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.... 109
(From the Conte-Fable of Aucassi?i and Nicolette}



Who will list a tale to hear,
That was an aged captive's cheer,
Of youth and maiden fair and sweet,
Aucassin and Nicolette?"

upon a time it so fell out that a certain

ONCE Count Bougars of Valence made war upon Count
Garin of Beaucaire he attacked his castle, burned his

estates, laid waste his country, and killed all his men.
Count Garin was an old man, old and frail and he ;

had one son whose name was Aucassin. Golden-haired

was Aucassin, and his eyes grey-blue his face was ;

bright and merry, and he had many good gifts. But he

had fallen deep in love with a fair maiden, and cared
for nothing else in the world but only for Nicolette.
Then said his parents to him, " Son, take up arms and
mount thy horse and go fight at the head of our men."
But Aucassin replied, " I will not mount horse, nor
will I
go to battle nor strike a blow, if you give me not
my sweet friend Nicolette to be my wife."
Now to this his parents would not agree, for Nicolette
had been brought as a captive from a strange country
by the Saracens. None knew whence she was, but the
Viscount of the neighbouring town had bought her,
and baptized her, and made her his god-daughter, in-
tending one day to give her to a youth of humble birth,
who should honourably earn her bread. So his father
blamed Aucassin for his choice, saying, Let Nicolette
alone and if thou wish
to take a wife,
I will give thee

the daughter of a King or a Count. There is not so

great a man in France but, if thou wished to have his
daughter, he would gladly give her to thee."
But the youth replied, There is no high place upon
the earth that Nicolette would not adorn. If she were

Queen of France or of England it would be little

enough for her ;
so true is she and gentle and gifted
with all good gifts."
When Count Garin of Beaucaire saw that he could
not win his son away from the love of Nicolette, he
betook himself to the Viscount, who was his vassal, and
said to him
Sir Viscount, away with your god-daughter if you
wish to save her life. For she has bewitched Aucassin,
who not take up arms nor fight nor do anything
that he should and if I can lay hands on her, I will

burn her in a fire and great harm shall come to you


also in the end."

Then was the Viscount very sore afraid, and began
to assure the Count that he had nothing to do with the
matter he promised, moreover, that he would send

the girl to a land where the eyes of Aucassin

should never behold her and so they parted.

Now the Viscount had a great castle in the midst of

a garden, and in the castle was a high tower. In a
room at the top of this tower he had Nicolette put, and
an old woman with her for company, and plenty of food
and wine. Then he had the entrance sealed, so that
there was no way to go in there nor to come out, save
that there was a tiny window looking towards the
garden, through which came to them a little fresh air.

In thisgloomy chamber sat the golden-haired Nico-

letteand gazed sadly at the woods below. She saw the
roses blossom and the song-birds fly, and cried aloud,
O wretched that I am, that I must live my life within
these prison walls For thee, my Aucassin, for thy

sake am I here Yet it will not be for want of will if


I do not escape before long."

Now the report soon went through all the land that
Nicolette was lost. Some said she had fled out of the
land, others that Count Garin had had her done to
death. Then was Aucassin beside himself with grief;
he tried all he knew to win the secret from the Viscount,
and when that failed, he returned to his father's castle
and sat him down within his chamber to weep and
lament for her loss.
Meantime Count Bougars had by no means made
an end of the war, but was calling forth his men, horse
and foot, to besiege the castle of Count Garin. While
the assault was in full force, and when it seemed as
though the walls must shortly give way, Count Garin
again betook himself to his son's chamber, crying, "Son,
if thou lose this castle, thou art disinherited, and may

go forth into the world a beggar. Come now, take

arms and mount horse and defend thy land and help
thy men. For if thou dost not do this thing, men will
call thee coward."
care not what they call me," said the sad youth
I ;

nor will I mount horse nor go to the fray if you do
not give me Nicolette, my sweet friend, to be my
" "
Son," said his father, this cannot be. Rather would
I lose all that I have than that thou shouldst ever wed
He turned away, but Aucassin cried after him,
Father, come back : for I will make agreement with
I will take up arms and go to the fray on this
condition, that if I come back safe and sound, you will
letme see Nicolette, my sweet friend, and speak two or
three words to her, and kiss her only once."
To this the Count agreed, and Aucassin was happy.
Then he called for his armour, and they made him
ready with hauberk and helmet and gold-hilted sword ;

and he sprang upon his war-horse and reached for his

shield and spear, and spurred away beyond the outer
gate into the thickest of the fray.
Tall and strong and well-knit was the boy, and the
horse on which he sat was fiery and eager but his ;

mind was so full of Nicolette that he forgot all that

he ought to do. So the horse plunged forward un-
checked into the very midst of the enemy, and hands
were stretched out on every side against him and they;

wrested from him shield and lance and took him prisoner
on the spot, and began discussing by what death he
should die.
Then Aucassin at length realized his foolishness and
how, head were cut off, he would never speak to
if his

Nicolette again. He had still his sword in his sheath

and his good horse under him, and suddenly began to
cut right and left and make a havoc round about him,
so that he overthrew ten knights and struck down
seven and he pushed out of the press and came gallop-

ing back to the castle.

Now as he went, the Count Bougars, having heard
that they were about to hang Aucassin, his enemy,
came forth from the camp to see this done. Him did
Aucassin meet in the way, and struck him on the
helmet so that he fell stunned to the earth and the ;

youth put forth his hand and seized him and led him
captive to his father, saying, Behold your enemy who
has caused you such trouble Twenty years has this

war lasted, and never could be ended by man."

"Fair son," said the Count, well pleased, "such deeds
as this shouldst thou do, and not waste time on folly."
" "
Father," replied the boy, now say no more, I pray

you, but keep your agreement with me, and let me see
fair Nicolette for this was the promise you made

to me."
" " "
I ? said his father. I
promised thee naught. And
if she were here I would burn her in a fire, and you too
should not escape unhurt."
Then was Aucassin very wroth, and in his anger he
took Count Bougars, whom he had made his prisoner,
and set him on a horse and gave him his freedom. But
when Count Garin saw that his son would never help
him again nor ever forget sweet Nicolette, he had him
seized and bound and set in an underground dungeon,
whose walls were all of grey marble and there lay the

youth, lamenting his evil fate.

Now it was in the month of May, when the days are
warm and long and the nights still and clear, that this
hapless pair of lovers lay in prison. And one night, as
Nicolette lay in bed and heard the nightingale sing, she
thought much of Aucassin and of the ill-fate that might
come upon her at the hands of Count Garin, and so
determined to make her escape.
She saw that the old woman, her attendant, was fast
asleep, so she arose, put on a soft silken gown, and
taking the bed-clothes and towels, tied them together
and made a rope as long as she could. She fastened
this to the post of the window, and let herself down
into the garden. Right fair the maiden looked as she
walked through the dewy grass, and so very white was
her skin that the daisy flowers that bent under her foot-
fall looked dark against her ankles.

Through the postern gate she passed, and, moving

within the shadow, kept on until she came to the tower
where her true love was.
The tower was old and supported with buttresses,
and she crouched down beside one of these and wrapped
herself in her cloak and she put her head to a chink

in the tower and heard her lover

weep within and make

great lament for the sweet friend whom he loved so

Now when she had listened for a while, she began to
speak and said, O, my true love, stay thy laments, for
since thy father hates me so, he will never be at peace
with thee till I am far away. Now for thy sake I'll
cross the sea and wander in a strange land." With
these words she wept, and cut off a tress of her hair
and cast it through the hole into the dungeon but ;

Aucassin implored her not to go away, saying that this

indeed would surely kill him.
Now while they talked together, they were marked
by the Warden of the Tower yet he, being a man of

kindly heart, pretended not to see or hear them for he ;

was grieved for them both. So he held his tongue and

said nothing when the patrol of the town came along
that way but he saw they had drawn swords in their

hands ready to kill the maiden for so Count Garin had


commanded should be done if she should ever be found

to have escaped.
So he began to sing a song, as though he were singing
to himself, and this was what he sang
Little maid with grey-blue eyne,
Head of golden hair ashine,
Hear me now and understand :

Hide thee from the hireling band ;

They are coming thee to slay,

They will harm thee every "way,
Hide while yet thoti may !

When Nicolette heard this song she understood all,

and thanking him softly for his courtesy, she wrapped
herself in her dark cloak and stood in the shadow of
the buttress till the patrol had passed by. Then she
whispered farewell to Aucassin and ran on till she came
to the wall of the castle.
The wall had been broken down, and she climbed up
it till she stood between the wall and the dry and stony

moat below but the moat was very deep and

; sheer,
and she was sore afraid.
"What shall I do?" she
cried; "for if I let myself
fall I shall break neck, and if I stay here they will
take me in the morning and will burn me in a fire. Yet
would I rather die here than be stared at with great
wonder by all the folk to-morrow."
So she let herself slip down the moat and when she;

came to the bottom her pretty hands and feet were

bruised and covered with blood but she thought nothing

of this, for her great fear was that she might not be
able to climb up the other side. But she found at the
bottom a sharpened stake, and with this aid she took
one upward step after another until at length she
reached the top, and there she sat herself down for
a while to rest and consider what she had best do next.



OW when Nicolette had made her way a little
N" from the castle, she found herself on the edge of
a great forest, in which were serpents and savage beasts,
and of these she was very sore afraid. Said she to herself,
If I seek the thick forest, wolves will seize me for
their food, and the lion and the wild boar will tear me
in pieces and if I wait here until daylight I shall be

taken and burnt alive. Now therefore I choose the

forest with all its dangers."
So she passed into the wood, but daring not to go
far, she crouched down in a dense thicket and went to

sleep. She slept till dawn of day, when the herd-boys

came forth from the town and drove their beasts between
the forest and the river. On they passed till they came
to a fresh spring, which was at the edge of the forest,
and there they spread a cloak and laid their food
upon it.

When Nicolette awoke and saw this, she arose and

came to them, saying, Fair youths, may God be your
help !

" "
God bless you ! answered one who was more ready
of tongue than the rest, for they were dumb with
"Fair youths," said she, "do you know Aucassin, son
of Count Garin of Beaucaire ?
Yes, well do we know him," said they.
Then go, in God's name," said she very earnestly,
"and tell him there is a beast in this forest that he
should come and chase; and tell him that if he could take
it,he would not give one of its limbs for one hundred
gold sovereigns, nor for five hundred, nor for any
As she said these words all the boys looked hard at
her and were filled with wonder at her beauty. At
length their spokesman exclaimed, I tell him such a

thing? Not I indeed, for there is not a word of truth

in what you say. There is not a beast of any value in

the forest, not one whose limbs are worth more than
two or three pence at the most. But we see that you
are a fairy, and may be a wicked one. Go your way,
therefore, since we have no liking for your company."
" "
Ah, fair youth she cried " know you not that

Aucassin has a deadly hurt, from which he never will

be cured till he find this beast ? Here have I five
pennies in my purse take them and tell him that he

must chase the creature and take it within three days,

or he will never be cured of his hurt."
" "
Faith," said he, we will take the pennies, and if he
come here, we will tell him but we will never go to ;

seek him,"
" "
As God wills replied Nicolette meekly, and taking

her leave of the herd -boys, she passed on her way.

Through the wood she went by an ancient pathway
that wound among the trees, until she came to a place
where seven roads lay in seven different directions.
And as she knew not which way to go, she determined
to stay awhile that she might make sure whether
Aucassin really were true to her. So she took oaken
saplings and twisted them together with green leaves
interlaced, and made and decked with flowers a fair
bower in that spot, saying, If Aucassin should ride

past this bower and not tarry and rest awhile for his
love's sake, he shall never be true lover." my
Then she bower in a thick bush
hid herself near the
to seewhat Aucassin would do.
Meantime the report had spread through all the land
that Nicolette was lost. Some said she had run away
and others that Count Garin had done her to death.
Then Count Garin ordered that Aucassin his son
should be taken out of prison and he sent for the ;

knights of the land and the damsels of noble birth,

and made a very fine feast wherewith to comfort the
unhappy youth, who now believed that he should never
see fair Nicolette again.
When the banquet was at its height, Aucassin
managed away through the window on to a
to slip
balcony, and there he leaned upon the rail, all bowed
down with woe. Suddenly a strange knight, who had
been watching him for some time, came out and spoke
to him and said, " Aucassin, of the same hurt that you
have I have myself been wounded. And now, if you
will trust me, I will give you good counsel."
" " "
Sir, much thanks said Aucassin.
! For good
counsel would be greatly beholden to you."
Then mount horse," said he, " and go along the
edge of the forest to amuse yourself; and you will see
the flowers and the grass and will hear the little birds

sing. Perhaps there you may also hear a word of

which you will be the better."
" "
Sir," said Aucassin, I thank you, and I will
do it."
So he stole away from the hall and passed down the
stairs and into the stable where stood his horse. Saddle
and bridle he put on, and set foot in stirrup and
mounted and came out from the castle. On he went
till he came to the spring, and there he found the herd-

boys about three o'clock in the afternoon; and they had

spread a cloak on the grass and were eating their
bread with very great mirth. And as they ate they
sang this song
God give Aucassin his aid
And that little dainty maid,
She that hath the golden hair,
Eyes so clear and face so fair,
She who gave us pennies bright
Which shall buy us cakes to-night,
Knives with sheaths and whistles clear,
Little clubs and flutes to cheer,
Also little pipes that squeal
May God him heal !

When Aucassin heard this song he thought at once

of his sweet friend Nicolette and wondered if she had
been there.
" "
Fair youths," said he, sing again the song you sang
just now."
We will not sing
it," said he who was more ready of
tongue than the rest. Sorrow be to him who shall sing
it to you, fair sir !

"Do you not know me, boy?" said Aucassin; and

the other, a teasing wag, replied, " Yes, we
who was
know well that you are Aucassin, our young lord, but
we are not yours, but the Count's."
Fair youths, you will do so, I pray you."
indeed should I sing for you if it does not suit
me ? asked the lad pertly.

" "
Surely you will," cried Aucassin, if I give you these
ten pennies."
Sir," replied the boy, rising with a bow of mock
politeness, "we will take your money, but we will not
sing for you, for we have sworn it. But I will tell it to
you if you like."
" "
Well," said Aucassin, I would like it told better
than have nothing."
the boy, " we were here quite lately
Sir," said
between six and nine o'clock in the morning, and we
were eating our bread beside this very spring and ;

there came out to us a maiden, the fairest thing in the

world, so that we thought she was a fairy and that she
ruled over all this wood. She gave us money, and we
made agreement with her that, if you came here, we
would tell you that you should go hunt in this forest ;

that there was a beast therein so precious that you would

not give one of its limbs, for any money, for the beast
has such a remedy that if you can take it, you will be cured
of your wounds. But you must catch it within three
days or else never more shall you see it. Now chase it
if you choose, or leave it if you choose, for I have done
all I
promised her."
" "
Fair youth," said Aucassin, you have said enough.
May God grant I find this beast."
Then Aucassin hastened within the forest, and his
charger bore him at a great pace from path to path.
The brambles tore him so that the blood poured forth
in many places, and one could have traced his path by
the red drops that fell on the grass. But he thought so
much of Nicolette, his sweet friend, that he felt neither
pain nor wound.
All day he went through the forest without ever
having news of her, and when he saw that evening drew
near, he began to weep because he had not found
Then, as he rode along an ancient grassy way, he
saw before him in the middle of the path a youth of
very strange appearance. He was big and very ugly ;

his large head was blacker than a coal, and there was
more than a hand's-breadth between his two eyes; he had
great cheeks, and a very big, flat nose, wide nostrils, and
thick lips, with very large yellow teeth. He wore
leggings and shoes of ox-hide bound by strips of bark
over the knee his cloak was of rough untanned leather,

and he was leaning upon a big club.

To him Aucassin hastened, but when he looked on
him he had great fear.
" " "
Fair brother," he said, good even to you !

" "
God bless growled the other.
you !

What do you here?" asked Aucassin.
" "
What does it matter to you ? replied the other.
Nothing at all ;
only ask you in friendly wise."
"But why do you weep?" asked the other curiously.
Sure, if I were as rich a man as you are, all the world
would not make me weep."
"Why, do you know me?" cried Aucassin.
Yes, I know well that you are Aucassin, the son of
the Count and if you tell me why you weep, I will

tell you what I do here."

" "
Surely," said Aucassin, I will gladly tell you. 1

came this morning to hunt in this forest, for I had a

white deerhound, the most beautiful in this world, and
I have lost itweep."
for this I
What !" cried the youth. " You weep for a wretched
dog Black sorrow be his who pities you, seeing that

there is not a rich man in this land who, if j^our father

asked of him twenty dogs, would not send them very
willingly, and be glad to do it. But it is I who ought
to weep and lament."
"And for what, brother?"
Sir, I will tell you. I was hired by a rich farmer

to drive his plough, and he had four oxen. Now, three

days ago I
happened by great misfortune to lose the

best of my oxen, and I go seeking him. And I have

neither eaten nor drunk for three days past, for I dare
not go back to the town, lest the farmer put me in

prison, since have not wherewithal to pay him. Of


all the wealth in the world I have nothing but what

you see upon me. A poor old mother I have, and she
had nothing but a wretched mattress and that the ;

farmer dragged away from under her, so that she now

lies on the bare straw and for her I grieve much more

than for myself.

For money goes and comes ;
what I have lost now
I shall gain another time, and I shall pay for my ox
when I can I shall never weep for that. But you

weep for a wretched dog Black sorrow be to him!

who shall pity you for it " !

"Surely," cried Aucassin, "you are a good comforter,

brother What was your ox worth ? "

"Sir, twenty shillings they ask me for it no less."

Now take twenty that I have here in my purse and
pay your ox," said Aucassin.
he replied, " much thanks
Sir," And may God let !

you find that which you seek."

He parted from him and Aucassin rode on. The
night was beautiful and very still, and he wandered on
until he came to the place where the seven ways forked ;

and there he looked before him and saw the fair bower
that Nicolette had made.
With flowers she had decked it without and within,
and it was the most beautiful ever seen as it lay in the
clear moonlight.
" " "
Ah cried the boy,
Nicolette, sweet friend, my
has been here, and has made this with her own fair
hands. For her sweet sake I will now dismount, and
will rest therein for the remainder of the night."
So he took his foot out of the stirrup to come down,
and the horse was big and tall. Weary as he was, and
with his mind full of Nicolette. his most sweet friend,
he let himself slip, and fell on a stone so hard that he

put his shoulder out of place.

Hurt as he was, he did the best he could, tied his
horse with the other hand to a thorn tree, and crawled
into the bower.
Then he looked through an opening in the bower
and saw the stars in the sky, and one among them
brighter than all the rest. And he began to sing this
song " Thou star (hat shinest clear on high,
The moon doth strive to draw thee nigh ;

My Nicolette is with thee there,

My little love with golden hair."

When Nicolette heard these words she came running

to him, for she was not away, and clasped him in
her arms, crying, Fair, sweet friend, how you are
welcome !

And he answered with joy, Fair, sweet friend, well
found !

Then they embraced all over again, and great was

their happiness.
" "
It said Aucassin, that I was much
was but now,"
hurt in the shoulder, but I feel neither pain nor grief
since I have you."
Then she felt him about and soon found that his
shoulder was out of place and she handled it with her;

skilful fingers, and so pulled it that, as God willed, who

loves all true lovers, it came back to its place. And
then she took some flowers and some fresh grass and
green leaves and tied it up with a bit of her petticoat,
and he was soon quite cured.
" "
Now, Aucassin," said she, take thought for to-
morrow. For if your father has the forest searched in
the morning, and I am found, whatever may happen to
you, I shall be put to death."
Nay, sweet friend, for I will never let them take
you," cried Aucassin, and at once he mounted his horse,

took his true love in front of him, and so set out

towards the open fields.

They pass the hills, they pass the downs,

They pass the villages and towns,
They come at daybreak to the strand,
And there alighting on the sand,
They doubtful stand.



as Aucassin and Nicolette were wandering
NOW along the shore, they saw a vessel with merchants
aboard passing very near the land.
He beckoned to them, and they came to him and
were persuaded to take them on board the vessel. But
when they were upon the high seas a great and terrible
storm uprose, which drove them from land to land until
they reached a strange country and entered the gates of
the Castle of Torylory.
Then they asked whose land it was, and they told

them that belonged to the King of Torylory. So

it all

they asked what manner of man he was and if he made

any war, and they said, Yes, and a mighty war too."
So Aucassin took leave of the merchants, mounted
his horse, girded on his sword, took his true love before
him, and went along until he came within the castle
He asked \vhere the King was, and they told him that
he sat within the bower working a fair piece of tapestry.
Where then is his wife ? " asked Aucassin, and they
answered that she, with all the other people in the land,
was with the army.
Thereat they marvelled greatly and dismounted from
the horse, and while Nicolette held the bridle, Aucassin
went upstairs to the bower where the King lay stretched
upon a settle at his ease. Then was Aucassin very
wroth he called the King ill words, and taking a

stick, he beat him until he swore that he would never

again sit at ease while his wife went forth to the war.
When he had thus sworn, Aucassin said, " Now, sir,
lead me to the place where your wife is with the army."
So the King and Aucassin mounted their horses, but
Nicolette stayed in the chamber of the Queen.
Now when they came to the battlefield, Aucassin
found that the weapons wherewith the soldiers fought
were roasted crab-apples, and eggs, and fresh cheeses.
He halted therefore, greatly wondering, and staring
at this strange warfare. Sir," said he at length to the

King, "are these your enemies?"

Yes, that they be," said he.
And would you have me avenge you upon them ? "
Yes, gladly," replied the King.
So Aucassin set his hand to his sword and rushed
among them and began to strike right and left, killing
many of them.
But when the King saw this he caught him by the
bridle saying, Stay, fair sir, do not kill them utterly."
What " said Aucassin, " do you not wish that I

avenge you?
" "
Sir," said the King, you have done too much a!

ready. It is not the custom that we should kill one

Bythis time the foe had turned and fled and the ;

King and Aucassin returned to the Castle of Torylory.

Now after a while the people of the land became so
fond of Nicolette that they bade the King drive Aucassin
out of the country and keep her for his heir, for they
said they were certain she was of very noble birth.
But of this Nicolette would hear not a word, being
well content to wait upon the Queen so long as she might
see her true love Aucassin and speak to him at times.

After they had lived for some time in peace and

happiness at the Castle of Torylory, there came one day
a fleet of Saracens from over the sea and attacked the
castle and took it by storm. They carried away all the
booty, and many of the men and women to be their
slaves. Nicolette and Aucassin they took and bound
hand and him into one vessel and Nicolette
foot, flinging
into another. Nor was that the end of their ill-fortune,
for a storm arose which parted the vessels widely from
one another.
The ship in which Aucassin found himself drifted so
far over the sea that it came at length to the castle of
Beaucaire and lay a wreck upon that coast. And the
people of that country ran to the wreck, and rejoiced
greatly to find Aucassin, their young lord, therein. For
his parents had died during his long absence and he
was now their Count so they took him to the castle

and all became his men, and he held the land in peace.
But his heart was heavy day and night for love and
sorrow for Nicolette, his sweet friend, saying

"True maid of sunny face,

Now cannot guess thy place
I ;

God never made that kingdom yet,

No land, no ocean hath he set,
But I would search it if so be
I might find thee."

Meantime itso happened that the ship in which Nico-

lette lay belonged to the King of Carthage and his
twelve sons; but she knew it not. When they saw how
very fair was the maiden, they treated her with great
honour and often they asked her who she was, for

they were sure that she was a very noble lady and of
high lineage. But she could not tell them anything save
that she had been carried away from home as a little
" "
Yet," she said, I was not so
child. young but that if
I saw
my country again I should know at once whether
it was my home or not."
So on they sailed till they came to the city of Carth-
age and when Nicolette saw the walls of the castle and

the country round, she remembered at once that it was

her birthplace, from which she had been carried away,
and she described the castle of the King and the rooms
in which she had been brought up and the woman who
had tended her. And she began to lament, saying,
"Woe is me that was born daughter to the King of
Carthage and cousin of the Sultan, who now am the
captive of a savage tribe. Oh, would I might see
Aucassin again and be delivered by him !

When the King of Carthage heard her speak thus, he

drew her near to him and said very kindly, " Sweet
friend, tell me who you are and do not be afraid of me."
" "
Sir," said I am daughter of the King of
Carthage, and I was carried away as a little child, just
fifteen years ago."
When he heard her speak thus, he knew in truth that
she was his long-lost daughter and they all made very

great joy over her, and took her to the palace with very
great honour as the daughter of the King. Very soon
they wished to marry her to a great Saracen chieftain ;

but she only thought by what means she could find

Aucassin. Then finding that they would not let her be,
she took her viol and stole away one night till she came
to the seaport town, where she lodged at the house of a
poor woman on the shore.
Then she took a herb and smeared her head and her
face until she was all stained dark. She next had a
coat and a cloak and shirt and breeches made, and
dressed herself in fashion of a minstrel boy. Then she
took her viol and persuaded a seaman to take her on
board his vessel, and they sailed far over the high seas
till they came to the land of Provence.
There Nicolette left the ship and took her viol and
went playing through the country until she came to the
castle of Beaucaire where Aucassin dwelt.

Now Aucassin sat one day upon a balcony beneath

the tower of Beaucaire with all his barons around
him and he saw the grass and flowers around him and

heard the little birds sing. But his heart was heavy,
for he could think of nothing but Nicolette, the kind
and brave, whom he had loved so long and well.
Suddenly a minstrel youth appeared below, who
touched the strings of his viol and thus began to sing

Listen, noble lords, to me,
Ye of high and low degree,
An ye care to hear a stave
Tell of Nicolette the brave
And of Aucassin the true ;

Loving bonds between them grew.

He sought her in forest deep,
Then from Torylory's keep
Paynims bore them both away.
Of Aucassin I nothing say,
But Nicolette, the brave and true,
Doth in Carthage live anew ;

There her father, who is King,

Loves her more than anything.
They wish that she shall marry yet
A king not loved of Nicolette ;

She loveth only one young knight,

He who Aucassin is
hight ;

In the name of Heaven she swore

Ne'er will she have lover more,
If she may not find that lord
By her adored."

When Aucassin heard this song he sprang from his

seat, and taking the minstrel aside said, " Fair sweet
friend, do you know anything of this Nicolette of
whom you have sung ? "
Sir, yes
I know she is the truest maiden and the

most gentle and wise that ever was born. She is

daughter of the King of Carthage, who took her prisoner
when Aucassin was taken, and brought her to the city
of Carthage, until he discovered that she was his very
own daughter. Then he made great joy over her, and
wished every day to give her for husband one of the

greatest kings in Spain ;

but she would sooner be
hanged or burnt than marry such an one, however rich
he was."
Ah, Count Aucassin, " if you will
fair friend," cried
return to that country and tell her to come to speak
to me, I will give you as much of my money as ever
you care to ask. For I will not take a wife, however
high is her birth, but I wait for her and never will I ;

marry at all if I may not have her. If I had but

known where to find her, I should not have to seek her
" "
Sir," said the minstrel, if you will do this, I will

go to seek her for your sake and for hers, whom I love
This he vowed to the minstrel and put money in his
hands, and when he turned away he wept. Then was
the heart of her who seemed a minstrel softened, and
she said, " Sir, be not dismayed, since in a little while
I shall have brought her to you in this town and you

shall see her."

So she left him and went to the house of the Vis-
countess, where she had been brought up for the ;

Viscount, her godfather, was dead. There she revealed

herself and told all her story and the Viscountess

received her with joy, and made her bathe and rest for
eight whole days. Then she rubbed her with a certain
herb, which made her as fair as ever she had been, and
dressed her in rich silk cloth and she sat down in the

chamber on a quilted coverlet of silk, and called the

Viscountess and asked her to go for Aucassin her love.
This she did, and when she came to the palace, she
found Aucassin weeping and grieving for Nicolette his
love, because she delayed so long. Then the lady
called him and said to him, "Aucassin, lament no more,
but come with me, and I will show you the thing you
love most in the world for it is Nicolette, your sweet

friend, who has come from a far country to find you."


Thereat Aucassin made no further stay, but ran to

the chamber where Nicolette was awaiting him ; and
then were both of them happy indeed.
And on the morrow Aucassin married his sweet
maiden and made her lady of Beaucaire, where they
lived many years in delight and happiness.
So endeth the story of Aucassin and Nicolette.

The verse quotations in this story are from the translation of M, S.

(From the Dit de VEmpereur Constant}

upon a time there lived a certain Emperor

whose name was Musselin and he ruled over

the city of Byzantium, which is now called Con-

Now this Emperor was learned in the science of the
moon and the planets and the stars and he knew much;

of sorcery and of witchcraft, as did most of the pagans

of that day. And it came to pass one clear moonlight
night that he went forth, with a single knight for
company, through the midst of the city; and as he
passed along, he heard the voice of a man on a high
tower praising God aloud, because a child had been
born to him at that particular hour.
Then the Emperor and the Knight went in unto the
man, and asked him why he praised God with such
exceeding joy for that the child had been born at that
particular time. And the man bowed low to them and
answered (not knowing who they were), " Sir, I am a
man learned in the course of the stars and of the
planets, and I feared that if my child had been born
an hour ago he must needs be burned or drowned or
hanged ;
for so was it written in the sky. But now
that he born at this particular time, I know that all

is well with him and for that reason I praise God."


" "
But how is it well with him ? asked the Emperor ;

and the man answered, " Know, sir, that the boy just
born shall one day marry the daughter of the Emperor
of this city, who was born a week ago; and in good

time he shall be Emperor of this place and lord of all

the earth."
" "
Fellow," said the Emperor, this can never come to
" "
Sir," replied the man, it is written in the stars that
thus it shall be."
Then was the Emperor very wroth, though he made
no and departed thence with the Knight. But
when he reached the street he bade the Knight pass
in secretly to the man's house and bring the child to
him. And the Knight passed in secretly, and finding
the babe lying, wrapped in linen clothes, upon a chair,
he took him and put him on a board and brought him
to the Emperor without being seen by any man.

Whereupon the Emperor took his knife and gashed

the child's breast, saying that this peasant's son should
never marry his daughter, nor come to rule after him.
But when he would next have killed him outright, the
Knight intervened, saying, Sire, it is not meet that
you should do this thing and if it came to men's

knowledge it would bring shame on you. Let the babe

be, for he is dead already but if you will make sure

without more bloodshed, I will carry him down and

drown him in the sea."
Do so," said the Emperor, " for I hate him with all
my heart."
So the Knight took the child and wrapped him in a
silken kerchief and carried him down to the shore but ;

on the way his heart was touched with pity. Now it

so happened that he had to pass by the gate of a
certain abbey, in the church of which the monks were
singing their matins and the Knight, when he heard

them sing, placed the child on a heap of rubbish before

the gates and left him there.
It was not long before the monks had left their sing-

ing and had heard the crying of the babe and one of ,

them went out and brought him in to the Abbot. And

when the Abbot saw was a fair babe, and had
that he
been cruelly ill-treated, he sent for doctors to heal him,

and declared that he should be brought up within the

a large sum
abbey. And because the surgeons required
of money to heal the child, he was christened Co(n)stans,
because it cost the abbey many coins before he could
be healed.
Now the little Constans speedily grew in health and
beauty, so that every one said he must have
come of
high kindred and would win great renown. When he
was seven years old he went to school, where he soon
became a fine scholar and when he was twelve, he

was so clever and so fair to look upon, that the Abbot

chose him to ride behind him as his page. After that
time it came about that the Abbot wished to speak
with the Emperor concerning a wrong which had been
done to the abbey by some of his followers. So he
sent him a noble gift and asked leave to visit him at
his castle, some miles away ;
and to this the Emperor
Then the Abbot rode forth with his train of followers,
and close beside him rode the boy Constans and when ;

he reached the castle, the boy drew near to him to hold

his hat in the presence of the Emperor. But when the
latter saw the lad, and marked how fair and gentle he
at once
was, he could not take his eyes off him, and began
to ask the Abbot who he was and whence he came.
" "
All I can tell of him," replied the Abbot, is that
nearly fifteen years since, our monks
heard the voice of
a crying child as they came out from their matins;
and when they brought him to me I saw that he was
fair, and gave orders
that he should be nourished.
But when I unwrapped him, I saw that he had been
cruelly mistreated for his breast had been gashed with

a knife, and the mark of it remains unto this day."

Then the Emperor knew at once that it was the
child he had tried to kill, and he eagerly asked the

Abbot to give him the lad. The Abbot replied that

he could not do this without the consent of his monks,
and, returning to the abbey, told them of the Emperor's
wish. They, however, being in great fear of the Em-
peror's anger against them, desired him to send the
boy to the Court at once and so Constans was sent

away in haste to theEmperor.

Now the Emperor was glad to get the boy, for he
hated him very sorely, and was determined that he
should not escape him a second time. But he was very
anxious that none should know of his evil intention,
and so went warily to work.
It happened at that time that the Emperor had
business on the borders of his land, about twelve days'
journey from Byzantium and he departed thither,

taking the boy Constans with him. And after he had

taken much thought as to how he should put an end to
the lad, he sat him down and wrote as follows :

I, Emperor of Byzantium and Lord of Greece, give

this clear command to the officer whom I have left in

my place for the guarding ofmy land that so soon as


thou seest this thou shalt slay or cause to be

slain him who shall bear this letter to thee, directly he
has given it into thy hands. See that my commands
are obeyed, as thou valuest thine head."
Forthwith he gave the letter into the hands of the
fair child Constans, and the lad set off, little knowing
that he was bearing his own death-warrant.
Hastening on his way, the boy reached the city in
less than fifteen days and as it happened, the time

that he arrived was the hour of dinner. So he desired

to wait until the folk had finished their meal, and mean-
time, because the sun was very hot, he rode into a long
garden, where there was shade on the green grass, un-
bridled his horse that the animal might graze, and sat
himself down beneath a tree. And there he presently
fell fast asleep.
Now it so happened that when the fair young daugh-
ter of the Emperor had finished her meal, she went
into the garden with three of her maidens ;
and they
began to chase each other about the place. And as
they did so, the Emperor's daughter came of a sudden
to the tree where Constans lay sleeping, and she saw
him and looked on him with delight, saying to herself
that never had she seen so fair a youth. Then she
called to her one of the maidens whom she loved best,
and sent the others from the garden and she showed ;

him to the maiden, saying, This is the handsomest
man that ever I have seen on any day of my life. See,
he bears a letter in his pouch, and gladly would I see
what it says."
Then the two maidens drew nigh to the lad, and
took from his pouch the letter, and the Princess read it
to herself; and when she had so done she began to

weep and lament. Then her companion begged her

to tell her the cause, and when the Princess had made
her vow to be true to her, she told her what the letter
" "
Lady, what will you do ? cried the maiden in

dismay; and her young mistress answered

I will put in his pouch another letter, in which the

Emperor, my father, bids his officer to give me to this

fair boy as his wife, and to make a great feast at our

wedding, seeing that the lad is of high and noble birth."

But, lady, how wilt thou have the seal of thy
father?" asked the maiden; and the Princess, nothing
daunted, replied that she had in her coffer four blank
scrolls, already sealed by the Emperor, which he had

given her in case she needed to borrow money to make

ready an army during his absence. One of these she
took, therefore, and wrote thereon
"I, King Musselin, Emperor of Greece and of Byzan-
tium my city, command thee, my officer, left in my place
for the guarding of my city, that ye give to the bearer of

this lettermy fair daughter in marriage for he is of


noble birth and well worthy to have her. And for that
reason make ye great joy and a feast to all them of
my city and of all my land."
In such wise wrote the daughter of the Emperor,
and when she had so done, she crept back to the garden
with her maiden and put the letter in the pouch of the
sleeping youth.
Then they began to sing and clap their hands to
waken him, and when he opened his eyes, he was much
confused to see those two fair maidens. And when
they greeted him, he sprang to his feet, and bowed low,
and answered them as behoved a courteous knight but ;

he could not take his eyes from the fair face of the
daughter of the Emperor. Then she asked him his
errand and when he told her that he bore a letter to

the officer in charge, the Princess told him she would

bring him in to him and she took him by the hand

and brought him to the palace.

When the officer heard that he was come from the
Emperor, he paid the lad much honour, and, kissing his
hand, received from it the royal letter. But when the
Princess heard the contents she pretended great sur-
prise as for the officer, he was astonished beyond

measure, and said in trembling tones to her, Lady,
we must indeed do the will of your father, or otherwise
we shall be blamed exceedingly."
But the maiden made pretence of anger, saying,
"How can I be wedded without my lord my father?
That would be a strange thing indeed, and I will do it
in no manner."
" "
Say not the officer in fear, for thus
so, lady," cried
thy father ordains, and we must not gainsay it."
"Sir," said the Princess, "you shall speak unto the
chief men of the kingdom and take counsel of them.
And they agree I will not go against it."

This the officer made haste to do, and showed them

the letter, and they all agreed that the will of the
Emperor must be done. So they wedded the fair youth
Constans to the fair daughter of the Emperor and a ;

great feast was made to all the people for the space of
fifteen days.
Meantime the Emperor, having finished his business,
returned to Byzantium, and while he was still two days'
journey distant from the place, a young man came
out from the city and met him on the way and the ;

Emperor asked how they did there. When the young

man told him that they made good cheer there and did
nothing but eat and drink during the last fifteen days,
the Emperor asked the reason.
But surely, sire, thou knowest wherefore they do
this?" cried the astonished youth. "Thou sendest
a lad, exceeding fair and noble, to the officer, bidding
him wed him to thy daughter. But she would not have
him till all thy chief men had agreed that thy commands
must be obeyed in this matter. Then were they
wedded right happily, and such joy has been in the city
as none might wish it better."
Then was the astonished, but all
Emperor mightily
he said was, " Since it is so, I must abide it, for there is
naught else to be done."
So he rode on to Byzantium, and when he drew near,
his fair daughter came out to meet him by the side of
her young husband, and a more lovely pair it had been
hard indeed to find. The Emperor, being a wise man,
pretended to feel great joy and received them both
with honour and regard. Then he asked to be shown
the letter, and when he saw it with his seal affixed, he
pondered much upon these things. All that night he
sat deep in thought, and at length he said to himself
that he had striven in vain against the things that had
to be.
Thereupon he made Constans a knight and ap-
pointed him his heir after his death. And Constans

bore himself wisely as a valiant and a hardy knight

and defended him full well against his enemies.

Not long afterwards the Emperor died and was

buried, and Constans became Emperor in his stead.
And the Emperor gave great honour to that good
Abbot who had nourished him and saved his life, and
in his days did all the people of that land become
A fair young son was born to Constans and his wife,
whom they called Constantine thereafter was that city

known as Constantinople, which was called Byzantium

at first.

And this is the end of the story of Constans the

(From Le Chanson de Roland)

came to pass in the days of Charlemagne


NOW Emperor had a feud with one of his

that the
great vassals, Count Gerard of Viana. The cause of it
was as follows The Count with many others had come

to Aix to do homage for his land and to petition

Charlemagne to grant him also the dukedom of Bur-

gundy in return for his services in the late war. So
he stood before the Emperor and his Queen, who sat
upon two thrones upon a raised dais, and bent to pay
hishomage by kissing the foot ot the King. But as he
did so he caught his own foot in the rushes which lay
spread upon the floor and, stumbling forward, pressed
his lips to the dainty wmte shoe of the Queen instead.
The surrounding peers gave a shout of laughter at
this mistake, but as the Count made no apology, stand-
ing flushed and angry at the jesting, with his hand upon
his sword, Charlemagne's hot temper flared forth, and he
declared that the land of Burgundy should be reserved
for one who better knew the laws of courtesy. At that
Count Gerard called his men together and left the
palace in a rage, declaring that he would never do
homage for Viana at all.
So he strengthened his castle and openly defied the
King and there came to his assistance his brother,

Duke Miles, and his son Rainier, with many armed fol-
lowers. But with Rainier came also the two children
of the latter, the maiden Aude, beautiful as the dawn,

and Oliver, that valiant young knight, who in former

days had been sworn brother-in-arms to Roland, the
nephew of Charlemagne.
Now when the Emperor heard that Duke Gerard had
defied him, he swore a great oath that he would never
forgive him nor leave him in peace until he had
on his knees before him. He gathered his great army
forthwith, marched upon Viana, and closely besieged
the castle. But the latter was so well fortified and
provisioned that there seemed little chance of success.
Oftentimes during the long siege the fair maiden
Aude would come upon the battlements and look down
upon the tents below, stretching wide to the banks of
the Rhine and there was she seen one day by young

Sir Roland, who thought her the loveliest thing in all

that land and longed to find favour in her sight. But
he knew not that she was the sister of Oliver, nor did
he dream that his former brother-in-arms was one of
those who so valiantly protected the castle.
Month after month the siege continued. All the
hard winter-tide the soldiers of Charlemagne kept their
tents and endured miseries of cold and hunger and ;

many of them might well wish themselves elsewhere.

When springtime came there rode messengers into the
camp, bringing news that Marsilius, the Moorish King
of Spain, had crossed the Pyrenees and was ravaging
the South of France with fire and sword. And all the
people of that fair region called aloud upon Charlemagne
to come to their help without delay.
Thenthe peers of Charlemagne, when they heard
this news, came to him in council and prayed him to
raise the long and hopeless siege and set them free to
march against the Moorish foes. But Charlemagne
shook his great beard at them, saying, Can the King
break his oath? Have I not sworn not to forgive
Count Gerard nor leave him in peace until I have
humbled him to the dust?"
In vain they reasoned with him ; nothing would
move him from his resolve until the wise Duke Naymes
made his proposition.
Let God decide this matter," said the Duke, " and
letus leave Him to settle it by single combat. We will
choose one of our knights by lot, and let Count Gerard
be asked to do the same and the winner shall decide

whether the Count does homage or whether we ride

away and leave him at peace."
This idea seemed very good to the Emperor and his
peers, and an embassy was at once dispatched to Count
Gerard with the proposition.
Now the Count and his followers were just as weary
of this long and profitless siege as were those in the
Emperor's camp. So they gladly sent word back that
they would agree to do as had been proposed and both

sides prepared to draw the lot.

On the side of Charlemagne this fell upon Roland ;

and at this all men save the traitor Ganelon rejoiced for

Roland was both young and valiant and very eager to

prove his prowess in the sight of the Emperor. So he
buckled on his good sword Durandal, and the strong new
buckler that the King himself had given him, and
mounted his war-horse and rode forth to victory. The
place of the combat was an island in the midst of the
River Rhine, and there Roland found waiting for him a
well-made young knight in shining armour, whose face
was hidden from him by the visor of his helmet.
On one side of the river stood the hosts of Charle-
magne opposite to the hosts of Count Gerard on the
other, and both watched eagerly for the result of the
fight. Among the watchers on the castle side stood
the maiden Aude and looked with eyes of approval at
the handsome form of Roland as he approached his
Pale blue and white was the robe she wore, and pale
blue and white were the ribbons that fluttered from the
helmet of the stranger knight whom he was now about
to encounter.
Then the fight began. At the first furious onset the
lances of both the combatants were broken against each
other's shields. They fought then on foot for all the rest
of that day, but not a single advantage did one gain over
the other till the evening, when the sword of the stranger
knight was shattered to atoms by a furious blow against
Roland's helmet.
The latter at once lowered his own point, saying,
"The champion of Charlemagne fights not against an
unarmed man. Stay therefore until the morning, for
night draws on apace, and to-morrow choose another
sword and let us come fresh to the fray."
So combat ended for that day and the champions
retired to rest. Next morning the fight began again
with renewed vigour, and all day long were these two
knights exactly matched until the evening, when
Roland's shield was split from top to bottom by the
sword of Gerard's champion. At once the latter

dropped his sword and bade his adversary retire till the
morning and then come with fresh armour.
So in this same manner that strange combat con-
tinued for five days, neither gaining a fair advantage in
the fight and each scorning to get the better of his foe
by an unfair one.
At length, as the fifth day drew to its close the two
knights waxed desperate and drove hard at each
other in hopes to bring the strange combat to an end.
At precisely the same moment that the sword of the
stranger knight broke off short to the handle after a
terrible blow on Roland's shield, the sword of Roland
buried itself up to its hilt in the shield of the stranger
knight so that it could not be withdrawn.
Both were now defenceless save for their fists, and
with these they were about to rush upon each other
when a strange thing happened. bright cloudA

suddenly fell between them from the sky and in its

midst stood an angel with uplifted hand bidding them
cease their strife. At this wonderful portent each of
the young knights cast off his helmet and bowed his
head in awe and when they looked up again, behold,

the angel had vanished and each was gazing at a well-

known face.
"Roland!" "Oliver!"
" "
I yield !

Exactly at the same moment came the cry from each

as they rushed into each other's arms in a long em-
Deep was the wonder of the armies on either side of
the river at this remarkable development, and messengers
were hastily dispatched for an explanation.
This was soon forthcoming, and so strong was the tie
between all brothers-in-arms in chivalry that both sides
joined in a cheer of congratulation. And because the
combat had been so wonderfully equal between them
there grew up from that time forth a proverb Give
a Roland for an Oliver which means the same as
Tit for tat."

Now not actually settle the feud

this incident did
with Count Gerard, though it went a long way towards
doing so by creating a spirit of goodwill on both sides ;
but meantime the army of Charlemagne was
in the
growing more and more discontented with its position,
and more and more eager to fight the forces of the
Moors, those ancient foes of France.
At length one count after another began to collect
his forces and slip quietly away towards the devastated
region of the south, sometimes giving as his reason that
he must go and look after his property in that part,
sometimes saying nothing at all, but taking French
leave" which means no leave at all.
And still Charlemagne made no sign, though inwardly
his heart misgave him.

Then it so happened that one day as he went to the

chase he found himself suddenly surrounded by Count
Gerard's men, who had been lying in wait for him.
Brought before the Count, the Emperor heard a traitor
knight speaking eagerly to his captor and advising that
he should be put to death.
Then arose old Count Gerard and smote down that
traitor knight even to the ground, and cried aloud,
Never will I take advantage of my liege lord thus !

Rather pay him homage for my lands."

will I

So saying he knelt humbly before the Emperor and

placed his hands between those of Charlemagne, who
raised him to his feet, crying, Now is my oath fulfilled
in strange fashion, and gladly do I declare this feud at
an end. Let all be forgotten and forgiven between us,
and to-night will I feast with you in your castle of
So the peers and knights on both sides met in peace
and goodwill at that banquet and Roland sat with

Oliver on his left hand and the fair Aude on his right.
And days to come, when Roland had fought and

vanquished a great giant of the pagan Moors, he claimed

the hand of fair Aude in marriage. But before the
wedding came that sad and terrible day at Roncesvalles,
when Roland so bravely laid down his life for the cause
of Christendom.
But of that we shall read in the next story.
(From Le Chanson de Roland)



long years had Charlemagne the King
fought against the heathen host of the Moors in
Spain, until he had conquered all the land down to the
seashore itself. One fortress only withstood him yet,
and that was Saragossa, which, perched upon a rocky
mountain-top, defied all efforts to subdue it. And
within the fortress of Saragossa lived Marsilius, the
Moorish King, who feared neither God nor man save
only Charlemagne.
Within the walls of the city sat Marsilius under an
olive tree and held council with his nobles and his
What shall we do ? " said he. " For seven
long years has Charlemagne fought within our borders
and has won to himself all our land save only Sara-
gossa. And now he will come to take that also from
us, and we are no match for his warriors when he
comes. What, then, shall we do to save ourselves and
our land ?
Then rose up the wise counsellor Blancandrin and
said, "One thing is clear. Too long already has
Charlemagne been in the land of Spain, and now 'tis
high time that he be got rid of. Now, since we are
too few to drive him forth, we must have recourse to
strategy. 'Tis easy to make promises, and none here
is bound by them in after days. Let us therefore

choose out an embassy, and let them go to Charle-

magne and speak to him after this fashion
: Marsilius
sendeth humble greeting to the great Charles. Like-
wise he owns thy power, and sees that it is of no avail
to strive longer
o against
o thee. He would therefore make
a covenant with thee. If thou wilt depart in peace from
this land, Marsilius will be baptized and all his host,
and will pay thee homage and hold the country hence-
forth, or such part as may please thee, as thy vassal.
And thus shall the covenant be fulfilled. If thou
wilt go to thy castle at Aachen and keep there the
feast of Michaelmas, thy vassal Marsilius will journey
thither and will bring with him the tribute. Many
dogs and lions will he bring, with seven hundred
camels and a thousand falcons he will also bring four

hundred harness mules and fifty chariots full of gold

and silver.'
"Thus shall the ambassadors say to Charlemagne,
and he, being simple of heart, will hear them readily,
and so will depart from the land."
He finished speaking, and Marsilius, pulling his
white beard doubtfully, replied, " Mayhap this Charle-
magne is not so simple as to trust so easily the word of
a Moor. Suppose he demand hostages?"
Let him have them " cried Blancandrin. " Let

him have ten or twenty of our sons. He is welcome

to mine at any rate. What matters so long as oui
land is rid of him? For he will go with all his host to
Aachen, and when the feast is held and we do not
appear, he will slay the boys in his wrath at finding he
has been tricked. But what matters that ? Better that
our sons should die than that our land be lost for ever."
Then all the council arose and cried, " Blancandrin
has spoken well. Let this now be done."
So Blancandrin and nine others of the Moorish peers
went forth on ten white mules, whose bridles were of
gold and their saddles trimmed with silver and they
held olive branches in their hands in token of peace
and good fellowship. Thus equipped they set out for
Cordova, which city Charlemagne had just taken, and
before which henow held high festival.
Beneath a pine tree twined about with brier-rose sat
Charlemagne upon a golden chair, inlaid with ivory.
Very white and long was his beard, his face was bronzed,
and his eyes bright and blue and though his years

were many, his back was not bowed nor his great
strength brought low.
Scattered upon the green lawn on which he sat were
some of the noblest of the peers of France and nearest to

himself stood Roland, his nephew, and captain of his

host. Not
far off lay Oliver, the friend of Roland, and

Geoffrey of Anjou, the King's standard-bearer, stretched

upon the white cloth which was spread upon the grass ;

others were tilting with each other upon the green ;

while the elder knights gathered round the tables where

some of their number were playing at chess.
Into the midst of this noble company came the
Moorish ambassadors and bowed themselves low before
the King and when he had given permission to speak,

Blancandrin spoke these words

God save the glorious King Charlemagne, the ruler
of the earth. My master Marsilius sends me to thee to
beg that thou wilt make peace with him, for he can
withstand thee no longer. If thou wilt get thee to

Aachen, thy royal city, Marsilius will follow thee there

to keep the feast of S. Michael with thee ;
for he will
seek baptism there, with all his host, and will worship
from henceforth the God of the Christians. Gifts will
he bring of bears and lions, hounds and camels, falcons
and jewels,and chariots full of gold and silver. And
he pledge his word to be thy man henceforth and
to hold Spain under thy command, yea, all that he hath
he will hold of thee. Thy servant hath spoken it."
Now after these words were said a great silence fell ;

for Charlemagne spoke never in haste, nor changed his

mind when he had once spoken. At length he raised his
great white head, saying, How shall I know that King
Marsilius will keep his word, seeing that he is mine
enemy ?

And the
messenger replied,
O King, he offers

thee hostages of good faith, ten or twenty children

of our noblest chieftains. But he prays you to treat
them well, seeing that at the feast of S. Michael he
will surely come to Aachen to redeem them, pay his

tribute, and receive baptism."

Then the Emperor Charlemagne arose and gave
orders that good lodging be given to the Moors for the
night and when the morning came he sent them away,

promising that he would consider well the words of

Marsilius and let him know his decision ere long.
So, after their departure, he called a great council to
consider the matter. Thither came Count Roland, and
Oliver his friend, with Archbishop Turpin, Olger the
Dane, and many another noble lord. With them also
came Ganelon the traitor, who hated Roland his step
son and was ever on the look out to work him evil.
Now when the King had showed them all the words
of Marsilius and had asked their advice, the Franks
replied at once, Beware of Marsilius, O King."

Then Roland spake, saying, " Trust him not, sire,

however fair his words may be. Remember how he
slew Count Basant and Count Basil, whom we sent
to him beforetime upon a peaceful errand. Rather let
us summon the host and march upon Saragossa with
allour might, that we may conquer the last of the
Moorish strongholds and so win Spain outright."
But Ganelon the traitor stood behind the King's
shoulder and murmured in his ear, Heed not the
words of this young babbler. Consider rather how
Marsilius offers you his all his faith, his goods, his
service. What honour will you gain by waging war

upon a fallen man ? This Roland is puffed up with

pride and thinks of naught but to gain renown upon the
battlefield and to do this he will risk all our lives."

Then Duke Naymes, a good and valiant baron, hearing

his words, spake out and said, Ganelon has spoken
wise words, though he needeth not to lay blame upon
our good Count Roland. But what glory indeed is
there in fighting a vanquished foe ? We cannot
trample on him who grovelling at our feet.
lies Let
us make peace, therefore, and end the long and weary
All the Franks answered and said, His words are
" "
Who then," said Charlemagne, shall go up to
King Marsilius at Saragossa, to bear my glove and staff
and make agreement with him ?
I will go," cried Duke Naymes
at once but the ;

Emperor answered, Nay, for thou art my wisest
counsellor, therefore I cannot spare thee."
Send me, I pray thee," urged Count Roland, kneel-
ing on one knee before the King but before he could ;

reply, Count Oliver, his friend and best-beloved, cried,

Roland to go upon a peaceful errand Why, with thy !

hot blood and impatient tongue, thou wouldst spoil any

hope of peace. Let the King send me."
But Charlemagne waved them both aside, saying,
Peace Neither of you shall go."

arose Archbishop Turpin, full of zeal, saying,
I am
very eager to see this heathen host and to
baptize them with their King therefore let me be the

one to go."
But the Emperor answered, " Not so fast, good Tur-
pin let them first make peace with me and then shall

they be baptized. Now, noble Franks, look around

you, and choose me a worthy man to make agreement
with Marsilius."
Then Roland answered, Send Ganelon, my step-

father"; and the Franks acclaimed him, saying, Yes,
Ganelon is the man, for there is none more cunning in
speech than he."
When Ganelon heard their words his heart within
him turned to water, for he remembered too well the
fate of those who had before that time gone as

messengers to Marsilius. But chiefly was his anger

kindled against Roland, his stepson, so that all who
were present saw it, and in his wrath he stood up
against him, saying bitterly, Wouldst thou thus
openly show thy malice against me ? Thou art a fool
to do so, though we know that there is little love
between us. But wait thou until I return again, and
if I live I will repay thee for this."
To which Roland answered with a laugh, No malice
was there my in these men know well.
words, as all

'Tis an honourable task that lies before thee, and one

that needs a skilful man and wise of speech. Thou
shouldst be proud indeed if the King selects thee for
go not at thy bidding," cried the angry Ganelon,
thou hast never gone or come at mine. Thou art
not my son, nor am I thy father but if Charlemagne ;

command me, I will do his service. Yet the day shall

come when thou shalt repent of thy words."
And again Roland laughed aloud, and many of the
peers laughed too.
Then Ganelon, though black with inward rage, bowed
himself before the Emperor, saying smoothly, Sire,
ready am I to go up to Saragossa, although no
messenger has ever returned from Marsilius alive.
One thing I would crave in return, and that is that
thou wouldst care for my young son Baldwin see to ;

it that he inherits my land and honours, and train him

among thy knights when I return no more."

But Charlemagne replied, " Ganelon, be not so faint-
hearted look not on the dark side, but take my staff
and glove and do my bidding, since the Franks have
chosen thee."
choice of the Franks is this," cried Ganelon,
Roland's doing. All my life have I hated him and

his companion Oliver and as for the champion peers


of France, in whose eyes Roland can do no wrong,

defy them to their faces."
Thy humour is ill indeed, Count Ganelon," replied
Charlemagne, smiling and if thou wert as valiant with

thy sword as with thy tongue the peers of France

might tremble. But, behold, they laugh. Take no
heed of them, however, for in this matter thy tongue
may do us better service than their swords."
Then the King drew the glove from his right hand and
held it out to him ;
but Ganelon, discomposed and
wrathful, missed it so that it fell upon the ground.
Then all the Franks muttered low to each other,
ing, "This is an ill omen, indeed." But Ganelon
hastened to pick it up, saying, " Fear not ye shall hear ;

more of it anon." Then the King gave to him a letter,

signed and sealed, and delivered to him the staff, saying,
Depart in the name of God and in mine own."



Ganelon had ridden some miles along the
WHEN countryside he perceived in front of him the
messengers of Marsilius, who had made their journey
slowly, and were now halted beneath an olive tree to
rest themselves.
To them Ganelon quickly rode and joined himself
to their party. They talked to him of Charlemagne
and of his many conquests and of the grandeur of his
court but he spoke bitterly to them of Roland and of

his eagerness for battle, and of how he was fiercest

against the Moors of all the King's peers.
So, when they rode on again, Blancandrin drew
Ganelon aside from the rest, and talked warily to him,
saying, Thinkest thou we shall have peace?"
And Ganelon answered, He that asks for peace
often seeks occasion for war."
To which Blancandrin replied, " And he who bears
the message of peace to his master's enemies often
desires to beavenged on his own."
Thus each of these two knew the other to be a rogue,
and so they made friends together and opened their
hearts and spoke freely, laying their wicked plans.
Now when they came to Saragossa, Blancandrin led
Ganelon into the presence of King Marsilius, saying,
We have borne thy message, O King, to the haughty
Charles, but he deigned to answer us never a word.
He has, however, sent to us the noble Count Ganelon,
from whose lips we shall hear whether we shall have
peace or no."
Then the wily Ganelon, instead of giving the letter
of Charlemagne, said thus God save King
: Marsilius.
The mighty Charlemagne sends to thee these words by
If thou wilt become a

me, his messenger : Christian

forthwith, I will give thee the half of Spain to hold
from me as my vassal, and thou shalt pay me tribute
and be my servant. If not I will come upon thee like
a whirlwind and will take thy land by force and bring
thee to Aachen, to my court, and there thou shalt be put
to death.'"
Now when the King heard these words his counte-
nance darkened, and he snatched up a spear as though
to cast it at the messenger but Ganelon bowed his

head and said again, " Great King, I was bound to

deliver my message let now the messenger die if it so

please thee. Yet what shall it profit thee to kill me?

Will that bring a softer message? And will not Charles
be avenged of my blood ? Read now, I pray thee, his
written words."
With that he handed to Marsilius a parchment that
he had prepared exactly like that which Charlemagne
had given him and the King broke the seal and read

aloud the letter.

I, Charles the King, remember how thou slewest
Basant my messenger and his brother Basil therefore, ;

before I will make peace, I order thee to send me thine

uncle the Caliph, thy chief minister, that I may do with
him as I will."
Then was the King's son so enraged that he drew his
scimitar and rushed upon Ganelon, saying, It is not

meet that the bearer of such words should live."

Hard would it have gone with Ganelon, then, had not
Blancandrin, who had waited but for this moment, cried
out, Do the Frank no harm, my lord, for he has
pledged himself to be on our side and to work for our
profit only," and with these words he took Ganelon by
the hand and brought him before the King.
Then the King spoke kindly to him, saying, " I was
wrong to be wroth with thee, O Ganelon and now will ;

give thee five hundred gold pieces to make amends."
And Ganelon replied, " He that looketh not to his
own profit is but a fool, O King ;
nor would I now be so
ungrateful as to refuse thy bounty."
So they began to talk together, and Marsilius said,
Charles is now a very old man many are the years ;

he has passed in conquest, and great are the honours

and riches he has gained. Is he not yet weary of war,
nor satisfied with what he has got ?
Charles is indeed weary of war," answered Ganelon

smoothly, but Roland, his captain, is a covetous and

greedy man, and he, with the twelve peers of France, in
whose eyes he can do no wrong, are for ever stirring up
the King to war. And these do whatever they will with
the King, though he is feeble and weary, and would

rather rest. men were slain the world would

If these
have peace. But they are mighty warriors, and have
with them twenty thousand men, the flower of the
French host, and who can prevail against them in the
open field ?
" "
Yet said Marsilius, have four hundred thousand

warriors, the best that ever were seen would not they ;

be sufficient?
" it were folly to think

No, indeed," said Ganelon ;

so. A
wiser plan would be mine. Send back with me
the hostages to Charles, so that he will gather his host
and depart from Spain, and go to Aachen to await thy
coming. But since they are many he will leave his
rear-guard of twenty thousand, led by Roland and
Oliver and the twelve peers, to follow later. Upon
these, since suspect no danger, thy warriors
must fall, not
so thatone of them escapes. When
these are once destroyed thou mayest make thine own
terms of peace, for the power of Charles will be broken
and he will fight no more. Now this rear-guard will
march by the pass through the narrow valley of
Roncesvalles see, therefore, that thou surround the

valley with thy host and take them by stratagem ;

then, though they will sell their lives dearly, they

cannot escape."
Thus did Ganelon the traitor do treason against

Charlemagne and received from Marsilius

his lord,
much treasure of gold and precious stones. Also Mar-
silius handed to him the keys of the city of Saragossa,

promising that he should rule over it after these things

had come to pass, and that he would also give him ten
mules' burden of fine gold of Arabia. Thereupon
Ganelon departed from him in great goodwill, and the
twenty hostages journeyed with him to Charlemagne.
Now when Ganelon carne into the presence of the
great King, he reported well of his mission, saying that
Marsilius was ready to do all that he had promised,
and had even now set out upon his journey to Aachen
to do homage and to pay tribute and to be
And at that Charlemagne raised his hands to heaven
and thanked God from his inmost heart for so blessed
an ending to the war in Spain.
That same night, after the King had lain down to
sleep, he dreamed a strange dream. He thought he
stood in the pass of Roncesvalles with no weapon in
his hand save an ash spear ;
and this spear Count
Ganelon snatched from his hand as he passed by, and
broke into a hundred splinters. And he awoke and
knew it was a dream.
Then he slept again, and dreamed that he was in his
royal city of Aachen, where a viper came and fastened
on his hand and while he was trying in vain to shake

it off a leopard sprang upon him and would have torn

him in pieces, had not his favourite hound leapt upon

the beast and torn off his ear. Then an awful fight
began between the dog and the leopard, but which of
the two was getting the best of it he could not tell.
He tossed and tossed upon the bed in the horror of it,
and suddenly awoke to find the sun was shining, and
knew it was a dream.
So Charlemagne arose and gathered his host together
to march to Aachen and to keep the feast there. And
he made Olger the Dane his captain of the vanguard,
to go with him in the forefront of the host and to

Ganelon he said, " Whom shall I make captain of the

rear-guard which I leave behind ?
And Ganelon answered smoothly, " Roland thy
nephew for there is none like him in all the host."

When Roland heard that he rejoiced, and said unto

the King, Give me now the bow that is in thy hand I ;

will not let it fall as Ganelon did thy glove." So he

was left captain of the rear-guard, and with him re-
mained behind Oliver, his dear companion, and the twelve
peers, and Turpin the Archbishop, and twenty thousand

warriors. And Charlemagne said to Roland, Good
nephew, I have left my
half of army in charge of
thee. See thou keep them safe."
" "
Fear nothing, sire," replied Roland, I will render
good account of them to thee."
So they embraced each other, and the King departed
with his face set to the borders of Spain. Many a
gloomy valley and dangerous mountain path had to be
traversed before his men beheld their own lands again,
and even the heart of Charles grew heavy with fore-
bodings as he thought of his evil dreams. Again and
again, too, he spoke to Duke Naymes of his fears that
Ganelon had wrought some treason to him, and that
ill-fortune was at hand.



Marsilius had sent to gather all his chieftains

NOW and their men, and had assembled them to the
number of four hundred thousand in the valley of Ron-
cesvalles and some of the most valiant of the Moorish

barons bound themselves by an oath to attack Roland

in a body, and to fight with none other until he was
Meantime the rear-guard of Charlemagne's army had
climbed the steep mountain-side, and looked down upon
the valley below, through which they had to pass they ;

saw that it was as full of spears as the fields are of grass,

and the murmur of the Moorish host was like the roar
of the sea upon the shore. Then Roland looked on
Oliver and said, This is the work of Ganelon the
And Oliver said, What then shall we do ? For the
number of the Moors is greater than we have ever
faced before, even with the whole host and we are but

a small portion thereof. And their intention is to give

" " "
grant they may cried Roland.
Let us but
do our duty. We
will rest for a while and then we will

go forward." "
Be wise, my friend," replied Oliver, for we are far
outnumbered by them. Take then your horn, the horn
that Charlemagne gave to you, and sound it it may ;

be that he will hear and return with his host to our

" more
But Roland answered, The fewer we are the
shall we gain. God forbid that I should sound
my horn and bring Charles back with his barons, and
lose my good name and bring dishonour on us all.
Fear not what may befall us, for these pagans are
as good as dead already."
Then Oliver climbed up into a great pine tree and
saw how vast was the multitude that came up against
them, and again he prayed Roland to sound his horn,
at least to come up and see the numbers for himself.
But still he would not, saying that it would be time
to count them when they were slain. So he
bade his men make ready for battle.
Then the good Archbishop Turpin mounted his horse
and rode before the soldiers, saying to them, Charles
has left us here to do our duty, and truly 'tis a fine
to die for the kingdom and our holy faith. Re-
member too that if you die you shall wear the martyr's
crown and be rewarded in Paradise, where we shall
all meet. Kneel then and confess your sins, that God
may have mercy on your souls."
Then all the Franks knelt as one man upon the
ground and confessed their sins; and the Archbishop
blessed them and bade them rise, and for their penance
go strike the pagan to the ground.
To and fro in the front of the host rode their leader

Roland upon good horse Veillantif, and by his side


hung sword Durandal.

his tried
He gazed upon the Moorish host and his face grew
hard and stern, and then upon his own warriors and his
face was kind and gentle.
"Good comrades," said he, " gentle and simple, let no
man grudge his life to-day, but only let him sell it dear.
I have promised my lord Charlemagne to render good
account of you, and of that have I no fear, for what
I cannot
say, the battlefield will say for us."
And they looked on him and loved him unto death,
and were willing to follow wherever he would lead them.
Then " Forward " he cried, and touching the side of

Veillantif with his golden spur, rode down the mountain-

side into the valley of Roncesvalles, while Oliver, Arch-

bishop Turpin, and the twelve peers of France pressed

close behind.
Fierce indeed was that fight, for the spear of Roland
alone pierced through the bodies of fifteen men, before
it brake to
pieces in his hand and he was forced to
draw Durandal from its sheath. With equal valour
fought the twelve nor did any man of that twenty

thousand count his own life dear to him. The Arch-

bishop, spurring his the thickest fight, cried,
way into
" "
Thank God to see how the
rear-guard fight ! and
Oliver, found fighting with the handle of his broken spear,
shouted when Roland bade him draw his sword, " Not
while a handful of the stump remains, for weapons
to-day are precious."
At length full two hundred thousand of the foe lay
dead, not to speak of those who had sworn to fight with
none but Roland, all of whom lay round him in a ring,
stone-dead. But though not a Frank gave way before
the foe, many thousands of them now were slain, and
of the valiant twelve, two only remained.
Suddenly as Marsilius, panic-stricken, saw his host
begin to fall back before the
onslaught of the Franks,
he heard the loud blast of trumpets close at hand. And
behold twenty strong regiments of Saracens had come

to his aid and were pouring down from the mountain-

side upon the Franks.
When they saw this the Moorish host recovered itself
and closed fast round the dwindling band of Franks.
Yet still Roland and his comrades fought so bravely,
hurling back the foe with grim jest as though it were
but sport to them, that the foemen stood in great fear
of them and knew not what to think. But meantime
the Franks were falling fast around their leader. The
twelve were dead and all the flower of the host, and
very few were left when Roland at length said to Oliver,
Comrade, now will I sound
horn, if by chance
Charles may hear and come to us."
But Oliver was angry with his beloved friend, and
said, "'Tis now too late. Hadst thou but heeded my
words the women should not have lost their husbands,
Charles his valiant rear-guard, nor France her Roland."
Talk not of might-have-beens," cried Archbishop
Turpin, but sound thy horn at once. Charles cannot
save our lives now, but he can and will avenge them."
So Roland put horn to his mouth and blew a

mighty blast. From

to hill it echoed and from

rock to rock, until Charles heard the faint sound full

thirty leagues away, and started up within his hall and
said, What is that I hear ? Surely our men do fight
to-day !

But Ganelon made answer, " How can this thing be ?

'Tis only the sighing of the wind among the pine trees."
And even as he spake the battle was raging fiercer
round Count Roland, and he himself was wounded very
sorely in the head, so that the blood poured forth from
his temples.

Weary with the fight, he withdrew himself for a

moment from the press and took his horn and blew
with all his strength a very long and mighty blast

And when he heard the echoes far away beyond the

mountains, Charles leapt from his chair and cried,
Hark 'tis the horn of Roland. He is in battle or

he would never sound it."

But Ganelon He is too proud to sound it in
battle; perchance he is hunting in the woods. A pretty
jest it would be if Charlemagne were to gather his host
and take the warpath, to find Roland at the sport,
hunting a little hare!"
Meantime the fight waxed closer yet, and now nearly
allsave Roland were slain. And when he found the
blood running fast down his face and his strength all but
gone, the Count lifted his horn once more to his mouth
and blew a feeble blast. Far away in his palace
Charles heard the dim wail, and started up and cried
with bitter tears, " O my brave Roland, too long have
delayed to succour thee. By the wailing sound I
know that thou art in sore peril. To arms to arms
! !

For straightway we will go to help him."

But when Ganelon would have spoken again, he
thrust him away and ordered him to be bound fast in
chains until he returned in peace. So they threw
Ganelon into prison, and Charlemagne and his host set
out with what speed they might to the succour of Roland.
Far away in the valley of Roncesvalles the tiny
company that was all that was left of the rear-guard
still fought desperately till one by one they fell beneath

a pile of the slain foemen. In one part of the field

Roland espied Oliver fighting one to seven, and even
at that moment he was struck a mortal wound in the
back. Yet even in his last moments, when his eyes
were dim with death, Oliver did not cease to wield his
sword and shout his war-cry with failing breath. Then
Roland hastened to his help, and cutting down the
Moors for a wide space around him, came to lift his
comrade from his horse, saying tenderly, " Dear friend,
I fear thou art in evil case."
Oliver replied, Thy voice is like the voice of
Roland, but I cannot see thy face."
I, thy comrade," cried Roland.
he answered, " God bless thee, friend God bless
And ;

Charles and France And with these words he fell

upon his face and died.

Then was Roland heavy of heart, and little cared he
for life now that Oliver was dead. He stood and looked
around him for the rest, and behold !
only two were left

beside himself. So those three, Turpin the Archbishop

and Count Walter and Count Roland, determined to
sell their lives dear; and when the pagan warriors

rushed upon them, Roland slew twenty, Count Walter

six, and Turpin five. Then all the remnant of the
pagan army, forty thousand strong, charged down upon
the three. Count Walter fell at the first onset; the
Archbishop was brought from his horse, and brought
wounded to death upon the ground yet had Roland ;

never a scratch upon his body in all that fight, though

the blood poured again from the temples of his head.
Then once asrain
o he took his horn and tried to sound
Very feebly it echoed among the hills, but Charle-
magne heard it on his rapid march and cried, Good
barons, Roland is in sore distress I know it by the

sighing of the horn. Spare not spur nor steed, I pray

you, for Roland's sake."
Then he gave word to sound the clarions loud and
clear ;
and the echoes rolled among the mountains and
were plainly heard in the valley of Roncesvalles.
Great was the panic of the pagan host when they
heard that sound. Tis the army of Charlemagne,"
they cried. Lo, he comes upon us and we shall have to
fight this battle all over again. Let us depart quickly
before he appear, for there is but one man more to slay."
So four hundred of their picked men rode at Count
Roland yet they feared to go too nigh, for they said,

There is no man who can slay this warrior." But each

of them flung his spear, and his good horse Veillantif,

stricken in twenty places, dropped dead beneath him.
Under him fell Roland, and lay stunned
by the fall but

though hisarmour was riddled with spear-holes, yet had

he never a scratch upon him. But the pagans came and
looked at him, and giving him up for dead, made all
haste out of that valley before the advancing host of
Charlemagne, and fled away to Spain.



at length, when all the pagan host had
NOW vanished among the mountains, Roland came to
himself and found that he was left alone among the
dead. Scarce could he drag himself to his feet for the
anguish of the wound in his head, but he looked around
upon that dreadful field and said, The rear-guard will
give in itsown account to Charles when he comes."
He came to the place where Oliver lay, and took him
gently in his arms and made lament over him, saying,
Dear comrade, thou wast ever a kindly friend to me,
and I repent me that once and once only I listened not
to thy wise counsel. And now, God rest thy soul, for
no man ever had truer comrade than thou."
As he spoke thus, he heard a faint voice near by, and
turning saw the brave old Archbishop Turpin dying on
the ground and in the midst of his great suffering he

raised his shaking hands and blessed the dead who lay
around him in the name of God. And to Roland he
Dear son, thank God the field is ours this day "

and with that he clasped his hands in prayer and died.

Now Roland knew that his own end was near, so he
crept away to a green mound on which were four marble
steps and lay down on the lowest of them, with his horn
in one hand and Durandal, his good sword, in the other.
And as he lay there fainting in his pain, a certain
thievish Moor came by, thinking to plunder the dead ;

who, seeing the glitter of the jewelled hilt of Durandal,

it from the sheath.
put out his hand and tried to draw
Just as he did so Roland opened his eyes, and seeing
the thief bending over him with the sword in his hand,
raised his horn and dealt the fellow such a blow that he
fell, and never moved again.
Then he took Durandal in his own hands, praying
into those of his enemies, and
that it might never fall
he caressed the good blade, saying, O Durandal, how
keen of edge thou art! How many lands hast thou
conquered for Charles since first he girt thee at my side!
And now, though it grieves me sore, I would rather
break thee to atoms than that pagan hands should turn
thee against France."
Then, exerting all his remaining strength, Roland
smote the blade, point downwards, upon the marble
step. The hard stone splintered,
but the blade remained
unhurt not even its edge was turned. He smote the
second but though the blade cut through the
stone, was neither blunted nor broken. Then he

struck the third step with all his might, so that the
stone fell to powder, but the blade rebounded, quite un-
hurt. And Roland repented that he had tried to break
the blade and said, O Durandal, I am to blame, for
God will keep thee safe for Charles and for France."
So having laid his sword and horn beneath him.
Roland fell back under the shade of a pine tree and
turned his face towards Spain, that men might know he
died a conqueror. Many things he remembered in that
last hour, and much he thought of Charlemagne, his
hero and his lord, who had brought him up from in-
fancy. He willhave rendered good account/'
see that I

he murmured as he looked around at the heaps of slain.

He thought of his beloved France, the land he held so

dear, and his heart grew very tender. Then lifted he

his hands to heaven and closed his eyes his soul de-

parted from his weary body and so he died.

Fast and faster still rode the host of Charlemagne
as the mist came down and the night began to fall.
Again and again his clarions sounded from peak to
peak, but there came no answering call. Down through
the gloom they rode, and saw the silent field and the
quiet dead ;
and all those who saw it lifted up their
voices and wept.
But when the Emperor found the body of Roland,
his well-beloved, whomhe had nourished from a babe,
his heart was vvell'nigh broken, and he sat upon the

ground beside him and wept very bitterly. And even

while he mourned came Duke Naymes to him, saying,
As I came down the pass I saw a cloud of dust rising
from the other side of the mountains. Methinks it was
the pagan host fleeing to Saragossa."
Then Charlemagne immediately arose, and having
left four knights in Roncesvalles to guard the dead, he
set out after the foemen.
Hard and fast rode the host, and came upon the
Moors in a field, where they were hemmed in by a wide
river on one side and the Franks on the other. And
there Charlemagne cut the pagan army to pieces none

escaped save only Marsilius and a few of his followers,

who had gone by a different way into Saragossa. Nor
did he escape for long for after Charles had returned

to Roncesvalles to bury his dead, he returned to

Saragossa and slew King Marsilius, and broke down
the gates of the city and took possession of all Spain.
Thus was the death of Roland in the valley of
Roncesvalles avenged. As for the traitor Ganelon, he
was torn to pieces by wild horses, for that he had done
the deadliest sin of all, and had betrayed his master's
host and the fair land of France into the hands of the
(From the French of William of Palermi)



once lived in the land of Apulia a certain
king whose name was Embrons, and whose wife
was the daughter of the Emperor of Greece. At the
time this story begins they had one son, a little lad of
four years old, whose name was William. He was a
very beautiful child in those days, and dearly loved by
his father and mother. And in order that he might be
well looked after in every way, he was put into the
charge of two ladies of the Court, who seemed to be
everything that his parents could desire.
Now King Embrons had a very wicked brother, who
had a strong desire to reign in his stead. To that end
he made a plot to poison both the King and his son ;

and this plot he set on foot by persuading the two

ladies who were his attendants to put an end to the
little Prince.
One day the King, the Queen, and their little son
William, as they were making a stay at the town of
Palermo, happened to enter a beautiful orchard, sur-
rounded by a high wall. But, although they had no
idea of it, this place was infested with dangerous wild
The child William had begun to gather flowers, and
was sporting about from path to path, when, before the

very eyes of the parents, a huge wolf leapt in at

the open gate, plunged through the bushes, and as
they, horror-stricken, ran aside to avoid it, snatched up
the child in his mouth and noiselessly made off.
A terrible cry arose from the Queen as she saw her

darling disappear. The King, half mad with grief, sent

for horses, and galloped off in the direction the wolf
had taken, and was quickly followed by almost all the
inhabitants of the town.
Harder and harder rode the King, but the wolf, with
his great leapsand bounds, travelled faster still, and
though he often heard the wails of the terrified boy,
the King could not overtake him.
At length they approached the Straits of Messina,
and caught sight of the wolf standing at the brink of
the water.
There they made sure they would seize him, but, to
their dismay, the creature leapt into the water and soon
was lost to sight.
Very sad and sorrowful was King Embrons as he
returned to Palermo city, which was filled with lamenta-
tion and woe for the loss of the Prince. The Queen
mourned for him all day long, saying, Little son,
sweet love, tender lips, rosy colour, who would believe
that beast could drown you ? Where are now thy
beautiful eyes, so innocent and clear, thy fair forehead,
thy hair like fine-drawn gold ? What is become of
thee ? Now art thou food for that horrible wolf."
Meantime the wolf had carried the child in his
mouth both by day and by night without a pause, until
he reached a great forest in the neighbourhood of
Rome. There, being by this time very weary, he rested
for eight days, providing the boy the while with
thing he could possibly need for his comfort. First he
made a den, hidden away among thick green bushes,
and lined it with grass and ferns. Then each day
he brought him food, bread and meat, from some
mysterious source, and all night long he lay close
beside him, so that the child could nestle against his
shaggy coat and be kept quite warm. By this time
William had quite laid aside all his terror of the gentle
creature, and was well pleased to be carried about and
tended by him.
Then one day the wolf set off to seek for food, leav-
ing the boy safe and happy in his shady den.
Now there lived in the forest an old cowherd, who,
on that selfsame day, happened to sit down near the
wolfs den, in order to mend his shoe. Meantime the
little boy within had grown weary of being left alone,

and looking out, he saw bushes and trees so green and

fair in the May sunshine and heard birds singing so

lustily, that he crept out and began to play and to

gather flowers.
But the cowherd's dog quickly spied him and began
to bark and leap up at him. At this William, scream-
ing with fright, ran back to the den but the cowherd ;

had heard the noise of the child, and following the dog,
came to the opening of the place and inside, as he

peeped, he saw a beautiful little boy richly dressed in

cloth of gold.
Greatly wondering at this, the cowherd rebuked the
dog for his noise and tried to persuade the little one to
come out. He offered him flowers and apples and all
such things as children love, and at length William
crept out of the cave and ran up to him. Then the
cowherd took him in his arm, kissed him and thanked
God that he had found so beautiful a treasure, and
carried him home to his wife.
" "
What is your name, pretty one ? he asked ;
and the
child replied, I am called William."

Now the cowherd and his wife had no children, which

grieved them very much, so that they gladly received
the boy, and determined to adopt him for their own.
Meantime the wolf returned to the den, carrying

food for the child ;

but when he entered he found it
empty as a last year's nest. Overcome with grief, he
howled aloud, rent his skin, and fell down in a kind
of fit.

When he recovered he began to examine the ground

very carefully until he found the track of the cowherd,
and following it up, soon came to a small cottage.
Creeping up to the tiny window, he looked through
and saw the cowherd's wife sitting with the child on
her lap, bathing him and giving him sweet milk for his
supper. When he saw this and knew how well they
were caring for the child, the wolf turned aside and
went upon his lonely way.
Now you may have guessed, was no
this animal, as

ordinary one, but was indeed a "werwolf," that is to

say, a man changed into a beast.
Hewas the son of the King of Spain, and his real
name was Prince Alphonso. When his mother died,
his father, the King, had married a lady named Braunde,
a princess indeed, but also a witch.
Now Braunde was jealous of the beauty and good-
ness of Prince Alphonso, and fearing that her own child
would never be king, she plotted to work harm to her
stepson. So she made a very powerful ointment, and
with this she anointed him one day, with the result that
he became a werwolf. Yet his heart remained that of
a man, tender arid kind, so that he suffered all the more.
At first he tried to spring on Braunde and kill her, that
she might do no similar injury to his father; but she
cried to the servants to help her against a fierce beast.
At that the werwolf fled away to the land of Apulia,
and Braunde told his father that Alphonso had been
drowned by accident as he was bathing.



wife of the cowherd treated William with the
THE greatest kindness, so that he grew up happy and
He learnt to shoot well,
healthy as a child should be.
to bring home plenty of rabbits and hares for supper,
and to know the ways of all animals in sickness and in
health. Sports, too, he had in plenty with the children
of neighbouring cowherds, and his generous spirit soon
made him a great favourite with all.
Now one day the Emperor of Rome was hunting a
great boar in that forest, and it so happened that he
lost his way and went riding along looking for some one
to direct him. Suddenly he saw in front of him a
werwolf chasing a deer, and so rode hard after them,
hoping to kill one or both. But the animals dis-
appeared in the undergrowth, and in their place he saw
in the pathway a very noble-looking boy, so fair to look
upon the Emperor said to himself, Surely this
child has come from fairyland !

Pulling up his horse, he asked the boy his name, and

who were his kith and kin. And William, for he it was,
replied that he knew not who they were, but that he
lived with a cowherd and his wife, whom he dearly
Then the Emperor sent for the cowherd, who came in
fear,knowing what the end might be.
" "
Is the child yours ? asked the Emperor and so ;

the old man told him the whole story, saying that none
knew from whence he came.
Then the boy shall go with me," said the Emperor.
Deeply grieved was the cowherd at these words, but
he dared not refuse, though he cared little for the
Emperor's promise to reward him, when he thought of

losing the child. Calling William aside, he bade him

farewell, and gave him three pieces of advice.
First, to be no teller of tales.
Second, to always take the part of a poor man.
Third, to be always faithful and fair of speech.
Then he set William upon the Emperor's horse, so
that the boy in his pleasure at riding so high forgot to
grieve at parting from him.
So the Emperor rode away with William, and the
cowherd returned with the news to his wife, who wept
and would not be comforted because she had lost the
The Emperor of Rome had one fair daughter named
Melior, to whom he brought young William, saying,
Here is a rich present I found for thee in the forest !"
Then they took the boy and dressed him in beautiful
clothes, and he became Melior's squire. As he grew
older and came to man's estate, he so far excelled the
rest of the youth of Rome looks and manners, as
well as in courage, that the young Princess fell very
deeply in love with him and he with her. But knowing
how angry the Emperor would be if his daughter
married any one but a king, or at least a prince, they
were forced to plight their troth to one another in
In those days the Duke of Saxony made war on
Rome, and war William fought so well that he
in this
was made a knight. Soon after he had conquered the
Duke and taken him prisoner, an embassy appeared
from Greece asking that a marriage might be arranged
between Melior and the son of the Emperor of that
A great assembly was held, at which the two em-
perors met and talked about the matter, and agreed
that the wedding should be held as soon as possible.
But the Princess and William were filled with dismay
when they heard what was proposed ;
and after much

thought they decided that the only thing to be done

was to run away from the palace and to keep in hiding
till all idea of the marriage was over. The great
was how to get out of the city unseen.
the help of Melior's waiting-maid they deter-
mined to disguise themselves as animals. There had
been a great hunt that day, and the maid was able
easily to procure the skins of two white bears, in which
she sewed each of them up. That same evening, there-
fore, two grizzly bears were seen to pass into the belt of
forest that lay near the palace but no one guessed for

a moment who they really were.

For many hours they wandered through this forest,
until they were too tired to stand upright, and sank
down exhausted with fatigue and want of food under-
neath a tree. Now, although they knew it not, the
werwolf had watched and followed them all the way,
and seeing their condition, he now galloped off to find
food. Presently, on a highway near the forest, he came
upon a man who carried some bread and some boiled
beef in a bag. In a flash the werwolf sprang upon him,
seized the bag and made off with it. Hurrying back to
the two fugitives, he laid the bag before them, and dis-
appeared before William could exclaim in astonishment
at seeing him again.
Presently, as they were joyfully eating, he appeared
before them again, dropped two flagons of wine at their
feet, and ran away once more. In this way, by dint of
carrying off food from travellers and bringing it to them,
the werwolf kept Melior and William excellently fed-
But still they had to be very careful. They slept
generally in the daytime, and travelled by night, going
on all fours that they might not betray the fact that
they were human beings.
Meantime, when he heard of their escape, the anger
of the Emperor knew no bounds. He sent men out in
every direction to hunt for them, but they could nowhere

be found. Most of his men were glad this was so,

forthey could not endure to think that William, whom
they all loved, should be in danger at the Emperor's
hands. At length the latter, who feared that the
Greeks would make war upon him because the marriage
had not been accomplished, heard that two bears had
been seen escaping from the garden on the very night
that two skins were missing from the kitchen. Hounds
were sent out at once to track them down but as the

animals got on their scent, the werwolf suddenly

appeared before them in the way. Immediately they
followed him, and were led by him a long distance
in quite a different direction from that which the fugi-
tives had taken. Then, having thrown them completely
off the scent, the werwolf slipped away and returned to
Melior and William.
He next made the lovers understand that they must
now follow him as their guide. At first they had been
terrified at his appearance, but his constant kindness in

providing them with food had quite won their hearts,

and they now trusted him completely. So he brought
them into the land of Apulia, where, finding they were
near an ancient city, they hid themselves in a quarry
and slept there, while the werwolf kept guard.
When morning dawned, the Werwolf went off to find
food and during his absence, some workmen came to

the quarry and found therein two white bears fast asleep.
They at once remembered the hue and cry raised by the
Emperor of Rome, and, without waking them, went off
to the provost of the town and told him of their
The provost guessed directly who they were, and
calling together a large band of men and horses, set off
for the quarry, taking with him his little son to see the
Meantime the fugitives had roused themselves, and
looking towards the city, they saw a number of horsemen

riding in the direction of the quarry. Filled with

alarm, they hurried away, but when he found that
their shouting pursuers were gaining fast upon them,
William begged Melior to show herself in her proper
form, so that no harm might befall her. This, how-
ever, she refused to do, as she knew that William
might be killed, and so she declared that she would die
with him.
Just at that minute the werwolf appeared on
the scene. With one bound he sprang upon the pro-
vost's horse, and snatching at the child who was in
front of him, ran off with it in his mouth. At once the
whole attention of the troop was turned upon the wolf,
and all of the men followed the provost, who galloped
hard after the animal, forgetting the very existence of
the two white bears.
All day long the werwolf kept them in pursuit,
sometimes appearing at the top of a hill, sometimes lost
to sight on the other side. The screams of the boy
spurred on the father still faster to his rescue, but not
until they were many a long mile from the two disguised
lovers did the wolf pause. Then he dropped the child
gently on the ground where the horsemen would be
sure to find him, and galloped off on a side-track to
William and Melior.
They, meantime, had travelled fast and far from that
dangerous region, and had taken off their bearskins to
avoid discovery. At evening-time, when they were
quite exhausted, the werwolf appeared before them
carrying a bag of food in his mouth. He too was so
worn out with fatigue, that he lay down near them
under a tree and at once fell fast asleep.



adventure had ended in such a narrow
escape William and Melior that they began
to consider what safer means of disguise they could

contrive,now that most people knew the secret of 'the

two white bears.
While they were thinking it over, the werwolf, who
had gone away at daylight, appeared again before
them, dragging behind him the body of a fresh-killed
hart of very unusual size. As they stood wondering
at he disappeared again, to return ere long with a

large dead hind. Then, sitting back on his haunches,

he gazed eagerly at them until at length they under-
stood his plan. At once they skinned the creatures
and sewed each other up in the skins, after which they
went their way disguised as hart and hind.
The werwolf now became their guide over William's
native country, though the latter little knew it at the
time. At that period the land all lay waste because of
the great war. For during the last few years Embrons,
William's father, King of Apulia and Sicily, had died,
and his wife, William's mother, ruled the land. Mean-
time William's only sister Florence, just three years
younger than himself, had grown up to a fair maiden-
hood, and had been sought in marriage by the son of
the King of Spain.
Now this young man was the werwolf's stepbrother.
When he found that Florence would have nothing to
say to him, the King of Spain invaded the country and
besieged the Queen in the Sicilian town of Palermo.
Now the Queen was very sad, for she had neither
husband nor son to advise and help her. So she asked
the invaders to grant her a truce of fourteen days, at
the end of which time she promised to surrender the
town on condition that she and her daughtero mi^ht
depart in safety. But in her own heart she hoped and
trusted that before the end of the appointed time, help
would come from her father the Emperor of Greece.
The King of Spain, however, refused to grant her
conditions ;
so she and the Princess Florence retired to
their palace in great doubt and distress.
Meanwhile the werwolf had guided the hart and
the hind to Reggio, where, in order to reach Sicily,
they would be obliged to cross the Straits. They lay
hidden till nightfall, but when all was dark they made
their way down to the ships in the harbour, and there
the werwolf, creeping quietly hither and thither, found
one ready to sail, on board of which all the sailors were
Very quietly they crept on board and hid themselves
behind casks of wine. Presently the wind began to
rise, the sailors awoke and set sail, and the ship raced
merrily over the waves. At dawn they were close to
the shores of Sicily, and when he saw this, the werwolf
sprang from his hiding-place, leapt across the deck, and
disappeared over the side.
The greatly excited, seized their oars and
struck at himone, indeed, hit him so hard that he sank

to the bottom, but quickly recovering himself, he rose

again to the surface and swam ashore.
The men immediately threw out a plank to the
landing-place and ran after him, leaving only a bare-
legged boy on board. Now all this had been carefully
planned by the werwolf to distract the attention of
the seamen from William and Melior, who now came
up on deck. Bat the bare-legged boy was terrified to
see a hart and a hind walking upright upon their hind-
legs, and in his dismay he struck at Melior with an oar,
so that she would have fallen overboard had not

William caught
o her in his arms and carried her ashore.
Once there, they hastened to find a hiding-place, and
as they hurried along, much disturbed in mind, they
said one to the other, May no harm have come to our
beloved werwolf !

Before long, however, the werwolf, safe and sound,

was with them once again, but only in order to warn
them of approaching danger. For the bare-legged boy
had been so astounded to see the hart pick up the
hind and run off with her, that he had told the sailors
of his strange experience on their return, and so every
one was on the look out for them. Therefore they left
the neighbourhood
o in haste and followed the werwolf
to Palermo, the very same place from which William, as
a tiny boy, had been carried off by the werwolf.
It was in this city of Palermo, you will remember,
that the mother and sister of William were being be-
sieged by the King of Spain.
That night, and for several others, the hart and the
hind lay hidden in a park close by the palace, and the
werwolf brought them meat and drink.
The first night on which they there lay hidden, the
Queen-mother of William had a curious dream. She
thought she was walking in the park with her daughter,
when she saw, fighting with one another, a hundred
thousand leopards and bears. Then there came a wer-
wolf and two white bears and attacked the leopards, but
suddenly the white bears changed into a hart and a
hind wearing golden crowns. By this time the
leopards, being conquered, had fled away. Then, in
her dream, she went up to a high turret in the palace, and
stretched her right arm over Rome, her left over Spain.
When the Queen awoke, she sent for a wise man and
asked him what might be the meaning of the dream.
And after much thought the wise man answered and
said, There shall come a knight who shall be king of
this realm ;
and a werwolf shall deliver the King> 1
of Spain from a great danger. Through that same
werwolf you shall hear of your long-lost son, who shall
also govern Rome; and your daughter shall be Queen
of Spain."
These words gave the Queen much to think about,
and as she sat gazing from her chamber window, deep
in reflection, she caught a glimpse of a hart and a
hind at the edge of the forest. To her great surprise,
she saw the clothes of human beings peeping out through
holes in their skin, for the sun, blazing fiercely upon
them, had cracked their hides.
Much alarmed, the Queen again sent for the wise
man, who had not yet left the palace, and asked him
if he knew what this strange thing meant.

And the wise man, soothing her terror, told her that
these were two runaway lovers, fled from Rome, and
that would be greatly to her advantage if she would

bring them in secret to the palace.

To this the Queen at once agreed, and, sending to the
kitchen for the skin of a newly killed hind, she dressed
herself in it and crept down to the park. She was able
to get quite near them before they noticed her among
the deer always grazing in that spot and she heard

William say how much he wished that the Queen knew

that he was a knight of Rome, and that she would
provide him with a horse and armour, that he might
fight in her cause.
At this the Queen presented herself before them,
saying she knew who they were, and implored William
to help her in her distress, promising that if he would
conquer her enemies he should be king and Melior
Very gladly did William agree to do all in his power
for her, though he little knew that she was his own
mother and forthwith they followed her to the castle,

where the Queen stripped off their hides and herself pre-
pared fragrant baths and rich clothes for their use. When

they came bower much refreshed, the

forth into her

Queen was considering what device William should

bear upon his shield. They consulted together, and
William decided that it should be the figure of a
Then the Queen gave orders that her husband's
horse,upon which no man had ridden since his death,
should be brought out for him into the courtyard. And
thereupon a strange thing occurred for the horse

remembered William, whom everybody else had for-

gotten, and knelt down before him as he approached
and stood at his side. And at this all the people
wondered greatly.



was ready for the conflict with the

King of Spain, William, dressed as a knight,
rode at the head of the troops of Palermo, encouraging
them with brave words and he was the first to strike a

Now the Spaniards who were against him were thirty
thousand strong, and those who fought for the Queen
of Palermo but few in number. Yet, encouraged by
their leader, they fought most bravely, and before long
the Spanish steward, a man of high rank and im-
portance, fell before William's onslaught.
Still more fiercely raged the fight, and presently
William found himself face to face with the nephew of
the slain steward, in single combat. At length he too
was overcome, for William struck him dead to the
ground and sent his horse to Melior as a present. By
this time the Spaniards had lost so many of their
warriors that the rest of them turned and fled.
Then was there great rejoicing at the palace for a
while. But while William and Melior were sitting at
a window in the Queen's bower and resting after the
conflict, there appeared the werwolf just outside, who
held up his forefeet as if in prayer, bowed to William,
and then ran quickly away. The Queen, much surprised,
asked the reason of this strange thing, but all William
could tell her was that to them it was a sign of good.
The sight of the werwolf recalled to the Queen the
story of her little son, and with tears she told it to
William and Melior, saying that she had been told
that in the end the poor child had been drowned. This
story reminded William that he himself had been found
in a forest and that he had been brought thither in a

mysterious fashion, but since the Queen was sure her

son had been drowned, he would not recall her grief by
talking about it, and only promised to be a son to her in
his place.
The son of the King of Spain now vowed vengeance
upon William for his defeat and since he knew that

the mishaps of Spain were entirely due to him, he

declared that he would have the head of the man who
bore the device of the werwolf on his shield, or take
him alive as his prisoner.
Once more they met in single combat but before ;

long William had unhorsed the Prince and would

have struck off his head had not the Spaniards rushed
forward to his rescue. Then a deadly conflict followed,
in which William's troops began to retreat, but once
more their leader managed to seize the Spanish Prince
and to bring him into the town as captive. Then was
there again great rejoicing in the palace, where all the
ladies-in-waiting hastened to disarm the prisoner. But
William hurried to join Melior and the Queen, and was
in the act of embracing his wife when the Queen was
struck of a sudden with his likeness to Embrons, her
dead husband.

The remembrance made her weep, and her heart

began to cry out that William was her son but he, not

knowing what was in her mind, strove to cheer her

with descriptions of the victory. And as they talked
together, once again the werwolf came up to the
window, knelt and bowed, and went his way.
Now when the King of Spain heard that his son was
taken prisoner, he was filled with wrath and especially

did his anger flame out when he knew that all was
owing to the prowess of one knight, that one who bore
a werwolf on his shield. Then he decreed He shall

be taken and hanged before the city gates, and the city
shall be burnt."
So the two armies were reassembled, and William
addressed his troops in these words :
To-day shall see
the end of this warfare, for God will defend the right.
My work shall be to take the King prisoner, as I have
already done his son. See that you do your part."
The King, on the other side, said, " Where is he who
bears the werwolf on his shield ?
Whosoever brings
him to me shall be made my chief steward."
Then the fight began, and soon a Spanish soldier
managed to wound William, but was killed by him
before he could do him further hurt. Before long the
Spaniards began to give way, while many threw down
their weapons and ran for their lives.
But William and his troops pursued after them, and
in the confusion the King was taken and brought back
in triumph to the palace. Then was the relief and joy
of the Queen so great that she would have knelt before
William to give him thanks, had he not caught her up,
saying that an Emperor's daughter must not kneel to a
plain soldier.
A great banquet was then made ready. On one side
of the Queen was placed the King of Spain, and William
on the other. Then the Spanish Prince was brought in,
and before he would seat himself at meat, both he and his
father confessed that they had treated the Queen very
ill in thus besieging her, and offered to make amends
by her tenants, or
holding their lands in future only as
by doing anything else she pleased.
While she was giving them gracious and kindly
answer, the door of the hall suddenly opened the wer- ;

wolf entered, and going up to the raised platform where

they sat, kissed the feet of the King of Spain, bowed
to the Queen, to William, and to the young Prince, and
;vent his way.
this the servants, who had hitherto stood
motionless with astonishment and fear, snatched up
their weapons and made as though they would destroy
the animal; but they were promptly stopped by William,
who declared that if any one hurt the werwolf he
would kill him with his own hands.
The sisrht
o of the werwolf at once recalled to the
mind of the King of Spain the story of the fair young
son who, his wife had declared, was drowned. And as
he sat thus plunged in thought, William asked him
why he sat so silent in the midst of the feast to which ;

he made answer, " Once on a time I wedded a fair lady,

and to us was born a sweet son, whom we named
Alphonso. But my wife died and I married again,
a lady lovely to look upon and learned withal, and our
son was the Prince who sits before you. But this lady
had an evil mind, and because of her jealousy towards
her young stepson she changed him into a werwolf, who
soon afterwards, she told me, had been drowned in the
sea. Now when this animal came before me and kissed

my feet, I was filled with a strange and strong desire to

embrace him ;
so that I would fain believe that he may
be son after
my all, though my wife assured me that he
was drowned."
" "
For my part," said William, I firmly believe that

your suspicion is really the truth, for the wolf has from
the first shown the mind of a good and noble man.

Now if your wife is wise in witchcraft she can surely

turn him into a man again. Until this is done therefore
you shall neither of you be set free. Send at once and
bid the Queen come hither, or I will myself fetch her
by force."
So the King sent a company of his lords with an
urgent message to the Queen of Spain. But when she
heard that the King wanted her to turn a werwolf into a
man, and that only thus could her husband's release be
earned, she fell into a deep swoon. On her recovery
she set off for Palermo with a great company, and was
met at the entrance gates of the city by the Queen and
William, together with her husband the King and the
Prince of Spain her son.
They brought her to the hall and led her to a seat on
the dais, where she sat with the King and Prince of
Spain, the Queen of Palermo and her daughter Flor-
ence, and also with Melior and William, while a great
banquet was made ready. Meantime the werwolf had
been brought by William into his own bedchamber,
which opened out of the hall but when the animal

heard the voice of the Queen of Spain, he rushed into

the hall, the bristles rising on his neck and back, and
flew at her with howls, snapping with his teeth.
She, on her part, screamed for help, and before all
that company confessed that she had deserved death
and begged for life.
Then William caught the werwolf by the neck and
drew him back, saying, " Trust me, dear beast. For
your sake alone I sent for her. And now unless she
takes the enchantment off you, she shall be burnt as a
witch so do her no harm in the meantime."

And the werwolf kissed William's feet and was glad

because of his words.
Then the Queen of Spain rose up and came and
knelt before the werwolf, saying, " Sweet Alphonso,
the people shall soon see thy handsome face again
Now therefore spare my life, though I have sinned
greatly against thee."
So when William had joined her in asking that
mercy might be shown, the werwolf consented to
forgive her if she would give him back his proper
Going into a private room, the Queen drew forth
a magic ring in which was a stone against which no
witchcraft could avail this she tied by a red silk thread

round the werwolf's neck. Then, opening a book of

magic spells, she read them over him and then, all in

a moment, he turned into a man again. With great

delight William took him, bathed him, and dressed him
in royal clothes and when this was done he embraced

William warmly, saying, " I am that werwolf who

saved you from so many perils"; and William returned
his embrace with the deepest affection.
When Prince Alphonso returned to the hall, looking
now like a very noble knight, he gave them all courteous
greeting, and bade them tell him the origin of the war
which was the cause of their trouble.
So they told him all the story, and when they had
ended he laid his hand on William's shoulder, and
turning to the assembly, said
Lords and
ladies, you will be surprised to hear that
this knight, who has remedied all your woes, has
brought also help and safety to his own mother !

Then was there amazement among the company, and

one asked another, "What means he by this saying?"
So Alphonso said, " was the werwolf who carried

off young William as a child to save him from the plots

of his wicked uncle, who had bribed his two nurses to
poison him."
When he had told them the whole story, William,
filledwith gratitude towards Alphonso, implored him to
ask for some reward for all his tender care.
So Prince Alphonso, who had long loved in secret the

Princess Florence, the sister of William, asked that he

might be permitted to pay his court to her, and if she
were willing, to become her husband.
This was gladly granted, and soon the joyful tidings
of William's return were spread far and wide through-
out the land. And first there came to William those
wicked ladies who would have poisoned him as a child,
dressed in sackcloth and begging for mercy, which he
granted them on condition that they would go and live
in a hermitage for the rest of their lives.
Then messengers were sent to the Emperor of Rome,
asking him to come to Palermo for the grand celebra-
tion of his daughter Melior's wedding-feast.
On that joyful occasion the Princess Florence was
also married to Alphonso, once a werwolf; and among
the most honoured guests were the poor cowherd and his
wife, who had been William's foster-parents, to whom
he now gave a fine castle, and made the old man an
earl and his wife a countess.
As the years passed on the Emperor of Rome,
Melior's father, died, and William became Emperor in
his stead, and ruled his kingdom well. Alphonso, too,
intime became King of Spain; and thus was the Queen-
mother's dream fulfilled for William, her right arm,

was Emperor of Rome, and Florence, her left, was

Queen of Spain.
And so the story of William and the werwolf comes
to an end.
(From the Epic of Charlemagne)



the golden days when Charlemagne lived and

INruled upon the earth there reigned over Denmark
a certain King named Godfrey. And it so fell out that
King Godfrey died when her little son
the wife of this
Ogier was born, so that the women-in-waiting took him
from her dead arms and laid him in a silken cradle in
pleasant chamber of the castle.
Now as the child Ogier lay there, quietly sleeping,
there entered the room and drew near the cradle six
beautiful fairies, each bringing a gift to console the
motherless babe for his loss.
The first took the child in her arms, and kissing his
brow, said, My gift is to make you the bravest and
strongest knight of your day."
The second said, " I will see to it that you have the
chance of many battles to fight."
And I grant that you shall always be the conqueror
of your foes," cried the third.
Mygift to you is gentleness and courtesy," said the
And mine that you shall be dear to all women and
happy in your love," said the fifth.

But Morgan le Fay, who was the Queen of Fairyland,

held him long in her embrace before she spoke at all,
and then she said, Dear child, there remains little for
me to give after these promises that my sisters have
made to you. Yet this I can grant never shall you

see death like other men, but when you have finished
a noble life on earth you shall be mine for ever in
Avalon, the Islands of the Blest."
With these words the people of Fairyland flitted

from the room and vanished.

Now, when this child Ogier had grown to be a
handsome boy of ten years old, there came messengers
to his father's Court from the Emperor Charlemagne,
who bade the King of Denmark appear before him to
do homage for his lands. But the proud King Godfrey
" I hold
sent answer back, Tell Charles my lands by
right of my own sword ;
and if he doubt it, let him
come and see. For never to him will Godfrey the Dane
do homage."
Then Charlemagne came up against the rebellious
King of Denmark with all his mighty host, and pre-
vailed against him. And Godfrey was forced to
promise that at Easter each year he would appear
before him to do homage, but as a pledge that he would
keep his word the Emperor made demand that his son,
young Ogier, should be given up to him as a hostage.
So when Godfrey had made unwilling agreement, the
boy Ogier was carried off to the Emperor's Court and
became one of Charlemagne's favourite pages.
For three years running did Godfrey of Denmark
appear faithfully at the Frankish Court to do homage
for his lands, but after that time he failed to come and
was seen there no more. For he, meantime, had mar-
ried another wife and had now another son and his ;

wife had persuaded him to break his pledge to Charle-

magne, saying within herself as he did so, When the
Emperor hears that he refuses to pay homage, then will
he put Ogier to death, and my son shall thereupon be
heir to the throne of Denmark."
Now, according to custom, when Godfrey failed to
appear at the appointed time, the hostage Ogier was
thrown into prison, in the castle of St. Omer, until they
should find out why his father the King of Denmark
had broken faith. But the keeper of the castle, and
his wife, and her fair daughter Bellisande, loved young

Ogier from the moment they set eyes upon him, and
instead of casting him into a dungeon, they placed him
in the finest rooms, richly furnished and covered with

tapestry, and treated him like a prince.

Meantime the messengers of Charlemagne had
arrived in Denmark, where they met a cruel fate. For
Godfrey, unmindful of his son as of his broken faith,
slit their ears and noses, shaved their heads, and sent

them back disgraced.

Filled with anger, these men appeared in shameful
wise at Charlemagne's Court, crying aloud for ven-
geance upon Godfrey of Denmark and upon Ogier
his son,
So the Emperor, bearing of their woes, sent word to
Omer, saying that Ogier must die.
the castle of St.
Then was the keeper of that castle full of grief for
young Ogier, and made special petition to Charlemagne
that at least the lad might appear before him at his
Court and be told \vhy he must die. So one day, as
Charlemagne was making festival with his nobles, came
the handsome youth, tall and fair-haired, with the
keen blue eyes of the North, and kneeling at the
Emperor's footstool, laid his young head low on the
ground before him in abasement for his father's pride
and perfidy.
Then was
the great heart of Charlemagne stirred with
pity and compassion, and he would fain have spared the
boy's life but the messengers, hot for vengeance, cried

out upon him and would fain have slain Ogier as he knelt

there,had not Duke Naymes, that mighty lord of the

Franks, withstood them.
Meantime the lad himself stood humbly before the
Emperor and said, Sire, you know that I have always
rendered you willing obedience and am not really to
blame for my father's fault. Grant me my life, there-
fore, and I will atone for his broken faith by devoting
my days henceforth to your service. As for these

messengers, to them also I will atone,not by my death,

but by a life of devotion to you, if you will but use me
as your own."
Then all the barons who stood round began to inter-
cede with the King on behalf of the lad and while they ;

strove with him and with the messengers, there rode a

knight in haste into the hall, crying, Tidings, ill-tidings,
my lord The Saracens, with the Grand Turk and

Dannemont his son, aided by Caraheu, Emperor of

India, have taken Rome by storm and put to flight
Pope, cardinals, legates, and all. The churches are
destroyed, the Christians put to death and now the ;

Holy Father calls upon you, as Christian king and

Champion of Christendom, to march to the aid of the
Up then sprang Duke Naymes, and kneeling before
Charlemagne, prayed him to let him be the first to start
on the expedition against the Saracens, and to give him
the lad Ogier to be his squire.
And what if he should flee away to his own land ? "
asked the Emperor.
" "
Then," replied the Duke, 1 will give up both my
lands and my liberty, and go as prisoner in his stead."
So the Emperor gave his leave, and all the barons of
his Court hastened away with him to prepare for the

coming conflict. But though Duke Naymes was eager

to be the first he gave leave to Ogier to
in the fight,
hasten to the castle of St. Omer that he might say fare-
well to those who had been his benefactors. And there
in haste was Ogier married to the fair Bellisande, who
loved him so tenderly. Sad indeed was she at so
sudden a departure, but Ogier comforted her, saying,
Weep not, my dear one, for God hath given me life,
and thou hast given me love and these two gifts will

be my strength in the day of battle."

Then Ogier rode away with Duke Naymes and his
companions and they, marching almost constantly by

day and night, found themselves at length on a hill

before the city of Rome, with a large army encamped at
their back. Below them the Saracen host filed out
against them, and Ogier, his ears full of the din of
battle, longed sorely to follow Duke Naymes and his
kinsmen to the fight but they forbade him, telling him

to remain among the tents.

So Ogier stood upon the hill-top and gazed longingly
at the plain below. He saw the armies clash together
in the first onset ;
he saw the golden standard of
Charlemagne in the thickest fight, surrounded by a
circle of his bravest lords he saw Duke Naymes, his

master, riding beside the Emperor himself. Suddenly

all was confusion, the
group of barons scattered, the
standard wavered fell recovered itself then fell
again and Ogier perceived that Sir Alory, the standard-

bearer, panic-stricken by the repulse that Charlemagne's

body-guard had suffered, had turned his horse's head
from the fight and was fleeing for his life.
Seizing a battle-axe, Ogier dashed down the hill,
caught the bridle of Sir Alory's horse, and raising the
fallen standard, cried, Coward, go hence and hide thee
among the monks and women at home! But leave the
banner of the Franks with me."
Then, hastily disarming the trembling knight, Ogier
called upon a squire to dress him in Sir Alory's armour,
leapt upon his horse, and sword in one hand, banner in
the other, flung himself into the thick of the fray. Hew-
ing a path through the enemy's ranks, he found Duke

Naymes and many other nobles had been taken and

held as prisoners in the rear. To them he rode, cut
their bonds with a touch of his sword, and hewed a way

through the closing ranks of -the foemen for himself and

them. It seemed as though none could stand against
the onslaught of the mighty young Dane.
Suddenly a cry of horror ran through the Prankish
host. Charlemagne himself was down, his horse killed
under him, and he himself hard pressed by Dannemont
the Saracen prince. Swooping down upon them, Ogier
waved the standard on high in one hand, while he cut down
Dannemont with the other, and kept the foemen back
while Charlemagne was mounting a fresh horse. Three
times that day was the Emperor face to face with death,
and three times was his life saved by the good right
hand of Ogier the Dane.
At length, with Ogier waving the standard at their
head, the Prankish host dispersed the Saracens and
drove them in disorder to the gates of Rome.
Directly the fight was over, the Emperor ordered that
the standard-bearer should be brought before him ;
no one knew that it was Ogier, for he wore his visor
down. Then said Charlemagne to him, " Alory, though
you fled at the first onset, you have most nobly redeemed
your honour, and no reward can be too great for this
day's work. Choose, therefore, any province of my
kingdom, and you shall be its ruler, and shall also be at
my right hand to do battle for me in all my quarrels."
But a squire who stood by, and who heard him speak
thus of Alory, said, Sire, this is not that Alory of whom
you speak. For he let fall the colours and fled at the

onslaught, to save his own skin but this knight,

first ;

whom I know not at all, seized the standard from

hands and bade me dress him in his armour and it is

he who has fought so well."

Then, as all stood wondering, Ogier took off his
helmet and knelt before Charlemagne, saying, " Have

pity, sire, on Godfrey, King of Denmark, and let his

son atone for his ill deeds and be your faithful vassal in
his stead."
And Charlemagne kissed his brow and said,
anger towards you and your father is altogether turned
to love. I grant you your
request. Rise, therefore,
Sir Ogier the Dane, henceforth to be champion for
France and Charlemagne, and God be with you."
Thus did Ogier
receive his knighthood on the field of
battle, andthe peers of France came about him to

salute him. Then also, flushed with joy, did he once

more make a rush upon the enemy, so that they all fell
back before him. For as sure as the Frankish host fell
into disorder or wavered before the foe, so surely did
the fair-haired Danish knight ride into their midst upon
his great black horse and cheer them forward to the

fight again, cutting and hewing down the foe on either

side, and waving the banner of the Franks with a great
" "
shout of Ogier the Dane is
upon you !

Panic-stricken at this sight, Sadonne, the officer of

the King of India, rode in haste to Dannemont the
Prince, biddinghim hold the field at all costs, since
Caraheu, King of India, with thirty kings, was coming
to his help.
But as he rode he was met by the Saracen army in
full flight, crying out in terror, Flee now and save
thyself, for Michael the Archangel fights against us

Finding himself face to face with the fair-haired

knight on the great horse, Sadonne promptly threw
away his arms and begged for mercy.
Who are you that I should grant it ? " asked Ogier,
and when he answered that he was the chief officer of
the King of India the Dane replied, On one condition
only will I grant your life. Bid Caraheu meet me in
single combat, and so let us determine the issue of this

Next day came Caraheu with a gorgeous train of

followers, and with him came Gloriande, his affianced
bride, the fairest woman in the Eastern world, whose
hair was like spun gold and fell in a shower to her feet,
and whose wonderful gown of pearl-embroidered damask
had taken nine years to weave.
Then did Caraheu, Emperor of India, make proclama-
tion, saying, Where is Ogier the Dane, that I may
fight with him in single combat? For that am I come
hither, and Gloriande, my promised bride, shall be the
prize of victory/'
But Chariot, the son of Charlemagne, looked darkly
on as they made ready, saying, " It is not right that an
Emperor should contend with my father's bondsman,
but only with me."
To which Caraheu replied, I fight not with boasters,
but with brave men. Sir Ogier here can rule men's
hearts, which is far nobler than ruling their lands."
" "
Nay, noble sire," said Ogier, though I should be
loath indeed to give up this conflict, yet Chariot is the
Emperor's son, and worthy to fight with the bravest."
He may fight with Sadonne, my chief officer," said
Caraheu. " For me, the conflict is with you alone."
So a double combat was arranged, to which Gloriande
came to look on. In the fight between Sadonne and
Chariot, Sadonne killed Chariot's horse, and being a
man of honour, dismounted from his own, that they
might fight on equal terms but Chariot only pretended

to fight until he could reach the place where stood the

steed of Sadonne, upon which he leapt and basely fled
Meantime Caraheu with his wonderful sword Courtain
had cut through Ogier's shield and armour and would
have pierced him to the heart, had not the Dane, with
a vast effort, borne the Indian monarch to the ground,
where he lay helpless. Yet Ogfer would not kill him,
for he admired his courage but as he stood by him
and helped him to rise, there rushed upon the Dane
some three hundred Saracens whom Dannemont had
hidden in the bushes near that place.
Vainly did Ogier fight, and Caraheu too, full of
wrath at their treachery, and crying, Traitors, better
death than shame like this fought
! at his side. But
being overpowered and disarmed, the life of Ogier was
only spared at the pleading of Gloriande, and he was
led away to prison, loaded with heavy chains. Yet in vain
did the Saracens hope to win the approval of Caraheu
their former ally. So full of fury was he at their
treachery that he went over, with all his host, to the
side of Charlemagne, until the Saracen host should
atone for their conduct towards Ogier.
But meantime Gloriande, who, according to the fairy
gift, had
loved Ogier the moment she set eyes upon him,
came in secret to the prison and loosed his bonds, so
that he escaped to the camp of Charlemagne and
Then all three, together with the peers of France,
fought against the Saracen host and prevailed against
them and drove them out of Rome. Gloriande mean-
time had been rescued by Ogier from the foe and given
to Caraheu to be his wife in Rome were they baptized

and wedded, and returned to India as Christian man

and woman. But first he gave Courtain, that famous
Damascus blade, to Ogier, saying, By conquering me
in fair fight you won my life and also my bride, and
both have you given back to me. Take therefore this
sword, offered in friendly wise, as a pledge that I owe
all to you,"



Ogier the Dane returned to France, he
WHEN found that his wife Bellisande had died, leaving
him a pretty babe named Baldwin, of whom he soon
became extremely fond. During the years in which the
babe was growing into childhood at the king's court,
came the news that the pagan hosts had invaded the
lands of Denmark, and that King Godfrey was hard be-
set by them in the only town that yet remained in his
At length the King and Queen, knowing they could
hold out alone no longer, looked at each other with eyes
of fear, saying, See what has come upon us because
of Ogier, our son, whom we left to a cruel fate !

So, being brought very low, they wrote a letter to

Charlemagne the Emperor, imploring him to pity them,
to forget the past, and to send them succour. But
Charlemagne coldly replied, Since Godfrey holds his
lands by right of his good sword, let him hold them
still. I will not raise a finger in his aid." And turning
to Ogier, he added, You, surely, would not wish me to
aid a traitor who refused to do me homage and who
left you to suffer for his broken troth ?
But Ogier bent his knee before him, and
said, "Sire,
as your vassal I kneel before you but Godfrey is
; my
father and I must go to his aid. The Emperor will not
forbid a son his duty."
So Charles said, "Go, but go alone, with your own
servants. For mine shall not fight in a rebel's cause."
Then Ogier hastened to his father's city with thirty
of his servants, but when he reached the walls he found
the foemen fighting over Godfrey of Denmark's lifeless
body. Few as were his followers, it was not long before
Ogier had put to flight the pagan host, and with the aid
of his good sword Courtain, had swept them from the
land. So all the people rejoiced to have him King of
Denmark, and there he stayed five years, governing
welland wisely. And when all was firmly established
there he returned to the Court of Charlemagne at
Eastertide,and came and knelt before Charlemagne,
saying, "The son of Godfrey, of his own free will,
pays homage to the Emperor for the land of Den-
Then Charlemagne embraced him warmly, and bade
him once more take his seat among the peers of France.
Meanwhile his son, young Baldwin, had grown into
a fair-haired boy, full of fun and
spirit, and beloved by
all at the Court save one. That one was Chariot, the
Emperor's son, who had ever been jealous of Ogier, and
was now full of spite against his child.
Now it so fell out one day, when Ogier was out
hunting, that Chariot sat and played chess with Baldwin
in the palace and the boy, having easily defeated him,

laughed in pleasure at his triumph. Then the Prince,

beside himself with sudden rage, snatched up the heavy
chess-board and beat out the child's brains.
Rage and misery took possession of Ogier's heart
when he returned to find his little son lying dead and
cold. Taking the lifeless body in his arms, he laid it
before the Emperor's footstool, saying, Sire, look upon
your son's foul work."
Then was the Emperor sorely grieved, so that he
vowed he would give half his kingdom to undo that
" "
deed. But," said he, well I know that there is nothing
can repay so great a loss."
" "
Truly," said Ogier, there is nothing can repay, but
there is a penalty that can be paid. Let me therefore
fight with your son, and so avenge my boy's death."
"Nay, Ogier, that cannot be," said the Emperor; "for
how could my son fight against you and live ?

"What matter!" cried the knight. "Why should


your son live more than mine? Give him then up

to me."
I cannot do it," said the Emperor.
" "
Then, sire," cried Ogier in great anger, till you learn

justice, we are foes."

So saying, he left the Court forthwith, and came to
Lombardy, whose king was then at war with the
Emperor, and Ogier fought on his side against Charle-
In this land did Ogier once again win a great name
for courage and daring and there it was that men

would turn pale at the mention of Ogier the Dane, and

of Courtain his sword, and of Broiefort, his great black
war-horse. And when the hosts of Charlemagne came
up against Desiderio, King of the Lombards, Ogier
prevailed against them, even as in the days of old he
had prevailed against their foes.
At length Charlemagne himself, hearing that the
French were murmuring loudly against him because of
the loss of their champion, marched forth himself
against the rebel. And when he heard of his approach
the heart of Ogier the Dane smote him, for always he
loved his master, though he would not fight for him
again till justice was done. But Desiderio, King of the
Lombards, was full of fear, dreading what would happen
when Charlemagne appeared. And this is how a poet
tells the story of his coming.

Ogier the Dane and Desiderio,

King of the Lombards, on a lofty tower
Stood gazing northward o'er the rolling plains,
League after league of harvests, to the foot
Of the snow-crested Alps, and saw approach
A mighty army, thronging all the roads
That led into the city. And the King
Said unto Ogier, who had passed his youth
As hostage at the Court of France, and knew
The Emperor's form and face " Is Charlemagne :

Among that host ?'
And Ogier answered, No."
And still the innumerable multitude
Flowed onward and increased, until the King
Cried in amazement " Surely Charlemagne

Is coming in the midst of all these knights !

And Ogier answered slowly, " No, not yet ;

He will not come so soon." Then, much disturbed.

King Desiderio asked What shall we do,

If he approach with a still greater army?"

And Ogier answered, When he shall appear
You will behold what manner of man he is ;

And what will then befall us, I know not."

Then came the guard that never knew repose,
The Paladins of France and at the sight ;

The Lombard King, o'ercome with terror, cried :

" This must be Charlemagne "

! and as before
Did Ogier answer, No ;
not yet, not yet !"

And then appeared in panoply complete

The Bishops and the Abbots and the Priests
Of the Imperial Chapel, and the Counts ;

And Desiderio could no more endure

The light of day, nor yet encounter death,
But sobbed aloud and said " Let us go down :

And hide us in the bosom of the earth,

Far from the sight and anger of a foe
So terrible as this And Ogier said,

" When
you behold the harvests in the fields
Shaking with fear, the Po and the Ticino
Lashing the city walls with iron waves,
Then may you know that Charlemagne is come."

And even as he spake, in the north-west

Lo there uprose a black and threatening cloud.

Out of whose bosom flashed the light of arms

Upon the people pent up in the city ;

A more terrible than any darkness,

And Charlemagne appeared a Man of Iron.

His helmet was of iron, and his gloves

Of and his breastplate and his greaves
And tassets were of iron, and his shield.
In his left hand he held an iron spear,
In his right hand his sword invincible.
The horse he rode on had the strength of iron
And colour of iron. All who went before him,
Beside him, and behind him, his whole host,
Were armed with iron, and their hearts within their;
Were stronger than the armour that they wore.

The fields and all the roads were filled with iron,
And points of iron glistened in the sun,
And shed a terror through the city streets.
This at a single glance Ogier the Dane
Saw from the tower, and turning to the King,
Exclaimed in haste, " Behold, this the man
You looked for with such eagerness !
and then
Fell as one dead at Desiderio's feet.

For, in spite of all, Ogier could never lose his love for
his old master, though he fought against him and his
followers with all his might.
At length the Franks, weary of being beaten by him
whenever he appeared upon the scene, plotted together
how they might take Ogier the Dane by trickery.
So they waited their chance, and finding him one day
lying exhausted with a long fight fast asleep under
a fir tree, his good sword fallen from his hand, they
bound him hand and foot, led away his great black war-
horse Broiefort, carried off his sword and lance and
shield, and brought the knight before the King.
Now Charlemagne was so wroth with Ogier for fight-
ing against him, that he would have slain him there and
then, and so made sure that the life of his son Chariot
would no longer stand in danger of his arm. But it so
happened that amongst those who had taken Ogier
prisonerwas Archbishop Turpin, who now intervened, say-
ing, Sire, for the sake of you and your followers I forced

myself to take prisoner the noblest knight in Christen-

dom, but for the sake of no one in the world will I stand
by and see him put to death. Now therefore, since
I took him prisoner, I claim him as my captive, and

will keep him in prison so that he does no further harm

to France."
So Turpin led Ogier to his castle, where he was
treated with the greatest kindness and consideration.
In the days that followed, while Ogier lay in prison,
an upon the Franks, for Bruhier, a Saracen
evil fate fell

giant, invaded France, marched against Charlemagne

and his army, and utterly defeated them. Again and
again they rallied against the foe, but in vain and ;

at length the peers of France, utterly disheartened, came

before Charlemagne, saying, Send, we pray thee, for
Ogier the Dane, since he alone can stand against this
terrible foe and deliver us out of his hands."
Then Charlemagne bowed his haughty head and went
himself to the castle of Archbishop Turpin, and prayed
Ogier to come out and to lead the hosts of the Franks
against the Saracen, as in the days of old.
But Ogier made answer, " Not so, unless you will
first deliver up your son Chariot into my hands."

So the Emperor departed in silence, for he would not

sacrifice his son. At length, however, after another
terrible defeat, the soldiers themselves crowded round
him, saying, Is it nothing to you that we die by
thousands in this vain struggle ? Give up your son ;
what is his life against so many ?

Very sadly did Charlemagne agree, and with heavy

heart brought out the wretched Chariot and delivered
him into the hands of Ogier. And Ogier, blinded by
the remembrance of his fair boy, so cruelly done to
death, would not think of mercy, but clutched him
by the hair and drew his good sword Courtain, meaning
to cut off his head.
At that moment came a clap of thunder and a vivid
flash of lightning, in the midst of which sounded a voice
from heaven, which said, Stay, Ogier !
Slay not
the son of the King."
Then Ogier's hand relaxed
its grasp and Courtain

was returned to but when the Emperor

its sheath ;

hastened forward to thank him for his mercy, the proud

Dane answered, " Thank Heaven, sire, not Ogier the
Dane. He does but do the will of God."
But Charlemagne would not be repulsed and he ;

spoke gentle words to Ogier, so that the knight's heart

melted within him, and he embraced his former master

with tears. And that day were they made friends

Now when Ogier would ride forth to do battle

against the Emperor's foes, he called for his good

Broiefort. But Broiefort had been quite lost sight of
during the seven long years of Ogier's imprisonment,
and men believed him to be dead.
You shall have my charger in his place," said
Charlemagne, and caused a mighty horse to be led out ;

but when Ogier leaned upon his back, the creature

bowed to the earth under his weight. Ten other fine
animals were led forth in turn that he might try them ;

but none of them were strong enough to bear the

stalwart Dane.
Tis clear I must go afoot for the rest of my life,"

said Ogier in rueful wise but even as he spoke there


came to him one who said, I have seen Broiefort
dragging stones for the building of an abbey ten leagues
Then they hastened to that place and found indeed
the good horse Broiefort, but so old and worn that
no one but his master would have recognized him.
Yet when Ogier came and leaned upon his back, the old
charger bowed not, but straightened himself beneath the
weight and when he knew his old master, he whinnied

and snorted with joy, and lay down on the ground before
him like a dog.
So once more Ogier went forth to battle, and wherever
he went the foes of France made way before him. Year
after year passed away, and still the champion of Charle-
magne fought for him and for his land. Grey and old
he grew, but yet his arm remained strong and thousands
still fell before his good sword Courtain. When he was
very old in years he went forth to fight in the Holy
War and took many a city of Palestine. Then, weary
at length of so much fighting, he left his officers to rule
there in his stead and with a great fleet set sail for France.
Now after some days there came down upon that fleet
a terrible storm, which tossed the vessels hither and
thither and left them at the mercy of the waves. The
ship in which Ogier sailed was utterly wrecked, and
having lost mast and was driven out of
sail and oars,
its course into an unknown ocean, through which it was

rapidly carried and finally dashed upon a reef of rock

and broken to pieces. The sailors leapt in the sea and
were crushed to death against the iron rocks Ogier ;

the Dane alone stood firm upon the sinking deck and
gazed through the darkness into the face of death.
Suddenly a voice from the air cried, Ogier, we wait
for thee. Fear not, but trust thyself to the waves."
So he cast himself into the sea, and immediately a
huge wave seized him and threw him high upon the
rocks. Then as he staggered, blinded with spray, to
his feet, a pathway of light shone out before him, show-

ing steps cut roughly on the face of the cliff. Up these

he climbed, following the light, till at length he found
himself outside a marvellous palace, invisible by day,
but glowing bright in the darkness. Its walls were of
ivory and gold, and its gateway of silver stood wide
open to welcome the sea-tossed wanderer. Within the
decorated hall Ogier found a marvellous horse named
Papillon, snow-white in colour, with shoes of gold.
This beautiful animal trotted towards him and motioned
him to follow towards a room in which stood a table
covered with a dainty banquet.
He then fetched water in a golden basin and knelt
before Ogier that he might cleanse his hands before
eating and after the meal was over the good horse

carried him to a bed surrounded by tall golden candle-

sticks in which sweet-smelling tapers burnt all night.
So Ogier slept in peace in the strange silence of that
palace and when he awoke the palace had faded all

away in the light of the sun and nothing of it was to

be seen.

The place where he now found himself was an ex-

quisite garden lying in the midst of the land of Avalon
in the realm of Fairyland. There never rain or snow
is seen, nor breath of frost or fire or hail, but everlasting

sunshine and a soft, sweet sky above, which smiles

upon flowers that never fade and fruits that never
While Ogier the Dane was looking in bewilderment
round about him, there came to him the shining figure of
Morgan le Fay, Queen of Fairyland, who took his hand
and said, " Long have I waited, dear knight, for your
coming. And now you shall never leave this fair

spot, but in youth perpetual shall abide with me for

So saying she placed upon his finger a magic ring,
which had the effect of at once making Ogier young
and strong as in his early prime. And on his head she
placed a wreath of myrtle and olive leaves, calling it the
Crown of Forgetfulness. From that moment all his

past lifevanished from his mind no more did he re-


member Charlemagne or his Court or the long warfare

of past days, but, as one born again, he took up his new
life in Fairyland. And as he wandered with her hand
in hand through that fair region, he came upon the

great King Arthur, healed now of his deadly wound,

and Sir Lancelot and other brave knights of the Table
Round, with whom he jousted in friendly wise as in the
days of yore.
Thus passed away two hundred years as they had
been a day or a week, for nothing was known of time
in Fairyland.



things had gone very ill in the land

of the Franks. Great Charlemagne had passed
away, and there was no man to lead forth the armies of
France against the country's foes. Again and again the
land cried aloud for a deliverer, but there was none to
Far away in the land of Faery at length was heard
the echo of that cry, and the kind heart of Morgan
le Fay melted with pity for the Franks. For, though she

sorely grieved to part with her beloved knight, she

decided that he must return to the land of mortals once
again, to fight for France and for Christendom.
So one day, as she kissed his brow, she lifted from it
the wreath of forgetfulness and bade him listen to that
distant cry. Then at once Ogier sprang up as one
aroused from sleep, and cried, " Too long have I stayed
in this peaceful land. See the cry of battle is in the

air, and it may be that Charlemagne, my lord, calls for

Ogier the Dane to go forth as his champion. Now let

me go at once, but tell me first have I been long in
this fair resting-place ?

Then Morgan le Fay smiled sadly, saying, " The time

has not been long to us, dear knight and forthwith

she brought out Courtain his good sword, led forth

Papillon to be his charger, and raised up the long-dead
Benoist, his squire, to bear him company.
Then, as she prepared to leave him, she gave him
a torch saying, Take heed that you kindle this not,
for if remains unlit you shall live for ever; but if by

chance it should begin to burn away, take great care

that the flame be preserved, for when the last spark of
the torch has died out, then shall your life come to an

end. Guard also, my beloved, the magic ring upon your

finger, for while you wear it, your health and youth
shall never fade away."
After these words she threw Ogier into a deep sleep
and wafted him away by magic spells to the land of
France. And when he awoke, he found Courtain lying
ready to his hand, and Benoist the squire holding
Papillon ready for him to mount Then all those years
in Avalon seemed tohim but a dream, and leaping upon
his horse he rode into the nearest city.
" "
What city is this ? asked Ogier of one whom he
Montpellier," answered the man.
I should have known that, indeed," said Ogier,
smiling,"though methinks it hath changed of late.
My kinsman indeed is governor of this city perhaps ;

you know him Lascaut is his name."

You are jesting," said the man in some surprise.
It is two hundred years since the days of that

same governor. But he is still remembered here, for,

as no doubt you know, he wrote the romance of Ogier
the Dane. A good story is that same, and is still sung
by one who goes about the city, singing the old tales
of long ago."
At this Ogier rode on, but the man lingered till he
was overtaken by Benoist, to whom he said, Who is
your master?
" "
Surely he is not unknown to any one in France ?
replied Benoist. He isOgier the Dane."
Rascal cried the
! man. " How dare you jest with
me ! All the world knows that Ogier the Dane
perished in a shipwreck some two hundred years ago."
Meantime, Ogier had ridden on to the market-place
of a neighbouring town, where stood an inn, well known
to him in old days, and kept by one Hubert.
" "
Can we find lodging here ? he asked of the man
who came out to greet him.
Certainly, sire," replied the latter, looking with
interest at his attire.
"Then send me Hubert the innkeeper," said Ogier,
preparing to dismount.
" "
I am the
Sire," replied the man, innkeeper, and my
name is William."
Do not try to deceive me " said Ogier sternly. " I

know this inn too well to believe that, unless by chance

Hubert hath died of late. But if so, where is his
son ?"
At that the landlord slammed the door in his face,
and having secured it, appeared at an upper window and
called to those passing below, Here is a madman, or
one possessed with a devil, for he wishes to speak with
Hubert, my grandfather's grandfather, who has been
dead these two hundred years. Seize him, then, and
send for the Abbot of St. Faron, that he may come and
drive out the evil spirit from him."
A rough crowd quickly assembled about the inn and
began to throw stones at both knight and squire. Soon
the excitement grew beyond all bounds, and an archer
on the outskirts drew his bow and shot poor
Benoist through the heart Upon that Ogier lost all
patience, and leaping upon Papillon, he laid about him
with Courtain his sword till the market-place was
covered with the dead. But meanwhile the heat of his
passion had kindled the magic torch that lay in his
breast, burnt now with a steady flame.
and it

Then Ogier rode hard from that place till he came to

the Abbey of St. Faron, which he himself had built
and endowed before he went to the Holy Land. There
he met the old Abbot, to whom he said, Surely you will
know me, good father, for I am the founder of this
Abbey, and at my word that you were appointed
it was
at its head. not your name Simon ?
" "
Not so," said the Abbot, my name is Geoffrey ;

but tell me, I pray you, to whom I am speaking."

I am Ogier the Dane," he replied.
The Abbot fell back a step and gazed at him with

There was a Simon who was abbot of this monas-
tery long, long ago, and true enough, he lived in the
days of the great Ogier," he said but that was two

hundred years ago, and Simon's bones had fallen to

dust long before I was born."
Then Sir Ogier gave a loud cry of wonderment.
What, Abbot Simon gone ? And Charlemagne
and the peers of France ? Where are they all ? Not
dead surely not dead " !

Dead and buried two hundred years ago," said the
Abbot solemnly and at that Sir Ogier threw himself

from his horse and implored him to hear his story.

Together they sat in the great dim church, and the
Abbot listened and marvelled, but believed and rejoiced
to think that the champion of France had returned
once more.
Then Ogier gave into his charge the magic torch,
which he placed beneath the church in an iron chest, so
that very little air might enter, and the flame, diminished
to a spark, might smoulder on for many years. Now
when this was done the Abbot prayed Ogier to let him
see the ring which had been given him by Morgan
le Fay, but directly it was drawn from his finger the

knight became at that moment a shrivelled, feeble old

man, a very skeleton, and almost without life. Hasten-
ing to put it on again, he once more found himself
young and vigorous, and leaping upon Papillon, he
rode off against the enemies of France.
Black was the outlook for the Franks that day, for
the heathen host had scattered them on every side.
Suddenly was seen in their midst a huge fair-haired
knight riding on a milk-white horse, and wherever he
went the France fled before his path.
foes of
Surely," cried at length one old Frankish warrior,
mindful of the tales his grandfather had told him, " 'tis
Ogier the Dane !

The word was repeated from rank to rank, and from

one part to another the cry went up of " Ogier Ogier !

the Dane !

And with this battle-song on their lips the Franks

rushed upon the foe as in the days of old and put them
utterly to rout.
This happened every time the Dane went forth to
victory, until at length the heathen host was driven
from the length and breadth of the land of France.
And while he fought, the watchful Abbot of St.
Faron noted that the torch within the iron safe burnt
fiercely, but when he was at rest it sank once again to
a mere spark.
Now when at length the foes of France had been put
to silence, Sir Ogier the Dane came to the Court of the
Queen of France, for the King had been long dead.
And then once more the effect of the fairy gifts was
seen, for both the Queen and her chief lady-in-waiting
fell in love with him. But the latter, finding that he did
not return her love, determined to have her revenge.
One day,when she and the Queen of France were
passing through an ante-chamber, they happened to
find Ogier sleeping upon a couch and the Queen,

mindful of the legends that were told about him, drew

the magic ring softly from his finger in order to see what
would happen. To the horror of the two ladies, the
handsome young knight turned at once into a withered
skeleton before their eyes. Before he could awaken,
the Queen hurriedly slipped the ring on again, and
Ogier at once regained his health and youth, but not
before the lady-in-waiting had seen her means of
When it was openly announced that Ogier was to
marry the Queen and to sit upon the throne of Charle-
magne, the lady sent thirty strong knights to seize him

as he rode out from the palace and to take from him

his ring but Papillon, the fairy horse, saved his

that time, and leaping lightly over their heads, sped fast
So the bridal arrangements were made, and a very
great ceremony prepared. All the greatest peers of
France came to the church to see the wedding and the
coronation of the famous Ogier, and a vast crowd stood
in waiting outside.

Suddenly, as Ogier and his bride knelt before the

chancel steps, a dazzling light shone through the church,
and in the midst of a rainbow cloud Morgan le Fay
appeared, clasped Sir Ogier in her arms, and both
vanished together in the mist with which the place
was filled.
Never again was Ogier the Dane seen by mortal eye ;

yet men say he is not dead, since the magic torch still
burns within the vault of the Abbey of St. Faron.
Far away in Avalon he dreams away the years but ;

one day, so say the Franks, the trumpet-blast will call

him back again to his adopted land, and then amidst
the hosts of foemen will be heard his battle-cry, Ogier
the Dane and with his good sword Courtain he will

appear again, riding upon the white horse Papillon, and

driving before him the foes of France, as in the days of
(From the Geste de Doon de Mayence)



again in the days of Charlemagne there
ONCE lived a certain bold knight named Duke Aymon.
This noble married the of the Emperor, the fair
maiden Aya, and in due course were born to him four
comely sons Renaud, Allard, Guichard, and Richard.
Turbulent youths were they when they grew up, and
ever ready to take up arms in a quarrel. Nor was it
long before they had their opportunity in a great family
feud that began to exist between Charlemagne the
Emperor and their own house. For their uncle, Sir
Bevis, being a knight of hot and passionate blood,
refused to do homage to Charlemagne for his broad
lands, and when Lothair, the son of the Emperor,
came demand his fealty, he killed him unawares.
This led to open warfare, in which Duke Aymon
and his sons, rebels at heart all their lives, gladly took
the side of Sir Bevis. But the warriors of Charlemagne
were the stronger, and defeated the followers of Sir
Bevis, and took him and his brother Duke Aymon
barefooted and bareheaded into the presence of the
Humbly they knelt before him and humbly sued for
pardon, and so, after bitter upbraiding for their dis-
loyalty, Charlemagne bade them go in peace. Then
crept up that evil-minded Ganelon, always an ill adviser

to the Emperor, and reminded him how Sir Bevis had

slain his son.
Wouldst thou forgive the murderer of Lothair?"
he questioned. " Surely then will all Charlemagne's
lords turn rebels and cut-throats."
Thus he continued to speak in the ears of Charle-
magne, and poisoned his mind so that he repented him of
his mercy, and sent messengers to lie in wait for Sir
Bevis and kill him as he set out upon the homeward
Now, when this thing was known, the sons of Aymon
and the Duke himself swore great oaths that they would
never pay fealty to Charlemagne again nor be at peace
with him till they had avenged their kinsman. At that
time there were in France many discontented barons
who were always ready to rebel against the Emperor,
and these now joined Duke Aymon in a long and fruit-
less war against their King. But after a while the Duke
grew old and weary of warfare Charlemagne too had

no desire to keep up the long feud. So when the latter

sent messengers to bid the old man end the war and
return to his allegiance, Aymon replied that he would be
ready to do this if Charlemagne would pay six times the
weight of Sir Bevis in gold.
And so the feud came to an end for a time.
No long time passed, however, before the daring and
rebellious spirit of the sons of Aymon broke out afresh.
It so happened that Charlemagne made a great
tournament at his city of Aachen, and bade the four
young men repair thither to test their strength against
the other youths of the Court.
So they took their way to the city on horseback, and
of the four Renaud the eldest rode first, upon the back
of Bayard his famous charger. Now Bayard was a
fairy horse, of great strength and size, and none could
excel him in speed. He had more wit than many a
man, and often had delivered his master in time of peril.
No sooner had the tournament begun than it was
quickly seen that none could hold their own against the
sons of Aymon save only those renowned knights
Roland and Ogier the Dane. In vain did Chariot the
Emperor's son and Bertholair his nephew challenge
them to the combat. Each time they did so they were
brought to the ground in shame and dishonour. At
length Bertholair made
a plot with Chariot to play a
trick upon Renaud which should bring him to confusion.
He challenged the young man to a game of chess,
making a bargain that whoever won should become the
owner of Bayard the famous horse.
Now half-way through the game Renaud perceived
that he was being tricked in that play and that
Bertholair was about to cry " Checkmate " Springing

to his feet in a gust of sudden fury, he drew his sword

Flamberg from its sheath and struck off the head of
Bertholair so that it rolled upon the ground.
At once the knights in the place sprang to their

feet and surrounded the four brothers, who set their

backs against an oak tree hard by and prepared to sell
their lives dearly.

Suddenly into the space between them and the angry

courtiers bounded the great horse Bayard and lowered
his head before his master. Shouting to his brothers to
follow his example, Renaud sprang upon his back. The
knights rushed forward and strove to pull him off and
prevent the other three from joining him but Bayard ;

plunged and kicked and bit to such effect that the

former were obliged to fall back. Then the other three
young men leaped up behind their brother, who shook
the bridle, crying, " Bayard and immediately the good

horse sped away like the wind and was out of sight
before the discomfited courtiers could think of pursuit.
For the next seven years the four sons of Aymon lived
as outlaws in the wild woods that clothed the hills of the
Ardennes. At length, growing weary of this kind of

life, they determined, since they might not fight in the

cause of Charlemagne, to serve his enemies the Moors in

So they took service under a Moorish chief named
Ivo, and won such high renown that he gave to Renaud
his eldest daughter
O as wife and oermission to build on

the top of a mountain among the Pyrenees a beautiful

castle of pure white marble.
And this was the Castle of Montauban, where Renaud
soon gathered many of the discontented nobles of
France and bade them fight on the side of the Moors
against Charlemagne the Emperor.
But the wisest of all who came was an ill-shapen
dwarf called Maugis, who was cousin to Renaud and
one of the cleverest magicians to be found from East to
West. So much did men fear his power that, wherever
he chose to go, they did not seek to question or prevent
him. And so he was sometimes in the camp of Charle-
O sometimes with Renaud, sometimes with the

Moors, and came and went just as he pleased.

Now in due time it came to pass that the anger of
Charlemagne was kindled afresh against his nephews
the four sons of Aymon, when he heard of the lordly
castle which Renaud had built at Montauban and he

gathered his host and marched through the mountain

passes until he stood beneath its white and gleaming
walls. But the castle was so strongly fortified and its
it could be approached only by
position so secure, since
steep and narrow goat-paths, that the Emperor's army
was powerless before it.
At length the patience of Charlemagne gave out ;

and he sent for Roland and gave orders that the word
should be given for retreat, since they were but wasting
time. But Roland, to whose advice the King was
always willing to listen, said, Let us, before we retire
for good, try one stratagem upon them. Let us pre-
tend to withdraw our forces from before the castle. In
all probability Renaud and his men will follow us in
their pride of heart, and then will we
turn upon them
and slay them."
So Charlemagne acted upon this advice, and next
morning the watchers on the walls of the Castle of
Montauban saw the iron-grey hosts of the Emperor
turn their backs upon the mountain and slowly wend
their way towards the road which led to France.
At this news there was great rejoicing among the
brothers, some of whom were for making a sally and
harassing them in the rear. But Maugis the Dwarf
shook his big wise head, saying, " Tis but a stratagem,
and if you sally forth you will be doing the very thing
for which they have planned. By all means let them
go and keep fast yourselves within your walls and ;

when they see this they will get tired of attacking so

wary a and take themselves off for good."
Then Renaudarose and said, " The words of our kins-
man Maugis are good words and should be observed.
There is, however, one thing that we must do,regardless of
risk or danger, now that we are no longer shut up within
these walls. 'Tis now ten years since I have seen my
mother, Aya the Emperor's sister, and I long to speak
with her again. Let my brothers, if they will, come
with me and for greater safety we will go in disguise."

Now this was no light adventure to undertake for ;

Aymon their father had taken an oath to Charlemagne

that if his rebel sons appeared beneath his roof at
Dordon he would have them cut to pieces. Therefore
the four knights dressed themselves in pilgrim's garb,
with slouched hats and large worn cloaks, and went
barefoot to the Castle of Dordon.
It so happened that their father, Duke Aymon, was
absent on a hunting expedition when they arrived, and
as pilgrims in those days were always received with
respect and hospitality, they found no difficulty in
making their entrance to the castle.

The Lady Aya herself hastened to receive them in

the great hall, saying, " Tell me, good sirs, what you
lack of food or clothes, and I will gladly provide
them for the love of the Lord, Who I trust will guard
my own four sons and bring them back to me before
I die."
So they sat them down to meat, but could hardly
touch the food for the love and desire that was in their
hearts towards their mother. And she, looking earnestly
upon them, noticed on Renaud's forehead a wound mark
received in a tournament when he was but a child.
Rising to her feet, she cried, Fair sir, if thou art
Renaud, speak to me now at once, for my heart tells me
that thou art my son."
Then Renaud took her in his arms and embraced her
with tears of joy, and the others kissed her a hundred
times over.
But how poorly you are dressed, my sons " she !

cried at last ;
and where are your horses that you
walk barefoot ?
Then they told her of the danger in which they
stood because of the nearness of the hosts of Charle-
magne and because of their father's oath. So she put
good food before them and bade them eat in peace.
Scarcely had they finished, however, when the noise
of horns and horses was heard at the gate, and a page-
boy hastened in to announce the unexpected return of
Duke Aymon and before they had time for more than

to draw their pilgrim's hoods over their faces as they sat

the old man had tramped into the hall.
And who are these men ? " he cried after he had
greeted his wife. By their garb they seem to be
Then came his sweet wife and put her hands upon
his broad chest, saying, " Penitent indeed are they for
the trouble they have cost you, for they are our own
four sons, and they have come to seek harbourage with
us till the morn. Now surely thou wilt soften thy heart
towards them and repent thee of thine oath."
But the Duke looked sadly on his sons because of his
oath's sake and said, Children, this should be ill coming
for thee. For I have sworn to Charlemagne that I will
not let you hide under the same roof as myself, nor give
you help or protection in
any wise."
Then Renaud, "The Emperor has pursued us
even to my Castle of Montauban to seek our hurt, and
now he would put enmity between father and son. But
this shall not be. Weary and barefoot as we are, we
will but embrace our mother again and depart at

Not so," at length said the Count, who had been
sitting with his head bent sadly on his hand. True and
loving are ye towards your mother, and great is the
risk you have run for her sake. I will therefore leave

the castle myself, for my oath's sake, this night, and

will sleep in my hunting-lodge, that ye may depart at
dawn in peace."
Now all that night long, while her four sons slept
soundly before the great hall fire, the Princess Aya
sent messengers throughout the country round about,
bidding all valiant knights who had a grudge against
the Emperor to come to the Castle of Dordon at break
of day. So when morning dawned seven hundred
knights in full armour sat on horseback before the
gate, ready to escort the four sons of Aymon in safety
to their castle among the mountains. And they, who
had come in pilgrim garb, barefoot and unarmed, re-
turned shining armour proudly on horseback, clad
in the finest cloth and linen by the hands of theii
mother Aya.
Now when Charlemagne heard of the success of this
daring expedition, and how seven hundred of his dis-
contented knights had joined the forces of Renaud in
his mountain castle, he was very wroth and prepared to

take vengeance upon him. Then came to him the

traitor Ganelon, and suggested that this could best be
done by bribing Ivo the Moorish chief, who was the
friend and ally of Renaud, to betray him. With so
mean a plot Roland would have naught to do but the ;

Emperor, weary and worried by news of a threatened

rebellion in the north, yielded to the tempter's voice
and made his arrangements with Ivo forthwith.
Now it was well known that at that particular time
the chieftain Ivo was on terms of alliance with Charle-
magne the Emperor, and it was no matter of surprise
to the sons of Aymon when Ivo appeared at the Castle
of Montauban as his ambassador of peace. They gave
him hearty welcome too, for their minds were ever ill
at ease because of the feud between themselves and the
Emperor and between themselves and their father.
"All shall be sacrificed to make peace with the
Emperor," they said, save our honour and our lives."
"'Tis but a small thing he asks of you," replied Ivo.
He would have you dress yourselves as pilgrims as
you did just now when you visited your mother, and
that you ride thus, barefoot and unarmed, to the
presence of the King in his Castle of Falkalone, and
there ask his pardon and do homage to him."
That will we gladly do," said Renaud, and so said
they all.

Not long after they had thus agreed with Ivo, the
four brothers dressed themselves in pilgrim's garb and
prepared to mount the mules which should take them
over the mountains to the Castle of Falkalone. But as
Renaud was saying farewell to his wife Clarissa, the
daughter of Ivo, she hung about his neck and prayed
him with tears not to go alone and unarmed upon this
" "
For," said she, I have a
foreboding knowing my
father as I do that he is in the pay of Charlemagne
for this matter, and that in going to Falkalone you are
but walking into a trap. Hear me, then, and either go
not at all or fully armed."
But Renaud shook his head and chid her gently for
her want of faith in Ivo her father. " Say no more,"
said he. I will hear nothing said against the truth

and goodwill of my old ally."

So he strode off to mount his mule but his wife called

Allard softly back, and gave him four swords, and

among them good Flamberg, the famous weapon of her
lord. You will have need of these, good brother," she
said. Take them, therefore, and hide them beneath
thy robe. But see you say nothing of them to my lord
till the right time comes."

So Allard took and hid the swords beneath his cloak,

and forthwith the four brothers set out upon their road
down the steep mountain-side. Not far were they from
Falkalone when suddenly, as they were passing through
a deep and narrow valley, there was a shout, a clash of
arms, and three-score mounted men of the troops of
Charlemagne threw themselves upon them. In a trice
Allard pulled out three of the swords and threw them
to his brothers, but even when armed the odds against
them were far too many. Richard, Allard, and Guichard
were soon taken prisoner, and Renaud was only saved
by the oncoming darkness, which enabled him to cut
down his confused and blundering foes, and to make
a way for himself up the mountain-side. And so at
length, weary and bloodstained, he made his way back
to the Castle of Montauban.



Renaud, a sadder and a wiser knight, had
made his return to Montauban, he fully expected
that the army of Charlemagne would quickly reappear
before his walls to begin the siege anew. But just
as the Emperor was about to give orders to this effect,
a messenger arrived hot-foot from Paris, with news of a
serious rebellion in the region of Northern France, so
that he was obliged to turn his face in that direction
without further delay. In order, however, to serve as a
lesson to the rebels of the north, he ordered the three
prisoners, Richard, Allard, and Guichard, to be carried
thither in chains in order that they might be hanged on
the walls of Paris.
Deep was the distress within the walls of Mont-
auban when this news was brought by one of Renaud's
I cannot leave
my brothers to such a fate," cried
Renaud. " Bravely here they stood by me, and now go
I forth to rescue them."
And to this his fair wife readily agreed. So Renaud
mounted upon his good horse Bayard and rode forth
alone in the track of the Emperor's army.
Now the weather grew very sultry about the noontide
hour, andRenaud became extremely sleepy and would
lay him down to rest. It seemed a safe part of the

country ;
trees were scattered over a meadow which
sloped to a little stream. The horse put his head down
to crop the tender grass, and his master, slipping from
the saddle, laydown under an oak tree and was soon
asleep. Before very long the horse, as he fed, had
wandered some distance from his master, whose form
was almost hidden by the long grass amongst which he

Presently there came by that way a little band of

countrymen, with whom journeyed a certain traveller who
had seen something of the world and was not unlearned
in the art of magic.
Thisman had often heard of Bayard, the wonderful
fairy horse, and now, as he looked about him and saw
the straying steed busily crop the grass, he stopped
short and exclaimed, Surely that is the famous horse
of Renaud, the rebel knight ?
" " "
Not so said his companions.
! Renaud is safe in
the Castle of Montauban ;
he would never venture as
far north as this. But a very gallant steed
'tis !

Renaud's or another's, I care not," said the traveller.
See how rich is his harness and his stirrups of gold !

Let the man who catches him take him to Paris and
make a present of him to the Emperor. Methinks that
man shall have a rich reward."
At once the countrymen attempted to catch the
horse, who threw up his head, ran a few paces off, and
continued to crop the grass. This he repeated whenever
they approached him, until at length they had to confess
that theirs was a hopeless task. Then the traveller,
who had watched their attempts with jeers, drew near
the horse, and waving his hands, uttered some magic
spells, while at the same time he threw over his head
a fine white powder. The creature stood still with
bowed neck, quivering in every limb, and the traveller,
seizing his reins, sprang upon his back and set off at a
speed like the wind towards Paris.
When the Emperor arose next morning, word was
brought him that a matchless horse stood in the court-
yard before the palace and that its owner craved
audience of the King.
forth to see what this might mean, Charle-
magne once saw, with the keenest delight, that none
other than Bayard, the famous horse of Renaud, stood
before him.

No amount was too high to pay for such a prize the ;

traveller went away rich and well content, and Bayard

was led to the royal stables.
Meantime the unfortunate Renaud had awaked and
discovered his loss. Everywhere he searched and called,
and at length, with a heavy heart, sat down on a stone
by the wayside to bemoan his loss.
Woe is me " he !

cried. First I lose my father's affection and my
mother's tender care, then my brothers are taken from
me, and now my horse, my beloved Bayard, has been
stolen away. Why, why should I live any longer ?
"To do your duty, Sir Knight," replied a voice in
his ear, which made Renaud spring to his feet in alarm.
Before him stood bowing to the ground an odd figure
of a little old man, with a long white beard and bright
beady eyes.
"What do you mean, old fellow?" asked Renaud
somewhat peevishly.
You are cast down, Sir Knight," replied the dwarf.
"But who knows what is in store for him? The wise
man does not lose hope, but looks about him for some
means of help."
And can you find me that ? " scoffed the knight.
What will you give me if I do ? asked the little man.
Take my golden spurs for what use are they with-
out a horse to ride?" said Renaud, unbuckling them as
he spoke.
" "
And what else have you to offer ? quietly asked
his companion, as- the priceless spurs disappeared
beneath his cloak.
Then Renaud began look displeased.
to What
have you to offer in return, I should like to know?" he
said. I have a good mind to offer you a sound box on

the ear for your grasping spirit."

Nay, nay, good sir, that would be unwise indeed,"
said the man quietly " for many have
little ; sought
favours from me in my day, and have laid their richest

gifts at my feet in order to buy one tenth part of the

help I can give to you."
Take this cloak, then/' and with these words Renaud
unbuckled his rich velvet mantle, stiff with golden em-
broidery, which the dwarf deftly folded up and tucked
under his shabby cloak.
Then he bowed again and asked gently, " And what
next has my lord to offer ?
At this Renaud's wrath knew no bounds. Drawing
his sword Flamberg from its scabbard, he held it
threateningly over the old man's head, crying, Now will
I offer thee but one blow of thou art
my good sword, for
a robber and naught else."
Is that so, Sir Renaud ? smiled the dwarf. " Then
wouldst thou slay Maugis, thy cousin, who can indeed
be of help to thee in time of need." And with that he
pulled off his beard, threw back his hood, and stood
revealed as Maugis the Magician.
"You have a good heart, my cousin," said he; "and
now put yourself in my hands. Fear not your brothers ;

are in prison, but are yet alive, and Bayard is in the

hands of Charlemagne. Only do as I tell you, and all

shall yet be free as the air."

With these words he took from his wallet a shabby
pilgrim's gown and hood, like his own, and bidding the
knight hide his helmet in the grass, he put this upon
him, so that it covered him from head to foot and only
half revealed his face.
Thus] disguised the two men proceeded on their way
to Paris.
Three days later the streets of that city were gay with
a fine procession, which passed from the palace to a
field where a tournament was to be held. In the midst
rode the Emperor in cloth of gold, and in front of him
paced the noble steed Bayard, led by four grooms, and
richly caparisoned in silk, softest leather, and fine crim-
son cloth embroidered with white lilies.

" "
Whose horse is that ? asked a bent old pilgrim of
a citizen who stood near him on the bridge over the
River Seine.
That remains to be seen," replied the man. " The
Emperor has promised him to the man who in the lists
to-day can most easily mount and ride him for up to ;

now he no man put foot in his stirrups."

And who gave him to the Emperor ?" asked Maugis,
for it was he.
Before the citizen could answer, the procession sud-
denly was thrown into confusion. The horse Bayard
had stopped short, thrown up his head, scattering his
grooms right and left, and with a loud neigh had
galloped across the bridge and laid his nose on the
shoulder of the taller of the two poorly clad pilgrims.
There was a cry of " Bayard from the peers !

who rode at Charlemagne's right hand, and the King

himself pushed forward and caught at the horse's
" "
Gracious sovereign cried the dwarf, throwing him-

self before the King's own steed.

boon boon I A ! A !

crave a boon !

Say on then," said the Emperor, always gentle to
pilgrims, monks, and women; and the dwarf continued
Sire, my comrade here is deaf and dumb and blind
from his birth. But a wise man hath foretold that if he
could but once ride in a tournament, even though he
be no knight, a miracle shall take place and he shall be
" "
He is mad ! cried the courtiers ;
but the Emperor
No matter if he is. Push on to the field and let us
see what he can do."
Now when that tournament began, all the flower of
Charlemagne's knights strove again and again to mount
and ride good Bayard but not one of them would he

allow to set his foot in his stirrups. At length the dwarf


appeared again before the King, leading the taller

pilgrim,and reminding the King of his promise.
The horse will kill him. Let him try a gentler
steed," said Charlemagne.
But the man answered,
little What matter if he kill
him ? Is his life so dear that he should seek to pro-
long it?"
So the Emperor gave orders that the horse should be
held while others lifted the afflicted man upon his back.
No sooner had the foot of the pilgrim touched the
stirrup than he leaped upon him and bending, whis-
" "
pered Bayard in his ear.
! Like a flash of light-
ning the animal sprang forward, dashed over the field
into the river, swam across, and took the road to the
south before the astonished onlookers could say a word.
On flew the horse, swifter and swifter, never stopping
till he stood
panting and weary before the gates of the
Castle of Montauban. And so the troubles of Renaud
came for a while to an end.



the uproar that followed the escape of
Renaud the dwarf Maugis seemed to have van-
ished. Search was made everywhere for a pilgrim in
worn and shabby cloak, but no such person appeared
to exist within the walls of Paris.
But at midnight a little grey man slipped quietly into
the gloomy prison tower that stood hard by the King's
palace. Whispering a word to the sleepy warders, he
passed on unchecked till he came to an iron door which
seemed to open of its own accord. This led into
a dark and noisome cell, where three figures, heavily
chained, lay upon the damp, unwholesome floor.

"Rise, cousins," said the dwarf quietly. "It is I,

Maugis, come to set you free."
With that he quickly unfastened their fetters with
a tiny key which seemed to open every kind of lock,
and the three brothers, Allard, Guichard, and Richard,
dazed and stupefied, made their way out of the prison.
Before day broke, all four rescued and rescuer were
riding like the wind towards the Castle of Montauban.
This daring escape only served to increase the wrath
of Charlemagne, who now swore a great oath that he
would never cease the warfare until he sat at the head
of the banquet in the white castle of his rebellious
So once more the army was summoned and took the
road to Montauban. There was but little chance of
taking the place by assault the only hope was to starve

out the garrison and play the game of waiting. But

Charlemagne knew that the advantage was all on the
side of Renaud as long as he had Maugis with him.
For Maugis was aware of secret paths unknown even
to Renaud, and there was little danger of actual starva-
tion for the besieged, though commons might very likely
run short.
Now one dark night the wise dwarf crept down the
mountain-side and entered the camp of Charlemagne to
spy out the land. He had no fear of danger, for when
he approached a sentry, he sprinkled a fine white powder
in the air which had the immediate effect of making
him drowsy and dull of brain. He advanced in safety
therefore right up to the tent of Charlemagne, and was
about to raise the curtain that hung before it, scattering,
as he did so, his powder over the man who lay stretched
upon the entrance, when suddenly the latter sprang up,
seized the dwarf in an iron grasp, and dragged him into
the presence of the King.
His captor was Oliver, one of Charlemagne's most
renowned peers, who had been on the look out for the

tricky little man for a long time, and who was one of the
very few who were quite unaffected by his magic
" "
Ho It is thou
! ! cried Charlemagne at sight of him.
Now can we put an end to thy cunning and sorcery.
Bind him fast, good Oliver, take him forth and fling him
from the top of yonder precipice."
"Very good, my gracious liege," replied the dwarf,
unmoved. " My life is one of some small value to others
but of none to myself. But it is customary, 1 believe, to
grant to dying men one boon."
" "
What is asked the King.
that ?
Thatmay be allowed to live just long enough to

sit with you and your peers at the banquet once again,"

said Maugis, who in former days had always been

a welcome guest on festive occasions.
The Emperor nodded grimly. "'Tis not much to
ask," he said, " and anyhow the affair will not last long."
So all that day invitations were issued and a great
banquet prepared only Oliver could not be present,

for he had undertaken to make a night attack upon

some of the followers of Renaud, who he had reason to
think had taken this opportunity to fetch food from
the valleys.
A noble array of peers satdown with Charlemagne
that night, and ate and drank and pledged each other
with right goodwill, while Maugis sat at the Emperor's
right hand and laughed and talked with the best of
them. But no one saw that every few minutes he
quietly cast into the air a certain amount of a powder,
so fine that no one could detect its presence.
Gradually a strange drowsiness overtook the ban-
queters. Heads began to nod and eyes to close, and
before the feast was over, every one save Maugis lay
back in his seat sound asleep.
Waiting only till the Emperor seemed to have passed
into the most profound slumber of all, Maugis jumped

from his seat, and with a chuckle of glee began to

hoisthim upon his shoulders. Luckily, though he was
so short, the dwarfs back was very broad, and he
managed thus to convey the burly figure of Charlemagne
up the mountain-paths till he stood before the Castle of
At a word from him the gates swung open, and
forthwith he bore his strange burden through the midst
of the astonished sentries and into the great hall, where
Renaud and his followers were sitting.
Here is a hostage for you, good cousins," quoth
Maugis with a laugh. Keep him safe, for otherwise
he would have me lie to-night at the bottom of a
You may imagine, if you can, the amazement of
Renaud and his brothers when they saw their lord and
uncle thus lying at their mercy. But they were honour-
able foes, and scorned to take advantage of him ;

they carried him, still sleeping, to the finest room in the

castle and laid him upon a noble bed, and left him to
slumber in peace.
When Charlemagne awoke at noon next day he was
firstovercome with bewilderment at his surroundings,
and then with fury at the way he had been tricked. In
vain did Renaud remind him that all was fair in love
and war finding that the Emperor's wrath only grew

hotter as the discussion went on, he suggested that they

should postpone it for a time, and that meantime the
Emperor would condescend to share a meal with him.
This Charlemagne would gladly have declined, but as
he had awakened exceedingly hungry he thought it
better not to do so. So descending to the great hall of
Montauban, he seated himself at table.
There all was arranged in royal fashion. Golden
cups, dishes, and plates were put before the Emperor,
and the most rare and delicious foods were brought in
and set before him. His four nephews, in courteous
fashion, tasted the meals first themselves to assure him
they were free from poison, and afterwards served him
on bended knee.
All this seemed at the beginning to have a softening
effect upon the Emperor, but when he had finished the
meal he grew angry and morose again. Then came
Renaud and knelt before him, humbly begging for peace
and an end to the long feud. But Charlemagne re-
membered the many ways in which he had been
worsted by his nephews in former times and hardened
his heart against them.

"Open your gates to your Emperor," he cried, "for

he will never make peace with traitors."
" "
Traitors are we not," replied Renaud, and to prove
it, although I have the Emperor utterly in my power, I
now give him full leave to depart. Open the gates and
let him go forth."
So Charlemagne departed ;
but his great figure some-
how looked less heroic than usual as he strode unfor-
giving down the mountain-side, leaving his nephews
looking sadly after him.
As Renaud turned back to enter the castle Maugis
the Dwarf stood in his way and looked darkly at him.
Fool that thou art, O Renaud," cried the little man,
and unworthy of my wiles Why didst thou not

Keep him fast prisoner until thou hadst made what

cerms thou wilt? Now will I offer him my services,
since thoumakest them of so little account."
Honour comes before advantage, O Maugis," said
Renaud sadly but firmly. But this Maugis, not being a
knight, could not understand.
Now when Charlemagne had returned in safety to his
tent there cameto him Roland, his favourite knight,
and heard ail his adventure. And when the story was
told Roland said gravely, Surely, sire, 'tis a pity to
prolong this weary warfare with our kinsmen. Why
not grant them your forgiveness on condition that they

do homage and promise their allegiance to you hence-

forth ?
" "
I cannot do it," said Charlemagne, for thus I
should break my pledged word. Dost thou forget the
oath that I swore that I would never cease this struggle
until I should feast in the Castle of Montauban ?
"And that you have now done," said Roland
The greatEmperor stood for a moment wrapped in

thought. Then once more laugh rang out

his jovial
as in the days of old, and clapping Roland on the
shoulder he cried, Thou sayest well. My oath is now
fulfilled, and thou shalt be the one to offer terms forth-
with. Tell them all shall be forgiven and forgotten if
they will serve under me as loyal peers of France."
And that was how peace and joy came at that time
to the Castle of Montauban.

Printed in Great Britain at
The Mayflower Press, Plymouth.
William Brendon & Son, Ltd.