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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT 1

Fast Ship Electronic System for Seakeeping


Experimental Studies
Joaquín Recas Piorno, Segundo Esteban San Roman, Jose Maria Giron-Sierra, Member, IEEE, and
Jesus Manuel de la Cruz Garcia

Abstract—In this paper, a new distributed electronic on-board


system for seakeeping studies is introduced. The system is based
on a controller area network bus (CANbus) and includes motion
sensors, actuators for submerged moving wings, an embedded
personal computer (PC), a miniaturized inertial unit, and a digital
radio link. This paper describes the system architecture and the
main system operations along seakeeping experimental studies
with a scaled ship. The on-board system can be applied to scaled
or real ships.
Index Terms—Control equipment, distributed control, field
buses, marine vehicle control, marine vehicle electronics.

Fig. 1. Location and motions of actuators in the fast ship. A T-foil near the
I. I NTRODUCTION bow, lateral fins, and transom flaps.

W HEN a ship moves in the presence of ocean waves,


she experiments oscillatory accelerations. The vertical
component of these accelerations may cause seasickness, par-
ticularly if the frequency of oscillation is near 1 rad/s. [1].
Vertical accelerations are different across the ship. An ac-
celerometer near the bow will measure vertical accelerations
mainly due to pitch motions. Near the ship center of gravity
(CG), there are vertical accelerations due to heave motions.
Passengers at the ship sides will suffer vertical accelerations
in great part connected with roll motions. There are means to
alleviate the oscillatory ship motions in response to encountered
waves [2]–[4]. Along the study of our team [5], [6], several
moving actuators have been investigated. In particular, this
Fig. 2. Scaled-down ship with actuators. (Top left) General view. (Top right)
paper considers a fast ship that is able to surpass a speed of T-foil. (Bottom left) Two waterjets. (Bottom right) Lateral fin.
40 knots, with actuators such as transom flaps, T-foil near the
bow, and lateral fins to smooth vertical accelerations (Fig. 1). fined trajectories and maneuvers. Consequently, the on-board
Such actuators must move in the most efficient way. Conse- electronic system must control the ship heading and speed and
quently, there is a problem of control design to be solved, should provide self-localization capabilities for autonomous
combining experiments and theoretical methods. For this paper, maneuvering. To get seakeeping improvement, alleviating ver-
a scaled-down replica of the fast ship with actuators has been tical motions, the on-board system must adequately control
built (Fig. 2). A distributed electronic on-board system has been the motion of the actuators. Finally, the scientific information
developed to cope with the experimental needs. of interest, about the six motions of the ship in response to
This paper focuses on the electronic on-board system. It encountered waves, must be also measured and recorded by
involves several technical and functional aspects, with peculiar- the on-board system. The on-board system handles a set of
ities associated with marine surface vehicles. The seakeeping sensors, including a miniaturized inertial unit, several radio
experiments require the ship to be able to execute some prede- control (R/C) servos, a digital radio link, and a memory card.
The on-board electronic system can be installed in many dif-
Manuscript received March 25, 2008; revised July 16, 2008. This work ferent ships, scaled or real, for experimental work or practical
was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology Re- application.
search Projects under Contract DPI2000-0386-C03-02 and Contract DPI2003- This paper is structured as follows. Section II provides a
09745-C04-02. The Associate Editor coordinating the review process was
Dr. Theodore Laopoulos. description of the seakeeping experimental context, from which
The authors are with the Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores the requirements for the electronic on-board system are derived.
y Automática, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Section III describes the on-board electronic system archi-
Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain (e-mail: jrecas@fis.ucm.es; segundo@dacya.
ucm.es; gironsi@dacya.ucm.es; jmcruz@dacya.ucm.es). tecture. Section IV considers the system operation, including
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIM.2009.2017658 experimental data processing and monitoring, and the ship
0018-9456/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE
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2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT

Fig. 3. CEHIPAR basin with a wavemaker and a towing carriage.

autonomous control. In Section V, some experiment examples


are presented, showing the good results obtained. Finally, some Fig. 4. Distributed system blocks.
conclusions are drawn.
Since the fast ship selected is made of aluminum, the weight
of the 1 : 40 scaled-down ship must be 27.6 kg, including
II. E XPERIMENTAL C ONTEXT
hull, ballast, propellers, actuators, electronics, and batteries for
Most of our seakeeping experiments have been done in a autonomous operation. The scaled ship is 2.5 m long. A ballast
towing tank facility. The name of the facility is “El Canal de is added to reproduce the inertias of the real-scale ship. The on-
Experiencias Hidrodinamicas de El Pardo” (CEHIPAR). It is board electronic system must have low power, low weight, and
located near the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, small size components. Scaled waterjets are used as propellers.
Spain. A 1 : 40-scale 3-m-long ship has been built, correspond- The ship has no rudder. Ship heading is controlled by moving
ing to the selected 120-m-long fast ship. The 1 : 40 scale is the waterjet outputs. The waterjets can demand as much as
recognized among towing tank institutions as a reasonable 30 dc amps, causing magnetic fields. Magnetic shielding is
scale, good enough to obtain reliable scientific results [3]. Three needed.
ship speeds have been selected, namely, 20, 30, and 40 knots
(at a 1 : 40 scale). There is a chapter on how to scale seakeeping
III. O N -B OARD E LECTRONIC S YSTEM
experiments and variables in [3].
The transom flaps, the lateral fins, and the T-foil are sub- As an initial solution, a centralized electronic system archi-
merged wings. The CEHIPAR quiet waters channel, 300 m tecture was built and tested in the scaled ship. It was based
long, has been used to measure the lift and drag of these on an embedded personal computer (PC) with enough analog
actuators, at the three ship speeds, and several angles of attack and digital input/output channels. Many difficulties aroused for
of these wings. the PC to cope with the variety of functions taking place at
Once mathematical models of the actuator effects have been the same time, including signal sampling from the different
established, work started with experiments in the CEHIPAR sensors, with different sampling periods, and the generation of
main basin. It is a 150-m-long 30-m-wide 5-m-deep basin with special pulsewidth modulation (PWM) signals for the actuator
a wavemaker and a towing carriage. Fig. 3 shows a top view servos. After simple initial experiments, it was seen that the
sketch of the basin and the towing carriage. With the wave- centralized solution could impose operational limits to this
maker, several sea conditions can be reproduced. For instance, work. Consequently, a distributed solution was decided for the
coastal waters or open ocean waters, with typical wave power electronic system. Based on our previous experience [7], in
density spectra, can be generated. In addition to these irregular which a comparison was made between fieldbuses, a controller
waves, regular waves with different wavelengths and steepness area network bus (CANbus) was selected for the application
can also be generated. The basin has a towing carriage for [8]. The main reasons to prefer the CANbus are reliability, well-
conventional experiments. However, it is better for experiments established technology with ensured availability, long-distance
with fast ships to devise autonomous self-propelled scaled capability (up to 6 km), and good software support. Note that
ships. This is the main target of this work, which will increase there is a marine version of the CANbus. Fig. 4 shows a diagram
the operational capabilities of the towing tank facility. with the distributed system architecture.
The simplest seakeeping experiments take place with head
seas. In this case, encountered waves only cause heave and
A. Nodes
pitch motions, which must be counteracted by the moving
actuators. With oblique seas, things are more complicated since The on-board system has several CAN-enabled nodes. The
roll, yaw, sway, and surge motions also appear. The on-board nodes have identical electronic design and are based on the use
control must keep constant the ship heading and speed, along of a CAN-enabled microcontroller [9]. The design is completed
a straight trajectory, while counteracting vertical motions. In with a bus transceiver, an RS-232 serial connection, a Micro-
this paper, heading angles of 0◦ , 30◦ , and 45◦ , with respect to chip connection for on-field microcontroller programming, and
waves, have been considered. a power regulator.
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PIORNO et al.: FAST SHIP ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR SEAKEEPING EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES 3

The microcontroller selected for the system node is the PIC


18F458 [10]. It is centered on the central processing unit (CPU)
of a high-performance complex-instruction-set computer with
hardware multipliers. The chip has input/output pins that can
be programmed for PWM digital input or output, a univer-
sal synchronous asynchronous receiver/transmitter module for
serial communications, three timers/counters, and eight 10-bit
analog-to-digital (A/D) channels. This chip eases up program
development and testing because it has C language support and
can be programmed and debugged on chip. The chip includes
a CANbus module that conforms to CAN 2.0 B, with message
rates up to 1 Mb/s; it has three transmit message buffers with
prioritization, two receive message buffers, and six full 29-bit
acceptance filters, and it prevents message loss due to overflow.
Fig. 5. CPU time distribution.

B. System Sensors D. System Actuators


Two CANbus nodes are used to handle the accelerometers, Four CANbus nodes are used to control the actuators motion
the paddlewheel, and the digital compass. via PWM digital signals.
Three two-axis accelerometers are used [11]. One of them Five HS-311 servos [15] are used to move the submerged
is located at the bow, measuring yaw and pitch accelerations. wings: one for the T-foil, two for the lateral fins, and two for
The other two are placed at the ship borders, symmetrically the transom flaps. These are high-torque high-speed small R/C
with respect to the ship CG. These two accelerometers are used servos. There are four more servos for the waterjet control, two
to measure roll and heave accelerations. The accelerometers of them govern the water output orientation, for the heading
have a ±2 g range, a bandwidth from 17 to 160 Hz, and a control, and the other two servos are used to revert the water
0.3-mW dc power (3 V, 0.1 mA), and they are temperature output for braking or backward motion. Finally, the speed of
compensated. The output signal from the accelerometers is a the waterjet turbines is controlled with electronic servo units.
PWM digital signal; the frequency of this signal is controlled All servos continuously require PWM digital signals to control
by an external clock or an internal 10-ms-period clock. In our their angular position. This is the main reason for adding
case, it is enough with the 10-ms internal clock. The PWM microcontrollers as nodes of the on-board system, alleviating
signal requires a simple processing to read the measurements the work of the embedded PC. Another function of the mi-
using hardware interruptions. crocontrollers is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of the
In the case of pitch accelerations near the bow, it can reach hydraulic actuators that are used in real-scale ships.
values near 1/2 g when the ship’s speed is 40 knots and the
height of the waves is about 2.5 m.
In addition to the accelerometers, there are two sensors for E. Radio Link
motion measurements. A Devantech CMPS03 digital compass Along experiments, a set of selected real-time data is sent
is used for yaw rotation measurement, and a stern Hall-effect via a digital radio link to an “external support system” (ESS).
paddlewheel is used to measure surge motion. The characteristics of the digital radio unit are given as follows
[16]: half-duplex 19 200-kb/s digital communications via data
C. Embedded PC packets; automatic transmission error detection and fixing; a
reach of up to 5 km; 50 mW or 17 dBm; serial communication
A low-power miniaturized embedded PC is included to coor- port; a weight of 200 g; and 200 mA dc power.
dinate the on-board system activity, through CANbus messages, The digital radio unit is connected to the CANbus through
and to manage a miniaturized inertial unit. The embedded PC one of the system nodes (based on one CAN-enabled micro-
[12] is based on an Intel-compatible low-power microprocessor controller).
[13], is C+ programmable [14], and has the possibility of It is planned to add a global positioning system via another
on-chip debugging. The embedded PC uses a serial RS232 CANbus node. While doing experiments at CEHIPAR, it is
channel to communicate with the CANbus through a system of no use because of the metallic roof. However, it will be
node. Furthermore, the embedded PC communicates with the interesting in future open-air experiments.
miniaturized inertial unit via a second serial RS232 channel.
The inertial unit is an Xsens MTx-B with a bandwidth of 50 Hz
for rate of turn, 30 Hz for accelerations, and 10 Hz for magnetic IV. S YSTEM O PERATION
field.
A. PC Operation
A data-storage card, similar to a CompactFlash used in digi-
tal cameras, is included in the embedded PC. All experimental The PC imposes on the system a periodic cycle. This cycle
data are recorded into this card with a specific storage system comprises two 15-ms time windows. Fig. 5 shows the time
that is fault tolerant. distribution of PC operations along the cycle.
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4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT

magnetic flux sensor with a range of ±750 mG, a bandwidth


of 10 Hz, and a noise of 4.5 rms.
After experimental testing, it was noticed that the gyroscope
provides good high-frequency information about ship rotations,
having some bias at low frequencies. By simple high-pass
filtering (HPF), the high-frequency components of pitch, roll,
and yaw are obtained. The low-frequency components of roll
and pitch are obtained from low-pass filtering (LPF) of the
accelerometers (as inclinometers). Yaw low frequency is ob-
tained from the magnetic flux sensor, taking into account the
instantaneous roll and pitch of the inertial unit itself. Fig. 7
shows a block diagram of the data processing designed for
using the inertial unit in the scaled ship case.
The LPF and HPF digital filters that have been designed are
complementary (their transfer functions add to one). This way,
Fig. 6. (Dotted curve) Product Q of (continuous curve) the CANbus band- low and high frequencies provided by the filters can be directly
width and (dashed curve) the sampling period as functions of ship length.
added to recover the complete motion information. The discrete
transfer functions of the filters are the following:
At the beginning of the first time window, the PC prepares the
CompactFlash for data recording and queries the inertial unit 0.05z
for data. Then, the PC sends position references to the actuators LPF(z) = (1)
z − 0.95
and to the radio link, and receives data from sensors. The
z−1
second time window begins by taking data from the inertial unit HPF(z) = 1 − LP F (z) = . (2)
through the serial port buffer. Then, these data are processed z − 0.95
and are sent to the ESS via the digital radio. Next, control algo- The measurements of the inertial unit are given in body
rithms are computed. Finally, data are stored in the Compact- axes. The equations to translate to Earth’s fixed axes are the
Flash. There is plenty of free time, in the periodic cycles, for following [2]:
more PC work that may be required in the future.
φ̇ = q · cos φ − r · sin φ
B. Bus Bandwidth Scaling θ̇ = p + q · sin φ · tan θ + r · cos φ · tan θ
According
√ to scale rules, 1 s in the 1 : 40 scale ship is equiva- ψ̇ = q · sin φ · sec θ + r · cos φ · sec θ (3)
lent to 40 s in a real ship. Suppose the on-board digital control
on the real ship has√ a sampling period TR , then a sampling where p is the roll rate, q is the pitch rate, and r is the yaw rate
period TS = TR / 40 should be applied in the control of the in body axes, φ is the roll angle, θ is the pitch angle, and ψ is
scaled ship. The bandwidth Δ in kilobits per second of the the yaw angle.
CANbus decreases as the cable length increases. Let us define a It is interesting to compare the ship experimental needs
factor Q = Δ · TS . This factor Q is the number of kilobits that with the typical of other vehicles such aircraft or satellites. In
can be sent through the bus between sampling periods. If Q is the case of ships, pitch motions are small, accelerations are
large, that means more information can be used by the control. oscillatory with zero mean, and the ship has large inertias so
Fig. 6 depicts Δ, TS , and Q as functions of ship length; 3 m rotations are slow.
corresponds to the 1 : 40 scale ship, and 120 m corresponds to
the real ship. It can be seen that Q is smaller for the scaled ship,
marked with an arrow, than in the real ship. Consequently, the D. ESS
control conditions are more stringent for the scaled ship. Since The ESS consists of a conventional portable PC connected
the on-board system is now successfully working in the scaled via a serial RS232 port with a digital radio unit, like the one
ship, and the CANbus can be extended to lengths of kilometers, in the ship. The purpose of the ESS is to program experiments,
it is expected that a version of the system could easily be used specifying maneuvers, to make the ship know the experiment
in real ships. specification, to take real-time data from the ship, with the ESS
being at a distance from the ship, and to represent the data with
animated graphics. The data of interest for the ESS animated
C. Monitoring of the Ship Motion
graphics are the evolution of the pitch, roll, and yaw angles.
The ship motion data sent by radio to the ESS are obtained Fig. 8 shows the 3-D panel of the ESS. In this screen, the
with a low-power moderate-cost miniaturized inertial unit [17], ship moves, reproducing the scaled ship motions. Experimental
which includes the following sensors: three-axis accelerometers data can be recorded by the ESS for further redisplay. At any
with a range of ±20 ms−2 , a bandwidth of 30 Hz, and a noise time during an experiment, the user can override the control
of 0.01 rms; a three-axis gyroscope with a range of ±900◦ s−1 , exerted by the ship embedded PC, taking manual control from
a bandwidth of 50 Hz, and a noise of 0.7 rms; a three-axis a distance.
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PIORNO et al.: FAST SHIP ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR SEAKEEPING EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES 5

Fig. 7. Block diagram of the data processing developed for the inertial unit.

Kd = 1.0. The derivative action is somewhat large in view of


the huge inertia of the ship. There is no offset since the ship is
an integrator with respect to course control.
It is interesting to note that it is easy to translate the PID
controllers to the real ship scale. Since our controllers are
discrete, it is enough to change the sampling period√ according
to scale (the real-scale sampling period must be 40 times the
period used in our experimental ship).
The main sensors for seakeeping control are the accelerome-
ters. Pitch accelerations are used by a PI controller for the T-foil
with Kp = 0.09 and Ki = 0.11. Likewise, roll accelerations
are used by another PI controller for the lateral fins with Kp =
0.18 and Ki = 0.18. The transom flaps are used for pitch and
roll compensation; the action of a PI controller with Kp = 0.02
and Ki = 0.05 using pitch acceleration is added to the action
of another PI controller, with Kp = 0.07 and Ki = 0.07, using
Fig. 8. ESS. roll acceleration.
The filters and the PI and PD controllers involved in the
E. Ship Autonomous Control various control activities are digital versions, executed in the
Three of the on-board system functions are related to the con- embedded PC. This way, the development cycle is simpler and
trol of the ship motions. First, for any seakeeping experiment, faster since the programming is made in C in a normal PC and,
a good ship speed and course control is needed. Once this is then, compiled and downloaded to the embedded PC.
guaranteed, experiments about actuators control to counteract
the effect of waves can be undertaken. In the first step, stan-
V. E XPERIMENTS
dard proportional–integral–differential (PID) controllers are
preferred since they are likely the controllers to be used in real A series of experiments have been done to check the good
ships. The results are useful as a basis for comparison for future performance of the system in several aspects of interest. It has
work on control. been a step-by-step procedure, based on the study objectives.
The ship’s speed control loop uses the paddlewheel for real- First, experiments in the CEHIPAR basin were oriented to
time velocity measurement and acts upon the waterjet power. A establish a good ship’s speed and course control, refining the
linear relation vship = α · u, with α = 5, between u, which is results of the digital filtering and control theoretical design.
the input control signal, and vship , which is the ship speed, was Fig. 9 shows experimental results about course and speed
experimentally determined. By means of a feedforward propor- control. These results have been obtained at high a speed
tional controller with gain Kp = 1/α, a 1 : 1 reference/speed (30 knots at the real scale). The ship starts from −17◦ yaw,
relation was obtained. The perturbations in the ship’s speed and the electronic system properly works to correct her heading
are corrected by an outer proportional–integral (PI) controller to get and keep a 35◦ yaw. This is an unusual exaggerated
loop, which modifies u. The settings of the PI controller were initial error to show the performances of the course control. The
Kp = 0.10 and Ki = 0.04. course is stabilized without offset from 15 to 25 s.
The course control loop uses the compensated digital com- Once the course control is ensured, experimental testing of
pass for real-time yaw measurement. The orientation of the ship’s speed control along straight trajectories can be done. The
waterjet outputs is adjusted by a proportional–differential (PD) velocity profile of a typical simple seakeeping experiment in
controller. The settings of the PD controller were Kp = 2.0 and the CEHIPAR basin begins with the ship starting from stop,
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6 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT

Fig. 9. Course and speed control experiment.

Fig. 11. Vertical acceleration at the bow is reduced by the controlled actu-
ators. The dotted curve shows the acceleration with fixed actuators, and the
continuous curve shows the acceleration with controlled moving actuators. The
experiment has been made with irregular waves corresponding to those of a
real sea.

Fig. 12. Surface effect.

with fixed actuators, and the ship with the actuators moving
under control. A satisfactory improvement due to control is
obtained. Notice that the experiments are made with irregular
Fig. 10. (a) T-foil motion and bow acceleration. (b) Fins motion and roll waves corresponding to those of a real sea.
acceleration. The advantages of an autonomous ship are becoming evident
during the experiments since it is possible to observe phenom-
increasing the speed until reaching a certain constant value, ena difficult to notice with towed ships. For instance, Fig. 12
keeping this speed (this is the part where the desired seakeeping shows the response of the ship to a waterjet shutoff. Instead
data are obtained), and then decreasing the speed and stopping. of a typical decreasing exponential curve, it was observed a
To obtain as much data as possible, the complete experiment brisk downward change (marked on the figure with an arrow).
must make good use of the basin length. Notice in Fig. 9 that It seems that this rapid change corresponds to the ship transi-
the ship reaches rapidly a speed of 3 m/s, keeping it constant tioning from surface effect (i.e., gliding on a thin air cushion)
without offset from 15 to 25 s. The last 5 s in the figure is used navigation to conventional drag. Actually, the design of the hull
to stop the ship. promotes the surface effect on the aft part of the ship. This is an
The continuous curve with large excursions in Fig. 10(a) important effect, in the reverse sense (going from slow to fast
shows the T-foil motion in an experiment where the T-foil speed), to reach high speeds.
must counteract the vertical accelerations near the bow (mainly
pitch). The dashed curve shows these vertical accelerations,
VI. C ONCLUSION
caused by encountered waves. Notice how the T-foil opposes
to the bow vertical accelerations. This paper has introduced an on-board distributed electronic
Fig. 10(b) shows an experiment with fins counteracting roll system for experimental seakeeping studies with fast ships. It
motions. The continuous curve is the motion of one of the fins consists of several CANbus nodes, an embedded PC, several
(the other fin has opposite motion). The dashed curve is the roll actuators and sensors, including a miniaturized inertial unit, and
acceleration at the ship border. a digital radio link. The system has been conceived to be usable
Fig. 11 shows an example of the experimental results using in real-scale ships.
the controlled moving actuators for reduction of vertical accel- The main advantage and originality of the system is to
erations. The figure compares these accelerations for the ship provide an autonomous ship for seakeeping experimentation
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PIORNO et al.: FAST SHIP ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR SEAKEEPING EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES 7

using actuators such flaps, T-foil, and fins. This is better than Joaquín Recas Piorno was born in Madrid, Spain.
the traditional study of seakeeping performances using a towed He received the Eng. degree in computer science
from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in 2000
ship, because the autonomous ship has free motions. and the Eng. degree in electronics and the Ph.D.
The use of lateral fins for antiroll actions is a classic topic. degree in computer science from the Universi-
However, the use of T-foils and transom flaps for antipitch dad Complutense de Madrid, in 2004 and 2006,
respectively.
actions is subject to study, for fast ships. He has been with Lucent Technologies, Madrid,
The system has several simultaneous real-time functions, and is currently an Assistant Professor with the De-
such as course and speed control, seakeeping improvement partment of Computer Architecture and Automatic
Control, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. He is
action, ship motion data acquisition, self-location capabilities, the author of several papers published in journals and conference proceedings.
and motion monitoring from distance. Experimental confirma- He current research interests include embedded systems applied to real-time
tion of the system working correctly has been achieved. The and distributed control.
measurements obtained with the on-board system have been
calibrated with respect to the CEHIPAR consolidated measure-
ment system that has been applied to our ship in previous
experimental studies [5].
An ESS has also been developed, with a digital radio link Segundo Esteban San Roman was born in Madrigal
de la Vera, Spain. He received the Licentiate and
with the scaled ship. This is used for experimental and data the European Ph.D. degrees in physics from the
analysis tasks. One of its functions is real-time ship behavior Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain,
monitoring. in 1996 and 2002, respectively.
He has been an Associate Professor with the De-
The proposed distributed on-board electronic system inte- partment of Computer Architecture and Automatic
grates different functions, such as data recording and monitor- Control, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, from
ing and course control and seakeeping improvement action, and 1997. He is the author of six papers published in
journals and more than 30 papers published in con-
could be used in different types of ships. ference proceedings. His current research interests
Work in the near future will exploit the scaled autonomous include control and simulation.
ship for systematic experiments in CEHIPAR and for open-air
maneuvering and seakeeping experiments.

R EFERENCES
Jose Maria Giron-Sierra (M’94) was born in
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Aerosp. Med., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 366–369, Apr. 1974. Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, in 1972 and
[2] T. J. Fossen, Marine Control Systems. Trondheim, Norway: Marine 1978, respectively.
Cybern., AS, 2002. He has been a Full Professor with the Department
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A. R. J. M. Lloyd, 1998. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, from 1988. He
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Using Rudder and Fins. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2005. proceedings and journals, including several books.
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the control of flaps and T-foil,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 24, no. 2, Control Technical Committee on Marine Systems, the American Institute of
pp. 47–60, Apr. 2004. Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Federation of European Simulation
[7] J. M. Giron-Sierra, C. C. Insaurralde, M. A. Seminario, and J. F. Jimenez, Societies.
“Distributed control system for fuel management using CANBUS,” in
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1997.
[9] Microchip Staff, AN853 PIC18XXX8 CAN Driver With Prioritized
Transmit Buffer, 2002, Chandler, AZ: Microchip Technol. Inc.
[10] Microchip Staff, DS41159C PIC18FXX8 Data Sheet, 2003, Chandler, Jesus Manuel de la Cruz Garcia was born in
AZ: Microchip Technol. Inc. Madrid, Spain. He received the Licentiate and the
[11] Analog Devices Staff, ADXL2002E Low-Cost 2g Daul-Axis Accelerom- Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Universidad Com-
eter With Duty Cycle Output, 2000, Norwood, MA: Analog De- plutense de Madrid, in 1979 and 1984, respectively.
vices, Inc. In 1986, he joined the Open University of Spain,
[12] Tern Staff, 586-Engine Technical Manual, 2000, Davis, CA: Tern Inc. and in 1990, he became a Full Professor with the
[13] AMD Staff, Elan SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual, 1999, Universidad de Cantabria, Cantabria, Spain. In 1992,
Sunnyvale, CA: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. he joined the Universidad Complutense de Madrid
[14] Paradigm System Staff, Paradigm C++ Reference Manual, 2000, as a Full Professor with the Department of Computer
Endwell, NY: Paradigm Syst. Architecture and Automatic Control. He is the author
[15] 2005. [Online]. Available: http://www.hitecrcd.com/Servos/hs311.htm of about 180 papers published in conference pro-
[16] MaxStream Staff, Maxstream XStream Wireless Module Manual, 2002, ceedings, journals, including several books. His research covers several topics
Orem, UT: MaxStream, Inc. of applied automatic control and simulation: ships, airplanes and spacecrafts,
[17] Xsens Technologies Staff, Motion Tracker Technical Documentation robotics, logistics, and process control. His current research interests include
MTx-B, 2003, Enschede, The Netherlands: Xsens Technol. B.V. control system design, system identification, optimization, and simulation.