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# ECEF 1114 ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

## LAB 3 : Verification of Logic Gate

INTRODUCTION

Basically logic gates are the main component in digital electronics. A gate can execute a function on a
two different valued signal. Binary logic consists of binary variable and logical operations. Each variable
having 2 distinct values which 1 (HIGH) and 0 (LOW). Logic gates can operate one or more input to
produce output signal. Except for some logic gates such as NOT gate or known as Inverter has only one
input and output. Logic gates only receive binary data of 0 (LOW) or 1 (HIGH) . LOW represents 0 Volt
while HIGH represents 3 or 5 Volts from Voltage Supply (Vss). The large number of logic gates are
implement in ICs for the purpose of saving physical space. With the use of logic gates , varieties of
circuits like latch , shift register , flip flops and etc can be designed.

Discussion:

1. AND Gate:
Output will be 1 (HIGH) when all of the inputs are 1 (HIGH). While Output will be 0
(LOW) when at least one of the inputs is 0 (LOW). Practically , it needs two or more
switches connected in series in order the bulb is light up.
OR Gate:
Output will be 0 (LOW) when all inputs are 0 (LOW) too. While output will be 1 when at
least one of the inputs is 1 (HIGH).
NOT Gate:
The NOT gate can consider as an inverter. Because it produced an inverted version of the
input to the output.
NAND Gate:
NAND Gate can consider as AND gate but with inverted version of it.
NOR Gate:
NOR gate is OR gate but with inverted version of it.

## 2. As for 1a X=A(B+C) , consist of combination of AND gate and OR gate. B+C is an OR

gate while A “times” with B+C , between it is an AND gate. If OR gate (B+C) is
1(HIGH) and the input pin A is 1(HIGH) , X= AND gate which 1 (HIGH) which is the
LED bulb while light up. The condition in order of the LED to light up is that (B+C) and
A must be 1(HIGH). Because AND gate’s requirement is two or more input must be in
‘HIGH’.

As for 1b Y=AB+AC also consist of AND gate and OR Gate. AB is AND gate and AC
also is an AND Gate too. Between AB plus with AC is an OR gate connected between
both gates. If output of AB and AC respectively is 1(HIGH), hence at OR gate the output
also will be 1(HIGH). The LED bulb will light up. In order the LED to light up in 1b, one
of the input pin must be in ‘HIGH’ or both input pins in ‘HIGH’. Because it is an OR
Gate between AB and AC.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, operation of AND , OR, NOT, NAND, and NOR gates which give different signal
although the inputs are all around the same but with different types of ICs gives different
outcome of the output. All operations have been examined during the experiment and it is same
to the theoretical point of view. Another one is that output from either one of the one logic gate
can be also used as inputs to execute for another logic gate to form combinational logic gate with
Boolean Algebra.