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0 Introduction

Adult learning is the practice of teaching and educating adults. Adult education takes

place in the workplace, through 'extension' or 'continuing education' courses at secondary

schools, or at colleges or universities. Other learning places include folk high schools,

community colleges, and lifelong learning centers. The practice is also often referred to as

'Training and Development'and is often associate with workforce or professional

development. It has also been referred to as andragogy (to distinguish it from pedagogy).

Adult education is different from vocational education, which is mostly workplace-based for

skill improvement; and also from non-formal adult education, including learning skills or

learning for personal development. The factors to be considered during drafting the

curriculum for the adult learners as a definition of learning goals that is broad enough to

include the aspirations of the enormous diversity of potential learners implied by the idea of

adult education. It is also to consider about the framework that is flexible enough to

encourage learning in a wide variety of sites, both formal and informal. Creative approaches

are needed, given the fact that a typical formal education arrangement will not fit. Multiple

mechanisms and approaches are needed, although formal education methods, techniques

and materials can be drawn upon. An integrated approach for determining objectives and

competencies to be achieved, delivery of instruction, materials development and assessment

for each of the major categories of learning domains have to be developed. On the whole, a

much higher level of resources has to be devoted to this purpose.

2.0 The Curriculum

Learning is a life-long personal process. Individuals engage in learning

experiences, both formal and informal, in different ways and for different purposes

throughout their lives. Therefore, it seems relevant to distinguish adults from other learners.

Adults have unique characteristics which must be taken into account as one engages in the

design, implementation, evaluation and follow-up and follow-on of on job training and

education efforts. The design of OJT education programme using well-defined learning

modules might assure flexibility and provide a means for responding to the experienced

facilitator needs, which may skip familiar information and devote more time to new areas or

areas of specific interest. The programmes that considered suitable to enhance participants

knowledge and encourage them to maintain an adult continuous education programme, the

below curriculum should be considered;

(1) Participants to identify the competencies which they need to develop or improve so

that they may select the most appropriate resources and learning activities. It is

needed to provide multiple options to the subjects offered. The subjects especially

which related to Logistics Management, Warehousing Handling Procedures, LMW

(Licence Manufacturing Warehouse) Concepts, Introduction to Management,

Microsoft Office, Negotiation Skill, Communication Skill, Business Planning, and so

on to be provided.

It is also suggested to include practical training for certain subject which is directly

used some technological material or common material. The computers should be

provided upon Microsoft Office classes. This will enhance participants

understanding and attract them to join the course until complete.

(2) The presentation of content should be through a computer package such as power

point presentation, an interactive video system or other less sophisticated method

such as reading or attending a seminar. The learning contexts must be wider and

the presentation should be in attractive and technological approach.

(3) Participants are provided with a list of relevant materials from which they may

select one or two resources in order to expand content presented to verify some

information or to analyse the content from different perspectives. The participants

have to sources for further investigation. They need to read more based on their

interest area.

(4) Provides participants with a set of reflective questions for the purpose of guiding

concentration on specific critical characteristics, concepts and generalizations of the

specific content. This is to guide for individual study.

The learners than can stimulate learning progressive through multiple relevant

questions provided to them.

(5) Provides suggestions of activities to be carried out by a group of participants

interested in sharing information, experiences and materials for some topic of

common interest like logistics most common practice. In addition, it may foster

human interaction so that trainers can develop interpersonal skills and become

aware of their own emotional reactions. Furthermore, participants may be

provided with support groups of fellow learners, more experienced learners and

supportive colleagues. Sometimes group discussion or group project will benefits

adult learners during information sharing and group interaction.

(6) Provide a comprehensive guide which will lead participants in the designing and

execution of projects or activities which can illustrate their ability to apply the

specific content of a learning module. The participants then to explore the research

regarding their field of interest then to present in front of the other participants by


(7) Provides participants with an opportunity to evaluate each module. The purpose is

to rate the effectiveness of all components in every individualized learning module.

By evaluating each module, the summary of the data can be utilising for next batch

or next generation programme structure. This will empower the curriculum year by


3.0 Learning Strategies

Educators must remember that learning occurs within each individual as a

continual process throughout life. People learn at different speeds, so it is natural for

them to be anxious or nervous when faced with a learning situation. Positive

reinforcement by the educators can enhance learning, as can proper timing of the


Learning results from stimulation of the senses. In some people, one sense is

used more than others to learn or recall information. Instructors should present

materials that stimulates as many senses as possible in order to increase their chances

of teaching success. The role of adult educator is different from that of other educators

or teachers. They become "facilitators" of learning and they are expected to guide the

learning process and to provide support, alternative modes of learning and resources,

rather than to teach the content of the programme. Instructors suppose to act as

resource persons who use questions to help the learners answer their questions. In

addition, process becomes a central concern when programme design approaches are

considered, as opposed to content. Therefore, the goals of a programme design based

on andragogical principles should be to provide an environment where participants take

control of their learning process. Another thing to consider is to provide a wide range of

resources to facilitate the individual learning process. It is also important to encourage

the development of proposal, independence and risk-taking in seeking learning

opportunities; achieve individually set goals, relevant to their own learning needs or the

needs perceived as important in the system or institution

4.0 Conclusion

Most principles of andragogy emphasize that those interested in responding to adult

learning needs should consider the participant experiences, readiness, direction and

motivation as the principle role of the educator, the role of the learner, and the design used
for on the job training programmes. Therefore it seems appropriate to define on the job

training programme before presenting a rationale for a differentiated approach.

Consequently, the facilitators are expected to act as resource people who lead participants

through the process as well as provide them with support and resources. Communication

with facilitator should frequent, throughout the total programme or as needed by those