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Biodiesel

:
Methods and energy processing
Daniel Geller – UGA Engineering Outreach
http://www.engr.uga.edu/service/outreach

Biodiesel – an established technology

• Studied since 1980s – solved issue of oil viscosity
reduction in oils.
• Established production methods and
standardization ASTM D 6751 (2001).

Biodiesel is made by the Difficult transesterification of vegetable oils O O C R1 and OILS C OFATS Me O C R C OH BIODIESEL 1 O catalyst O + + KOH C O C R2 + 3MeOH Me O C R2 + C OH ALCOHOL GLYCEROL O O C O C R3 Me O C R3 C OH Triglyceride Methanol Methyl Ester Glycerol (fats and oils) (alcohol) (Biodiesel) . Biodiesel Production Simple to make right .

bottom settle. Biodiesel Production Simple to make Tank 1 mix Tank 2 add Allow tank to Tank 3 wash alcohol and tank 1 settle. decant Mix and heat glycerol layer bottom water layer .repeat . decant with water catalyst mixture to oil.

difficult to make right Reversible? SOAP? How Much? How Long? Centrifuge? How Many Tank 1 mix Tank 2 add Allow tank to Tank 3 wash Times? alcohol and tank 1 settle.repeat How Fast? How Hot? How Long? Adsorbent? . bottom settle. Biodiesel Production Simple to make. decant Mix and heat glycerol layer bottom water How Much? layer . decant with water catalyst mixture to oil.

Petroleum vs. Soybean Oil 2007-2008 Soybean Oil Price 3X Petroleum Price 2X .

Used oils = Low Quality Oils Used oils have been exposed to degrading conditions ƒ Contaminants ƒ Water ƒ Heat Cycling Such conditions result in low quality oils ƒ Contamination ƒ Increased water content ƒ Increased free fatty acid content .

pre-treatment. ƒ Feedstock can be 70-85% of ƒ Can be >2X cost of normal production cost. expensive clean-up and virgin oils. Used vs. renderers. conversion ƒ Can collect small amounts ƒ Competition from local locally at low cost. systems ƒ Feedstock is less ƒ Feedstock requires expensive than refined. Virgin Oil Used oil advantages Used oil disadvantages ƒ Technology exists to ƒ Capital costs can be convert low quality oils to around 2X cost of virgin oil some extent. .

conversion. utilization . Viable Systems Municipal Production ƒ Municipal oil collection combined with on-site production of biodiesel from used oil ƒ Reduces incidence of sanitary sewer overflows (SSO) ƒ Example: Hoover. AL On-site Food Processing Facility Production ƒ Food processing operations can collect oil before it has been degraded or sold to renderer ƒ On-site collection.

85 50 5.14 0.doe.edu/reports/nassr/field/pcp-bban/cropan05.cornell.gov) .eia.Energy Information Administration (http://www. Possible Oilseed Oil Production 350 317.txt) DOE .81 300 Billion Gallons per Year 250 200 150 100 63.mannlib. US Petroleum Consumption vs.29 0 Petroleum Diesel Possible Soybean Possible Peanut Consumption Consumption Oil Production Oil Production Data from: USDA (http://usda.

Other Possible Feedstocks Tropical: Southeast: • Palm • Poultry Fat • Jatropha • Peanuts Emerging: • Oilseed Radish • Sunflower Unique: • Mustard • Cupeha • Camelina • Castor .

Potential • High oil yield potential • Over 50% oil by mass • Predicted oil yields of 5000-20000 gal/acre • Soy only 50-100 gal/acre • Photosynthetic: Only needs light and CO2 for oil production .Algae .

Algae – Obstacles: Growth • Must stress algae for max oil output • Limitations in space/light/doubling time • 1000s of species: Optimum oil producers are not always optimal for growth .

complicates oil extraction • Traditional extraction methods do not work .Algae – Obstacles: Extraction • Unique Cell Wall – must be disrupted • Immersion in water.

Algae – Obstacles: Conversion • Secondary metabolites from stressed growth inhibit transesterification • Oil soluble proteins precipitate with addition of MeOH .

Oilseed Radish (Raphinus sativus) – Cool season cover crop – Traditionally used to protect and enhance soil – Low-input crop. drought/disease resistant – Normally plowed under at the end of cool season with no seed collection .

Oilseed Radish Renewable feedstock potential 9Very low input: high oil yield/dollar ratio 9Replaces Carbon in Soil 9Biodiesel has + energy balance 9Grown on marginal land 9Non-food crop .

not primary cash crop . Oilseed Radish Other Benefits 9Agronomic Benefits ƒ Pathogen Control ƒ Erosion Control 9Economic Enhancement ƒ Possibility to get two crops/year in GA plus primary cash crop ƒ Secondary income source.

Oilseed Radish: State of Research – Seed has been obtained and crushed using inexpensive extruder – Cold crush yielded 30% oil without solvent – Oil fuel properties analyzed – Oil converted to Biodiesel – Meal evaluated as animal feed .

– Current stands thriving with only fertilizer+seed+labor inputs – Added economic benefits: nematode control. Oilseed Radish: Economics – Currently growing oilseed radish in Dawson. nitrogen scavenging – Non-edible oil (high erucic acid) may keep oil out of commodity markets . GA. erosion control.

12/lb – 2003: UGA researchers examine fuel properties of poultry fat – Poultry fat developed as boiler fuel at UGA – US Biofuels in Rome. GA successfully utilizes poultry fat as Biodiesel feedstock . value of poultry fat is quite low ~$. Poultry Fat – Southeast is large producer of poultry – Historically.

Poultry Fat - Sustainability 9By-product • reduced cost • land use = N/A • Low quality oils ≠ Food 9Energy Balance = ? 9Carbon Balance = ? .

Research – Development of simple screening methods for the identification of potential fuel feedstock streams – Development of advanced mechanical methods for the recovery of fats from waste streams – Use of recovered waste streams as boiler fuel and Biodiesel feedstocks .Poultry Fat .

Poultry Fat .Research – Development of multi-phase processing techniques to treat high FFA materials (in conjunction with GA Tech) – Development of solid state acidic and basic catalyst systems to develop semi- continuous conversion system .

Expansion to Food Processing Industry – Methods developed for poultry industry can be applied to any producer of waste fats and greases – Current screening of multiple food processing facility waste streams in Georgia – Development of the Georgia Biofuel feedstock database .

) – Capture of waste streams proving to be relatively easy as in house aggregation is common . Expansion to Food Processing Industry – Food processing streams reveal relatively high quality oil streams going to by- products (pet food. etc.

Propylene Glycol . Glycerine – Potential Uses • Animal Feed • Boiler Fuel • Feedstock for chemical Production .

uga.uga.edu http://www. Daniel Geller dgeller@engr.engr.edu/service/outreach .