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Foreign policy dictates how a country will act with respect to other countries politically, socially,
economically and militarily. Foreign policy can also be known as international relations policy or simply
diplomacy. It seems likely that foreign policy, in some form, has been around since the early days of
humanity on the plains of Africa, when large tribes would presumably interact from time to time without
engaging in all-out war. Today, foreign policy is handled by foreign ministers, ambassadors, and the
Secretary of State. No country, in the modern world, can survive independently and in total seclusion of
others. The policy a state adopts in the process of establishing relations with other states is called
“Foreign policy”, it has been defined thus:

“The general plan of one country concerning its relations with other countries.”

Pakistan's foreign policy has been marked by a complex balancing process the result of its history,
religious heritage, and geographic position. The primary objective of that policy has been to preserve
Pakistan's territorial integrity and security, which have been in jeopardy since the state's inception. A new
era began with the partition of British India in 1947 and the formation of two independent, sovereign
states India and Pakistan. Both nations searched for their place in the world order and aspired to
leadership roles beyond the subcontinent. India and Pakistan became adversaries at independence and
have so remained. The two countries fought each other shortly after partition, in 1965, and in 1971,
causing the dismemberment of Pakistan and the creation of still another new sovereign entity--
Bangladesh. India-Pakistan rivalry intensified rather than diminished after the Cold War, and the Kashmir
territorial dispute remains dangerous and recurrent. Pakistan sought security through outside alliances.
The new nation painstakingly worked on building a relationship with the United States, in which the
obligations of both sides were clearly defined. The Western-oriented, anticommunist treaties and alliances
Pakistan joined became an important part of its foreign policy. Pakistan also saw itself as a vanguard of
independent Muslim states.

Our foreign policy is based on the following five fundamental principles.

1. Cooperation with the United Nations and other international agencies in maintaining world peace.
2. Friendly relations with all nations of the world.
3. Non-alignment
4. Fraternal relations with the Muslim countries.
5. Regional cooperation.

Following are the aims and objectives of our foreign policy:

1. Preservation of national independence:

The Muslims of south Asia struggled hard against the British and Hindu hegemony, solely because they
wanted to live like an independent and a free nation. In order to safeguard her independence Pakistan had
to fight two wars against India in 1965 and 1971. Preservation of national independence has always
remained the paramount principle of the foreign policy of our country.

2. Support for the right of self determination for all nations:

In international forums Pakistan always rendered full support to the cause of the nations fighting for their
right of self determination and freedom from foreign subjection. Pakistan successfully supported the
independence movements of the countries Kampuchea, South Africa, Bosnia, Libya, Indonesia, Eritrea
and a number of other Asian and African countries.

Pakistan has been giving unflinching and consistent support to the cause of independence of the people of
Kashmir and Palestine.

3. Promotion of international cooperation:

Pakistan came the member of United Nation Organization in the very next month after its independence.
As a member of the UN, Pakistan always supported the policy of resolving international disputes through
negotiation. Pakistan used her good offices for conciliation among different countries of the world at
many occasions. In this respect Pakistan’s efforts to bring about cease-fire between Iraq and Iran during
their long drawn out war needs special mention.

4. Non-alignment:

We are living in a bi-polar world, generally divided into the Socialist n Capitalist blocks. Since Pakistan
fought its way to freedom on the basis of an ideology, based on the principles of Islam, it is not possible
for us to become the blind camp-followers of either of the two ideological blocks. We have always tried
to establish cordial relations with all countries of the world, irrespective of their ideological affiliations. In
1979 Pakistan joined the NAM (Non-aligned movement) as regular member.

5. Regional cooperation:

Pakistan has always strived hard to establish good neighborly relations with the countries of region.
Pakistan entered to a pact with Iran and Turkey, which was known as RCD (Regional cooperation for
development). This pact has now been renamed as ECO (Economic cooperation organization) and has
been expanded to accommodate Central Asian Muslim States. Pakistan has always maintained ideal
friendly relation with the People’s Republic of China which is strategically the most important country of
our region.

We are trying to improve our relations with our problem neighbor India. India, unfortunately, has not so
far responded positively to Pakistan’s offer of a no-war-pact.

The Pakistan ideology demands that Pakistan should establish friendly relations with all its neighboring countries. Afghanistan has undergone rapid changes during the last two decades. 2. set in after the revolution of 1979. Pakistan is an important member of the OIC (Islamic Conference) and all other international Islamic forums. FACTORS DETERMINING THE FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN A country looking forward to a successful and honorable existence in the comity of nations is bound to frame its foreign policy on the basis of the objective conditions it is faced with. the other party should make unilateral concessions for the attainment of peace. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (RA) was a great protagonist of the unity of the Muslim world. The peace covenant of Hudaibia established the principle that in the case of a dispute. Eritrea and Bosnia. which is the emerging economic super power of the world. This support was moral as well as diplomatic. Cyprus. Pakistan Ideology: Our country has an ideological basis. History bears witness that a times. 6. These are the facts that should guide our policy makers towards the formation of a balanced and fruitful foreign policy. These states are overwhelming Muslim and have religious ties with Pakistan. if one of the warring factions refuses to fall back. and the value structure we cherish. Regional Factors: The area which was later demarcated as the state of Pakistan had become an arena of the power struggle between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Landlocked Central Asian States depend upon Pakistan for access to hot water sea ports. Pakistan has a brilliant record of upholding and pleading the cause of the Muslims fighting for their independent in Palestine. Given below is a brief survey of the guiding principles that are supposed to determine the course of our foreign policy: 1. . but this change did not affect Pakistan’s position as the most important country of the region. Pakistan was established with the sole objective of providing the South Asian Muslims with a homeland where they could live with dignity and honor and in the light of democratic principles enunciated by Islam. Principles of State Policy in the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan proclaim that the state of Pakistan shall make efforts for the improvement of its relations with the Muslim world. This did not imply hatred for any other nation. Fall of the Soviet Empire brought about far- reaching changes in the world politics. has very close friendly relations with Pakistan. Pakistan maintains very cordial relations with all the Muslim countries. The People’s Republic of China. nations are able to achieve through peaceful means what they otherwise could not have achieved through war. In order to achieve the highest ideals we have. Pakistan’s western neighbor Iran is struggling hard to come out of its internal strife between conservatism and modernism. Kashmir. we should frame our foreign policy on the basis of ground realities. The founders of Pakistan believed that the Muslims should invoked separate Muslim identity as a positive sentiment. Unity of Muslim world: Strengthening fraternal ties with the Muslim countries of the world forms an essential part of the Pakistan Ideology.

The Quaid-e-Azam (RA) attached great importance to Pakistan’s relations with the Muslim countries. 1955 3 Hamidul Huq Choudhury September 28. On the other side. 1988 March 20. 1993 October 19. 1956 October 7. 1955 September 12. 1968 April 4. 1962 6 Muhammad Ali Bogra June 13. 1963 7 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto January 24. 1969 10 Yahya Khan April 5. 1958 5 Manzur Qadir October 29. 3. 1963 August 31. 1962 January 23. 1991 16 Abdul Sattar (caretaker) July 23. 1954 August 11. 1977 July 5. 1993 . so did his successors. 1987 15 Sahabzada Yaqub Khan June 9. 1947 October 24. 1966 April 25. 1 Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan December 27. 1971 March 28. all Muslim countries of the world. 1982 November 1. 1954 2 Muhammad Ali Bogra October 24. 1968 9 Mian Arshad Hussain April 25. Islamic Identity: As a part of the global Muslim community. 1956 4 Feroz Khan Noon September 14. 1958 June 8. Arab and non-Arab alike. 1969 December 20. look forward to Pakistan for guidance in their cherished case of establishing international Muslim brotherhood. 1971 11 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto December 20. FOREIGN MINISTERS OF PAKISTAN FROM 1947-2010: N Name of Foreign Minister Entered Office Left Office o. 1966 8 Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada July 20. 1978 March 9. Pakistan occupies a central place in the chain of Muslim countries stretching from Africa to Far East. 1977 12 Aziz Ahmed March 30. 1982 14 Sahabzada Yaqub Khan March 21. 1977 13 Agha Shahi January 14.

1993 November 14. Pakistan's ties with China remain strong.17 Farooq Leghari October 19. 1998 October 12. including the transfer of sensitive nuclear technology and equipment. and in the 1980s China and the United States supplied military and economic assistance through Pakistan to the Afghan mujahidin fighting the Soviet occupation forces. 1996 February 24. 1999 June 14. 2007 March 24. Pakistan's desire for maximum balance and diversification in its external relations has also led to close relations with China--a valuable geopolitical connection. 1999 22 Abdul Sattar November 6. and a road was built linking China's Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region with the Northern Areas of Pakistan. 1993 November 4. technical. The two countries reached agreement on the border between them. The deterioration in Sino-Indian relations that culminated in the 1962 border war provided new opportunities for Pakistan's relations with China. 2008 Incumbent PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN RELATIONS PAKISTAN’S RELATIONSHIPS WITH CHINA INTRODUCTION: Since establishing diplomatic ties in 1951. 2007 24 Inam-ul-Haq (caretaker) November 15. China supported Pakistan diplomatically in both its 1965 and 1971 wars with India and provided Pakistan with economic and military assistance. 1996 19 Sahabzada Yaqub Khan (caretaker) November 11. and economic assistance. and friendly relations between the two countries continue to be an important factor in Pakistan's foreign policy. Some experts predict growing relations between the United States and . China and Pakistan have enjoyed a close and mutually beneficial relationship. 1997 August 7. 1997 20 Gohar Ayub Khan February 25. Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize the People's Republic of China in 1950 and remained a steadfast ally during Beijing's period of international isolation in the 1960s and early 1970s. China has long provided Pakistan with major military. 1998 21 Sartaj Aziz August 7. 1993 18 Aseff Ahmad Ali November 16. Pakistan's China connection enabled it to facilitate the 1971 visit of United States secretary of state Henry Kissinger to that country. 2002 23 Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri November 23. 2008 25 Shah Mehmood Qureshi March 31. 2002 November 15.

"For Pakistan." he said. "Until about 1990. India has long been perturbed by China's military aid to Pakistan. professor of international relations at the Georgia Institute of Technology." write South Asia experts Elizabeth G. and counterterrorism efforts. Collaboration now includes personnel training.and medium-range ballistic missiles. Pakistan is producing the JF-17 Thunder multi-role combat aircraft jointly with China. when Britain relinquished its claim over the Indian subcontinent and divided its former colony into two states. a specialist in South Asian affairs at the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service. Others say China's increased concern about Pakistan-based insurgency groups may cause Beijing to proceed with the relationship in a more cautious manner. K." After the 1990 imposition of U. Tensions remain high over the disputed territory of Kashmir with periodic military posturing on both sides of the border. Schaffer in a July 2008 CSIS newsletter (PDF). The K-8 Karakorum light attack aircraft was also coproduced. THE INDIA QUESTION: China and Pakistan have traditionally valued one another as a strategic hedge against India. "For China. "The 1962 Sino-Indian border conflict was a watershed moment for the region." says John W. Pakistan is a low-cost secondary deterrent to India. intelligence sharing. it has been critically important to Pakistan.Q. "Beijing clearly sought to build up Pakistan to keep India off balance. joint military exercises. a China expert at the National University of Singapore." Mutual enmity between India and Pakistan dates to partition in August 1947." says Huang Jing. including what many experts suspect was the blueprint for Pakistan's nuclear bomb. China was also accused of having long-standing ties with Abdul Qadeer Khan (A. Since then Pakistan and India have fought three wars and a number of low-level conflicts.rival India will ultimately prompt Pakistan to push for even closer ties with its longtime strategic security partner. such as the Shaheen missile series. writes (PDF) that observers in India see Chinese support for Pakistan as "a key aspect of Beijing's perceived policy of 'encirclement' or constraint of India as a means of preventing or delaying New Delhi's ability to challenge Beijing's region-wide influence." China and India fought a border war in 1962. Alan Kronstadt. and both sides shifted their policy over time to become more accommodating to growth. China became the country's leading arms supplier." current Pakistani ambassador to the United States Husain Haqqani told CFR. • NUCLEAR PROGRAM: China supplies Pakistan with nuclear technology and assistance. and Libya. Parker and Teresita C." A DEEPENING MILITARY BOND: China's role as a major arms supplier for Pakistan began in the 1960s and included assistance in building a number of arms factories in Pakistan and supplying complete weapons systems. • AIRCRAFT: The current fleet of the Pakistani Air Force includes Chinese interceptor and advanced trainer aircraft. as well as an Airborne Early Warning and Control radar system used to detect aircraft. and both still claim the other is occupying large portions of their territory. Pakistan has benefited from China's assistance with the following defense capabilities: • MISSILE: Pakistan's army has both short. "China is a high-value guarantor of security against in 2006. M. "Pakistan needs China more than China needs Pakistan. While the relationship is not quite balanced. China. . that experts say are modifications of Chinese imports.S. Some news reports suggest Chinese security agencies knew about Pakistani transfers of nuclear technology to Iran. "Both China and India incurred heavy costs on their economic development. Garver. North Korea. sanctions on Pakistan. when he was a visiting scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

mining. power generation. With roughly ten thousand Chinese workers engaged in 120 projects in Pakistan. located in the Pakistani province of Balochistan. The two countries have cooperated on a variety of large-scale infrastructure projects in Pakistan." writes Kronstadt.S. "China's huge foreign-exchange reserves. inaugurated in December 2008 and now fully operational. In particular. China gains strategic access to the Persian Gulf: the port is just 180 nautical miles from the Strait of Hormuz. Khan). known as the father of the Pakistani nuclear program and head of an international black market nuclear network. and an underperforming stock market. The complex. citing years of diplomatic manipulation and neglect on the part of Washington. it would probably choose China--but for this moment. "are a potential source of a major cash infusion. warehouses. Trade relations began shortly after the establishment of diplomatic ties in the early 1950s. and the two countries signed their first formal trade agreement in 1963. BOLSTERING TIES: Since the late 1990s. Pakistan played a pivotal role as an intermediary during the U. "Pakistan thinks that both China and the United States are crucial for it. including highways. provides a deep-sea port. gold and copper mines. it doesn't look like there has to be a choice. say analysts. securing closer economic cooperation with Beijing is seen as vital. A comprehensive free trade agreement was signed in 2008. major electricity complexes and power plants. economic concerns have gained prominence alongside the military-strategic aspect of the relationship.-China rapprochement in the early 1970s. and numerous nuclear power projects. and both sides are set on raising the figure to $15 billion by 2010." Pakistan considers China a more reliable ally than the United States. Pakistan currently faces a growing balance of payments deficit and China's capacity as a creditor may be able to correct Islamabad's urgent predicament. Trade between Islamabad and Beijing now hovers around $7 billion a year. through which 40 percent of all globally traded oil is shipped. but Pakistanis are still stung by what they see as U.S. As Pakistan continues to face economic woes with falling foreign investment. giving each country unprecedented market access to the other. and telecommunications--was valued at $4 billion in 2007 and is expected to rise to $15 billion by 2010. specifically. Over the years. . total Chinese investment--which includes heavy engineering. One of the most significant joint development projects of recent years is the major port complex at the naval base of Gwadar. "If push comes to shove. China provided much of the technical assistance and 80 percent of the funds for the construction of the port. and industrial facilities for more than twenty countries. a weakening currency. In return for providing most of the labor and capital for the project. indifference toward their country after using it to funnel aid to the Afghan mujahadeen to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan. trade and energy have taken precedence. This enables China to diversify and secure its crude oil import routes and provides the landlocked and oil and natural gas-rich Xinjiang Province with access to the Arabian Sea." said Haqqani. Islamabad places greater value on its relationship with Beijing than vice versa. As this interactive timeline explains." THE BALANCING ACT: Despite increased cooperation between the United States and Pakistan since 2001. frequent exchanges of high-level visits and contacts between the two countries have resulted in a number of bilateral trade agreements and investment commitments. Pakistan and China grew closer in the 1960s as Washington and Islamabad began to part ways over the handling of regional issues. Pakistan felt betrayed when Washington cut off aid to Islamabad during its 1965 and 1971 wars with India.

Telling of how Sir Cyril Radcliff was sent to fix the borders of the new countries." A case in point. “They're going to continue to work with India's neighbors as a strategic hedge against New Delhi. Bangladesh. intellectuals." PAKISTAN’S RELATIONSHIPS WITH INDIA: According to some people. Time. The most important breakthrough came when the Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee came to Pakistan and attend the SAARC conference in 2004. and the Maldives. Certainly there is the possibility of conflict. As CSIS's Parker and Schaffer note. and leaders of public opinion between the two countries has gone a long way to improving the general atmosphere. and has "begun to take the relationship with India more seriously. they say.and Pakistan-controlled Kashmir. the region is by no means the most dangerous place on earth. during the 1999 Kargil conflict. India’s first nuclear testing Rajasthan in the year 1974 sent a wave of insecurity throughout Pakistan." says Kenneth G. China has taken a more neutral position on India-Pakistan issues such as Kashmir in the past decade and a half. including former president Bill Clinton. Pakistan’s nuclear programmed was its direct corollary.after the revival of democracy in Pakistan in 1988. "Peace between India and Pakistan is in China's interest." writes Kronstadt. but Pakistan will remain central to this strategy." says Ganguly of Indiana University. . It’s too late for mutual reconciliation or rational debate: “The only solution now lies in separation. Gandhi openly blamed Pakistan for maneuvering his mother’s murder. "In this sense. they had briefed him in London.” Experts believe that any confrontation between India and Pakistan is not in China's interest and would put Beijing in the position of having to choose between the two countries and draw the United States further into the region. Having never set eyes on the land he was called to partition between two peoples fanatically at odds.” Many efforts were made to establish peace between Pakistan and India.With their different diets and incompatible gods.REGIONAL COOPERATION: Experts say all countries in the region are reevaluating their traditional positions.ihe Indian prime minister and Pakistan’s president discussed issues of mutual concern in detail. it begins: Unbiased at least he was when he arrived on his mission. relationships between Pakistan and India started improving. but actually. Since that time exchange of artists. which separates India. Pakistan is also not the only South Asian nation China is interested in strengthening ties with: Beijing has expanded its relations with Myanmar. "Everyone in the region has learned to [develop] a relatively non-ideological set of policies. The two countries seemed to be at daggers drawn with each other in 1987. Nepal. Sri Lanka. Lieberthal. "China has a clear-cut strategy for using its leverage in the region. a noted China expert and professor at the University of Michigan. was China's dissatisfaction with Pakistani military action across the Line of Control. is short. South Asia is the most dangerous place on earth. Bhutan.

This is a very big departure from international visa procedures (www. For Kashmir this means more trade and more jobs for the population in Kashmir (Thibodeaux. Finally. It is rather difficult to adhere to this realization since there are many obstacles in the midst. solely because they wanted to live like an independent and free nation. 2008). and harassed (Thibodeaux. Preservation of national independence has always remained the paramount principle of the foreign policy of our country. 2008). And each time they visit a state in India they have to report to a police department that controls the particular jurisdiction. For example Pakistani citizens need a separate visa for each separate state in India. This endeavor was created to bolster a 2004 peace agreement between the South Asian rivals (Mughal. • India and Pakistan opened up a trading route through Kashmir. primarily through trade. 2005). One primary problem is the visa procedures for both countries. But alas. 2008).Business Relations between India and Pakistan: It is known that peace between India and Pakistan can only come through trade and commerce.Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmood Kasuri cites a sea change in India-Pakistan relations. the most vexed issue is the question of Kashmir. If bilateral trade increased between the two countries both could provide lower costs to each other producing price efficiencies (The Hindu. a step toward the unanimous goal of an India-Pakistan somewhat similar to the European Union. RELATIONS OF PAKISTAN WITH AMERICA: . Otherwise. surely states couldn’t go to war three times over that piece of territory and expend so much blood and treasure over this conflict. • In the beginning of 2008 there was a danger threatening the farmers of Basmati rice fields that grow on both sides of the border. One might assume there must be vast mineral deposits. • There has been talk of an Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline. Both India and Pakistan face the problem of insufficient natural gas for their growing domestic needs and demands. seized. and it’s of no great strategic significance. Twenty one items were identified for trading between the two countries. These joint ventures were considered to stimulate a healthier political relationship and increase bilateral trade. there are no great mineral deposits there. The three countries are soon expected to sign an agreement for building a 1724 mile long natural gas pipeline extending from Iran to Pakistan to India (Hasan. India and Pakistan applied for joint registration for the rice fields. that it must a region of great strategic Regardless of setbacks and obstacles like these the leaders of India and Pakistan have continuously sought to mend their distraught ties. 2008). agreements have been forged requiring a pre-notification of missile testingThe Muslims of south Asia struggled hard against the British and the Hindu • In 2005 nine trading areas were identified for consideration to help develop economic cooperation between India and Pakistan. however there have been numerous other ventures Truck drivers delivering trading goods have also been bombed.

C. policy interests in Pakistan encompass a wide range of issues. but again blossomed due to 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the ensuing covert war of 1980-88. The long and checkered Pakistan-U. ISRAEL AND PAKISTAN RELATION: Both Israel and Pakistan are former British possessions that were established as states shortly after World War II. the relationship was driven by American attempts to enable a democratic transition in Pakistan. Some Israeli leaders believe that should diplomatic relations with Pakistan be established then Pakistan could serve as a bridge between Israel and the Muslim. Although the governments of Israel and Pakistan do not officially have relations with each other.and democracy-related sanctions.S. These skirmishes took place between American forces deployed in Afghanistan.S. Pakistan had further aligned itself with the West by joining two regional defense pacts. when Pakistan attained independence from Great Britain and separated from India to form the Dominion of Pakistan. Democratization and human rights. . Before 9/11. Pakistan joined the US led military alliances SEATO and CENTO. in 28 August 1947. economic and military assistance to Pakistan. These incidents ended and reportedly caused no casualties. The relationship since then was based primarily on U.United States established diplomatic relations with Pakistan that started on October 20. relationship had its roots in the Cold War and South Asia regional politics of the 1950s. Pakistani Embassy in the United States was built in Washington. 1947. including Counter terrorism. the South East Asia Treaty Organization and the Central Treaty Organization.S. U. including $508 million in military aid. As a result of these alliances. Both experienced large population exchanges following the partitions which established their states. economic reform and market opening.S. Islamabad received nearly $2 billion in U. By 1955. including proliferation. assistance from 1953 to 1961. The relationship changed drastically after the September 11th attacks on the United States. The relations were soured because of subsequent Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971. The United States and Pakistan have experienced several military confrontations on the Durand Line.S. In 1954 the United States signed a Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement with Pakistan. D. U. there have been a number of contacts between the two states. and Pakistani troops guarding the border. concerns about Soviet expansionism and Pakistan’s desire for security assistance against a perceived threat from India prompted the two countries to negotiate a mutual defense assistance agreement in 1954. Pakistan is a Major non-NATO ally of the United States. South Asian regional stability. nuclear weapons and missile proliferation. These concerns have been affected by several key developments over the years. Pakistan-India conflict over Kashmir and a continuing bilateral nuclear standoff and the September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States.

Pakistan. the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). and Afghanistan's relations with India and Shia Iran. the Pakistani government played a vital role in supporting the Mujahedeen and assisting Afghan refugees. The Afghan government does not recognize the Durand Line as the official border between the two states.AFGHANISTAN AND PAKISTAN RELATIONS: Afghanistan–Pakistan relations began in 1949 after British India was partitioned into the Republic of India and the state of Pakistan. the relationship between the two has been affected by the Durand Line. and ethnic ties. culture. However. with cooperation from the world community. the issues of Pashtunistan and Balochistan. as well as sharing of multiple trade and economic ties. Southern and eastern Afghanistan is predominately a Pashto speaking region like the adjacent Khyber- Pakhtunkhwa. as several top Afghan officials stated that they are weary of Pakistan's negative influence in the country. linguistic. Relations became even more strained as the United States supports an Afghan invasion of rogue tribal regions. The present Karzai administration in Kabul feels that the remnants of the former Taliban government are being supported by factions within Pakistan for the same above reasons . religion. the 2001-present war in Afghanistan. claiming that the Durand Line Agreement has been void in the past due to violations by Pakistan as well as other reasons. Pakistan has denied the allegations but has said it does not have full control of the actions of the ISI. After the Soviet withdrawal in February 1989. issued a warning to Afghanistan that it would not "tolerate any violations of its borders" OTHER CONTEMPORARY ISSUES: Relations have continued to be strained. Pakistan absorbed an estimated 3 million refugees and provided shelter. continued to provide extensive support for displaced Afghans. in aiding the Taliban militants. the rise of the Taliban. Both neighboring states are Islamic Republic’s and part of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. and northern Balochistan in Pakistan. the 1980s Soviet war. Pakistan. on the other side. education. Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The overthrow of the Taliban regime in November 2001 has seen somewhat strained relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Afghanistan and Pakistan are usually described as inseparable states due to their sharing of same history. The Afghan government usually accuses Pakistan of using its intelligence agency. and places to work. This entire area is inhabited by the indigenous Pakhtuns who belong to different Pashtun tribes (Afghan tribes) BOREDR LINE: Pakistan shares a long border of 2250 km with Afghanistan known as Durand line demarcated in 1883.

Pakistan has had close geopolitical and cultural-religious linkages with Iran Relations between the two countries have existed since ancient times when the Pakistani region was part of the large Persian Empire. some Pakistanis suspect Iranian support for the sectarian violence which has plagued Pakistan. strains in the relationship appeared in the 1980s. Pakistan . for friendship and cooperation.In October 2010. Afghanistan and Pakistan finally inked together the long-awaited trade ATTPA agreement between the two states. Afghan slipping containers will be allowed to drive inside Pakistan to the Wagah border with India. which were observed by U. the two states signed a MoU for going ahead with the laying of rail tracks in Afghanistan so it gets connected with Pakistan Railways (PR). Work on the proposed project is set to start in the next four months. however. Afghan Ministry of Commerce In July 2010.” OTHER ISSUES: Low period have occurred. including to the port cities of Karachi and Gwadar. Iran is also a popular tourist spot for Pakistan's Muslims. Iran was the first nation to recognize Pakistan. many Pakistani's were disappointed when much of Iran's nuclear research was stated as having originated from Pakistan. notably its Shia population which represents about 20% of Pakistan population of 170 million people. It would allow each nation's shipping trucks into the others. Quaid-e-Azam said: “Iran was on the top of the countries Pakistan would look forward to. Also.S. a Memorandum of understanding (MoU) was reached between the two states. this despite the fact that Iran's nuclear program was started some 20 years before that of Pakistan's. The landmark agreement was signed by Pakistani Commerce Minister Makhdoom Amin Fahim and Anwar-ul-Haq Ahady. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Nevertheless. which has been in the making since at least 2005. PAK-IRAN RELATIONS Historically. Furthermore. Persian is still considered the cultural language of Pakistan and most of Pakistan's national anthem is written in that language. Also in July 2010. Relations between Iran and Pakistan peaked in the 60's and 70's under the Shah with considerable joint ventures and assistance provided by Iran to Pakistan. when Pakistan and Iran supported opposing factions in the Afghan conflict. Since then.

4 billion in 2009. Trade between the two countries has increased by £1. After the fall of East Pakistan Iran helped Pakistan meets her foreign exchange deficits. Relations between Iran and Pakistan improved after the removal of the Taliban in 2002. In 1971 war Pakistani planes were sent to Iranian bases in Zahedan and Mehrabad for protection since Russian radar jamming and early Airborne warning An-12 blinded Pakistani fighters and hence the decision to send the aircrafts for protection in Iranian Bases was taken. In 1965 war Pakistani fighter jets were often sent to Iran for protection. 950 km long border is shared by Pakistan and Iran .pursues an active diplomatic relationship with Iran. which was established in 1964. often sending over squadrons of airplanes and extra tanks as well as other arms to support it. but regional rivalry continues. BORDER: In south-west a. both the countries joined the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). In 1979 Iran provided help for the rehabilitation of the people affected by earthquake in the northern areas of Pakistan.under this commission. Pak-Iran Economic Commission was established in 1973. tyre and agricultural equipment factories in Pakistan. and is more concerned with influence in Central Asia rather than in the Arab world. Dr. is popular in Iran. although Pakistan is far less ideological than either country. sugar. and also under took the projects of expanding railways facilities. Iran established textile.In order to promote economic cooperation between the two countries. Abdul Qadeer Khan. fueling and other tactical purposes. Iran has actively supported Pakistan when it went to war with India. TRADE & ECONOMY: Both countries are endeavoring to improve and strengthen bilateral trade and commerce between them. fertilizer. a derivative of Regional Co-operation for Development (RCD). including recent overtures to seek a negotiated settlement between Afghanistan's warring factions. the prominent Pakistani nuclear scientist. Sunni-majority Pakistan sides with fellow Sunni Muslim Saudia Arabia in its competition with shiite majority Iran for influence across the broader Islamic world. MILITARY RELATIONS: Both nations were part of a Cold war alliance called the Central Treaty Organization.

Pakistan is providing training facilities to Saudi Armed forces. the main business street of Pakistan is called Sharah-e-Faisal in Karachi. in the honor of King Faisal. Also. Kingdom held talks with Sharif and even provided him with license to operate business in the Kingdom. Zia-ul-Haq in the 1970s. with which Pakistan is negotiating a free trade agreement. Saudi Arabia is aiding the development of trade relations with Pakistan through the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also supplies extensive financial aid to Pakistan and remittance from Pakistani migrants to Saudi Arabia is also a major source of foreign currency. there are neighborhoods named Saud Colony. over centuries of history exist in relations between the two lands. Most famous example of Saudi Arabia's relationship with Pakistan is the Faisal Mosque that was dedicated to King Faisal of Saudi Arabia the National Mosque of the country in Islamabad. education. During his stay there. Also in Karachi. communications and agriculture. there is an air force base “Faisal Airbase” named after King Faisal and also.000 and 1 million. Saudabad. Pakistan. Due to the Kingdom's continuing support.Relations of Pakistan with Saudi Arabia Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are historic. . infrastructure development and many more fields. in Karachi. Faisal Colony. many places in Pakistan are named after Saudi Kings and Saudi Arabia in general. both countries have exchanged high-level delegations and developed plans to expand bilateral cooperation in trade. It is believed that it was Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which held talks with President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan to foster their relationship and to allow Nawaz Sharif back in Pakistan Saudi Arabia remains a major destination for immigration amongst Pakistanis. tourism. Saudi Arabia was a major supporter of the "Islamisation" program of the military ruler Gen. cotton and other goods between Pakistan and Europe through the silk route. the volume of trade between Pakistan and GCC member states in 2006 stood at USD 11 billion. Since the inception of Pakistan. In recent years. For example. real estate. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has invested Pakistan in many Industries. saffron. the city previously named Lyallpur was renamed Faisalabad in honor of the late Faisal of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia also hosted former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for 8 years while he was in exile. the number of whom living in Saudi Arabia stands between 900. Saudi Arabia is the largest source of petroleum for Pakistan. From the Middle Ages when Arab traders were the main supply chain of silk. Pakistan has been playing a major and important role in the development of Saudi Arabia. Pakistan. information technology. Pakistan has provided assistance in the field of Science & Technology. spices.

C. commercial.O): RCD was the old name of ECO.both countries decided to help for the development of Iraq. especially in transport. On 17th august 2008 Turkey assigned an agreement to up-grade 42 old aero planes of Pakistan. Pakistan has not only relationship with in the field of trade but as a cultural.C. Both governments have sought to increase the volume of bilateral trade from $690 million to more than $1 billion by 2010. These relations have been traditionally strong. tourism and other industries. Turkey bought rice from Pakistan and Pakistan took advantage over their industrial development. Economic co-operation development (E.O 2002. . It was signed on 12th July 1964. In the session of E. military equipment and training Pakistani officers Both countries are also members of the Organization o Both Nation were part of Cold War alliance called the Central Treaty Organization of the Islamic Conference. On this visit the agreement of economic co-operation was assigned. with Turkey supplying arms. Relationship in Zia and Bhutto’s period: In both periods the Industrial trade system between Pakistan and Turkey took progress that led to a good and deep co-operation between two. in 2003 Turkish foreign minister. but relations between Pakistan and Turkey transcend all these considerations these are based on based on feelings of real fraternity and Islamic brotherhood. manufacturing. telecommunications. aiming to considerably increase trade and investments. Islam became a strong bond of unity between the two regions. Relations between Pakistan and Turkey are exemplary. Turkey and Pakistan are founding members of the Economic Cooperation Organization and part of the Developing 8 Countries (D-8) organization. “One Nation – Two States” is the phrase that best describes the relations between Turkey and Pakistan. General Pervaiz Musharraf visit Turkey. Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Endogen has called Pakistan his second home. In short.RELATIONSHIP OF PAKISTAN WITH TURKEY: Pakistan -Turkish relationships are foreign relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of Turkey. Hence.Abdaal gull visit Pakistan . Both nations have worked to negotiate a preferential trading agreement. Both nations maintain extensive cultural. political and defense as well. strategic and military cooperation both countries have a deep bond of brotherhood Moreover. The people of both countries have brotherly relations which date back to centuries. Pakistan and Turkey have maintained long-standing military ties. Relations between countries are generally guided by national and diplomatic considerations. It is the only brotherly agreement between Pakistan Turkey and Iran as well.

RELATION OF PAKISTAN WITH MUSLIM COUNTRIES Following are the Muslim countries and its relations with Pakistan. and has reciprocated in the same friendly manner to the full satisfaction of Pakistan. 2. and have since evolved into wide-ranging co-operation in various fields. UAE has been appreciative of Pakistan's contribution to the evolution of key institutions in the Emirates such as armed forces. The two countries have common perceptions on all international and regional issues of mutual concern. PAKISTAN-PALESTINE RELATIONS: Relations between Pakistanis and Palestinians are considered to be very close and warm as Islamabad advocates for an independent Palestinian state and an end to the on-going illegal Israeli occupation of its territories. friendship and peaceful cooperation over the years. PAKISTAN-UNITED ARAB EMIRATES RELATIONS: Pakistan was the first country to accord formal recognition to UAE on its achieving independence. . Bilateral relations and mutually beneficial cooperation have progressed steadily ever since. These relations date back to the UAE's formation in 1971. police. A large number of Pakistani expatriates. As its official stance that it does not consider to recognize the so-called State of Zionist regime. 1. Pakistan is one of the 100 countries to recognize Palestine as a Nation-state since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence on November 15. The Pakistani expatriates in UAE have contributed in a significant manner to promotion of bilateral understanding and to the economy of Pakistan through their home remittances.000 are gainfully employed in UAE. UAE has emerged as one of Pakistan's major economic and trading partners. health and education. numbering nearly 400. UAE has been a major donor of economic assistance to Pakistan. 1988. which is advocated for a two state solution as the best solution to the conflict and if it was acceptable to the plan by its own peoples of that country. Frequent exchanges of high level visits and regular bilateral consultations between the two countries are reflective of the fact that Pakistan and UAE have laid strong foundations of mutually beneficial relations.

Trade between Pakistan and Kuwait dates back to pre-independence era. RELATION OF PAKISTAN WITH USSR . 98 countries had recognized Bangladesh. The ties are based on common cultural and religious ties. 5.3. As part of Shimla Agreement. also offering the largest amount of aid in the aftermath of the earth quake.[citation needed] Pakistan established full diplomatic relations with Bangladesh on January 18. 1976 and relations improved in the following decades. which reached to $250 million in 2007. The sheikhs of Kuwait also preferred to come to Pakistan for rest. India sought to make sure that Pakistan would take steps to recognize Bangladesh. Pakistani businessmen are eyeing on Bahrain's property market while Bahrain is seeing Pakistan as a good agricultural potential investment country. when it achieved independence after the Bangladesh Liberation War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. 4. Joint initiatives between Pakistani and Bahraini governments have started to further their bilateral trades. BANGLADESH-PAKISTAN RELATIONS: Relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh are influenced by the fact that Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan until 1971. Kuwait was also the first country to send aid to isolated mountain villages in Kashmir after the quake of 2005. BAHRAIN-PAKISTAN RELATIONS: Islamabad and Manama enjoy close co-operations in many fields. Pakistan sought China's help in blocking Bangladesh's entry into United Nations till 1974. After the end of the first Gulf War in 1991 Pakistani army engineers were involved in a program of mine clearance in the country. Behind the scene India rallied behind Bangladesh to help gain international recognition. KUWAIT-PAKISTAN RELATIONS: Kuwait–Pakistan relations are the relations between Kuwait and Pakistan. Pakistan eventually recognized Bangladesh in 1974 after being pressured from other Muslim nations particularly from the Arab states as Mujib stated he would only go to the OIC conference in Lahore if Pakistan recognized Bangladesh. By end of March 1973. recreation and hunting. The two countries maintain cordial relations.

1939. On Aug. the annexation of Bessarabia and Bukovina from Romania became part of the new Moldavian SSR on Aug. The term Stalinism has become defined as an inhumane. seizing territory later incorporated into the Ukrainian and Belorussian SSRs. 15th. Latvia. 2. 21. and he soon had a formidable political opponent agitating for even more radical restructuring. and 16th Soviet republics. Soviet historian Roy Medvedev estimated that about 20 million died from starvation. The Soviet resurgence at Stalingrad from Nov. 1940. Gorbachev resigned on Dec. and Yeltsin. 1945. Stalin further consolidated his power by a series of purges in the late 1930s. In his last months as the head of the Soviet Union. draconian socialism. Boris Yeltsin.EMERGENCE OF USSR: The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established as a federation on Dec. after denouncing a 1941 nonaggression pact with Japan in April 1945. 30. 24. Yeltsin's defiant actions during the coup—he barricaded himself in the Russian parliament and called for national strikes—resulted in Gorbachev's reinstatement. and the annexation of the Baltic republics of Estonia. 21. when Allied forces were nearing victory in the Pacific. gave most of the Soviet Socialist Republics their independence. 1991. 1924. But from then on. who favored swifter socialization at home and fomentation of revolution abroad. 1940. Trotsky was dismissed as commissar of war in 1925 and banished from the Soviet Union in 1929. when implemented. The Soviet-German collaboration ended abruptly with a lightning attack by Hitler on June 22. precipitated an intraparty struggle between Joseph Stalin. 1940. who had been the driving force behind the Soviet dissolution. . power had effectively shifted from Gorbachev to Yeltsin and away from centralized power to greater power for the individual Soviet republics. 8. 1991. liquidating prominent party leaders and military officers. 1942 to Feb. which. could halt it. ending in the final offensive of Jan. and life in the labor camps under Stalin's rule. at first friendly toward Germany and antagonistic toward Britain and France and then. He was murdered in Mexico City on Aug. Russia and ten other former Soviet republics joined the CIS on Dec. 25. and quickly occupied Manchuria. Stalin sent millions of Soviets who did not conform to the Stalinist ideal to forced-labor camps. and the Kuril Islands. with the signing of a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany. binding them together in a loose. primarily economic federation. Moscow joined in the German attack on Poland. 1922. 1941. and Lithuania in June 1940 created the 14th. The next month. Karafuto. Gorbachev dissolved the Communist Party and proposed the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). which seized 500. DISSOLUTION OF USSR: Gorbachev's promised reforms began to falter. becoming anti-Fascist and pro–League of Nations. 1941. an attempted coup d'état against Gorbachev was orchestrated by a group of hard- liners. the Soviet Union declared war on Japan on Aug. 29. executions. and British arms. forced collectivization.000 sq mi of Russian territory before Soviet defenses. 1945. took an abrupt turn on Aug. general secretary of the party. Then. 1943 marked the turning point in a long battle. The death of Lenin on Jan. 21. Stalin assumed the prime ministership on May 6. The Russo-Finnish War (1939–1940) added territory to the Karelian SSR set up on March 31. president of the Russian SSR. after Hitler's rise to power in 1933. Soviet foreign policy. began challenging the authority of the federal government and resigned from the Communist Party along with other dissenters in 1990.S. aided by U. became president of the newly established Russian Republic. by a political agent. and Trotsky. and he persecuted his country's vast number of ethnic groups—reserving particular vitriol for Jews and Ukrainians.

Georgia and Azerbaijan in the southwest. Russia: The Russian Federation is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. In May 1997.At the start of 1992. GOVERNMENT: Constitutional federation. acquiring the Crimea. A national referendum on confidence in Yeltsin and his economic program took place in April 1993. first Muscovite czar—is considered to have founded the Russian state. China. The Russian military forces met firm and costly resistance. It is bordered by Norway and Finland in the northwest. and new territory was gained. Vladimir “the Saint” was converted in 988. During the reign of Alexander I (1801–1825). Ivan IV—the Terrible (1533–1584). In December. the grand dukes of Kiev held such centralizing power as existed. Early dukes of Moscow extended their dominion over other Russian cities through their office of tribute collector for the Mongols and because of Moscow's role as an administrative and trade center. Ukraine. The president of the southern republic of Chechnya accelerated his region's drive for independence in 1994. and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south. During the 11th century. Yeltsin dissolved the legislative bodies left over from the Soviet era. Russian troops closed the borders and sought to squelch the independence drive. and North Korea along the southern border. Napoléon's attempt to subdue Russia was defeated (1812–1813). Poland. Duke Ivan III acquired Novgorod and Tver and threw off the Mongol yoke. stretching from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. Michael (1613–1645). which led to an immediate downturn. grandson of the first Romanov czar. In September. Kiev was destroyed by the Mongols. the president and his shock-therapy program won by a resounding margin. In the late 15th century. Ukraine. HISTORY OF RUSSIA: Tradition says the Viking Rurik came to Russia in 862 and founded the first Russian dynasty in Novgorod. including the freeing of prices on most goods. the two-year war formally ended with the signing of a peace treaty that adroitly avoided the issue of Chechen independence. In 1240. To the surprise of many. and the Russian territory was split into numerous smaller dukedoms. Estonia. Russia embarked on a series of dramatic economic reforms. and Kazakhstan. but Russia remained largely medieval until the reign of Peter the Great (1689–1725). He crushed the power of rival princes and boyars (great landowners). and Lithuania in the west. Latvia. including Finland (1809) and . The various tribes were united by the spread of Christianity in the 10th and 11th centuries. Peter made extensive reforms aimed at westernization and. he extended Russia's boundaries to the west. Mongolia. Catherine the Great (1762– 1796) continued Peter's westernization program and also expanded Russian territory. Belarus. and part of Poland. through his defeat of Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava in 1709. It occupies most of eastern Europe and north Asia.

000 (metro.592.1/1000 infant mortality rate: 10.Bessarabia (1812).075. following Russia's defeat in the war with Japan. density per sq mi: 21 Capital and largest city (2003 EST.3/1000 Life expectancy: 66.200 sq km) Population (2010 EST.812 sq mi (17.390. It met for the first time in 1906 but had little influence on Nicholas President: Dmitry Medvedev (2008) Prime Minister: Vladimir Putin (2008) Land area: 6.1.500 (city proper) Monetary unit: Russian ruble (RUR) CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES USSR was divided into following states: • Armenia .735 sq mi (17.592.075.): Moscow. Alexander II (1855–1881) pushed Russia's borders to the Pacific and into central Asia. 10.672. Revolutionary strikes. but heavy restrictions were imposed on the emancipated class.400 sq km) Total area: 6. area).205 (growth rate: –0. 10. elected by narrowly limited suffrage.101.): 139. Serfdom was abolished in 1861.5%) Birth rate: 11. forced Nicholas II (1894–1917) to grant a representative national body (Duma). Alexander originated the Holy Alliance. which for a time crushed Europe's rising liberal movement.

• Azerbaijan • Georgia • Kazakhstan • Kyrgyzstan • Mongolia • Tajikistan • Turkmenistan • Uzbekistan Some are explained below: AZERBAIJAN Azerbaijan is a largest country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Relations between the two states were established when the republic of Uzbekistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR. with several summits being held on how to improve trade between the two nations.Azerbaijan was the first successful attempt to establish a democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world. formerly part of the Soviet Union. Between the two states were established when the republic of Azerbaijan became independent following the collapse of the USSR. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north. UZBEKISTAN Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east. Relations date back when both nations were part of the Persian Empire and the countries have the same cultural traditions in common especially because of deep Turanian and Persian influences in the two countries. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries so far and holds membership in 38 international organizations. It is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. Pakistan-Uzbekistan relations are the foreign relations between Pakistan and Uzbekistan. PAKISTAN–AZERBAIJAN RELATIONS: Pakistan-Azerbaijan relations are the foreign relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Trade and cooperation has steadily grown between the two nations. the relations between the . officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is one of the six independent Turkic states. and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south.

two countries were initially strained by the situation in Afghanistan which both countries border as they supported different factions Afghan factions. Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognise the independence of Turkmenistan in December 1991.A former republic of . Between the two states were established when the republic of Tajikistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR. it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union. with several summits being held on how to improve trade between the two nations. ARMENIA Armenia is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.Pakistan–Turkmenistan relations are the relations between Turkmenistan and Pakistan. Kazakhstan to the north and northwest and the Caspian Sea to the west. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the southeast. Relations between the two countries were established after Turkmenistan became independent from the Soviet Union. the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR). TURKMENISTAN Turkmen is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Situated at the juncture of Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan and the Gilgit-Baltistan region. Pakistan–Tajikistan relations are the foreign relations between Pakistan and Tajikistan. Relations date back when both nations were part of the Persian Empire at one time. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of Turkmenistan's independence in 2001 Pakistan issued stamps bearing the flag of Turkmenistan. Although relations between the two countries had been strained by the situation in Afghanistan which shares a border with both countries. Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states. so much to an extent that both are Sunni and the countries have the same cultural traditions in common especially because of deep Turanian and Persian influences in the two countries. Afghanistan borders it to the south. and People's Republic of China to the east. separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Uzbekistan to the east and northeast. close links have been established between the two nations. TAJIKISTAN Tajikistan is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan to the north. Iran to the south and southwest. Uzbekistan to the west. It has further strained by the establishment of Indian military base at Ayni Air Base in Tajikistan. Formal diplomatic relations were established on 10 May 1992. Trade and cooperation has steadily grown between the two nations. Until 1991.

democratic nation-state with an ancient and historic cultural heritage Armenia-Pakistan relations are extraordinarily poor owing to numerous disagreements.the EU generated an estimated 28% share (US$ 16. United Arab Emirates. Azerbaijan. New Zealand. and capital including the abolition of passport controls by the Schengen Agreement between 27 EU states. Nepal. Pakistan's do not recognize the 1915 Genocide and maintains that during the war large number of Armenians and Muslims were killed. and maintains common policies on trade agriculture. trains Azerbaijani armed forces and plans to sell its JF-17 fighters to Azerbaijan. The main issue is Armenia's invasion and occupation of Azerbaijan territories including Nagorno-Karabakh.Although there has been a large degree of integration between European Union member states. Vietnam. Pakistan has close military ties with Azerbaijan. However with the Union holding more weight as a single bloc.8 trillion) of the PPP gross world product in 2009. historical and religious ties with Azerbaijan and Turkey. Jordan. Syria. notably on trade and energy matters. foreign relations is still a largely inter-governmental matter.It enacts legislation in justice and home affairs. Pakistan also opposes Armenian irredentist claims against Turkey and Azerbaijan. there are at times attempts to speak with one voice. Pakistan has supported territorial integrity of Azerbaijan during and after the Nagorno-Karabakh War.5 trillion) of the nominal and about 21% (US$14. Egypt. Serbia. ethnic. Zimbabwe.the Soviet U nion. Every state have to proceed . The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy personifies this role. services. with the 27 members controlling their own relations to a large degree. the euro. EUROPEAN UNION The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states which are located primarily in Europe. Pakistan is also the only country that does not recognize Armenia. Cuba. fisheries and regional development Sixteen member states have adopted a common currency. Foreign Policy of Pakistan in 2010 In modern times no state can avoid its participation in International arena. Nigeria. Sirilanka. Malta. Hungry. Pakistan has also good foreign relations with many countries such as Bahrain. Committed to regional integration. and its recognition of Kashmir belonging to India has also damaged the relations with Pakistan. goods. Kuwait. multiparty. constituting the eurozone. Oman. The EU has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states. Ireland and many other countries. Romania. Lebanon. Armenia is a unitary. Maldives. Kyrgyzstan Malaysia. the EU was established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993 upon the foundations of the European Communities With over 500 million citizens . and ensures the free movement of people. Armenia's has friendly relations with India. Pakistan has cultural.

with certain policies and these policies are discussed in foreign policy of the state. Since the inception of Pakistan.S.A to increase her power to tackle Indian hegemony in the region. great or small.A dignified peace with India should be ensured. after passing 62 years. Pakistan signed many pacts with U. Thus the foreign policy should not clash with the sentiments of masses. The relations with Muslim states remained constant whereas Pakistan kept on acquiring the membership of many regional organizations.A and made a bond with time-tested friend.She should play positive role in the matters of Muslim world.S. Pakistan. The current democratic regime of Pakistan is carrying hopes of the masses for the better future.She should enhance strategic and pragmatic ties with China.Pakistan must adopt an external agenda especially driven out by economic interests.She should balance national interest with public sentiments. 2. she tasted the conditional friendship of U. is unable to compose a perfect foreign policy. China. “It is impossible to make an overnight change in the foreign policy as it is made on the bases of long term strategic interests by keeping in view the regional and global conditions. the foreign policy of the state has been revolving around the ambitions of India. The government of Pakistan should keep it in mind that every country. 1. is supposed to keep its national interest supreme over its international relationship. Additionally. 4. In 2010 Pakistan should ponder on following issues. 5.” . 3.