Biodiesel: Methods and energy processing

Daniel Geller – UGA Engineering Outreach http://www.engr.uga.edu/service/outreach

Biodiesel – an established technology

• Studied since 1980s – solved issue of oil viscosity reduction in oils. • Established production methods and standardization ASTM D 6751 (2001).

Biodiesel is made by the transesterification of vegetable oils O C R1 C OFATS and OILS O + C O C R2 + 3MeOH ALCOHOL O C O C R3 Triglyceride (fats and oils) O Me O C R1 C OH BIODIESEL catalyst O + KOH Me O C R2 + C OH GLYCEROL O Me O C R3 C OH Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) Methanol (alcohol) Glycerol .Biodiesel Production Simple Difficult to make right .

Biodiesel Production Simple to make Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. decant bottom water layer . decant bottom glycerol layer Tank 3 wash with water settle. Mix and heat Allow tank to settle.repeat .

decant bottom water layer .Biodiesel Production Simple to make. decant bottom glycerol layer How Long? How Many Tank 3 wash Times? with water settle.repeat Adsorbent? How Much? How Fast? How Hot? . Mix and heat Centrifuge? Allow tank to settle. difficult to make right Reversible? SOAP? How Much? How Long? Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil.

Petroleum vs. Soybean Oil 2007-2008 Soybean Oil Price 3X Petroleum Price 2X .

Used oils = Low Quality Oils Used oils have been exposed to degrading conditions Contaminants Water Heat Cycling Such conditions result in low quality oils Contamination Increased water content Increased free fatty acid content .

Can be >2X cost of normal conversion Can collect small amounts locally at low cost.Used vs. virgin oils. Competition from local renderers. Feedstock is less expensive than refined. Feedstock can be 70-85% of production cost. Used oil disadvantages Capital costs can be around 2X cost of virgin oil systems Feedstock requires expensive clean-up and pre-treatment. Virgin Oil Used oil advantages Technology exists to convert low quality oils to some extent. .

conversion. AL On-site Food Processing Facility Production Food processing operations can collect oil before it has been degraded or sold to renderer On-site collection. utilization .Viable Systems Municipal Production Municipal oil collection combined with on-site production of biodiesel from used oil Reduces incidence of sanitary sewer overflows (SSO) Example: Hoover.

85 0 Petroleum Diesel Possible Soybean Possible Peanut Consumption Consumption Oil Production Oil Production Data from: USDA (http://usda. Possible Oilseed Oil Production 350 317.txt) DOE .mannlib.14 0.29 63.US Petroleum Consumption vs.doe.81 Billion Gallons per Year 300 250 200 150 100 50 5.Energy Information Administration (http://www.eia.edu/reports/nassr/field/pcp-bban/cropan05.gov) .cornell.

Other Possible Feedstocks Tropical: • Palm • Jatropha Emerging: • Sunflower • Mustard • Camelina Southeast: • Poultry Fat • Peanuts • Oilseed Radish Unique: • Cupeha • Castor .

Potential • • • • • High oil yield potential Over 50% oil by mass Predicted oil yields of 5000-20000 gal/acre Soy only 50-100 gal/acre Photosynthetic: Only needs light and CO2 for oil production .Algae .

Algae – Obstacles: Growth • • Must stress algae for max oil output Limitations in space/light/doubling time 1000s of species: Optimum oil producers are not always optimal for growth • .

Algae – Obstacles: Extraction • • Unique Cell Wall – must be disrupted Immersion in water. complicates oil extraction Traditional extraction methods do not work • .

Algae – Obstacles: Conversion • Secondary metabolites from stressed growth inhibit transesterification Oil soluble proteins precipitate with addition of MeOH • .

drought/disease resistant – Normally plowed under at the end of cool season with no seed collection Oilseed Radish .(Raphinus sativus) – Cool season cover crop – Traditionally used to protect and enhance soil – Low-input crop.

Oilseed Radish Renewable feedstock potential Very low input: high oil yield/dollar ratio Replaces Carbon in Soil Biodiesel has + energy balance Grown on marginal land Non-food crop .

not primary cash crop .Oilseed Radish Other Benefits Agronomic Benefits Pathogen Control Erosion Control Economic Enhancement Possibility to get two crops/year in GA plus primary cash crop Secondary income source.

Oilseed Radish: State of Research – Seed has been obtained and crushed using inexpensive extruder – Cold crush yielded 30% oil without solvent – Oil fuel properties analyzed – Oil converted to Biodiesel – Meal evaluated as animal feed .

erosion control.Oilseed Radish: Economics – Currently growing oilseed radish in Dawson. – Current stands thriving with only fertilizer+seed+labor inputs – Added economic benefits: nematode control. nitrogen scavenging – Non-edible oil (high erucic acid) may keep oil out of commodity markets . GA.

GA successfully utilizes poultry fat as Biodiesel feedstock . value of poultry fat is quite low ~$.Poultry Fat – Southeast is large producer of poultry – Historically.12/lb – 2003: UGA researchers examine fuel properties of poultry fat – Poultry fat developed as boiler fuel at UGA – US Biofuels in Rome.

Poultry Fat Sustainability By-product • reduced cost • land use = N/A • Low quality oils ≠ Food Energy Balance = ? Carbon Balance = ? .

Poultry Fat .Research – Development of simple screening methods for the identification of potential fuel feedstock streams – Development of advanced mechanical methods for the recovery of fats from waste streams – Use of recovered waste streams as boiler fuel and Biodiesel feedstocks .

Research – Development of multi-phase processing techniques to treat high FFA materials (in conjunction with GA Tech) – Development of solid state acidic and basic catalyst systems to develop semicontinuous conversion system .Poultry Fat .

Expansion to Food Processing Industry – Methods developed for poultry industry can be applied to any producer of waste fats and greases – Current screening of multiple food processing facility waste streams in Georgia – Development of the Georgia Biofuel feedstock database .

Expansion to Food Processing Industry – Food processing streams reveal relatively high quality oil streams going to byproducts (pet food.) – Capture of waste streams proving to be relatively easy as in house aggregation is common . etc.

Glycerine – Potential Uses • Animal Feed • Boiler Fuel • Feedstock for chemical Production .Propylene Glycol .

Daniel Geller dgeller@engr.engr.uga.uga.edu http://www.edu/service/outreach .