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EUROPEAN ORGANISATION

FOR THE SAFETY OF AIR NAVIGATION

EUROCONTROL

Guidance on Licensing and


Competence Requirements for
Operational Users of A-SMGCS
Levels 1 & 2

Edition Number : 1.7


Edition Date : 27/11/2006
Status : Released Issue
Intended for : General Public

EUROPEAN AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME


Guidance on Licensing and Competence Requirements for Operational Users of A-SMGCS Levels 1 & 2

DOCUMENT CHARACTERISTICS

TITLE

Guidance on Licensing and Competence Requirements


for Operational Users of A-SMGCS Levels 1 & 2
EATMP Infocentre Reference: 06-11-28-19
Document Identifier Edition Number: 1.7
Edition Date: 27/11/2006
Abstract
This document describes the present ICAO and European concepts and requirements for
the licensing of ATCOs, focusing in particular on aerodrome control service, and also the
need for the competence assessment of providers of Apron Management Service.
Consideration is also given to the implications of the introduction of Levels 1 & 2 of A-
SMGCS for the licensing of ab initio air traffic control students, as well as for the upgrade
licensing of already licensed aerodrome controllers.
Keywords
AIR/GMC/GMSTWR
Ratings
ATCO

Contact Person(s) Tel Unit


Paul ADAMSON (A-SMGCS Project Manager) +32 2729 3308 DAP/AOE

STATUS, AUDIENCE AND ACCESSIBILITY


Status Intended for Accessible via
Working Draft † General Public ; Intranet †
Draft ; EATMP Stakeholders † Extranet †
Proposed Issue † Restricted Audience † Internet (www.eurocontrol.int) ;
Released Issue ; Printed & electronic copies of the document can be obtained from
the EATMP Infocentre (see page iii)

ELECTRONIC SOURCE
Path: P:\EATM\DAP\BD_APT\APR\A-SMGCS\Training and Licensing Requirements- final
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Page ii Released Issue Edition Number: 1.7


Guidance on Licensing and Competence Requirements for Operational Users of A-SMGCS Levels 1 & 2

EATMP Infocentre
EUROCONTROL Headquarters
96 Rue de la Fusée
B-1130 BRUSSELS

Tel: +32 (0)2 729 51 51


Fax: +32 (0)2 729 99 84
E-mail: eatmp.infocentre@eurocontrol.int

Open on 08:00 - 15:00 UTC from Monday to Thursday, incl.

DOCUMENT APPROVAL

The following table identifies all management authorities who have successively approved
the present issue of this document.

AUTHORITY NAME AND SIGNATURE DATE


Please make sure that the EATMP Infocentre Reference is present on page ii.

A-SMGCS
Project Manager
Paul ADAMSON

APR
Programme
Manager Eric MIART

AOE
Head of Unit
Paul WILSON

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Guidance on Licensing and Competence Requirements for Operational Users of A-SMGCS Levels 1 & 2

DOCUMENT CHANGE RECORD

The following table records the complete history of the successive editions of the present
document.

EDITION EDITION INFOCENTRE PAGES


REASON FOR CHANGE
NUMBER DATE REFERENCE AFFECTED

1.4 30.08.06 Workshop outcomes integrated All

1.5 30.09.06 Comments of working group integrated All

1.6 04.10.06 Minor edits following meeting on final draft

1.7 27.11.06 Internal review All

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Guidance on Licensing and Competence Requirements for Operational Users of A-SMGCS Levels 1 & 2

CONTENTS

DOCUMENT CHARACTERISTICS.............................................................................ii

DOCUMENT APPROVAL ..........................................................................................iii

DOCUMENT CHANGE RECORD..............................................................................iv

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.............................................................................................1

1. INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................3

2. present ATCO licensing structure .....................................................................4


2.1 ICAO Definitions and Requirements .........................................................................................4

2.1.1 ICAO Annex 11..................................................................................................................4

2.1.2 ICAO Annex 1....................................................................................................................5

2.2 EU Commission Directive – Definitions, ratings and endorsements ........................................7

2.2.1 EU definitions ....................................................................................................................7

2.2.2 Air traffic controller ratings.................................................................................................7

2.2.3 Rating endorsements ........................................................................................................7

2.3 Eurocontrol Safety Regulatory Requirement 5 .........................................................................9

2.3.1 ATCO licensing structure ..................................................................................................9

2.3.2 Apron Management Service............................................................................................10

2.4 European Manual of Personnel Licensing – Air Traffic Controllers ........................................10

2.4.1 Ratings and endorsements .............................................................................................10

2.4.2 Detailed description of Aerodrome Control Licensing Requirements .............................11

3. Apron Management Service .............................................................................14


3.1 ICAO Annex 14 .......................................................................................................................15
3.2 A-SMGCS Manual...................................................................................................................15
3.3 Apron Management in an A-SMGCS environment.................................................................16

4. Introduction of A-SMGCS: Licensing Issues for Aerodrome Controllers ....16


4.1 A-SMGCS Level 1 implementation .........................................................................................16
4.2 A-SMGCS Level 2 implementation .........................................................................................16

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5. ESARR 5 - Safety regulatory requirements.....................................................17


5.1 Requirements to be applied by the Designated Authority.......................................................17
5.2 Requirements to be applied by the provider of air traffic services ..........................................18
5.3 Requirements to be applied by the individual personnel ........................................................18

6. Conclusions.......................................................................................................19

7. List of abbreviations .........................................................................................20

8. Reference documents.......................................................................................22

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report has been finally prepared for the EUROCONTROL Airport
Operations and Environment Division as a study and report on additional
licensing requirements for air traffic controllers (ATCOs), to enable the
introduction and application of Advanced Surface Movement and Control
Systems (A-SMGCS) in the provision of an aerodrome control service.

The implementation of A-SMGCS improves the efficiency and safety of airport


operations, especially during reduced visibility conditions and at night hours.
A-SMGCS will be an important enabler in the development and
implementation of the Gate– to–Gate concept. The introduction of A-SMGCS
will make it possible for ATCO’s to provide an aerodrome control service to
aircraft and vehicles on the ground by using information provided by enhanced
surveillance equipment.

To enable the safe and efficient use of A-SMGCS Levels 1 & 2, all operational
users (ATCOs, Apron Management Service personnel and vehicle drivers)
should be competent to use the system. A license can be considered as a
formal recognition of competencies demonstrated by the operational user. The
training requirements, which underlie the required competencies associated
with the operational use of A-SMGCS (level 1 & 2), are described in a
separate report, entitled ‘Guidance on training requirements for operational
users of A-SMGCS levels 1 & 2’ (EATMP, 2006).

The report predominantly considers the need for licensing requirements with
respect to ATCOs who are already holding an air traffic controller licence with
a valid aerodrome control rating/endorsement(s), as well as for student
ATCOs and trainee ATCOs who are training towards the grant of an air traffic
controller licence with a valid rating and associated endorsements for the
provision of an aerodrome control service. However, many European airports
provide an Apron Management Service on parts of the movement area. The
requirements for the use of A-SMGCS in these areas by Apron Management
Service personnel are also considered.

An overview is provided of relevant ATCO licensing requirements, which are


defined in ICAO, European Commission and Eurocontrol documents. It can be
concluded that, for the implementation of A-SMGCS Level 1 & 2 on the
manoeuvring area of an airport, a well-defined framework is in place at ICAO,
ECAC, EUROCONTROL and EU-level, of which an overview is provided.

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1. INTRODUCTION

The implementation of an A-SMGCS (Advanced Surface Movement and


Control System) aims to improve the efficiency and safety of airport
operations, especially during reduced visibility conditions or at night hours, by
assisting ATCO’s to monitor movement by aircraft and vehicles in areas of
restricted view from the tower or in distant areas. A-SMGCS is also
considered to be an important enabler in the development of the Gate-to-Gate
concept.

A-SMGCS is a further development of the present day Surface Movement


Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS) concept. It is described and detailed
in ICAO Doc. 9830 Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control
Systems (A-SMGCS) Manual (ICAO, 2004). At many major airports Surface
Movement Radar (SMR) has already been introduced as a tool for the
monitoring of traffic on the airport manoeuvring area.

It has been identified that in the future SMGCS will no longer be sufficient to
meet the required traffic capacity and/or required safety standards. This
applies especially to the major and complex airports and in situations with
adverse weather conditions (low visibility) when there is a need to maintain
runway movement rates.

It is foreseen that dependent on the needs of the airport four different levels of
A-SMGCS will be introduced, each level building on the achievements of prior
levels. The scope of the current report is restricted to the introduction of A-
SMGCS Levels 1 & 2.

The major operational benefits of the introduction of A-SMGCS Levels 1 & 2


are:

• Improvement of the aerodrome control service on the manoeuvring


area, though the provision of automated surveillance systems;

• Improvement of conflict detection and alert for all traffic on the


movement area through the provision of a runway safety net.

Together, these enable a more efficient handling of aerodrome traffic, leading


to reduced taxi times and delays, together with a better chance of detecting
runway incursions, leading to improved levels of safety.

With the introduction of A-SMGCS, ATCOs will be able to provide an


aerodrome control service and issue air traffic control clearances, instructions
and information to aerodrome traffic, in situations in which it is not currently
possible by using information provided by enhanced surveillance equipment.

At airports where a separate Apron Management Service (see ICAO Annex 14


§ 9.5) is provided, A-SMGCS may enable users to improve the Apron
Management Service provided.

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To enable the safe and efficient use of A-SMGCS equipment, users must be
properly trained and demonstrate competence in its use. Where appropriate,
the user shall have to be correctly licensed.

This document describes the present ICAO and European concepts and
requirements for the licensing of ATCOs, focusing in particular on aerodrome
control service, and also the need for the competence assessment of
providers of Apron Management Service. Consideration is also given to the
implications of the introduction of Levels 1 & 2 of A-SMGCS for the licensing
of ab initio air traffic control students, as well as for the upgrade licensing of
already licensed aerodrome controllers.

2. PRESENT ATCO LICENSING STRUCTURE

The present ATCO licensing structure is based on a description of air traffic


services, contained in ICAO Annex 11 Air Traffic Services (ICAO, 2001b) and
a licence with associated ratings and endorsements, described in ICAO Annex
1 Personnel Licensing (ICAO, 2001a) to indicate that the license holder has
privileges to provide various specific elements of the air traffic service.

The European Manual of Personnel Licensing – Air Traffic Controllers


(EATMP, 2004), first published in 2000, provided a harmonised licensing
scheme that could be used by implemented by European States to
accommodate the needs of the sophisticated European ATM environment.
The processes described in the current issue of the manual have been
assessed as an acceptable means of compliance with the requirements
contained in ESARR5, ATM Services' Personnel (EUROCONTROL 2002).

Most recently, European Directive 2006/23 (European Union, 2006) sets out
provisions for a Community air traffic controller licence building on the
provisions of ICAO Annex 1 and ESARR5. Amongst other things, the Directive
is intended to harmonise the requirements for ATCOs as regards
qualifications, and competence leading to the provision of safe, high-quality air
traffic control services and the recognition of licences throughout the
Community.

2.1 ICAO Definitions and Requirements

2.1.1 ICAO Annex 11

ICAO Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services - contains the following definitions and
provisions which are relevant in the provision of an aerodrome control service.

Aerodrome control service.


Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.

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Aerodrome traffic.
All traffic on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and all aircraft flying in the
vicinity of an aerodrome.

Air Traffic Control Service.


A service provided for the purpose of a) preventing collisions between aircraft
and on the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions; and
b) expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.

Apron
A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for
purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking
or maintenance.

Apron Management Service


A service provided to regulate the activities and the movement of aircraft and
vehicles on an apron.

Controlled aerodrome
An aerodrome at which air traffic control service is provided to aerodrome
traffic.

Manoeuvring area
That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of
aircraft, excluding aprons.

Movement area
That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of
aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the apron(s).

From the definitions above it is quite clear that ICAO Annex 11 excludes the
Apron Management Service from the responsibilities of an aerodrome control
service. Consequently the ICAO Annex 1 licensing requirements for
aerodrome controllers (see hereafter) are not applicable for the provision of an
Apron Management Service.

2.1.2 ICAO Annex 1

Note: ICAO Annex 1 is in the process of amendment at the moment. The


information described hereunder is from ICAO Annex 1 including amendment
166.

ICAO Annex 1, Chapter 4.4 distinguishes the following air traffic controller
ratings:
a) aerodrome control rating
b) approach control rating
c) approach radar control rating
d) approach precision radar control rating
e) area control rating; and
f) area radar control rating

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Requirements for air traffic controller rating aerodrome control

Note: This section assumes that the basic requirements for issuance of an air
traffic controller licence are also met.

Knowledge

The applicant shall have demonstrated a level of knowledge appropriate to the


privileges granted, in at least the following subjects in so far as they affect the
area of responsibility:
• aerodrome layout; physical characteristics and visual aids;
• airspace structure;
• applicable rules, procedures and source of information;
• air navigation facilities;
• air traffic control equipment and its use;
• terrain and prominent landmarks ;
• characteristics of air traffic;
• weather phenomena; and
• emergency and search and rescue procedures

Experience

For an aerodrome control rating, the applicant shall have:

a. satisfactorily completed an approved training course;

b. provided, satisfactorily, under the supervision of an appropriately rated


air traffic controller an aerodrome control service, for a period of not
less than 90 hours or one month, whichever is greater, at the unit for
which the rating is sought.

The experience specified above under b. shall have been completed within the
6-month period immediately preceding application.

Skill

The applicant shall have demonstrated, at a level appropriate to the privileges


being granted, the skill, judgement and performance required to provide a
safe, orderly and expeditious control service.

Scope

ICAO Annex 1 does not provide any specific licensing requirements for the
use of SMGCS and/or A-SMGCS. Nor does it address licensing requirements
for the provision of an Apron Management Service.

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2.2 EU Commission Directive – Definitions, ratings and endorsements

Directive 2006/23/EC is the most relevant source describing the Community


air traffic controller licence. Issued on April 5th, 2006 Member states shall fully
comply with this Directive by May 17th, 2008.

2.2.1 EU definitions

Air traffic control service

‘Air traffic control service’ means a service provided for the purpose of
preventing collisions between aircraft, and, on the manoeuvring area, between
aircraft an obstructions, and expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of
traffic

Licence

‘Licence’ means a certificate by whatever name it may be known, issued and


endorsed in accordance with this Directive and entitling its lawful holder to
provide air traffic control services in accordance with the ratings and
endorsements contained therein;

Rating

‘Rating’ means the authorisation entered on or associated with a license and


forming part thereof, stating specific conditions, privileges or limitations
pertaining to such licence; the ratings on a licence are at least one of those
possible.

2.2.2 Air traffic controller ratings

• ADV Aerodrome control visual


• ADI Aerodrome control instrument
• APP Approach control procedural
• APS Approach control surveillance
• ACP Area control procedural
• ACS Area control surveillance

2.2.3 Rating endorsements

‘rating endorsement’ means the authorisation entered on and forming part of a


licence, indicating the specific conditions, privileges or limitations pertaining to
the relevant licence.

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2.2.3.1 Aerodrome Control Instrument rating (ADI) endorsements


Note: For the current purposes, the Aerodrome Control Instrument (ADI) rating
has been chosen as the most appropriate rating to be associated with the use
of A-SMGCS. The ADI rating is the only rating with which the Ground
Movement Control (GMC) and Ground Movement Surveillance control (GMS)
endorsements are associated, and use of A-SMGCS is predominantly
associated with the latter endorsement. Moreover, the ADI rating entitles the
holder to provide an air traffic control service at an aerodrome that has
published instrument approach and/or departure procedures (EATMP, 2004).
It is unlikely that aerodromes will implement A-SMGCS when they have no
published instrument approach or departure procedures. Therefore, the use of
A-SMGCS will not be considered in association with the Aerodrome control
visual (ADV) rating, which may be granted to controllers at aerodromes where
there are no published instrument approach or departure procedures.

At least one of the following endorsements are required:

• TWR Tower Control endorsement


• GMC Ground Movement Control endorsement
• GMS Ground Movement Surveillance endorsement
• AIR Air Control endorsement
• RAD Aerodrome Radar Control endorsement

2.2.3.2 Unit Endorsements

(mandatory)

Authorisation entered on and forming part of a licence, indicating the ICAO location
indicator and the sector and/or working positions where the holder of the licence is
competent to work

2.2.3.3 Language Endorsements

(mandatory)

The Authorisation entered on and forming part of a licence, indicating the language
proficiency of the holder. Proficient ability to speak and understand English according
to ICAO language proficiency rating scale (level 4 Operational or above)

Note: DIRECTIVE 2006/23/EC requires Member States to bring into force the
language endorsements by 17 May 2010.

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2.2.3.4 Instructor Endorsements


(where appropriate)

The Authorisation entered on and forming part of a licence, indicating the competence
of the holder to give on-the-job training

2.3 Eurocontrol Safety Regulatory Requirement 5

For the ECAC area, Eurocontrol Safety Regulatory Requirement (ESARR) 5 –


ATM Services’ Personnel – paragraph 5.2, details the licensing requirements
for ATCOs. These requirements are to be regarded as complementary to the
ICAO Annex 1 licensing requirements for ATCOs. The implementation date for
ESARR 5 edition 1.0 was 10 November 2003. ESARR 5 has to be seen as the
major source for Directive 2006/23/EC, however covering the whole ECAC
area it is not fully replaced by the EU Directive.

The ESARR 5 requirements for ATCOs are subdivided in requirements to be


applied by the Designated Authority, by the provider of ATS services and by
the individual personnel.

2.3.1 ATCO licensing structure

A Designated authority for the safety regulation of Air Traffic Control personnel
shall issue an ATC license or certificate of competence to any applicant who
complies with the obligatory provisions of ICAO Annex 1 and of ESARR5.

A Designated authority shall ensure that an air traffic controller license or


certificate of competence issued shall contain one or more of the ratings of the
classes notified below:

• Aerodrome control visual;


• Aerodrome control instrument;
• Approach control procedural;
• Approach control surveillance;
• Area control procedural;
• Area control surveillance.

NOTE: to be valid, a rating shall be associated with one or more


endorsements detailing the air traffic control unit and, where applicable, the
operational positions or sectors on which the ATCO is competent to provide
an air traffic control service, and/or the specific types of services the holder of
the air traffic controller license may provide, including any type of surveillance
equipment.

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2.3.2 Apron Management Service

ESARR5 5 requires that “A designated authority shall ensure, through that


application of appropriate regulatory principles and processes, that
organisations and personnel responsible for tasks in the provision of air traffic
services or supporting the provision of air traffic services, which are
considered to be related to safety of air traffic, are competent to carry out
those tasks. The designated authority shall assist the ATM provider in
identifying those tasks which, in providing or supporting the provision of air
traffic services, are considered to be safety related”.

ESARR 5 also requires that “An air traffic services provider at an ATS unit
shall ensure, as part of its overall safety responsibilities, that all ATM services
personnel responsible for tasks in the provision of air traffic services or
supporting the provision of air traffic services, which are considered to be
related to the safety of air traffic, are competent to carry out those tasks and
satisfy applicable medical fitness requirements”.

ESARR 5 does not contain any specific requirements for the application of
Apron Management Service. Even so, it is clear that personnel using
ASMGCS in the provision of Apron Management Service must be assessed
for their operational competence.

2.4 European Manual of Personnel Licensing – Air Traffic Controllers

The European Manual of Personnel Licensing – Air Traffic Controllers


provides detailed information and guidance to meet the ESARR5 requirements
for ATCOs. With a few proviso’s and when implemented in association with
the application of the EATMP Common Core Content training objectives, the
Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) has recognised the
European Manual of Personnel Licensing – Air Traffic Controllers as an
acceptable means of compliance with the ESARR 5 requirements for ATCOs.

2.4.1 Ratings and endorsements

The European Manual of Personnel Licensing – Air Traffic Controllers


provides the following details and guidance to the ESARR 5 requirements.

The rating in an ATC license indicates the ATC discipline in which a controller
may provide an ATC service. Associated with the ratings are rating
endorsements, these rating endorsements further define the ATC service that
may be provided.

To provide the ATC service indicated by a rating and any associated rating
endorsements a controller must also hold a unit endorsement. The unit
endorsement indicates that a controller is competent to provide an ATC
service on specified sectors or operational positions at a particular unit or
units. A valid rating consists of a rating, any associated rating endorsements
and a unit endorsement.

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An ATC licence must contain one or more of the ratings of the classes notified
below:
• Aerodrome control visual;
• Aerodrome control instrument;
• Approach control procedural;
• Approach control surveillance;
• Area control procedural;
• Area control surveillance.
To be valid, the unit endorsement must indicate the ATC unit and the
operational positions or sectors on which the controller is competent to provide
an air traffic control service.

NOTE: According to Directive 2006/23/EC a controller must also hold a


language endorsement.

2.4.2 Detailed description of Aerodrome Control Licensing Requirements

Aerodrome Control Visual Rating

An Aerodrome Control Visual (ADV) rating entitles the holder to provide an air
traffic control service to aerodrome traffic at an aerodrome that has no
published instrument approach or departure procedures.

Guidance

The Aerodrome Control Visual rating may be granted to controllers who are
competent to provide an air traffic control service at an aerodrome where:

a) there are no published instrument approach or departure procedures;

b) there is no established approach control unit;

c) an approach control service is not provided remotely.

The Aerodrome Control Visual rating has no associated rating endorsements.


However, individual States may wish to develop their own endorsements to be
associated with this rating. A valid rating shall include a unit endorsement.

Aerodrome Control Instrument Rating

In addition to the requirements of services provided in accordance with the


Aerodrome Control Visual rating, the Aerodrome Control Instrument (ADI)
rating entitles the holder to provide an air traffic control service at an
aerodrome which has published instrument approach and/or departure
procedures.

Guidance

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The Aerodrome Control Instrument rating may be granted to controllers who


are competent to provide an air traffic control service at aerodromes where:

a) there are published instrument approach and/or departure procedures;

b) there is an associated Approach Control Unit; or

c) where an approach control service is provided from an Area Control Centre.

A valid rating shall include a unit endorsement.

Aerodrome Control Instrument Rating Endorsements

The Aerodrome Control Instrument rating shall be associated with it one or


more of the following rating endorsements:

Tower Control

Aerodrome control may be one operational position or it may be divided


between two operational positions, Ground Movement Control (GMC) and Air
Control (AIR). Where aerodrome control is provided from one operational
position, it shall be indicated in the ATC licence by the issue of a Tower
Control (TWR) endorsement to the Aerodrome Control Instrument rating.

Ground Movement Control

The Ground Movement Control (GMC) endorsement indicates that the


controller has the skills to provide Ground Movement Control. Recognising
GMC as a separate endorsement will enable a controller whose task is
restricted to providing GMC only to be issued with an air traffic controller
licence with an Aerodrome Control Instrument rating.

Ground Movement Surveillance Control

The Ground Movement Surveillance (GMS) Control endorsement indicates


that a controller has the skills to use Aerodrome Surface Movement Guidance
systems in the provision of an aerodrome control service. These systems may
be based on radar or more advanced tracking technology and are used during
low visibility procedures and to enhance the provision of an aerodrome control
service in areas outside visual surveillance. The Ground Movement
Surveillance Control endorsement can only be issued to a controller with a
Tower Control or Ground Movement Control endorsement.

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Guidance

The Ground Movement Surveillance Control endorsement may be granted to


controllers who are competent to use Aerodrome Surface Movement Control
and Guidance Systems, including Surface Movement Radar (SMR), in the
provision of an aerodrome control service. The Ground Movement
Surveillance Control endorsement may permit the holder to use the equipment
to provide an aerodrome control service to aircraft on the manoeuvring area
during low visibility conditions and to supplement visual observation. Thus the
implications of A-SMGCS Level 1&2 introduction for ATCO licensing are fully
covered by the requirements and guidance contained in the European Manual
of personnel Licensing – Air Traffic Controllers.

Air Control

The Air Control (AIR) endorsement indicates that the controller has the skills
to provide Air Control. Recognising Air Control as a separate endorsement will
enable a controller whose task is restricted to providing Air Control only to be
issued with an air traffic controller licence with an Aerodrome Control
Instrument rating.

Aerodrome Radar Control

The Aerodrome Radar (RAD) endorsement recognises that radar is playing an


increasing role in the provision of aerodrome control. The additional skills
required are limited to those required to provide the aerodrome radar service
described in ICAO PANS - Air Traffic Management - Doc 4444-ATM/501,
Chapter 8, paragraph 8.10.1 (ICAO, 2001c). States requiring their controllers
to provide a further enhanced aerodrome radar service shall train their
controllers in the additional skills required. However, regardless of any
additional training, the aerodrome radar endorsement in a controller’s licence
will only be universally accepted by other States as indicating that the
controller has demonstrated the skills required to provide the basic aerodrome
radar service as defined by ICAO. As with rating endorsements developed by
individual States, nothing in the licensing process will prevent States accepting
by mutual agreement additional skills required of their controllers. The
Aerodrome Radar Control endorsement can only be issued to a controller with
a Tower Control or Air Control endorsement.

Guidance

The Aerodrome Radar Control endorsement may be granted to controllers


who are competent to use surveillance radar equipment in the provision of an
aerodrome control service.

The Aerodrome Radar Control endorsement should not permit the aerodrome
controller to use the surveillance radar equipment in any way that will detract
from the primary task of providing an aerodrome control service by visual

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observation of aerodrome traffic. The competent authority should define the


airspace within which this service may be provided.

Normally, the use of surveillance radar in the provision of aerodrome control


service is limited to the functions defined in ICAO PANS Doc 4444-ATM/501,
Chapter 8, 8.10.1 (ICAO, 2001).

Aerodrome Control
Instrument
ADI

Tower
Ground Movement (When Air/Ground Air Control
Control combined) AIR
GMC TWR

Ground Movement Aerodrome Radar


Surveillance RAD
GMS

Fig. 1 Aerodrome Control Instrument Rating and Endorsements


(after EATMP 2004, p. 32 )

Remarks

The use of Surface Movement Radar in the provision of aerodrome control


service is described in ICAO PANS Doc 4444-ATM/501, Chapter 8, 8.10.2
(ICAO, 2001).

The use of SMR as element of a (A-)SMGCS is normally not limited to the


ground movement part on an aerodrome control service. The Air Control part
of an aerodrome control service could be using SMR to safeguard runway
operations and to prevent runway incursions.

3. Apron Management Service

The Apron Management Service is not a part of the air traffic services as
defined by ICAO. Therefore international requirements and regulations for the
licensing of ATCOs are not applicable to personnel providing an Apron
Management Service.

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Apron Management Service has been provided in a manner that has evolved
over time to support individual airport's needs It has not been subject to the
degree of regulatory oversight that has been applied to ATC/ATM services.
However, the introduction of A-SMGCS may require a more formal and
consistent approach to the competence assessment of Apron Management
Service personnel (particularly where Apron Management Service provides a
service in the vicinity of high-risk areas of the airport such as runway holding
points).

3.1 ICAO Annex 14

ICAO ANNEX 14 Recommendation 9.5.1.

When warranted by the volume of traffic and operating conditions, an


appropriate Apron Management Service should be provided on an apron by
an aerodrome ATS unit, by another aerodrome operating authority, or by a
cooperative combination of these, in order to:

a) regulate movement with the objective of preventing collisions between


aircraft, and between aircraft and obstacles;

b) regulate entry of aircraft into, and coordinate exit of aircraft from, the apron
with the aerodrome control tower; and

c) ensure safe and expeditious movement of vehicles and appropriate


regulation of other activities.

3.2 A-SMGCS Manual

The ICAO A-SMGCS Manual (ICAO, 2004), chapter 3, paragraph 3.2.2.7,


states that:

“The nature of the conditions under which an A-SMGCS will operate requires
that the pilot rely on the guidance and control that the system is providing.
This guidance and control needs to extend from the runway to the parking
stand and vice versa. […] Additionally, with the highly complex working
environment and sophisticated HMI required for an A-SMGCS, training is
necessary, with a licensing requirement, to ensure the continued competence
of operating staff. Responsibility for control needs to be allocated in such a
way that the same level of service is provided to aircraft and vehicles
throughout the movement area.”

Paragraphs 3.2.2.9 to 3.2.2.11 of the same document provide lists of features


that A-SMGCS needs to cover to enable Apron Management Service and the
aerodrome control services to carry out their responsibilities, including an
interface between both.

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3.3 Apron Management in an A-SMGCS environment

Apron Management Service is not part of the air traffic services as defined by
ICAO. However, if required to use the A-SMGCS in the provision of Apron
Management Service, personnel must be properly trained and their
competence assessed on a regular basis. Evidence of the training given,
results of examinations taken and results of formal competence assessment of
personnel, must be recorded as part of the overall safety management
system. With the introduction of A-SMGCS Level 3 or 4 (see EATMP, 2005),
this will become more evident than before, however the implications of
implementing those levels are beyond the scope of the current document.

4. INTRODUCTION OF A-SMGCS: LICENSING ISSUES FOR AERODROME


CONTROLLERS

4.1 A-SMGCS Level 1 implementation

With the implementation of A-SMGCS Level 1, the Aerodrome Controller is


provided with a surveillance means, which complements visual observation by
displaying on a screen:

• Aerodrome traffic (moving targets) on the manoeuvring area,


especially in areas which can not be observed visually; including the

• The identification (and other parameters) of aerodrome traffic.

Successful completion of the A-SMGCS Level 1 upgrade training, for which


guidelines are further detailed in a separate document entitled
“Implementation of A-SMGCS – ATCO training requirements for A-SMGCS
level 1 & 2” (EATMP, 2006), shall be reported to the Designated Licensing
Authority. Subsequently, and associated with a valid ADI/TWR, ADI/GMC or
ADI/AIR rating, a GMS rating endorsement is entered or extended in the
ATCOs Licence.

4.2 A-SMGCS Level 2 implementation

With the implementation of Level 2, a basic alerting function is introduced.


This function detects conflicts and provides alerts to the users. In Level 2 the
alert function is only provided to ATCOs to detect basic and more dangerous
conflicts such as runway incursion.

Successful completion of the A-SMGCS Level 2 upgrade training (see


EATMP, 2006) shall be reported to the Designated Licensing Authority. No
further issuance of endorsement is considered necessary beyond the issuing
of the original GMS endorsement associated with Level 1.

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Note: In the above sections on upgrade training it is assumed that an


aerodrome will be upgraded from no A-SMGCS facilities to level 1 and will
then upgrade to level 2, however the possibility of an upgrade to both level 1
and 2 (i.e. to level 2) in one step is not excluded. Since the A-SMGCS
installation can be different for each unit, upgrade training would be unit
training. Clearly, upgrade training has to be appropriate to the equipment and
its intended use, which is further detailed in EATMP (2006).

5. ESARR 5 - SAFETY REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

ESARR 5, paragraph 5.2, subdivides the specific Requirements for Air Traffic
Controllers in requirements to be applied by the Designated Authority,
requirements to be applied by the provider of air traffic services and
requirements to be applied by the individual personnel as follows:

5.1 Requirements to be applied by the Designated Authority

A Designated Authority for the safety regulation of Air Traffic Control


personnel shall issue an ATC license or certificate of competence to any
applicant who complies with the obligatory provisions of ICAO Annex 1,
section 4.3 and of ESARR5 section 5.2.

Before granting an air traffic controller license or certificate of competence and


the associated rating(s) and unit endorsement(s), ensure that the applicant
has:
a) undertaken the appropriate initial training and has passed any
associated examinations or assessments;
b) successfully completed the elements of the unit training plan
appropriate to the rating discipline being undertaken;
c) been assessed as competent;
d) holds a valid medical certificate of the appropriate class.
Implement procedures or require operational ATC units to have approved
procedures to ensure the ongoing competence of their ATCOs, including a
mechanism, based on operational experience or a competence checking
system, or a combination of both, whereby controllers are monitored or
regularly tested to ensure they maintain their competence. The scheme shall
be fully documented indicating:
a) the process by which controllers will be assessed;
b) the operational objectives they will be required to meet;
c) the person/persons who are responsible for formally accepting that the
process has been correctly conducted;
d) the formal mechanism by which the designated authority will notify the
controller and service provider organisation of the result of any
competence assessment.

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5.2 Requirements to be applied by the provider of air traffic services

The provider of air traffic services at its ATC unit(s) shall ensure that:

An air traffic controller providing an air traffic control service:


a) holds valid rating(s), ranting endorsement(s) and unit endorsement(s)
appropriate to the ATC service being provided;
b) holds a valid medical certificate of the appropriate class;
c) is competent to provide the ATC service notified in his/her air traffic
controller license or certificate of competence.
Units have approved competence schemes to satisfy the requirements that
controllers must maintain operational competence and experience. These
procedures shall include requirements for controllers to:
a) complete a specified minimum number of controlling hours within a
specified period on the sectors or operational positions for which they
hold valid ratings;
b) be subject to an assessment of their continuing competence;
c) undertake periodical refresher training;
d) ensure operational competence after returning from extended periods of
absence.

5.3 Requirements to be applied by the individual personnel

A licensed/certified air traffic controller shall ensure that he/she:


a) holds valid rating(s), rating endorsement(s) and unit endorsement(s)
appropriate to the ATC service(s) he/she is providing;
b) complies with the unit competency scheme and is competent to
provide the ATC services notified in his/her air traffic controller license
or certificate of competence;
c) complies with any conditions that may be required by the designated
authority when his/her competency is in doubt;
d) holds a valid medical certificate of the appropriate class;
e) informs the management of the unit if he/she is no longer medically fit
to provide an ATC service;
f) does not provide an ATC service while under influence of psychoactive
substances;
g) does not exercise the privileges of his/her license or certificate of
competence, when there is any decrease in his/her medical fitness
which might render the holed unable to safely and properly exercise
these privileges.

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6. CONCLUSIONS

The implementation of A-SMGCS will improve airport operations, especially


during low visibility conditions and at night hours and A-SMGCS will be an
important enabler in the development of the Gate-to-Gate concept. The
introduction of A-SMGCS will make it possible for ATCO’s to provide an
aerodrome control service without continuous visual contact by using
enhanced surveillance equipment.

To enable the safe and efficient use of A-SMGCS, all operational users should
be competent to use the system. A license can be considered as a formal
recognition of competencies demonstrated by the operational user. The
training requirements, which underlie the required competencies associated
with the operational use of A-SMGCS (level 1 & 2), are described in a
separate report, entitled ‘Training requirements for operational users of A-
SMGCS levels 1 & 2’ (EATMP, 2006).

For the licensing of ATCOs, in association with the use of A-SMGCS, ICAO,
EC and Eurocontrol provide detailed requirements and guidance in:

• ICAO Annex 1 – Personnel Licensing (ICAO, 2001a);

• ESARR 5 – ATM Services’ Personnel (EUROCONTROL, 2002);

• Directive 2006/23/EC (European Union, 2006);

• EATMP European Manual of Personnel Licensing – Air Traffic


Controllers (EATMP, 2004).

With respect to the licensing requirements for ATCOs, ESARR 5 defines the
responsibilities of (1) the Designated (Licensing) Authority, (2) the providers of
air traffic services and of (3) the individual personnel.

Directive 2006/23/EC transposes requirements laid down for ATCOs in


ESARR 5 into European Union legislation. It also requires National
Supervisory Authorities to control all licensing issues.

International training and licensing requirements for Apron Management


Service do not exist. The ICAO definitions, which are relevant for the ground
movement part of an Aerodrome Control Service, clearly exclude Apron
Management Service from the responsibilities of air traffic control. However it
is clear that Apron Management Service personnel will, when using A-
SMGCS, be required to demonstrate their operational competence just as
ATCOs will have to.

The Implementation of more advanced levels of A-SMGCS (levels 3 and/or 4)


may require that a more harmonised training structure for Apron Management
Service personnel be developed.

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7. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ATCO Licence Ratings


ADV Aerodrome control visual

ADI Aerodrome control instrument

APP Approach control procedural

APS Approach control surveillance

ACP Area control procedural

ACS Area Control Surveillance

ATCO Licence Endorsements


TWR Tower Control

GMC Ground Movement Control

GMS Ground Movement Surveillance

AIR Air Control

PAR Precision Approach Radar

SRA Surveillance Radar Approach

OCN Oceanic Control

RAD Radar

ADS Automatic Dependent Surveillance

TCL Terminal Control

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Abbreviations

A-SMGCS Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System

ATC Air Traffic Control

ATCO Air Traffic Controller

ATM Air Traffic Management

ATS Air Traffic Services

EATMP European Air Traffic Management Program

EC European Commission

ECAC European Civil Aviation Conference

ESARR European Safety Regulatory Requirement

EU European Union

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation

PANS Procedures for Air Navigation Services

SMGCS Surface Movement Guidance and Control System

SMR Surface Movement Radar

SRC Safety Regulation Commission

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8. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

− EATMP (2006). Training requirements for operational users of A-SMGCS Levels 1 & 2.
Final draft, Edition 0.4, 4 October 2006.
− EATMP (2005). Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels, Edition 1.1, 9 November
2005.
− EATMP (2004). European Manual of Personnel Licensing - Air Traffic Controllers, Edition
2.0, 14 June 2004.
− EATMP (2003). A-SMGCS Project Strategy, Edition 1.0, 30 September 2003.
− EATMP (2002). Implementation of A-SMGCS – ATCO Training and Licensing
Requirements. Edition 0.1, 30 September 2002, Proposed Issue.
− EUROCONTROL (2002). Safety Regulatory Requirement ESARR 5, ATM Services’
Personnel, Edition 2.0, 11 April 2002.
− European Union (2006). European Union Directive 2006/23/EC of the European
Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on a Community air traffic controller license.
Official Journal of the European Union, 27 April 2006, L 114, pp 22-37.
− ICAO (2004). Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS)
Manual, First Edition, 2004.
− ICAO (2001a). Annex 1, Personnel Licensing, Ninth Edition, July 2001.
− ICAO (2001b). Annex 11, Air Traffic Services, Thirteenth Edition – July 2001.
− ICAO (2001c). Doc.4444 ATM/501, Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Air Traffic
Management, Fourteenth Edition 2001.
− NLR (2006a). Minutes of meeting dated 26 July 2006 of the EUROCONTROL A-SMGCS
Training Requirements Workshop (first workshop).
− NLR (2006b). Minutes of meeting dated 24 August 2006 of the EUROCONTROL A-
SMGCS Training & Licensing Requirements Workshop (second workshop).

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