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Preguntas Lección 5

Unidad 8: Equilibrio Ácido-Base


Nombre:
Fecha: 14 de agosto 2018
1. Cuál es la base conjugada de los ácidos: H2SO4, HF, H2S, HPO42-, HNO3, HClO4, HCOOH, H2CO3,
HI, HCO3-
Ácido Base
Conjugada
H2SO4 HSO4-

HF F-

H2S HS-

HPO42- PO43-

HNO3 NO3-

HClO4 ClO4-

HCOOH COOH-

H2CO3 HCO3-

HI I-

HCO3- CO32-

2. Cuál es el ácido conjugado de las bases: H2O, NH3, H-, Cl-, PO4-2, HCO3-, S-2, OH-, C2H3O2-, HSO4-

Base Ácido Base Ácido


Conjugado Conjugado
H2O H3O+ HCO3- H2CO3

NH3 NH4+ S-2 HS-

H- H2 OH- H2O

Cl- HCl C2H3O2- C2H4O2

PO4-2 HPO4- HSO4- H2SO4


3. Indique si las disoluciones son neutras, ácidas o básicas a 25ᵒ C.

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14

[H+]=12x10-7

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
12 × 10−7 > 8.3 × 10−9
[𝐻 + ] > [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝑂𝐻 − ] = = 8.3 × 10−9 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 á𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎
12 × 10−7

[H+]=1x10-4

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
1 × 10−4 > 1 × 10−10
[𝐻 + ] > [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝑂𝐻 − ] = = 1 × 10−10 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 á𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎
1 × 10−4

[H+]=2x10-6

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
2 × 10−6 > 5 × 10−9
[𝐻 + ] > [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝑂𝐻 − ] = = 5 × 10−9 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 á𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎
2 × 10−6

[H+]=7x10-2

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
7 × 10−2 > 1.4 × 10−13
[𝐻 + ] > [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝑂𝐻 − ] = = 1.4 × 10−13 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 á𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎
7 × 10−2

[H+]=8x10-10

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
8 × 10−10 < 1.25 × 10−5
[𝐻 + ] < [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝑂𝐻 − ] = = 1.25 × 10−5 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 𝑏á𝑠𝑖𝑐𝑎
8 × 10−10

[OH-]=1x10-7

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
1 × 10−7 = 1 × 10−7
[𝐻 + ] = [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝐻 + ] = = 1 × 10−7 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 𝑛𝑒𝑢𝑡𝑟𝑎
1 × 10−7
[OH-]=5.6x10-2

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
1.7 × 10−13 < 5.6 × 10−2
[𝐻 + ] < [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝐻 + ] = = 1.7 × 10−13 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 𝑏á𝑠𝑖𝑐𝑎
5.6 × 10−2

[OH-]=8.5x10-9

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
1.2 × 10−6 > 8.5 × 10−9
[𝐻 + ] > [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝐻 + ] = = 1.2 × 10−6 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 á𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎
8.5 × 10−9

[OH-]=1.8x10-5

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
5.6 × 10−10 < 1.8 × 10−5
[𝐻 + ] < [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝐻 + ] = = 5.6 × 10−10 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 𝑏á𝑠𝑖𝑐𝑎
1.8 × 10−5

[OH-]=5.9x10-3

𝐾𝑤 = [𝐻 + ][𝑂𝐻 − ] = 1 × 10−14
1.7 × 10−12 < 5.9 × 10−3
[𝐻 + ] < [𝑂𝐻 − ]
1 × 10−14
[𝐻 + ] = −3
= 1.7 × 10−12 𝐿𝑎 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑠 𝑏á𝑠𝑖𝑐𝑎
5.9 × 10

4. ¿Hacia dónde se desplaza el equilibrio?

𝐻𝑆𝑂4 − (𝑎𝑐) + 𝐶𝑂3 2− (𝑎𝑐) ⇄ 𝑆𝑂4 2− (𝑎𝑐) + 𝐻𝐶𝑂3 − (𝑎𝑐)


Base Base
Rx Directa Rx Inversa

𝑆𝑂4 2− (𝑎𝑐) 𝑒𝑠 𝑚á𝑠 𝑑é𝑏𝑖𝑙 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝐶𝑂3 2− (𝑎𝑐)


𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒 𝑒𝑙 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑜 ℎ𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑎 𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎
𝐻𝑃𝑂4 2− (𝑎𝑐) + 𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) ⇄ 𝐻2 𝑃𝑂4 − (𝑎𝑐) + 𝑂𝐻 − (𝑎𝑐)
Base Base
Rx Directa Rx Inversa

𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) 𝑒𝑠 𝑚á𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑏𝑖𝑙 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝐻2 𝑃𝑂4 − (𝑎𝑐)


𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒 𝑒𝑙 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑜 ℎ𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑎 𝑙𝑎 𝑖𝑧𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑒𝑟𝑑𝑎

𝑁𝐻4 + (𝑎𝑐) + 𝑂𝐻 − (𝑎𝑐) ⇄ 𝑁𝐻3 (𝑎𝑐) + 𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙)


Base Base
Rx Directa Rx Inversa

𝑂𝐻 − (𝑎𝑐) 𝑒𝑠 𝑚á𝑠 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑁𝐻3 (𝑎𝑐)


𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒 𝑒𝑙 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑜 ℎ𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑎 𝑙𝑎 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎

𝐻𝐹(𝑔) + 𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) ⇄ 𝐻3 𝑂+ (𝑎𝑐) + 𝐹 − (𝑎𝑐)


Base Base
Rx Directa Rx Inversa

𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) 𝑒𝑠 𝑚á𝑠 𝑑é𝑏𝑖𝑙 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝐹 − (𝑎𝑐)


𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒 𝑒𝑙 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑜 ℎ𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑎 𝑙𝑎 𝑖𝑧𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑒𝑟𝑑𝑎

𝐻𝐶2 𝐻3 𝑂2 (𝑎𝑐) + 𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) ⇄ 𝐻3 𝑂+ (𝑎𝑐) + 𝐶2 𝐻3 𝑂2 − (𝑎𝑐)


Base Base
Rx Directa Rx Inversa

𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) 𝑒𝑠 𝑚á𝑠 𝑑é𝑏𝑖𝑙 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝐶2 𝐻3 𝑂2 − (𝑎𝑐)


𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒 𝑒𝑙 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑜 ℎ𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑎 𝑙𝑎 𝑖𝑧𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑒𝑟𝑑𝑎

𝐻𝐶𝑂𝑂𝐻(𝑎𝑐) + 𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) ⇄ 𝐻3 𝑂+ (𝑎𝑐) + 𝐶𝑂𝑂𝐻 − (𝑎𝑐)


Base Base
Rx Directa Rx Inversa

𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) 𝑒𝑠 𝑚á𝑠 𝑑é𝑏𝑖𝑙 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝐶𝑂𝑂𝐻 − (𝑎𝑐)


𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒 𝑒𝑙 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑜 ℎ𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑎 𝑙𝑎 𝑖𝑧𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑒𝑟𝑑𝑎
𝐻𝑆𝑂4 − (𝑎𝑐) + 𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) ⇄ 𝐻3 𝑂+ (𝑎𝑐) + 𝑆𝑂4 2− (𝑎𝑐)
Base Base
Rx Directa Rx Inversa

𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) 𝑒𝑠 𝑚á𝑠 𝑑é𝑏𝑖𝑙 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑆𝑂4 2− (𝑎𝑐)


𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒 𝑒𝑙 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑜 ℎ𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑎 𝑙𝑎 𝑖𝑧𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑒𝑟𝑑𝑎

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