He didn’t go there. 
Questions Did you have fun? 
Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t  
 
“To Be” no tiene la misma forma que otros verbos. 

  I/HE/SHE/IT  YOU/WE/THEY 
Positive The weather was great.  The shops were near the beach. 
Negative I wasn’t very happy.  We weren’t tired. 
Was your tour guide good?  Were you late for your flight? 
Y/N? Yes, she was. / No, she wasn’t.  Yes, we were./ No, we weren’t. 
 
Usualmente utilizamos estas expresiones para expresar el pasado:  
I drove to London … last week/year | two days ago | when I was a child. 

Estas expresiones pueden ir al principio o final de una oració n. 


When I finished school, I went to university. 
I went to Greece two years ago. 

Unit 7B: LOVE/ LIKE/ DON’T MIND/ HATE + VERB + -ING.

The verbs love, like, enjoy, dislike, not mind, can´t stand and hate are verbs which


express likes and dislikes. They are usually followed by a gerund (verb + -ing) when the
meaning is general.

Examples :

I like getting up early in the summer.


My brother Sean loves skydiving.
We enjoy spending our Christmas holidays in the Southern Alps.
They hate watching horror films.
She can´t stand listening to classical music. 
She doesn´t mind helping with the house chores.

Question Answer + Answer -


Do you enjoy learning English? Yes, I love it. No, I hate it.
Does he like living in Germany? Yes, he loves it. No, he hates it.
Did you love the Beatles in the 6os? Yes, I loved them. No, I hated them.
Do you hate football? Yes, I hate it. No, I live it.
7C: SAY EXCUSE ME AND SORRY

When we want to be polite, we can use “Excuse me” and “Sorry” to different situations.

To get someone’s attention: When speaking to strangers, “Excuse me” is more common.
Example:
Excuse me, do you know where the Metro is?
Sorry, do you happen to have the time?

To interrupt someone: We also use “Excuse me” and “Sorry” to politely interrupt a


person or people to ask or tell them something.
Example:
Excuse me everyone, the meeting is starting in five minutes.
Sorry, Shelly, can I get your thoughts on a gift idea?

To ask someone to move: “Excuse me” and “Sorry” are used to politely ask someone to
move so that we can walk past them or to apologize for bumping into someone.
Example:
Excuse me, may I please get past? Thanks!
Sorry about that. It’s really crowded in here!

**You heard the second speaker say, “Sorry about that.” This is a common way to say, “I’m
sorry," when we make a small mistake.

To ask someone to repeat: We use “Excuse me” and “Sorry” when we need someone to
repeat what they said.
Example:
Sorry, I didn’t hear that. Can you say it again?
Excuse me, can you speak a little louder? We can’t hear you.

 I’m sorry
We use “I’m sorry” to:
 To tell someone that we regret something we did that affected the person in a bad
way. I’m so sorry for damaging your camera.
 To share unpleasant news. I’m sorry but all the rooms this weekend are taken.
 Or to refuse an offer or request. Sorry but I won't make it to dinner. I have to work
late!

 Excuse me
And we use “Excuse me” to:
 Politely tell someone that we are leaving a place.
Excuse me for a minute. I need to make a phone call.
UNIT 8A: CAN/ CAN’T/COULD/ COULDN’T/ FOR ABILITY.

We use “can/could” to talk about general abilities:

I can ski, buy I can’t snowboard / I couldn’t do maths at school.

We only use can in the present tense and could in the past tense, so when we need
another form, we use be able to.

In negative sentences about specific past events, we use couldn’t.

Example:
I went to France last year, but I couldn’t remember any words in French.

UNIT 8B: HAVE TO/ DON’T HAVE TO

We use “have to” to talk about strong obligation that comes from somewhere else, for
example from your boss, your parents, a rule at school or work.

Examples:
I have to be home by ten. (My parents told me so.)
I must be home by ten. I have a difficult day tomorrow. (It is my own decision.)
I have to get up early, because I start work at 8. (It is a rule.)
I should get up early. (Now I stay in bed until lunchtime.)

“Don't have to” means that there isn't any obligation at all; there is no need to do it.
“Don't have to” is different from “shouldn't” and “mustn't”.

Examples:
I don't have to get up early at weekend. (I can stay in bed as long as I want.)
You mustn't tell lies. (It is very bad to tell lies.)
You don't have to go with me. (You can go with me if you want to.)
You shouldn't smoke. (It is bad for your health.)
UNIT 9A: PRESENT CONTINUOUS.

Usamos presente continuo para:

 Acciones que ocurren en este momento, al momento de hablar.


 Acciones temporales en el tiempo presente.

Usualmente utilizamos estas expresiones de tiempo con el presente continuo:


right now – justo ahora today - hoy
these days – estos dias this summer - este verano
at the moment – en el momento

El presente continuo se forma de la siguiente manera:

He is not cooking dinner, he is watching TV.


They are travelling around Asia this year.
Is he working late? Yes, he is / No, he isn’t.
Are you enjoying the party? Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.

Formación de verbos en gerundio: “verb + -ing.”

Most verbs + -ing


Sleep, watch, say Sleeping watching saying
Stressed vowel + one consonant (not w, x, y) Double consonant + -ing
Stop run get Stopping running getting
Consonant + -e - e and + -ing
Live make have Living making having

UNIT 9B: PRESENT SIMPLE OR PRESENT CONTINUOUS.

We use the present simple tense when we want to talk about things that don’t change.
To talk about actions which are happening at the present moment, but will finish soon.

 I play tennis. (present simple)


 I am playing tennis. (present continuous/ progressive)
 “I play tennis” tells us that playing tennis is part of a routine or habit.
 “I am playing tennis” tells us that the speaker is playing tennis right now.

With the present simple we say:


I play tennis They play tennis
You play tennis He/she/ it plays tennis.
We play tennis

With the present continuous we say:


I am playing tennis We are playing tennis
You are playing tennis He/she/it is playing tennis

Frequency Adverbs we use with the Present Simple

Always:  Seldom:
Often:  Frequently: Rarely:  
Sometimes: Hardly ever:
Occasionally: Never: 

You sometimes go to the gym, don’t you?


They seldom ask for help.
I hardly ever eat pizza.
Japanese people never wear shoes inside.
**Notice that the adverb comes before the main verb in the sentence.

Time Expressions with the Present Continuous

At the moment: 
These days: ‘Now: 
Nowadays: 

Paul’s living in Cardiff, these days.


I think you are smoking too much, nowadays.
**Notice that the time expression can come at the start or at the end of the sentence.
UNIT 10A: COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES

When we talk about two things, we can "compare" them. We can see if they are the same
or different. Perhaps they are the same in some ways and different in other ways. We can
use comparative adjectives to describe the differences.

One way to describe nouns (people, objects, animals, etc.) is by comparing them to
something else. When comparing two things, you’re likely to use adjectives like smaller,
bigger, taller, more interesting, and less expensive. Notice the -er ending, and the
words more and less.
INCORRECT - His cat is more large than my dog. / CORRECT - His cat is larger than my dog.

Rules:
For adjectives that are just one syllable, add -er to the end.
For two-syllable adjectives not ending in -y and for all three-or-more-syllable adjectives,
use the form “more + adjective.”
For two-syllable adjectives ending in -y, change the -y to -i and add -er.

1 syllable + -er Old Older


Cheap Cheaper
High Higher
1 syllable Vowel- Hot Hotter
Consonant-vowel = Double Big Bigger
consonat + -er Thin Thinner
2 syllables ending -y Healthy Healthier
-Y  -ier Happy Happier
Noisy Noisier
2 or more syllables Famous More famous
More + adjective Generous More generous
Irregular Good Better
adjectives Bad Worse
Far Farther/further

UNIT 10B: SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES

A superlative adjective expresses the extreme or highest degree of a quality. We use a


superlative adjective to describe the extreme quality of one thing in a group of things.

We use a superlative to say that a thing or person is the most of a group. When we use a
superlative adjective ('the tallest student') before the noun, we generally use it with 'the'.
This is because there's only one (or one group) of the thing we are talking about. There is
one student who is the tallest in the class, and because it's clear to the listener which one
we mean, we usually use 'the':

 She's the most beautiful girl I've ever seen.


 It's the best café in London.
 John and Lisa are the most intelligent students here.
 This bowl is the biggest one.
Remember, we don't use 'the' when there is a possessive:
 He's my best student.
 That's our most important goal.
It's possible to drop 'the' when the adjective is used later in the sentence, rather than
directly before the noun. We can choose either 'the' or 'no article', with no change in
meaning:
 She is (the) most beautiful.
 This café is (the) best.
 John and Lisa are (the) most intelligent.
 This bowl is (the) biggest.

This is not possible when the adjective comes directly before the noun:

 He is fastest swimmer.

LONG - LONGEST TALL – TALLEST


One syllable adjectives Cute - cutest Large – largest
BIG – BIGGEST HOT - HOTTEST
HONEST – MOST HONEST FAMOUS – MOST FAMOUS
Two syllables Happy – happiest Crazy – craziest
NARROW - NARROWEST GENTLE- GENTLEST
Three or more syllables EXPENSIVE – MOST DANGEROUS – MOST
EXPENSIVE DANGEROUS
Popular – most popular Beautiful – most beautiful
CONFIDENT – MOST DIFFICULT - MOST
CONFIDENT DIFFICULT
GOOD –BEST MANY – MOST
Irregular adjectives Bad – worst Little – least
FAR - FARTHEST FAR - FURTHEST
UNIT 11A: PRESENT PERFECT

We use the present perfect:

 For something that started in the past and continues in the present:


 When we are talking about our experience up to the present:

The present perfect is formed from the present tense of the verb have and the past
participle of a verb.

They've been married for nearly fifty years.


She has lived in Liverpool all her life.
I've seen that film before.
I've played the guitar ever since I was a teenager.
He has written three books and he is working on another one.

We often use the adverb ever to talk about experience up to the present:


My last birthday was the worst day I have ever had.

We use never for the negative form:


Have you ever met George? Yes, but I've never met his wife.

For something that happened in the past but is important in the present:


I can't get in the house. I've lost my keys.
Teresa isn't at home. I think she has gone shopping.

Present perfect with time adverbials 


We often use the present perfect with adverbials which refer to the recent past:
Recently, just, only just.

 Scientists have recently discovered a new breed of monkey.


 We have just got back from our holidays.

Or adverbials which include the present:


So far, until now, up to now, ever (in questions), yet (in questions and negatives)
 Have you ever seen a ghost?
 Where have you been up to now?
  Have you finished your homework yet? No, so far I've only done my history.
After a clause with the present perfect we often use a clause with since to show when
something started in the past:
I've worked here since I left school.
I've been watching that program every week since it started.

UNIT 11B: PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE

PRESENT PERFECT PAST SIMPLE

Unfinished actions that started in the


Finished actions:
past and continue to the present:
I knew Julie for ten years (but then she
I've known Julie for ten years
moved away and we lost touch).
(and I still know her).
A finished action in someone's life
A finished action in someone's life (when the
(when the person is still alive: life
person is dead):
experience):
My great-grandmother went to Mexico
My brother has been to
three times.
Mexico three times.

A finished action with a result in the A finished action with no result in the present:
present: I lost my keys yesterday. It was terrible!
I've lost my keys! (The result (Now there is no result. I got new keys
is that I can't get into my house now). yesterday).
With an unfinished time word (this With a finished time word (last week, last
week, this month, today): month, yesterday):
I've seen John this week. I saw John last week.

PAST SIMPLE

We use this tense for things that happened at a definite time in the past.
E.g. "I met my best friend when I was fifteen."
It is formed by adding '-ed' to regular verbs.

PRESENT PERFECT

This tense describes something that happened in the past, but that is related to something
in the present.
E.g. "I have read three books by Charles Dickens."
It is also used to talk about life experiences, recent events or states or things that started
in the past and hasn't changed.

"I have been to America."


"I have just finished my dinner."
"I've worked for EC since 2008."
The important thing to remember is that the present perfect is related to the present in
some way. Whereas, the past simple happened at a specific time in the past and is a
finished action.
UNIT 12A: GOING TO

Going to is not a tense. It is a special structure that we use to talk about the future.
The structure of going to is:

Subject + to be + going + to infinitive

Look at these examples:

SUBJECT BE (NOT) GOING INFINITIVE COMPLEMENT


I Am - going To buy A new car.
I ‘m - going To go swimming
He Is not going To take The exam
Are you - going To paint The house?

Going to for intention:


We use going to when we have the intention to do something before we speak. We have
already made a decision before speaking. Look at these examples:
 Jo has won the lottery. He says he's going to buy a Porsche.
 We're not going to paint our bedroom tomorrow.
 When are you going to go on holiday?
In these examples, we had an intention or plan before speaking. The decision was made
before speaking.

Going to for prediction:


We often use going to to make a prediction about the future. Our prediction is based on
present evidence. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples:
 The sky is very black. It's going to snow.
 It's 8.30! You're going to miss your train!
 I crashed the company car. My boss isn't going to be very happy!
In these examples, the present situation (black sky, the time, damaged car) gives us a
good idea of what is going to happen.

UNIT 12B: SHOULD / SHOULDN’T

Should is a modal verb.

After should you use the base form of the infinitive (= verb without To e.g. Go instead


of To Go)

Should + Verb (base form of infinitive)

E.G. You should go now (do not say: You should to go now.)

SHOULD

1. To give advice, a recommendation or a suggestion


This is to say that it is the right thing to do or the correct thing.
 Does your tooth still hurt? You should make an appointment with the dentist.
 I think you should study for the test so that you don't fail.
 Your hair is too long. You should get a haircut.
 You really should go to the new restaurant on Main Street.

2. Expresses that a situation is likely in the present


 Mary should be at home by now. Give her a call.
 He should have the letter by now. I sent it a couple of weeks ago.

3. Expresses that a situation is likely in the future (prediction)


 They should win the game because they are a much better team.
 I posted the cheque yesterday so it should arrive this week.
 It should be fine tomorrow.

4. Expresses an obligation that is not as strong as Must.


Sometimes should is used instead of Must to make rules, orders or instructions sound
more polite. This may appear more frequently on formal notices or on information sheets.
 On hearing the fire alarm, hotel guests should leave their room immediately.
 Passengers should check in at least 2 hours before departure time.
 You should never lie to your doctor.
 You should pay more attention in class.
 You should be at work before 9.

All of the above example sentences can have must instead of should making the


obligation stronger and less polite.
5. Was expected in the past but didn't happen (should + have + past participle)
This expresses the idea that the subject did not fulfill their obligation in the past or did not
act responsibly.
 You should have given your boss the report yesterday when he asked for it.
 I should have studied more but I was too tired.

6. Not fulfilling an obligation (should + be + verb-ing)


This expresses the idea that the subject is not fulfilling their obligation or is not acting
sensibly.
 You should be wearing your seatbelt. (The person isn't wearing one right now)
 We should be studying for the test. (We are not studying right now and we
should)

7. Sometimes should is replaced by ought to without a change in meaning. Note


that ought to sounds more formal and is used less frequently.
 You ought to study more. (= you should study more)
 He ought to go home. (= He should go home)
 They ought to stop doing that. (= They should stop doing that)

Shouldn't
We use shouldn't to advise not to do something, usually because it is bad or wrong to do.
 You shouldn't throw your litter onto the street.
 We shouldn't leave without saying goodbye.
 He shouldn't play with those wires if he doesn't know what he is doing.
 Are you tired? You shouldn't work so much.
 You shouldn't talk like that to your grandmother.

Should

Should is an auxiliary verb - a modal auxiliary verb. We use should mainly to:


 give advice or make recommendations
 talk about obligation
 talk about probability and expectation
 express the conditional mood
 replace a subjunctive structure
Structure of should
The basic structure for should is:
subjec + auxiliary + main verb
t verb
should
Note that:
 The auxiliary verb should is invariable. There is only one form: should
 The main verb is usually in the base form (He should go).
Look at the basic structure again, with positive, negative and question sentences:
  subject auxiliary no main verb
should t base

+ He should   work.

- You should not go.

? Should we   help?
Note that the main verb is sometimes in the form:
 have + past participle (He should have gone.)
 be + -ing (He should be going.)
The main verb can never be the to-infinitive. We cannot say: He should to go.
There is no short form for should, but we can shorten the negative should
not to shouldn't.

Use of should
should for advice, opinions
We often use should when offering advice or opinions (similar to ought to):
 You should see the new James Bond movie. It's great!
 You should try to lose weight.
 John should get a haircut.
 He shouldn't smoke. And he should stop drinking too.
 What should I wear?
 They should make that illegal.
 There should be a law against that.
 People should worry more about global warming.

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