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A branch of the administration of the criminal justice system charged with the
responsibility for the custody supervision and rehabilitation of convicted offenders.
It is the field of criminal justice administration ,which utilizes the body of knowledge
and practices of the government and the society in general involving the processes of
handling individuals who have been convicted of offenses for the purposes of crime
prevention and control
It describes a wide range of diversified programs ,agencies ,and institutions as well as
their respective philosophical goals ,ideals and theory about the nature of human society
,crime and criminal offender
It is the fourth and it is considered to be weakest pillar of the criminal justice in the
It is considered to be the weakest pillar because of failure to deter individuals in
committing crimes as well as the reformation of criminal offenders
Study of practice in systematic management concerned with the custody
,treatment and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.
Refers to the reorientation of the criminal offender to prevent him or her from
repeating his deviant (abnormal) or delinquent (criminal, felonious, wrong) actions
without the necessary of taking punitive actions but rather the introduction of individual
measures of reformation.
It is a method by which diagnosis, treatment ,planning and execution of treatment
program in individual case
This of these refers to the assigning or grouping of offenders according to their
sentence, gender, age, nationality, health, criminal record, etc.
It is the machinery used by a government to protect the society against criminality and
other peace and order problems.
Guarding and penal safe keeping
The maintenance of care and protection accorded to people who by authority of law
are temporarily incarcerated (confined, im prison, locked up..) for violation of laws and
also those who were sentenced by the court to serve judgment.
Control involves supervision of prisoners to insure punctual and orderly movement to
and from the dormitories ,place of work ,church, hospitals recreational facilities ,in
accordance with the daily schedules .
It Is defined as a relationship in which one endeavors to help another and solve his
problem of adjustment it is distinguished from advice and admonition in that it implies
mutual consent .
In correctional work includes the professional service rendered by professionally
trained personnel in the description and social treatment of offenders .
Is anything found in the possession of the prisoner contrary to rules and regulation
It has also been defined as a continuing state of good order and behavior
It includes the maintenance of good standards of work , sanitation ,safety, education
personal health and recreation.
Offenders found guilty and sentenced by the Courts for confinement are categorized
based on their length of sentence into either a municipal ,city ,provincial or national
prisoner facilities based on these categorizations
The principle of separating homogenous type of prisoners that requires special
treatment and custody.
The process putting of offenders in prison for the purpose of protecting the public and
at the same time rehabilitating them by requiring the latter to undergo institutional
treatment Program
Is the mental condition of individuals or group regarding courage ,zeal, hope and
confidence in the present principle and way of life
The study of punishment for the crime or of the criminal offenders
Is a term derived from the latin word POENA which means pain or suffering
Otherwise known as Penal science
Can be defined as the division of criminology that deals with the prison management
and treatment of offenders and concerned itself with the philosophy and practice of
society in its effort to repress criminal activities
It is the redress that the state takes against an offending members for the
transgression of law .
The suffering that the state takes against the offending members for the transgression
of law .
It is the manner or practice or controlling places of confinement like jails or prison
The act of prisoner trying to convert or induce another to change his religious belief,
sect or the like to another
Any article, item or thing prohibited by law and /or forbidden by jail rules
A person accused before a court or competent authority who temporarily confined in
jail while undergoing investigation or waiting for final judgment.
An act of getting out unlawfully from confinement or custody by an inmate
It refers to either a prisoner or detainee confined in jail
An inmate who was convicted by final judgment and classified as insular, city or
A warrant issued by a court bearing it seal and signature of the judge ,directing the jail
or prison authorities to receive inmates for custody or service of sentence imposed
A written order of the court or any other competent authority consigning an offender to
jail or prison for confinement
The temporary custody of a person for his own protection .safety or care and his
security from harm ,injury
shall refer to the act that ensures the public (including families of inmates and their
victims) that national inmates are provided with their basic needs, completely
incapacitated from further committing criminal acts, and have been totally cut off from
their criminal networks (or contacts in the free society) while serving sentence inside the
premises of the national penitentiary.
This act also includes protection against illegal organized armed groups which have
the capacity of launching an attack on any prison camp of the national penitentiary to
rescue their convicted comrade or to forcibly amass firearms issued to prison guards.
A convicted offender who cannot pay a fine that is imposed upon him
A device contrivance ,tool, or instrument use to hold back ,keep in check or control an
inmate ,e.g handcuffs, leg irons
Operation conducted by the BJMP wherein prisoner may be checked at anytime ,His
beddings ,lockers and personal belongings may be opened at any time .in his presence
,whenever possible
A privilege of a married male prisoner is visited by his wife and they are granted time
for their marital sexual obligation
These are group homes designed to help institutionalized people adjust to life in the
outside community
Inmate record or jacket, it contains the personal and criminal records of the inmate.
A practice of searching a person for weapons or other contraband suspected of being
hidden on their body or inside their clothing ,and not found by performing a frisk search
,by requiring the person to remove some or all of his or her clothing .the search may
involve an official performing an inmate person search and inspecting their personal
effects and body cavities (mouth,vogina,anus etc) A strip search is more intrusive than a
frisk and requires legal authority .Regulations covering strip searches vary considerably
,and may be mandatory in some situations or discretionary in others .


Examination of an inmate for contraband before admission
(Criminal law) a final judgment of guilty in a criminal and punishment that is
An act finding some body guilty of a crime ,or an instance of being found guilty
The task of changing an offenders ‘s attitude so that he or she may not be commit
Another crime in the future
This refers to phased reentry into society rather than the usual abrupt re- entry at the
end of a prison sentence
Any person who shall commit a felony after having been convicted by final judgment
before beginning to serve such sentence or while serving the same ,shall be punished by
the maximum period of the penalty prescribed by law for the new felony
A person is deemed to be a habitual criminal if within the period of 10 years from the
date of his released or last conviction of the crime of serious or less serious physical
injury ,robbery ,theft estafa or falsification ,he is found guilty of any of said crimes a third
time or oftener
One who at the time of his trial for one crime shall have been previously convicted by
final judgment of another crime embraced in the same title of the Revised Penal code)
Which is the rehabilitation component of the BuCor's present corrections system, shall
refer to the acts which ensure the public (including families of inmates and their victims)
that released national inmates are no longer
harmful to the community by becoming reformed individuals prepared to live a normal
and productive life upon reintegration to the mainstream society.
One form of punishment inflicted on prisoners, which simply involved carrying heavy
loads from one place to another and then returned to the same place over and over again
every day
Another method devise used to make the prisoner suffer where the prisoner is
continually made to continually climb stairs .Prisoners are made to climb this treadmill
continually during the day time with prisoner logging up to 14,ooo feet of stairs per day
or the equivalent of three to four stiff mountains climbed per day.

Is that branch of the administration of the criminal justice charged with the
responsibility for the custody, supervision and rehabilitation of the convicted offenders?
is the study of jail/prison management and administration as well as rehabilitation and
reformation of prisoners.
Penology –
From the Greek words “Poine” which means Punishment and “Logus” – course or
study of crime prevention, prison, reformatory management and correction of criminals.
A: The Classical School of Criminology
The classical theory came about as a direct result of two influences :
1. it came about as a protest against the abuses and discretionary power of judges
2. it was also influenced by the philosophical school of thought
It maintain the doctrine of psychological hedonism and freewill .that individual
calculates the pleasures and pain in advance of action and regulates his conduct by the
result of his calculation
Cesare Beccaria (Cesare Bonesara Marchese de Beccaria) with Jeremy Bentham
(1823) who proposed “Utilitarian
Hedonism”, the theory, which explains that a person always acts in such a way as to seek
pleasure and avoid pain, became the main advocates of the Classical School of
Cesare Beccaria
In his “book , Crimes and Punishment”, he presented his key ideas on the abolition of
torture as a legitimate means of extracting confessions. He holds that justice consists of
equal treatment of all criminals for like offenses. Whereas the court of the day were
dealing unequally with criminals according to their rank and influence .Becaria would
have the legislature ,not the court determine the exact punishment appropriate to each
crime .no discretion would be left to the judge.

Freewill (Beccaria) –
a philosophy advocating punishment severe enough for people to choose, to
avoid criminal acts
Bentham of England
Another exponent of classical school also holds that society must reward those who
accept responsibility and punish those who do not. Thus bringing pleasure and pain into
service of society.
Hedonism (Bentham) –
The belief that people choose pleasure and avoid pain.
B: The Neo-Classical School of Criminology
The criticisms against the classical school led to the foundation of the Neo-classical
school of criminology. Under the neo-classical doctrine, there are situations or
circumstances that made it impossible to exercise freewill are reasons to exempt the
accused from conviction.
The Neoclassical school does not represent any break with the classical view of human
nature. It merely challenges the classical position of absolute freewill. Because of this, it
led also to the proposition that while the classical doctrine is correct in general, it should
be modified in certain details:
That children and lunatics should not be regarded as criminals and free from
punishment. It must take into account certain mitigating circumstances.
The school that composed of Italians who agreed that in the study of crime the
emphasis should be on scientific treatment of the criminal, not on the penalties to be
imposed after conviction .It maintained that crime as any other act is a natural
phenomenon and is comparable to disaster or calamity. That crime as a social and
moral phenomenon which cannot be treated and checked by the imposition of
punishment but rather rehabilitation or the enforcement of individual measures.
The Positivist School of Criminology rejected the Classical School's idea that all crime
resulted from a choice that could potentially be made anyone. Though they did not
disagree with the Classical School that most crime could be explained through "human
nature," they argued that the most serious crimes were committed by individuals who
were "primitive" or "atavistic"--that is, who
failed to evolve to a fully human and civilized state. Crime therefore resulted not from
what criminals had in common with others in society, but from their distinctive physical
or mental defects.
1) Lambroso- – The Italian leader of the positivist school of criminology, was criticized
for his methodology and his attention to the biological characteristics of offenders, but
his emphasis on the need to study offenders scientifically earned him the “father of
modern criminology.”
The criminal in relation to Anthropology, jurisprudence and psychiatry.
Lambroso in his book, sought to explain crime in terms of physical makeup of the
In studying the insane the patient, and not the deceased, should be the object of
a) Born criminals- there are born criminals according to Lombroso, the belief that being
criminal behavior is inherited.
b) Insane criminals- idiot, imbeciles, dementia, paralysis Pelegna, etc.
c) Criminaloids- Not born with physical stigma but who are of such mental
makeup that display anti-social conduct
2) Ferri- Enrico Ferri was born in Italy in 1856 ferri advocated the theory of
imputability and the Denial of freewill in 1878 Ferri contributed to the emphasis of the
social factors such as.
a) Physical factors- , including geographical, climate,temperature.
b) The anthropological factors including psychological
c) The social factors , including economics and political factors as well as age ,sex
education requirement
3) Garofalo- He was born in Naples in 1852, from parents of Spanish origins Garofalo
thinks that crime can be understood only as it is studied by scientific method. The
criminal is not free moral agents but is product of his own traits and his circumstances.
This theory advocates the study of the criminal rather than the crime .This school is
interested primarily in the personality of the criminal himself in order to determine the
conditioning circumstances that explain his criminality and in order to obtain light upon
the problem of how he should be handled by the social group.
The function of correction serves to rehabilitate and neutralize the deviant behavior of
adult criminals and juvenile delinquents. This component of the criminal justice system
faces a three-side task in carrying out the punishment imposed on the convicted
offender by the court, to deter, to inflict retribution, and rehabilitate. The components of
the correction effectuate their functions through different programs, probation,
commitment to an institution, and parole. Prisons are a major stock in the moral order of
the society. They symbolize the ultimate instrument of punishment the state can wage
against those who renege on the social contract. Besides death, imprisonment remains
society’s most ominous response to the social disorder. Include among the purposes of
a civilized society are maintenance of law and order and control of violence. To
accomplish this purpose, deviant individuals are isolated.
Code of Hammurabi (1750 BC) - the first formal law dealing with the concept of justice
as Lex Taliones “An Eye for an Eye and a Tooth for a Tooth”.
Mosaic Law – allowed extreme punishments such as flogging or burning alive,
offenders are entitled to freedom from torture and admission of guilt is admissible only
when there is a confirmatory testimony from at least one witness.
King Ur-Nammu’s Code – decreed the imposition of restitution and fines of execution,
mutilation or other savage penalties. It holds the principle that offender can be punished
and victims can be paid by making the offender reimburse the value of whatever
damages as the result of crime. Nicodemeans Ethics – written in 400 BC first
publication that explains crime and corrective justice stating that “ Punishment is a
mean of restoring the balance between pleasure and pain”
509 BC – a law was passed prohibiting flogging or execution unless affirmed by the
Centuriate Assembly.
Underground cisterns – a form of prison used to detain offenders undergoing trial in
some cases and to hold sentences offenders where they were to be starved to death.
Ergastulum – Roman prison that was used to confine slaves where they were attached
to workbenches and forced to do hard labor in the period of their imprisonment.
Justinian Code – Roman Emperor Justin put this code into law in 529 AD and became
the standard law in all the areas occupied by the Roman Empire particularly Europe. This
code was a revision of the Twelve Tables of Roman Law that originated at bout 500 BC
stating every crime and penalties for every offense listed in the said table.
Burgundian Code – code that introduced the concept of restitution but punishment was
meted according to the social class of the offenders. Offender had to pay the specified
value in order not to undergo physical sufferings as penalty.
Pope Innocent VIII (1487) – issued Papal Bull that allowed refugee offenders to be 3
driven out of the sanctuary if they used this for committing crimes but half centuries
later, many sanctuaries closed and those still remaining have refused to accept
offenders of
serious crimes such as rape, murder and robbery.
Pope Leo I – 440AD was the first Pope to fully expressed approval for killing, otherwise
human and divine law would be subverted.
Priscilian – 385 AD the first recorded Christian who was put to death for being a heretic
(Unorthodox) but death as capital punishment was first used in 1022 in Orleans, France
when thirteen heretics were burned at the instigation of the church. Pope Innocent II tried
to wash his hands like a Pontius Pilate when it turned over heretics to the secular
authorities for proper punishment that included death.
Pope Gregory IX – through his Papal Encyclical “Encommunicamus” issued in 1231 that
made part of the Canon Law the burning of non-believers at the stake. He also initiated
the Inquisition that led to the burning of hundreds of heretics.
Pope Innocent IV – officially introduced torture to the Inquisition procedure in 1252.
Pope John Paul II – reversed the practice of death as form of punishment, Pro-Life Pope
in his Encyclical Tertio Millenio Adveniente, formally apologized to the past intolerance
and use of violence in the defense of truth and has challenged to break away from the
“culture of death”.
Gaols – other word for jails during early days, were hard for poor prisoners but not for
those who were wealthy. This was because prisoners had to pay for their
accommodations, food and cost of administration and security. Beddings,
blankets, lights and everything were sold or rented to prisoners at very high rates. The
jailer or gaoler was paid from payment of prisoners.
King Henry VII of England – he decreed corporal punishment for vagrants in 1531 and
penal slavery in 1547 to depend the interests of the still dominant landlord class.
Bridewell Institution in Bridewell, England – established during the reign of King Edward
VI, as a workhouse for vagabonds, idlers and rogues. The Bridewell was a reform of
some sort over the traditional, already unworkable system of punishment. Vagrants
and prostitute were given work while serving their sentence. After two centuries this
system lost its usefulness due to banishment of offenders to the colonies.
Lombroso, Beccaria and Betham – their efforts changes the prison system based on
solitary confinement and hard labor so that by 1779 a penitentiary act was passed that
mandated the establishment of prison system.
Norfolk Prison at Wymondham, England – after the Penitentiary Act of 1779 this prison
was opened.
National Penitentiary of Milkbank – followed in 1821.
Pentonville National Penitentiary – opened in 1842.
Alexander Solshenitsyn – a political prisoner who popularized banishment is the Gulag
Archipelago in a novel.
Penal Code of Russia (1845) – punishes offenders to hard labor of four years to life.
Fortunate prisoners sentenced to hard labor were destined to the factories or
construction of fortresses. Sentences to labor in the mines were the unluckiest of the
2 Distinct Benefits of Banishment
1. It allowed the transporting country to colonize distant lands such as Australia,
Canada, Africa and all other far-flung colonies.
2. It reduced number of criminals and the concomitant reduction of criminality in the
country of origin.
Aside from banishment and hard labor offenders were also sentenced to provide hard
labor for public works including the building of military fortifications and as a result of
these developments, Spaniards also built fortifications in the Philippines and that
Fort Santiago in Manila and Fort Del Pilar in Zamboanga.
Maine State Prison – underground facilities to incarcerate offenders contained cells in
the 4 pits similar to the underground cistern of long ago Rome that were used to detain
offenders undergoing trial in some cases and to hold sentenced offenders where they
will be starved to death. These pits were entered through an iron gate in the ceiling
during late 1828.
Connecticut State Prison – used a copper mine at Simsbury from 1773 to 1827 as
prison facilities wherein prisoners worked in the mines during the day and then their
ankles and necks were shackled during nighttime to prevent escape.
Sing Sing Prisons – became famous or rather infamous all over the world and was plot
of many movies filmed because of the Sing sing bath which was inflicted aside from
then floggings, denial of reading materials and solitary confinement. The shower bath
was a
gadget do constructed as to drop a volume of water on the head of a locked naked
offender. The force of the icy cold water hitting the head of the offenders caused so
much pain and extreme shock that prisoners immediately sank into come due to the
shock and hypothermia or sudden drop of the body temperature.
The Walnut Street Jail (1790)
Originally constructed as a detention jail in Philadelphia, it was converted into a state
prison and became the first American Penitentiary. It began the penitentiary system in
the United States when legislation was passed establishing the principle of solitary
confinement, strict discipline, productive work and segregation of the more dangerous
offenders. (1830) Jail Penitentiary: Concept
The term penitentiary came from the Latin word “Paenitentia” meaning penitence, and
was coined by an English prison reformer, John Howard. It referred to a place where
crime and sin may be stoned for and penitence produced. given the work. Silence was
also enforced. “Sentenced to Solitary Confinement at Hard Labor”
In Europe ,several penal administrators can be mentioned as among those who
contributed to progressive development of the reformatory system
1. Manuel Montesinos- director of the prison of Valencia ,Spain ,in 1835 ,divided
prisoners into companies and appointed prisoners as petty officers incharge. Academic
classes of one hour a day were given all inmates under 20 years of age.
2. Domet of France- established and agricultural colony for delinquents boys in 1839
.The boys were housed in cottages with house fathers as incharge. The system was
based on re education rather than force .when discharged the boys were placed under
3. Alexander Maconochie- Superintendent of the penal colony at Norfolk Island in
Australia ,introduced a progressive humane system to substitute for corporal
punishment. When a prisoner earned a required number of marks he was
given a ticket of leave ,which is the equivalent of parole . Maconochie introduced several
other progressive measures which aimed at rehabilitating prisoners He introduced fair
deciplinary trials ,but churches, distributed books, allowed plays to be staged ,and
permitted prisoners to tend small gardens .for his progressive administrations of
prisoners .Maconochie should be considered one of the fathers of modern penology.
4. Sir Walter Crofton- Chairman of the directors of Irish Prison .IN 1856, Crofton
introduced the Irish system ,latter called the progressive stage system .
a. The first stage of the Irish system was solitary confinement for nine months at a
certain prison .the prisoners at this stage were given reduced diet and allowed
monotonous work .the prisoner progress to a more interesting work,some education,and
better treatment toward the end of first stage.
b. The second stage was an assignment to the public works at Spike Island .the prisoner
worked his promotions through a series of grades according to a mark system ,and wore
a badge of distinction to show his status
c. In the third stage the prisoner was sent to lurk or Smithfield which was a sort of
preparation for release .here the prisoner work without custodial supervision and was
expose to ordinary temptation of freedom.
d. The final stage was the release on supervision under conditions equivalent to present
day parole.
5. In 1876, the New York state reformatory at Elmira opened with Z. R. Brockway
introduced in Elmira in Elmira a New institution program for boys from 16 to 30 years of
age .
the new prisoner was classified as second grade and was promoted to first grade after
six (6) months of good behavior Another six (6) months of good behavior in the first
grade qualified him for parole. If the prisoner committed a misconduct he was demoted
to third grade where he was required to show good conduct for one month before he
could be reclassified to second grade.
Elmira Reformatory
The Elmira Reformatory is considered as the forerunner of modern penology because
it had all the elements of a modern correctional system, among which were a training
school type, that is, compulsory education; case work method; and extensive use of
parole based on the indeterminate sentence. This was the first penal institution to
remodel its penal philosophy away from punitive and retributive practices and veered
them towards reformation and treatment.
Educational and vocational were imparted to the prisoner as a way to treat his lack of life
skills to survive according to the rules of ourside societ y. Parole also started in Elmira
Reformatory, after 12-month of good conduct prisoner, he was eligible for parole.
6. Sir Evelyn Ruggles Brise – was the Director of English Prisons who opened the
Borstal Institution after visiting Elmira Reformatory in 1897, such as Borstal Institutions
are today considered as the best reform institutions for young offenders. This system
was based entirelty on the individualized treatment.
7. John Howard – known as the Father of Penitentiary. Sheriff from Bedfordshire,
England who exercised the traditional but neglected responsibility of visiting the local
prisons and institutions. He was shocked by what he saw, especially when
he learned that the keepers were paid no regular salary but depended upon extracting a
living from the prisoners; secondly, that large number of persons who had been
discharged by the grand jury or acquitted at their trials were still detained owing to the
fact that they had been unable to pay their discharge fees. For every prison inspected, he
put into records important details heobserved, wrote and published a book that started
the interest of reformers in English society. Many of his landmark recommendations
were incorporated into the Penitentiary Act of 1779 and adopted as standard procedure
in the first modern prison constructed in 1785 on Norfolk, England. It was not until 1842
that Howard’s idea of penitentiary was given recognition.
1) William Penn- (1614-1718) Founder of the Quakers movement –great law of the
quaker – land labor is more effective punishment than death for serious offense. He
fought for religious freedom and individual rights. the first leader to prescribed
imprisonment as correctional treatment for major offenders.He is also responsible of
the abolition of the death penalty and torture as a form of
2) Isaac Newton – He published the book entitled principia in 1687. Wherein he
encourage intelectuals to investigate social and scientific phenomena methodically and
John Locke- wrote essay concerning human understanding and his treatise of
2. Charles Montesquieu-(1689- 1755) He published a book entitled spirit of the laws. A
French historian who analyzed law as an expression of justice. He believed that harsh
punishment would undermine morality and that appealing to moral sentiment as better
means of preventing crimes, confronted religion and historical role of the church in the
political arrangement of the society.
3. Voltaire(Francis Marie Arquuet) 1694 -1778) He believes that shame was deterrent to
a crime , fought the legality –sanctioned practice of torture and was the most versatile
philosopher during this period.
4. Cesare Bonesa ,Marqueuise De Becarria (1734 1794) - He wrote an essay entitled “ an
essay on crimes and punishment”,which become the most exiting on law during this
century. And presented the humanistic goal of law
5. St Michael – emphasized the rehabilitate concept and pioneered the segregations of
prisoners and forced silence to make the prisoner contemplate their wrong doings. The
conviction are chained in one foot and observing strict rule of silence they listened to
religious brothers giving religious teaching .many of the practices pioneered in ST
Michael were later To be adopted in the United states in what in what Is now to be known
as the AUborn system of imprisonment.
6. Henry V111 –He alone who put to death the 72.000 citizens by means of boiling to
death as a means of executing convicted offenders
7. Clifford Shaw- conducted a research on 100.000 identified school truants, juvenile in
conflict with the law and adult offenders from Chicago school.
1. Retaliation (Personal vengeance) the earliest remedy for wrong act to anyone the
concept of personal vengeance by the victim ‘s family or the tribe against the family or
tribe of the offender Hence blood feuds was accepted in the early primitive’s society
2. Fines and punishment- Custom have exerted effort and great force among primitive
societies ,the acceptance of vengeance in the form of payment (cattle,food,personal
services)as dictated by tribal traditions
3. Punishment is the redress that the state takes against the offending members.


1. Hard labor- productive work
2. Deprivation –deprivation of everything except the essential existence.
3. Monotony- giving the same food that is off diet ,or requiring the prisoners to perform
drab or boring daily routine.
4. Uniformity –treats prisoner alike “the fault of one is the fault of all’
5. Mass movement –mass living in cellblocks ,mass eating ,mass recreation mass
6. Degredation- uttering insulting words or language on the part of the prison staff for the
prisoners to degrade break the confidence of the prisoners
7. Corporal punishment -imposing brutal punishment or employing physical torture to
intimidate a delinquent inmate
8. Isolation or solitary confinement- the lone wolf- non communication limited news


The period from 1870 to 1880 was called the Golden Age of Modern Penology because
of the following significat event
1) In 1870, the National Prison association ,now American correctional association ,was
organized and its first annual congress was held in Cincinati Ohio .in this congress the
association adopted a declaration of principles so modern and comprehensive in scope
that when it was revised in the prison congress in 1933 .few amendments were made
.since its founding the association has held annual congress of corrections and has
taken active leadership in reform movements in the filed of crime prevention and
treatment of offenders
2) In 1872,the first international prison congress was held in London. It was attended by
representatives of the Government of the United states and European countries as a
result of this congress ,the International Penal and Penitentiary commission ,an
international Government organization was established in 1875 with Headquarters at
Hague .the IPPC held international
congress every five years in 1950 the IPPC was dissolved and its function were
transferred to the social defense section of United Nations
3) the Elmira Reformatory ,which was considered as the for runner of modern penology
,was opened in Elmira ,New York in 1876.the features of Elmira were training school
type of institutional program ,social case work in the Institution and extensive use of
4) The first separate institution for women were established in Indiana Massachusetts