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Structu res of Feeling 129

9. Structures of Feeling fixed. fin ite. reced ing form s. Th e poi nt is especia ll y relevant to
works of art. wh ich reall y are. in on e sen se. explici t and fini shed
forms-actual objects i n the visual ar ts. objectified con ventions
and nota tions (semantic figu res) in literature. But it is not onl y
rn most description and analysis, culture and society are expres- that. to complet e thei r in herent process, we have to make them
sed in an habitual past tense. The strongest ba rrier to the recog- present, in specifica lly active 'readings ' . It isa lso that the making
nition of h uman cultural activ it y is this immed iate an d regular oi art is never itself in the past fen se. It is always a formative
conversion of experience in to fini shed What is defen- process, wi thin a specific p resent. At different moments in h is-
sible as 8 procedure in i:O US(.; i Q ll S d in significa ntly different ways, the rea lity and even the
assumptions man y actions can be Q.'I"'t,,'ell ~,,'~~;~~~~.~C primacy of such presences and such processes, such d iverse and
ended, Is habitually , not tJ yet specific actuali ties. have been powe rfully asse rted an d

reclaimed, as in practice of course they are a U the time lived . But
they are then often asserted as forms themselves, in contention
with other known forms: the subjective as distinct from the
objecti ve; experience fro m belief; feeling from tho ught ; the
immediate from th e ge neral; th e persona l from the social. The
undeniable po wer of two great modern ideologica l sys-
produced tems- the 'aesthetic' and the ·psych ological' - is. ironically.
" systematica lly derived from these senses of instance and pro-
of this procedu re, to cess, where experience , immedia te feeling, and then subjectiv-
look into its centre possible past its edges , we can u nde r- it y and personality are newly generalized and assembl ed.
stand, in new ways, that se paration of the social from the per.- Again st these 'personal' form s, tho id eologica l systems of fi xed
sonal w hich is so powerftil ana-direc ti ve a cultllr'ill m ode. If the _ social generality, of ca tegorica l products. of absolute forma-
!!,Qciai is always pa st. in-th e senSe that it is always fo rm ed ~ we r ti on s. are relatively powerless. within their speci fi c dimension.
have indeed tofind o ther terms for the und eniable experience or. - ' Of one domi na nt st rain in Marxism. with its habitual abuse of
!!l~~~nJ: ii!?l2n!Y tne temponil present. die realizatio n of ah js th e 'su bjective' and the 'personal'. th is is especially true.
~fLth is instan.! naJjen _ Yet it is th e reduction of th e social to fixed forms that remains
ably ph ysical. within which we ma indeed discern and thcoaslcem5"r. Mirx often said this, ·an d som cMaixistsquote
- acknowledgifinstitUtfo ns. onnatIOii'S: position s. but not alwa s Ji.lm~·iit"fixed ways. before retu rnin g t o fi xed forms, The mistake.
as11Xed'1ffiKlU'Cts"7d products. n en the speial is tho. as so often. is in takin g term s of analysis as terms of substance.
~tt"and C>;:pJ iClt Uie known relationsh ips . institutions. for- Thus we spea k of a world-view or of a preyailing i d oo l~x..?!.ofa
mations. positions-all that is ptesent and moving. all that class outlook, oft en with adeq uate evidence. but in this regular
escapes or see·ms to ·e scape from ilie fixed and the explicit and ....: sIfde-fowirds a past tense and 8 fixed form s uppose , or even do
t ~e known. is grasped and defined as tho personal : this, here, to
notkDow tha't we have sU'J1PQse . that these exist and are li ved
now alive . active. ·su bjective'. specifically and definitively, in si ngu lar and developing forms.
T ere 1S another rcialeddT..,tioction . As though t is descri bed, Perhaps the d ead ca n be redu ced toJixed forms. thoug~ ~ r
in the sa me habitual past tense, it is ind eed so (Jifferent. in its surviving records are agains t it. But t e living will_ nQ.L~
explicit and fini shed forms. from much or evell anything that we reduced , at least in the first person ; li ving third pe rsons may be
can presentl y recognize as thinking, that we set aga inst it more different. All the known complexi ties, the experienced ten sions.
active. more flexible, loss-'Singular terms-consciousness. shifts, and uncertainties. the in tricate forms of unevenness and
experie nce. feeling-an d th en watch even th eso dra wn towards confu sion . are agai nst the terms of the reduction and soon . by
130 Marxism and Literature Structures of Feeling 131

extension , again st social analysis itself. Social forms are then conscious ness is what is actually bein g lived , and not onl y what
often ad mitted for generali ties bu t debarred, contemptuously. it is thought is being li ved. Yet the actual alternative to the
from any possibl e r elevance to this immed iate and actual s ig- received and p roduced fi xed forms is not silence: not the
nificance of bein g. And from th e abstractions formed in their absence , the unconscious, which bourgeois cu ltu re h as mythi.
tu rn by this act of debarring-the 'human imagina tion', the cized. It is a kind of feeling and thinking which is indeed social
'human psyche '. the 'unconscious ', with their 'functions ' in art and material, but each In an embryonic pha se before it can
and in myth and in dream- new and displaced forms of social become full y articulate and defin ed exchange . Its relations with
analysis a nd ca tegoriza tion , overrid ing all speci fi c social condi- the already articulate and defin ed are then exceptionally com-
tions, arc then more or less ra pidly developed . plex.
Social form s arc ev idently more recognizable when they are This process ca n be directly observed in the h istory of a
articulate and explicit. We have seen this in the range from language. In spite of su bstantial and at so me levels decis ive
institutions to formations and traditions. We can see it again in con tin uities in grammar and voca bu lary, no generation spea ks
the ran ge from dominant systems of belief a nd edu ca tion to quite the sa me language as its predecessors. The difference ca n
influential systems of explanat ion a nd argumen t. All these have be defined in terms of additions, deletions, and m od ifications.
effecti ve pr esence. Man y are form ed and deli berate, and some but these d o not exhaust it . What rea lly cha nges is something
Bre quite fixed . Bu t when they have all been identi fied they are Quite general, over a wide range, and the description tha t often
not a w hole inventory even of social consciousn ess in its sim· fits the change best is the literary term 'style', It is a general
plest sense. For they becom e social conscious ness onl y when ch ange, ratherth an a set of deli berate choices, yet choices ca n be
they are li ved, acti vely, in real relationships, and mOreover iI~ deduced from it, as \\"ell as effects. Similar kinds of change can
relationships w hich are more than systematic exchanges be- be obser ved in manners, dress, build ing, and othersimilarforms
tween fi xed uni ts. Indeed just because all consciousness is social , of social life. It is''30 open question - that is to say, a set of
its processes occur not only between bu t wit.hin the relationship specific historical questions- whether in an y of these cha nges
and the related. And this_practical consciousness is always more this or that group has bee n dominant or in fluen tial, or whether
than a handlin g of fi xed forms and u nits. There is frequent they are the result of much m ore general interaction. For what
tension between the received interpretation and practical we nre definin g is a particular qu_al ity of social experience and
ex perience. Where this tens ion can be made di rect and explicit, relationship, historically distinct from other pa rticular qual·
or w here som e alternative interpretation is available, weare still iti es, which gives the sense of a generation or of a period. The
with in a dimension of relati vely fi xed form s. Bu t the tension is relations between th is quality and the other specifying historical
as oft en an unease, a stress, a displacement. a latency: the maT'ks of changing institutions, formations, and beliefs, and
moment of consciou s comparison not yet come, often not even beyond these the changing socia l and economic relations be·
coming. And comparison is by no mea ns the only process, tween and within classes, are aga in an open Qu estion: that is to
though it is powerful and important. There are th e experiences say, a set of specific h istorica l questions. The method ological
to w h ich the fi xed forms do not s pea k at all, which indeed they con seq uence of such a definition , however, is that the speCific
do not recogn ize. There are important mixed experien ces, where qualitative changes are not assumed to be epi phenomen a of
the availa ble meaning would convert part to all, or a ll to part. changed institut ions. formation s, and beliefs, or merely secon -
An d even w here form and response can be fo und to agree, dary evidence of ch anged social and economic relations be-
without a pparent difficulty, there can be qualifications, reserva· tween a nd within classes. At the sa me time they are from the
tions, ind ica tions else wh ere: w hat the agreement seemed to begi nning taken as social ex perience, ra ther than as ' personal'
settle but still sounding elsewhere. Practical consciousness is experience or as the merely s uperficial or inCidental 'small
almost always different from official cOnsciousness, and this is change' of society. They are social in two ways that distinguish
not only a matter of relative freedom o r control. For practical th em from reduced senses of the social as the institutional and
132 Marxism and Literalur,e Structures of Feeling 133

.r 1" the formal : first. in thai they orp~!..en c~ ,(while they "elmnants-and their connectjons in a generation or period, and
_.:-:: are being lived this is obvious; when they have been lived it is needing always to be returned, interactively, to such evidence. It
; '. still their substantial characteristic): second, in that although ISinit ially Jess s imple than moro formally suuctured hYPQtheses
.r~ they are emergent o r pre-emergcnt, they do not have to await of the social. but it is more adequate to the actual range of
J ':t ~efinition. classification, or rat.ion~1iz~tion befor~ they e~ert cultural evidence: historicaUy certainly, but even more(whereit
. : palpable pressu.res and set effechve bmlts on expen ence and on matters more) in our present cultural process. The hypothesis
1 ~r action. has a special relevance toart and literature , where the true social
',;X Such changes can be d efined ~ changes in stf}J.2t.!!m{p]feel. content is in a significa nt number of cases of this present and
" ing',' The term is difficult . but 'feeling' is chosen to emphasize a affective kind, which cannot without loss be reduced to belief-
'distinction from morc formal concepts of 'world-view' or 'ideol- systems. institutions , or explicit general relationships, though it
ogy'. It is not only th at we must go beyond formally h?ld and may include a ll these as lived and experienced, with or without
systematic beliefs, though of course we have always to IOclude tension , as it also eVidently includes elements of social and
them. It is that we are concerned with meanings and va lues as material (physical or natural) experience which may lie beyond,
they are actively live d and felt , and th e r elations between these or be uncoverod or imperfectly covered by, the elsewhere recog-
and formal or systematic beliefs are in practice variable (includ- nizable systematic elements. The unmistakable presence of
ing histori cally variable), over a range from formal assent with certain elements in art which are not covered by (thou gh in
private di ssent to the more nuanced interaction between one mode they ma y be reduced to) other formal systems is
selected and interpreted beliefs and acted and justified experi- the true source of the s pecializing categories of 'the aesthetic',
ences. An alternative definition would bo 'the arts', and 'imaginative literature'. We nood , on th e o ne
ence: in one sense the better and wider word, but with the hand. to acknowledge (and welcome) the specificity of these
difficulty that one of its senses has that past tense which is the elements-specific feelings , specific rhythms-and yet to find
most Important obstacle to recognition of the area of social ways of recog nizing their specific kinds of sociality, thus pre-
experience which is being defined. We are talking about charac- venting that extraction from social experience which is conceiv·
teristic clements of impulse, restraint, and tone; s peCifically able only when social experience itself h as been categorically
affective elements of consciousness and relationships: not fee l- (and at root historicaUy) reduced. We are then not only con·
ing against thought , but thought as felt and feelin g as thought: cerned wi th the restoration of social content in its (ull sense, that
practical consciousness of a present k ind, in a living and inter- of a generative immediacy. The idea of a structu re of feeling ca.n
relating continuity. We are then defining these elements as a be specifically related to th e evi dence of forms and conven-
'stru cture ': as a set, with s pecific internal relations, at once tions-semantic figures-which, in art and litorature, are often
interlocking and in tens ion. Yet we are also defining a social among the very first indications that such a new structure is
experience which is still in process, often indeed not yet recog- formin g. These relatio ns will be discussed in more detail in
nized as social but taken to be private, idi osyncratic, and even subsequent chapters, but as a matter of cultural theory this is a
isolating, but which in analysis (though rarely otherwise) has its way of defining forms and conventions in art and literature as
emergent, connecting, and dominant characteristics, indeed its inalienable elements o( a social material process: not by deriva-
specific hi erarchies. Thesea re often more recognizable at a later tion from other social forms and pre-forms. but 8S social forma -
stage, when they have been (as often happens) ~~~alizcd. clas- tion of a specific kind which may in turn be seen as the artiqlla-
sified. and in many cases built into insUtu1:ions and formatiqns. tion (ofte n the only fully available articulation) of structures of
BY-Thai time t~e case is different; anew structure of feeling will feeling which as living processes are much more widely experi-
usually already have begun tol orm, in the lr)Je soci~J present. enced.
~ethodoJogically, then, a 'structure of feeling ' is a cwtural For structures of feeling can be defined as ~ial e~'perienc~s
hypothesis, actually derived from attempts to understand such
in solution , as distinct from other social semantic formations
134 Marxism and Literature Structures of Feeling 135

which have been p recipitated and are more eVidently and more substantial affili ation, a nd th e tension is at once lived and
imm ed iately available. Not all art. by a ny m ea ns, relates to a articulated in radica lly new se ma ntic fi gu res. Any of these
contem porary structure of feelin g. The effecti ve formations of examples requi res detai led substantiation, bu t wha t is now in
m ost actual 8rt relate to already manifest socia l formations. q uestion. theoretica ll y. is the hypothesis of a mode of social
dominant o r residual, and it is primarily to emergent formations formation, ex pli cit and recognizable in specific kinds of art.
(though often in the form of modifica tion or disturbance in older which is distinguisha ble from other social and semantic forma-
forms) that the structure of feeling. as so lu tion relates. Yet this
I tions by its articulation of p resence.
speci fi csoiution is never mere flux. It is a structured formation
which, beca use it Is althe very ed ge of semantic availability, has
many of the characteristics of a pre-formation. until specifi c
articulations-new semantic figures- are d iscovered in ma ter·
ial practice: oft en. as it happens, in relatively isolated ways,
which are onl y later seen to compose a significa nt (orten in fact
minority) generation; this often, in turn, the generation that
s ubstantially connects to its s uccessors. It is thus a specifi c
structure of particular linkages, particular emphases and s up~
press ions. and . in what are orten its mos t recogni za ble form s,
pa rticular d eep s ta rt i n g~ poin ts and co nclusions. Early Victorian
id eology, for exampl e, spec::ified the exposu re ca used by poverty
or by debt or by ill egitimacy as social failure o r deviation; the
con temporary structure of feelin g, meanwhile. in the new
semantic fi gures of Dick.ens. of Emily Bronte, and others,
spec ified exposure and isolation as a general cond it ion, and
poverty, debt, or illegiti macy as its oonnecting instances . An
alternative ideology, relating such exposure to the natu re of the
social order, was only later generally form ed: offerin g expJana·
lions but now at a red uced tension: the social explanation fully
admitted. the intensity of exper ienced fea r and shame now d is·
persed a nd generali zed.
The exa mple reminds us, fin all y. of the oomplex rela tion of
differe ntiated structures offeeling to differentiated classes. This
is historica lly very variabl e. In England between 1660 and 1690.
for exampl e. two structures of feeling (a mong the defeated Puri·
tans and in the restored Court) can be readily d is tingu is hed,
though neither, in its literature and elsewhere, is reducible to
the id eologies of these groups orto their formal (in fa ct compl ex)
class rela tions. A t times the emergence of a new structure of
feeling is best related to th e rise of a class (England , 1700·60); at
other times to contradiction, fracture, or mutation with in a
class (England. 1780-1830 or 1890-1 930) , when n form ation
appea rs to break. away from its cla ss norms, though it retains its