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A number system is a set of numbers, (in the broadest sense of the word), togeth
er with one or more operations, such as addition or multiplication.
Examples of number systems include: natural numbers, integers, rational numbers,
irrational numbers, real numbers, complex numbers.
All numbers are either real or complex numbers. The real numbers can be either r
ational or irrational numbers.
Natural Numbers
The natural numbers start off as follows: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ... The "..." means
that the list goes on forever. We give this set the name N.
If a number is in N, then its successor is also in N. Thus, there is no greatest
number, because we can always add one to get a larger one. N is an infinite set
. Since it is infinite, N can never be exhausted by removing its members one at
a time.
Whole Numbers
If we include 0 among the natural numbers then the numbers 0,1,2,3,4,5 .........
.. are called whole numbers.
The set of whole numbers can be represented by W = {0,1,2,3,4,5, ........... .}
Clearly, every natural number is a whole number but 0 is a whole number which i
s not a natural number
All counting numbers and their negatives including zero are known as integers. T
he set of integers can be represented by z or I = {.........-4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,
4..}. Every natural number is an integer but not every integer is natural number
Positive Integers
The set I + = {1,2,3,4........} is the set of all positive integers. Positive in
tegers and natural numbers are synonyms.
Negative Integers
The set I - = {-1,-2,-3,.......} is the set of all negative integers 0 is neithe
r positive nor negative.
Non Negative Integers
The set {0,1,2,3........} is the set of all non negative integers.
Even and Odd
The terms even and odd only apply to integers. A number is said to be an even nu
mber if it is divisible by 2 or else it is an odd number.
Even numbers are: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. . . . .40, 42, 44,. . . 312, 314, .... 1008,10
10, . . . .686860....
Odd numbers are: . . 5, 7, 9. . . . .41, 43, 45,. . . 311, 313, .... 1007,1009,
. . . .686861....
2.5 is neither even nor odd.
Zero, on the other hand, is even since it is 2 times some integer: it's 2 times
0. To check whether a number is odd, see whether it's one more than some even nu
mber: 7 is odd since it's one more than 6, which is even. Another way to say thi
s is that zero is even since it can be written in the form 2*n, where n is an in
teger.Odd numbers can be written in the form 2*n + 1.
Negative numbers are even and odd: -9 is odd since it's one more than -10, which
is even.
Every positive integer can be factored into the product of prime numbers, and th
ere's only one way to do it for every number . For instance, 280 = 2x2x2x5x7, an
d there's only one way to factor 280 into prime numbers
Rational Number
A rational number is a number that can be expressed as a fraction p/q where p an
d q are integers and q ≠ 0 i.e Rational numbers are simply defined as ratios of in
tegers. 1/2 is a rational number. 2/3 is also a rational number.
Note that all Of the integers are rational numbers, because you can think of the
m as the ratio of themselves to 1, as in 2 = 2/1 which is certainly the ratio of
two integers, and so 2 is a rational number. The decimal form of a rational num
ber is either a terminating or repeating decimal.
Irrational Numbers
An irrational number is any real number that is not a rational number i.e., one
that cannot be written as a ratio of two integers, i.e., it is not of the form a
/b where a and b are integers and b is not zero.
It can readily be shown that the irrational numbers are precisely those numbers
whose expansion in any given base (decimal, binary, etc) never ends and never en
ters a periodic pattern.
The square root of 2 is a classic example of an irrational number: you cannot wr
ite it as the ratio of ANY two integers.
Prime Numbers
A natural number greater than 1 that has no divisor between 1 and itself is said
to be prime, hence called a prime number or simply a prime. Every natural numbe
r greater than 1 has at least the two distinct divisors 1 and itself; a prime ha
s no others.
Prime Factors
Suppose n is a natural number. Then there exists a unique sequence of prime numb
ers p1, p2, p3, . . . , pm, such that both of the following statements are true
p1 ≤ p2 ≤ p3 ≤ . . . ≤ pm
p1 x p2 x p3 . . . x pm
The numbers p1, p2, p3, . . . , pm are called the prime factors of the natural n
Every natural number n has one, but only one, set of prime factors. This is an i
mportant principle known as the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.
Number of Prime Factors
A number N of the form am x bn x cp where a, b, c are all prime factors of numb
er N has (m + 1)(n + 1)(p + 1)no. of prime factors
Composite Numbers
Natural numbers greater than 1 which are not prime, are known as composite numbe
rs The number 1 is neither prime number nor composite number Two numbers which h
ave only '1' the common factor are called co-primes (or) relatively prime to eac
h other e.g. 3 and 5 are co primes
Discuss and post solution
1. If a number 774958A96B is to be divisible by 8 and 9, the values of A and B,
respectively, will be?
2. The number of positive integers not greater than 100, which are not divisible
by 2, 3 or 5 is ?
3. The solution set (x, y) for the system of equations log2 xy = 5 and log1/2 (x
/y) = 1, is
4. Find the remainder when 51138 is divided by 7.
5. The highest power of 2 in 10! + 11! + 12! + 13! + ...+ 1000! is ?
6. If ‘x’ is an odd number, what will be the remainder if x3– x + 1 is divided by 24?
7. How many consecutive zeros would be there at the end of 626! - 625!?
8. A certain number when divided by 899 leaves the remainder 63. Find the remain
der when the same number is divided by 29.
9. Five digit numbers are formed using only 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 exactly once. What is
the difference between the maximum and minimum number that can be formed?
10. If p is any three digit number and q is any number obtained with any type of
permutations of the digits of p, then p – q is always divisible by?

Arithmetic Mean
Arithmetic mean is commonly called as average.Mean or Average is defined as the
sum of all the given elements divided by the total number of elements.
Mean = sum of elements / number of elements
= a1+a2+a3+.....+an/n
Example: To find the mean of 3,5,7.
Step 1: Find the sum of the numbers.
3+5+7 = 15
Step 2: Calculate the total number.
there are 3 numbers.
Step 3: Finding mean.
15/3 = 5
Arithmetic Median
Median is the middle value of the given numbers or distribution in their ascendi
ng order.Median is the average value of the two middle elements when the size of
the distribution is even.
Example 1: To find the median of 4,5,7,2,1 [ODD].
Step 1: Count the total numbers given.
There are 5 elements or numbers in the distribution.
Step 2: Arrange the numbers in ascending order.
Step 3: The total elements in the distribution (5) is odd.
The middle position can be calculated using the formula. (n+1)/2
So the middle position is (5+1)/2 = 6/2 = 3
The number at 3rd position is = Median = 4
Example 2: To find the median of 4,5,7,2,1,8 [Even]
Step 1: Count the total numbers given.
There are 6 elements or numbers in the distribution.
Step 2: Arrange the numbers in ascending order.
Step 3: The total elements in the distribution (6) is even.
As the total is even, we have to take average of number at n/2 and (n/
So the position are n/2= 6/2 = 3 and 4
The number at 3rd and 4th position are 4,5
Step 4: Find the median.
The average is (4+5)/2 = Median = 4.5
Arithmetic Mode
Mode is the most frequently occurring value in a frequency distribution.
Example: To find the mode of 11,3,5,11,7,3,11
Step 1:Arrange the numbers in ascending order.
Step 2:
In the above distribution
Number 11 occurs 3 times,
Number 3 occurs 2 times,
Number 5 occurs 1 times,
Number 7 occurs 1 times.
So the number with most occurrances is 11 and is the Mode of this dist
Mode = 11
Range is the difference between the highest and the lowest values in a freq
uency distribution.

Example: To find the range in 3,5,7,3,11

Step 1: Arrange the numbers in ascending order.
Step 2:
In the above distribution
The largest number is 11
The smallest value is 3
Formula = largest number - smallest number
Range = 11-3 = 8

Percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fraction of 100 (per cent meanin
g "per hundred"). It is often denoted using the percent sign, "%". For example,
45% (read as "forty-five percent") is equal to 45 / 100, or 0.45.
Percentages are correctly used to express fractions of the total. For example, 2
5% means 25 / 100, or one quarter, of some total.
The fundamental concept to remember when performing calculations with percentage
s is that the percent symbol can be treated as being equivalent to the pure numb
er constant 1 / 100 = 0.01. , for an example 35% of 300 can be written as (35 /
100) × 300 = 105.
To find the percentage of a single unit in a whole of N units, divide 100% by N.
For instance, if you have 1250 apples, and you want to find out what percentage
of these 1250 apples a single apple represents, 100% / 1250 = (100 / 1250)% pro
vides the answer of 0.08%.
To calculate a percentage of a percentage, convert both percentages to fractions
of 100, or to decimals, and multiply them. For example, 50% of 40% is:
(50 / 100) × (40 / 100) = 0.50 × 0.40 = 0.20 = 20 / 100 = 20%.
It is not correct to divide by 100 and use the percent sign at the same time. (E
.g. 25% = 25 / 100 = 0.25, not 25% / 100, which actually is (25 / 100) / 100 = 0
Percent of change (percent of increase or percent of decrease) can be calculated
using the following formula:
Percentage of change = (Change in quantity/original quantity) * 100
1. What is 200% of 30?
Answer: 200% × 30 = (200 / 100) × 30 = 60.
2. 60% of all university students are male. There are 2400 male students. How ma
ny students are in the university?
Answer: 2400 = 60% × X, therefore X = (2400 / (60 / 100)) = 4000.
3. Denis s car insurance premium for last year was $1440. If she paid $1512 this
year, what is the percent of increase on her car insurance premium?
Answer:($1512-$1440)/$1440 — 100% = 72/1440 — 100% = 5% Hence, the percent of increa
se on the car insurance premium is 5%.
Discuss and post solution
1. The price of a Maruti car rises by 30% while the sales of the car came down b
y 20%. What is the percent change in the total revenue?
2. I bought 5 pens, 7 pencils and 4 erasers. Rajan bought 6 pens, 8 erasers and
14 pencils for an amount which was half more than what I had paid. What percent
of the total amount paid by me was paid for the pens?

[discuss in forum] [feedback]

A ratio is an expression that compares quantities relative to each other. The mo
st common examples involve two quantities, but any number of quantities can be c
ompared. Ratios are represented mathematically by separating each quantity with
a colon, for example the ratio 2:3, which is read as the ratio "two to three". T
he quantities separated by colons are sometimes called terms.
The quantities being compared in a ratio might be physical quantities such as sp
eed or temperature, or may simply refer to amounts of particular objects. A comm
on example of the latter case is the weight ratio of water to cement used in con
crete, which is commonly stated as 1:4. This means that the weight of cement use
d is four times the weight of water used. It does not say anything about the tot
al amounts of cement and water used, nor the amount of concrete being made.
A ratio of 2:3 means that the amount of the first quantity is 2/3 (two thirds) o
f the amount of the second quantity. If the ratio deals with objects or amounts
of objects, this is often expressed as "for every two parts of the first quantit
y there are three parts of the second quantity".
If the two or more ratio quantities encompass all of the quantities in a particu
lar situation, for example two apples and three oranges in a fruit basket contai
ning no other types of fruit, it could be said that "the whole" contains five pa
rts, made up of two parts apples and three parts oranges. In this case, 2/5, or
40% of the whole are apples and 3/5, or 60% of the whole are oranges. This compa
rison of a specific quantity to "the whole" is sometimes called a proportion. Pr
oportions are sometimes expressed as percentages.
Ration & Proportion Properties
1. Two quantities are said to be commensurable if their ratio can be expressed a
s the ratio of two integers.
e.g. ratio of 10 and 12 = 10/12 = 5/6 therefore they are commensurable
2. If a:b and c:d are two ratio then
a:b>c:d if ad>bc
a:b < c:d if ad < bc
a:b=c:d if ad=bc
3. A ratio a:b is of
i) greater inequality if a > b
ii) lesser inequality if a < b
iii) equality if a = b
4. i) Compounded ratios are formed if two or more ratios are multiplied term wis
e.g. 2:3 x 4:5 becomes 2x4 : 3x5 i.e. 8 : 15
ii) Duplicate ratio of a : b is a^2: b^2
iii) Triplicate ratio of a : b is a^3 : b^3
5. Invertendo
If a:b=c:d then b:a = d:c
a:b=c:d i.e. a/b = c/d
Dividing 1 by each of these ratios,
1/(a/b) = 1/(c/d) i.e. b/a = d/c or b:a = d:c
6. Alternendo
If a/b = c/d, multiplying both sides by b/c we get a/b x b/c = c/d x b/c
a/c = b/d or a:c = b:d
7. Componendo
If a:b = c:d then (a+b):b = (c+d):d
8. Dividendo
If a:b = c:d then (a-b):b = (c-d):d
9. Componendo and dividendo
If a:b = c:d then a+b:a-b::c+d:c-d
1. A petroleum distributor has two gasohol storage tanks, the first containing 9
percent alcohol and the second containing 12 percent alcohol. They receive an o
rder for 300,000 gallons of 10 percent alcohol. How can they mix alcohol from th
e two tanks to fill this order?
Let x = volume of type(1) 100-x = volume of type(2) in 100 gallons of mixture. T
hen 0.09x + 0.12(100-x) = 10 gallons -0.03x + 12 = 10 2 = 0.03x and so x = 66.66
67 gallons So we use 66+(2/3) gallons type (1) and 33+(1/3) gallons type (2) per
100 gallons of mixture. For 300,000 gallons, we multiply up by 3000 to get 200,
000 and 100,000 of type (1) and type (2) respectively.
2. Suppose 30 liters of a solution with an unknown percentage of alcohol is mixe
d with 5 liters of a 90% alcohol solution. If the resulting mixture is a 62% alc
ohol solution, what is the percentage of alcohol in the first solution?
Think of the amount of alcohol in each solution. In the first one, it is 30*(x/1
00) liters. In the second one, it is 5*(90/100). In the last one, it is 35*(62/1
00) (because the total amount of the mixture is 35 = 30 + 5 liters). When the fi
rst two solutions are mixed, the total amount of alcohol is the sum of the amoun
ts in the two ingredients, so you get an equation: 30*(x/100) + 5*(90/100) = 35*
Discuss and post solution
1. From a circular sheet of paper with a radius of 20 cm, four circles of radius
5cm each are cut out. What is the ratio of the uncut to the cut portion?
2. Two liquids A and B are in the ratio 5 : 1 in container 1 and in container 2,
they are in the ratio 1 : 3. In what ratio should the contents of the two conta
iners be mixed so as to obtain a mixture of A and B in the ratio 1 : 1?
3. The cost of a diamond varies directly as the square of its weight. Once, this
diamond broke into four pieces with weights in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4. When th
e pieces were sold, the merchant got Rs. 70,000 less. Find the original price of
the diamond.
4. In a locality, two-thirds of the people have cable-TV, one-fifth have VCR, an
d one-tenth have both, what is the fraction of people having either cable TV or
5. A can is full of paint. Out of this 5 litres are removed and thinning liquid
substituted. The process is repeated. Now the ratio of paint to thinner is 49 :1
5. What is the full capacity of the can?
6. The ratio of sum of squares of first n natural numbers with square of sum of
first n natural numbers is 17: 325. the value of n is
7. The value of each of a set of silver coins varies as the square of its diamet
er, if its thickness remains constant; and it varies as the thickness, if the di
ameter remains constant. If the diameters of two coins are in the ratio 4 : 3 wh
at should the ratio of their thickness be if the value of the first is 4 times t
hat of the second?

Cost Price (CP) : It is the amount spent in making the product and includes the
cost of raw material.
Sales Price (SP) : It is the price at which product is sold.
Profit : If the sales price is more than cost price than the difference is reali
zed as profit.
Loss : If the cost price is more than the sales price than the person makes a lo
Discount: Discount is the rebate offered on the selling price or marked price of
the product.
1. Profit = Sales price - Cost price
2. Loss = Cost price - Sales price
3. Profit percentage = (profit/cost price)* 100
4. Profit on selling price = (profit/sale price) * 100
5. Selling price = Marked price - Discount
1. A shopkeeper buys scientific calculators in bulk for $15 each. He sells them
for $40 each. Calculate the profit on each calculator in dollars, and as a perce
ntage of the cost price.
Given: cost price = $15, selling price = $40
profit = selling price - cost price
= $40 - $15
= $25
Expressing the profit as a percentage of the cost price:
profit% = ------------------------ × 100%
$cost price
= -------- × 100% = 166.7%
2. A school bookshop sells an outdated biology text book for $49.35, making a 6%
loss. What was the cost price of the book, and what is the cash value of the lo
Given: selling price = $49.35,
loss = 6% of cost price
but, (cost price) = (selling price) + loss
Expressing as percentages of the cost price:
(cost price) = (selling price) + loss
100% x% + 6%
This means that the selling price is (100-6) = 94% of the cost price.
selling price = -------- × (cost price)
cost price = -------- × (selling price)
= -------- × 49.35
= $52.50
So: loss = (cost price) - (selling price)
= $52.50 - $49.35
= $3.15
3. The usual price for an adult movie ticket at Big Screen Cinemas is $18. On T
uesdays they offer a 15% discount.
Calculate the cash value of the discount, and the cost of the tickets on Tuesday
Given: marked price = $18,
discount = 15% of marked price
= -------- × (marked price)
= -------- × $18
= $2.70
So: (selling price) = (marked price) - discount
= $18 - $2.70
= $15.30
On Tuesdays, the tickets cost $15.30
Discuss and post solution
1. Once I had been to the post-office to buy stamps of five rupees, two rupees a
nd one rupee. I paid the clerk Rs 20, and since he did not have change, he gave
me three more stamps of one rupee. If the number of stamps of each type that I h
ad ordered initially was more than one, what was the total number of stamps that
I bought?
2. I sold two watches for Rs. 300 each, one at a loss of 10% and the other at a
profit of 10%. What is the percent loss (- ) or the percent profit (+) that resu
lted from the transaction?
3. Instead of a metre scale, a cloth merchant uses a 120 cm scale while buying,
but uses an 80 cm scale while selling the same cloth. If he offers a discount of
20 percent on cash payment, what is his overall percent profit?
DIRECTIONS for Questions 4 and 5: Use the following information:
A watch dealer incurs an expense of Rs 150 for producing every watch. He also in
curs an additional expenditure of Rs. 30,000, which is independent of the number
of watches produced. If he is able to sell a watch during the season, he sells
it for Rs. 250. If he fails to do so, he has to sell each watch for Rs. 100.
4. If he is able to sell only 1200 out of the 1500 watches he has made in the se
ason, then he has made a profit of?
5. If he produces 1500 watches, what is the number of watches that he must sell
during the season in order to break even, given that he is able to sell all the
watches produced?

Mixture problems are word problems where items or quantities of different values
are mixed together.
Example: How many ounces of a solution i.e. 30% salt must be added to a 50-ounce
solution i.e. 10% salt so that the resulting sol is 20% salt.
Let x be the ounces of the 30 percent solution. Then 30%x is the amount of salt
in that solution. The final solution will be 50 + x ounces, and its concentratio
n of salt will be 20%(50 + x). The original amount of salt in the solution is 10
%(50). Now, the concentration of salt in the original solution plus the concentr
ation of salt in the added solution must equal the concentration of salt in the
resulting solution: 10%(50) + 30%x = 20%(50 + x). Multiply this equation by 100
to clear the percent symbol and then solving for x yields x = 50.
Alligation is an old and practical method of solving arithmetic problems related
to mixtures of ingredients. There are two types of alligation: alligation media
l, used to find the quantity of a mixture given the quantities of its ingredient
s, and alligation alternate, used to find the amount of each ingredient needed t
o make a mixture of a given quantity. Alligation medial is merely a matter of fi
nding a weighted mean. Alligation alternate is more complicated and involves org
anizing the ingredients into high and low pairs which are then traded off.
Alligation Medial
Suppose you make a cocktail drink combination out of 1/2 Coke, 1/4 Sprite, and 1
/4 orange soda. The Coke has 120 grams of sugar per liter, the Sprite has 100 gr
ams of sugar per liter, and the orange soda has 150 grams of sugar per liter. Ho
w much sugar does the drink have? This is an example of alligation medial becaus
e you want to find the amount of sugar in the mixture given the amounts of sugar
in its ingredients. The solution is just to find the weighted average by compos
1/2 x 120 + 1/4 x 100 + 1/4 x 150 = 122.5 grams per litre.
Alligation Alternate
Suppose you like 1% milk, but you have only 3% whole milk and ½% low fat milk. How
much of each should you mix together to make an 8 ounce cup of 1% milk? This is
an example of alligation alternate because you want to find the amount of two i
ngredients to mix together to form a mixture with a given amount of fat. Since t
here are only two ingredients, there is only one possible way to form a pair.
The difference of 3% from the desired 1%, 2%, is assigned to the low fat milk, a
nd the difference of ½% from the desired 1%, ½%, is assigned alternately to the whol
e milk. The total amount, 8 ounces, is then divided by the sum 2 + 1/2 = 5/2 to
yield 16/5, and the amounts of the two ingredients are
16/5 x 1/2 = 8/5 ounces whole milk and 16/5 x 2 = 32/5 ounces low fat milk.

Work Problems
1. If a person can do a piece of work in ‘m’ days, he can do 1/m of the work in 1 da
2. If the number of persons engaged to do a piece of work be increased (or decr
eased) in a certain ratio the time required to do the same work will be decrease
d (or increased) in the same ratio.
3. If A is twice as good a workman as B, then A will take half the time taken b
y B to do a certain piece of work.
4. Time and work are always in direct proportion.
5. If two taps or pipes P and Q take ‘m’ and ‘n’ hours respectively to fill a cistern o
r tank, then the two pipes together fill (1/m + 1/n) part of the tank in 1 hour
and the entire tank is filled in 1/(1/m + 1/n) = mn/(m+n) hours.
Example 1. If 12 man can do a piece of work in 36 days. In how many days 18 men
can do the same work?
Solution: 12 men can do a work in 36 days. 18 men can do the work in 12/18 x 36
= 24 days.
If the number of men is increased, the number of days to finish the work will de
Example 2. A and B can finish a work in 12 days. B and C can finish the same wor
k in 18 days. C and A can finish in 24 days. How many days will take for A, B an
d C combined together to finish the same amount of work?
Solution: A and B can finish the work in 12 days.
(A+B) Can finish in 1 day 1/12 of the work.
Similarly (B+C) can finish in 1/18 of the work.
(C+A) can finish in 1/24 of the work.
2(A+B+C) can finish in 1 day (1/12 + 1/18 + 1/1/24) of the work.
= (6 + 4 + 3)/72 = 13/72 of t
he work.
(A + B + C) can finish in 1 day = 13/144 of the work
Therefore (A + B + C) can together finish the work in 144/13 = 11 1
/3 days.
Example 3: A and B can do a piece of work in 12 days. B and C can do it in 20 da
ys. If A is twice as good a workman as C, then in what time will B alone do it?
Solution: (A+B) can do a work in 12 days.
(A+B) in one day can do 1/12 of the work --- (1)
Similarly (B+C) in one day can do 1/20 of the work --- (2)
Since A=2C, in (1) put A=2C
Therfore (2C+B) in one day can do 1/12 of the work.
i.e., [(B+C)+C] in one day can do 1/12 of the work.
C alone can do in one day 1/12 - 1/20 = (5-3)/60 = 2/60 = 1/30 of w
ork --- (3)
From (2), using (3), B alone can do in one day 1/20 - 1/30 = (3-2)/
60 = 1/60 of the work.
Therefore B alone can do the entire work in 60 days.
Pipes and Cisterns
Inlet: A pipe connected with a tank or a cistern or a reservoir, that fills it,
is known as an inlet.
Outlet: A pipe connected with a tank or a cistern or a reservoir, emptying it, i
s known as an outlet.
(i) If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours, then:
(a) Part filled in 1 hour = 1/x
(b) If a pipe can empty a full tank in y hours, then: Part emptied in hour = 1/
(ii) If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours and another pipe can empty the full ta
nk in y hours (where y > x), then on opening both the pipes, the net part filled
in 1 hour = [ 1/x – 1/y].
Example 1: Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 36 hours and 45 hours respective
ly. If both the pipes are opened simultaneously, how much time will be taken to
fill the tank?
Solution: Part filled by A In 1 hour = 1/36
Part filled by B in 1 hour = 1/45
Part filled by (A + B) In 1 hour = [1/36 + 1/45] = 9/180 = 1/20
Hence, both the pipes together will fill the tank in 20 hours.
Example 2: A pipe can fill a tank in 16 hours. Due to a leak in the bottom,it is
filled in 24 hours. If the tank is full, how much time will the leak take to em
pty it ?
Solution: Work done by the leak in 1 hour = [ 1/16 – 1/24 ]=1/48
:. Leak will empty the full cistern in 48 hours.
Example 3: A cistern is filled by pipe A in 10 hours and the full cistern can be
leaked out by an exhaust pipe B in 12 hours. If both the pipes are opened, in w
hat time the cistern is full?
Solution: Work done by the inlet in 1 hour: = 1/10
Work done by the outlet in 1 hour = 1/12
Net part filled in 1 hour = [ 1/10 – 1/12 ] = 1/60
The cistern will be full in 60 hours.
Example 4: Two pipes can fill a cistern in 14 hours and 16 hours respectively. T
he pipes are opened simultaneously and it is found that due to leakage in the bo
ttom, 32 minutes extra are taken for the cistern to be filled up. When the ciste
rn is full in what time will the leak empty it ?
Solution: Work done by .the two pipes in 1 hour = [ 1/14 + 1/16 ] = 15/112
Time taken by these pipes to fill the tank = 112/15 hours
= (7 hrs. 28 m
Due to leakage, time taken = (7 hrs 28 min.) + 32 min. = 8 hrs
Work done by ( two pipes + leak) in 1 hour = 1/8
Work done by the leak m 1 hour = [ 15/112 – 1/8 ] = 1/112
Leak will empty the full cistern in 112 hours.
Example 5: Pipes A and B can fill a tank in 20 hours and 30 hours respectively a
nd pipe C can empty the full tank in 40 hours. If all the pipes are opened toget
her, how much time will be needed to make the tank full ?
Solution: Net part filled m 1 hour = [1/20 + 1/30 – 1 /40] = 7/120
The tank will be full in 120/7 = 17 ½

Time and Speed
1. Distance = Speed * Time
2. Speed = Distance / Time
3. Time = Distance / Speed
4. 1 km/h = 5/18 m/sec
5. 1 m/sec = 18/5 km/h
1. Rita covers a certain distance by a car traveling at a speed of 70 km/h and r
eturns at the starting point riding on a scooter at the speed of 55 km/h. Find h
er average speed for the whole journey.
Average Speed = (55 + 70)/2 = 62.5 km/h
2. Ram starts from his house for the college at a certain fixed time. If he walk
s at the rate of 5 km/h he is late by 7 minutes. However, if he walks at the rat
e of 6 km/h he reaches the college 5 minutes earlier than the scheduled time. Fi
nd the distance of the college from his house.
Suppose the distance is x km.
If he goes by 5km/h then x/5 - 7/60 = x/6 + 5/60.
therefore x/30 = 1/5
so x = 6km
Relative Speed
Two bodies are moving in opposite directions at speed V1 & V2 respectively. The
relative speed is defined as Vr = V1 + V2.
Two bodies are moving in same directions at speed V1 & V2 respectively.The relat
ive speed is defined as Vr = V1 - V2.
Clock Problems
For clock problems consider the clock as a circular track of 60km.
Min. hand moves at the speed of 60km/hr (think min. hand as a point on the track
) and hour hand moves at 5km/hr and second hand at the speed of 3600 km/hr.
Relative speed between hr hand and mins hand = 55
1. A man travels a distance of 61 km in 9 hours partly on foot at the rate of 4
km/h and partly on bicycle at 9 km/h. How much distance does he cover on foot?
Let the distance covered on foot be x.
Then the distance covered by bicycle is 61 -x.
The total distance is covered in 9 hours.
Time for which the man travels by foot = Distance/ velocity = x/4 hrs
Time for which the man travels by bicycle = (61 -x) / 9 hrs
x/4 + (61 - x)/9 = 9
9x + 244 -4x = 9
5x = 324 -244
x = 16 km
2. A 75 m long train moving at 60 km/h can pass another train 100 m long, moving
at 65 km/h in the opposite direction in:
Such problems can be solved using the formula velocity = distance/time. It s nec
essary to make sure that similar units are used in the formula.
To completely pass each other, the trains have to cover a distance equal to the
sum of the Iengths of the two trains, 75 + 100 = 175 mtrs.
When travelling in opposite directions, the velocity with which this distance ge
ts covered is the sum of the two velocities. 60 + 65 = 125 Kmph or 125 * 1000
mtrs per 60 * 60 Secs or 625/18 mtrs/sec.
Therefore time to cross each other = 175 = 5.04 secs.
3. Find the speed of the current if a boy rows 13 km upstream and 28 km downstre
am taking 5 hours each time.
Let the speed of the current be x km/hr and that of the boy when he rows in stil
l water be y km/hr.
Then the relative speed when the boy rows upstream = y -x km/hr
The relative speed when the boy rows downstream = y + x km/hr
The time taken for the 13 km long upstream journey is 5 hours. Therefore we can
write this as
Speed = Distance/Time
y -x = 13/5 ------ I
The time taken for the 28 km long downstream journey is also 5 hours, therefore
y + x = 28/5 ----- II
Subtracting equations II from equation I, we obtain,
2x = 28/5 -13/5
2x = (28 -13) / 5
2x = 15/5
x = 3/2 = 1.5 km/hr, the speed of the current
Discuss and post solution
1. Distance between A and B is 72 km. Two men started walking from A and B at th
e same time towards each other. The person who started from A travelled uniforml
y with average speed 4 kmph. While the other man travelled with varying speeds a
s follows: In first hour his speed was 2 kmph, in the second hour it was 2.5 kmp
h, in the third hour it was 3 kmph, and so on. When will they meet each other?
2. A man travels three-fifths of distance AB at a speed of 3a, and the remaining
at a speed of 2b. If he goes from B to A and back at a speed of 5c in the same
time, then:
[1] 1/a + 1/b = 1/c [2] a + b = c [3] 1/a + 1/b = 2/c [4] None of t
3. A man travels form A to B at a speed of x kmph. He then rests at B or x hours
. He then travels from B to C at a speed of 2x kmph and rests at C for 2x hours.
He moves further to D at a speed twice as that between B and C. He thus reaches
D in 16 hours. If distances A-B, B-C, C-D are all equal to 12 km, the time for
which he rested at B could be:
4. In a watch, the minute hand crosses the hour hand for the third time exactly
after every 3 hrs 18 min 15 seconds of watch time. What is the time gained or lo
st by this watch in one day?
5. In a mile race Akshay can be given a start of 128 metres by Bhairav. If Bhair
av can given Chinmay a start of 4 metres in a 100 metres dash, then who out of A
kshay and Chinmay will win a race of one and half mile, and what will be the fin
al lead given by the winner to the loser? (One mile is 1600 metres).
DIRECTIONS for Questions 6 and 7: In a locality, there are five small towns, A,
B, C, D and E. The distances of these towns from each other are as follows:
AB = 2km AC = 2 km AD > 2 km AE > 3 km BC = 2km
BD = 4 km BE = 3 km CD = 2 km CE = 3km DE > 3 km
6. If a ration shop is to be set up within 2 km of each city, how many ration sh
ops will be required?
7. If a ration shop is to be set up within 3 km of each city, how many ratio sho
ps will be required?

A factor of a given number is every number that divides exactly into that number
Write down all factors of 10.
10 = 2 x 5, so numbers 2 and 5 are factors of 10.
Also 10 = 10 x 1, so 10 and 1 are factors of 10.
The factors of 10 are 1, 2, 5, 10.
NOTE: Number 1 and the number itself are always factors of any number.

When two (or more) numbers have the same factor, that factor is called a common
Find all the common factors of 12 and 18.
Factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12.
Factors of 18 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 18.
The common factors of 12 and 18 are 1, 2, 3 and 6.

LCM (Least Common Multiple)

The least common multiple or lowest common multiple (lcm) or smallest common mul
tiple of two integers a and b is the smallest positive integer that is a multipl
e both of a and of b. Since it is a multiple, it can be divided by a and b witho
ut a remainder. If either a or b is 0, so that there is no such positive integer
, then lcm(a, b) is defined to be zero.
Exanple: the L.C.M of 3 and 5 is 15
The simple method of finding the L.C.M of smaller numbers is to write down the m
ultiples of the larger number until one of them is also a multiple of the smalle
r number.
Example 1:
Find the Lowest Common Multiple of 8 and 12.
Solution: Multiples of 12 are 12, 24...
24 is also a multiple of 8, so the L.C.M of 8 and 12 is 24.
1. Find all the prime factors of both numbers.
2. Multiply all the prime factors of the larger number by those prime factors
of the smaller number that are not already included.
Find the Lowest Common Multiple (L.C.M.) of 240 and 924.
From the example of finding the H.C.F. we know the prime factors of both numbers
924 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 7 x 11
240 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 5
The L.C.M. is 2 x 2 x 3 x 7 x 11 x 2 x 2 x 5 = 924 x 20 = 18,480
HCF (Highest Common Factor)
Highest common factor (hcf), of two non-zero integers, is the largest positive i
nteger that divides both numbers without remainder.
It is very easy to find a H.C.F. of small numbers, like 6 and 9 (it is 3) or 8 a
nd 4 (it is 4).
The best way is to keep finding the factors of the smaller number, starting from
the largest factor. The first factor of the smaller number that is also a facto
r of the larger number is a H.C.F.
For larger numbers you can use the following method:
1. Find all prime factors of both numbers.
2. Write both numbers as a multiplication of prime numbers.
3. Find which factors are repeating in both numbers and multiply them to get
H.C.F (why?)
Find the Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.) of 240 and 924.
Finding all prime factors of 240:
We will start with the smallest prime number and we will divide 240 into it if w
e can (the divisibility rules come handy).
We will do the same with the result (or quotient), and we will keep dividing by
prime numbers until we have 1 as a quotient. Each time we write the prime factor
to the right and the quotient below:
240 | 2 2 is a factor of 240; 240 divided by 2 is 120
120 | 2 2 is a factor of 120; 120 divided by 2 is 60
60 | 2 2 is a factor of 60; 60 divided by 2 is 30
30 | 2 2 is a factor of 30; 30 divided by 2 is 15
15 | 3 3 is a factor of 15; 15 divided by 3 is 5
5 | 5 5 is a factor of 5; 5 divided by 5 is 1

240 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 5
Divisibility Rules
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Rules to know when we can divide one number into another exactly.
Dividing by 2
A number can be divided by 2 if the last digit is even.
Dividing by 3
A number is divisible by 3 if the sum of the digits is 3, 6 or 9.
Examples: 111111: the digits add to 6 so the whole number is divisible by three.
87687687. The digits add up to 57, and 5 plus seven is 12, so the original numb
er is divisible by three.
Dividing by 4
A number is divisible by 4 if the number made by the last two digits can be divi
ded by 4.
Examples: 100 is divisible by 4. 1732782989264864826421834612 is divisible by fo
ur also, because 12 is divisible by four.
Dividing by 5
A number is divisible by 5 if the last digit is a 5 or a 0.
Dividing by 6
A number can be divided by 6 if the last digit is even and the sum of all the di
gits is 3, 6 or 9.
Dividing by 7
To find out if a number is divisible by seven, take the last digit, double it, a
nd subtract it from the rest of the number.
Example: If you had 203, you would double the last digit to get six, and subtrac
t that from 20 to get 14. If you get an answer divisible by 7 (including zero),
then the original number is divisible by seven. If you don t know the new number
s divisibility, you can apply the rule again.
Dividing by 8
A number is divisible by 8 if the number made by the last three digits will be d
ivisible by 8.
Example: 33333888 is divisible by 8; 33333886 isn t.
Dividing by 9
A number is divisible by 9 if the sum of all the digits will add to 9.
Example: 12348 is divisible by 9; as the sum is 18
Dividing by 10
A number can be divided by 10 if the last digit is a 0.
Dividing by 11
A number is divisible by 11 if the difference of the Sum of the digits at odd pl
aces and sum of the digits at the even places is either zero or divisible by 11.
Example: In the number 9823, the sum of the digits at odd places is 9 + 2 = 11 a
nd the sum of the digits at even places is 8 + 3= 11.
The difference between it is 11 - 11 = 0 therefore given number is divisible by
Dividing by 12
A number is divisible by 12 if it is divisible by 3 and 4.
Example: The number 1644 is divisible by 12 as it is divisible by 3 and 4.
Dividing by 18
An even number satisfying the divisibility test by 9 is divisible by 18.
Example: The number 80388 is divisible by 18 as it satisfies the divisibility te
st of 9.
Dividing by 25
A number is divisible by 25 if the number formed by the last two digits is divis
ible by 25 or the last two digits are zero.
Example: The number 7975 is divisible by 25 as the last two digits are divisible
by 25.

A linear equation is an equation whose graph is a straight line. A linear equati

on in one variable is an equation that simlpy involves x. A linear equation is
any equation that can be written in the form ax + b = 0. There are no terms invo
lving x2, x3, x1/2 etc. Each term has a degree of at most 1. All operations, suc
h as addition or multiplication, involve only x and numerical constants. 3x + 4
= 5 is an example of a linear equation. 2(x+1) = 6(x-4) is also a linear equatio
n. These equations can be solved very easily by performing algebraic operations
to the equation to isolate x.
A linear equation in two variables is, as the name suggests, an equation that in
volves 2 variables. The standard form of this type of equation is Ax + By = C, w
here A,B and C are real numbers. For example, 3x + y = 7 is a linear equation in
two variables. y = 2x + 1/3 is also an example, since it can be rewritten as 2x
- y = -1/3 ( or equivalently 6x - 3y = -1 ).
Linear equation in one variable properties.
1. If a = b then a+c = b+c.
2. If a = b then a -c = b-c.
3. If a = b then ac = bc.
4. If a=b then a/b = b/c.
Linear equations in two variables can also be expressed in the slope-intercept f
orm y = mx + b.
The slope of a line, represented by the variable m, is defined as the ratio of c
hange in values of y to change in value of x. The slope is also known as rise ov
er run. For any two points (x1 ,y1), (x2 ,y2) on a line L, the formula for calcu
lating the slope of L is:
m = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1)
Two lines are parallel if they have equal slopes. Parallel lines never cross eac
h other. The distance between two parallel lines is always the same for every po
int along the lines.
Two lines are perpendicular, meaning their angle of intersection is 90°, if their
slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. For lines L1 and L2 with slopes m
1 and m2, respectively,
m1m2 = -1
Example 1: A calculator has been marked up 15% and is being sold for $78.50. Ho
w much did the store pay the manufacturer of the calculator?
Solution: First, let’s define p to be the cost that the store paid for the calcul
ator. The stores markup on the calculator is 15%. This means that 0.15p has be
en added on to the original price (p) to get the amount the calculator is being
sold for. In other words, we have the following equation p + 0.15p = 78.50 that
we need to solve for p. Doing this gives, 1.15p = 78.50 therefore p = 78.5/1.1
The store paid $68.26 for the calculator.
Example 2: A shirt is on sale for $15.00 and has been marked down 35%. How much
was the shirt being sold for before the sale?
Solution: Let’s start with defining p to be the price of the shirt before the sale
. It has been marked down by 35%. This means that 0.35p has been subtracted of
f from the original price. Therefore, the equation (and solution) is,
p - 0.35p = 15
0.65p = 15
p = 15/0.65 = 23.07

Quadratic Equations
Table of Contents Tutorial Examples Assignment
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A quadratic equation in one unknown is an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c =0,
where a is not equal to 0. When we solve a linear equation, we may transpose t
he terms and leave the unknown on one side of the equation. However, this is oft
en not the case for a quadratic equation. There are other methods to solve a qua
dratic equation, e.g. by factorization, by completing the square and by the quad
ratic formula. Furthermore, for a linear equation in the form of mx + n =0, whe
re m is not 0, there is always a solution x = -n/m , which is a real number. O
n the contrary, a quadratic equation may have two real roots, one double root or
no real roots.
Solving quadratic equations
There are several methods to solve a quadratic equation. Some quadratic expressi
ons can be factorized and then the equation is easy to solve.
1. If pq = 0, then p=0 or q=0.
If quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c =0 can be factorized into (px+q)(rx+s) =0,
then we have px + q = 0 or rx + s = 0, which gives x =-q/p or x = -s/r respectiv
2. Method of completing square.
The method of completing the square is to change the equation from the form ax2
+ bx + c =0 to (x+p)2 = q. This can be done by dividing the whole equation by a
and then we have
x2 + b/a x = -c/a
x2 + 2.1/2.b/a x + (b/2a)2= -c/a + (b/2a)2
(x + b/2a)2 = -c/a + (b/2a)2
and thus p = b/2a and q = -c/a + (b/2a)2 . If q > 0 then x + p = +(-)q or x = -
p +(-)q.
If q = 0, then x = -p. If q < 0, equation has no real roots. The result x = -p +
(-)q still holds but the roots will be complex.
3. If ax2 + bx + c =0 and a is not equal to 0, the roots of the equation is give
n by
Example 1:

Let A and B be the roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c =0 with a not equa
l to 0 then
A + B = - b/a and
AB = c/a
For a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c =0 with a not equal to 0, the discriminant
D = b2 - ac.
1. If D > 0, the equation has two distinct real roots.
2. if D = 0, the equation has one double real root.
3. if D < 0, the equation has no real root, it has two distinct unreal roots.
Discuss and post solutions
1. Given the quadratic equation x2 - (A - 3) x - (A - 2) = 0, for what value of
A will the sum of the squares of the roots be zero?
2. A quadratic with integral coefficients has two distinct positive integers as
roots, the sum of its coefficients is prime and it takes the value -55 for some
integer. The sum of the roots is
3. How many real r are there such that the roots of x2 + rx + 6r = 0 are both in