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Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Debates on genetic food safety include such issues as impact of genetically modified food on health of further generations and genetic pollution of environment, which can destroy natural biological diversity. In developed countries there are intricate standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries the main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. A 2003 World Health Organization (WHO) report concluded that about 40% of reported food poisoning outbreaks in the WHO European Region occur in private homes.  In theory food poisoning is 100% preventable.
Key Principles The five key principles of food hygiene. Although the focus of that book was the conditions immigrants experienced in the early twentieth century. published in 1906. During industrial revolution. manufacturers were free to add whatever they liked to their products. and pests. . 2. People began complaining to Congress and to President Theodore Roosevelt. 4. The Jungle. Harvey W. textile inks were used as coloring agents. In 1883. chief chemist of the U. 5.S Agricultural Department¶s Bureau of Chemistry. according to WHO are: 1. there were graphic descriptions of the filt h and poor hygiene in packing plants. food began to be processed and packaged. pets. History of Food Safety Before manufacturing traditional. Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens. Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people. Upton Sinclair spent several weeks in a meat packing plant investigating labor conditions and turned his discoveries into a book. lead salts were added to candy and cheese. Lacking regulation. farming practices and preserving techniques were used to ensure safe food. bricks dust was added to cocoa. Wiley. women started organizing groups to protest the conditions at slaughterhouses in New York City and adulterated foods in other parts of the country. 3. Meanwhile. Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods. Use safe water and raw materials. Pressure was also mounting from foreign governments that wanted some assures that food imported from United States was pure and wholesome. began experimenting with food and drug adulteration. and copper salts were added to peas and pickles. In the 1880s. It caught the public attention. Sweeping from the floor were included in pepper. Store food at the proper temperature.
It set new regulations requiring implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control points (HACCPs) for most food processor. . The next major act was the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. to improve food safety conditions. Manufacturers had to prove that additives and pesticides were safe before they could be used.S Food.Two acts were passed in 1906. The Pure food Act was later superseded in 1938 by Pure Food. concern over cancer led to the adoption of the Delaney Amendments. In 1958. The Food quality Protection Act also changed the way acceptable pesticide levels are calculated. In 1927. U. The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act of 1966 standardized the labels of products and required that labels provide honest information. which expanded the FDA¶s regulatory powers to set limits on pesticides and additives. the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Beef Inspection Act. Now total exposure for all sources must be calculated. Drug and Insecticide Administration (shortened to Food and Drug Administration) or FDA was created to enforce the Pure Food and Drug act. This act prohibited any food or drug that is dangerous to health to be sold in interstate commerce. Drug and Cosmetics Act.
in relation to food safety the tendency to err on the side of maximum protection for the consumer may be seen as a positive benefit. and resources to address food borne illness. However. . regulatory tools. and can differ considerably in their internal structures and approaches to the regulatory control of food safety." The parliament of the European Union (EU) makes legislation in the form of directives and regulations. state and local officials. Individual member states may also have other legislation and controls in respect of food safety. the outcome is often seen as an excessively bureaucratic 'one size fits all' approach. provided that they do not prevent trade with other states. As a very large organisation that exists to remove barriers to trade between member states. and into which individual member states have only a proportional influence. it is lacking in "organization.Regulatory Agencies The US food system is regulated by numerous federal. The EU parliament is informed on food safety matters by the European Food Safety Authority. many of which are mandatory for member states and which therefore must be incorporated into individual countries' national legislation. Although the US food safety system is one of the best in the world.
It is responsible for protecting public health in relation to food throughout the United Kingdom and is led by an appointed board that is intended to act in the public interest. Its headquarters are in London. From its inception the Agency declared that it would take no decisions about food policy except in open Board meetings accessible to the public. with national offices in Scotland. The newspaper report claims the FSA's public health activities will be undertaken by the Department of Health and its regulatory functions including food safety and hygiene will be undertaken by DEFRA. It was felt that it was inappropriate to have one government department. Uniquely for a UK Government department. on 12 July 2010 Andrew Lansley the Conservative / Liberal Democratic Coalition health secretary will announce the abolition of the Food Standards Agency.and as a signal of its independence it declared that it would invariably do so. the Ministry for Agriculture. issued after a number of high-profile outbreaks and deaths from foodborne illness. According to uncited sources in The Guardian/Observer. He resigned in 2005 to become Principal of Jesus College. more recently. enabling consumers to see the decision-making process in action. this remains unconfirmed. Dame Deirdre Hutton was Chair between 2005 and July 2009. the Wine Standards Board are branches of the Food Standards Agency. . Wales and Northern Ireland.Jeff Rooker is the current Chair of the Food Standards Agency Board. Oxford. It was created in 2000 based on a report by Professor James. Fisheries and Food. opposite Holborn tube station. The Meat Hygiene Service and. the Food Standards Act gave the Agency the statutory right to publish the advice it gives to Ministers .Food Safety Agencies in UK The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. Since 2003 these meetings have been webcast live. Sir John Krebs was the first Chairman of the Food Standards Agency. Dr Ian Reynolds is the current Deputy Chair. Each Board meeting concludes with a Q&A session in which web viewers can question the Board or its Executive directly. responsible for both the health of the farming and food processing industries and also for food safety.
-Continuous surveillance of the entire supply chain including farmers. Enforcement of basic hygiene practices and safety and quality management systems such as ISO: 90012000. suppliers. HACCP and ISO: 22000 at every level. it is a prime task of the state government to develop a scientific and legal amalgamation and supervise its implementation right till the grass roots. Health etc. each province should initiate its own operations in accordance with its priorities and resources. every province should invest in such programs for awareness about food safety and should incorporate these operations to all districts. processors. y Replacement of 'Hands-on' approach with new techniques and establishment of up-to-date laboratories and research centers with latest equipments and other analytical facilities. the Provincial governments have the responsibility of taking the message from the central authorities and implement it in their respective provinces. Coming next in line. y Evaluation of the laws and standards adopted from international bodies and their localization in accordance with our needs and resources.) is to structure a centralized vision with Risk Assessment. y y Allocation of appropriate funds for the provincial governments to uplift their food safety programs. Risk Management and Risk Co mmunication as its broad guiding principles. the most critical responsibility of the State or Federal ministries (Food. Other responsibilities include: -Assessment of raw materials and finished products and identification of critical control proce ss points at provincial level. Other important responsibilities of the state government include: Assessment of raw materials and finished products and identification of critical control points throughout the system. it should not in any way deviate from the regulations set by the state. Since Risk Assessment and Risk Management deal with scientific and socio-economic arenas respectively. Introduction of stringent monitoring systems of sampling and thorough inspections before approving food imports. y y Development of the transport system all through Pakistan to minimize microbiological losses. -Funding for new graduates who pursue governmental public health careers and enhance state efforts on recruitment and retention of public health professionals. with special attention to the execution of the regulations and predefined criteria. Working on a unified vision. Just like the inauguration of a Parha Likha Punjab Campaign (Literate Punjab). -Introduction of technical programs for training of small farmers and other producers at the grass root level concerning basic food safety and hygiene principles. Whatever the plan of action they adopt. wholesalers. retailers etc.Government Responsibility At the top of the ladder. -Re-invention of procedures and development of capacities to support health agencies during recalls and y . -Establishment of 'Emergency Recall System' at the time of a catastrophic outbreak. cities and villages in its jurisdiction.
Recruitment of skilled and sincere personnel for the inspection and scrutiny of general practices. y . Despite being at the lowest end of the command order. restaurants. the Municipal/City/District govern ment has one of the most critical roles to play in implementing and enforcing food safety standards. hotels. municipal government has a superior chance of understanding situations and then act appropriately. -Impeachment of the people/organizations breaching the regulations with autonomy granted to agencies to immediately ban such business. independent of the court decisions. y y Enhanced facilities for action based approach on consumer complaints.outbreaks. Being the most familiar with the ground realities. Some of its key responsibilities include: Continuous food safety surveillance of the different food chains including industries. cafes with appropriate penalties and prohibitions for offenders.
Food is deemed to be unsafe if it is considered to be: y y injurious to health unfit for human consumption The article also indicates what factors need to be taken into account when determining whether food is injurious to health or unfit. Exports Article 12 states that food exported (or re-exported) from the EU shall comply with the requirements of food law. Safety Article 14 states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. advertising and presentation. Under section 20. provided the food is not injurious to health or unsafe. Under section 21 in proceedings for an offence under the provisions of Part 2 of the Act (which includes the offences listed above). Presentation Article 16 states that labelling. or it complies with the laws. including the setting in which the foo d is displayed. if the commission of an offence is due to the act or default of another person. food exported from the EU needs to comply with its provisions. Where there is a bilateral agreement between the EU or one of its Member States and a third country. it is a defence for a food business operator to prove that he took all reasonable precautions and exercised due diligence to avoid the commission of the offence. after having been fully informed as to why the food could not be placed on the market in the Community. of food shall not mislead consumers. . the competent authorities of the destination country must have expressly agreed for the food to be exported or reexported. regulations and other legal and administrative procedures of the importing country. Section 15: falsely describing or presenting food. unless the authorities of the importing country have requested otherwise. Section 14: selling to the purchaser¶s prejudice any food which is not of the nature or substance or quality demanded by the purchaser.Food Safety Laws Main food safety and consumer protection offences created by the Food Safety Act 1990 Section 7: rendering food injurious to health by: y y y y adding an article or substance to the food using an article or substance as an ingredient in the preparation of the food abstracting any constituent from the food subjecting the food to any process or treatment with the intention that it shall be sold for human consumption. those requirements. In the case of exporting or re-exporting food. Main provisions of the General Food Law Regulation (EC) 178/2002 that apply to food business operators Imports Article 11 states that food imported into the European Union (EU) for placing on the market shall comply with the requirements of food law recognised by the EU. or if there is a specific agreement between the EU and the exporting country. the other person is guilty of the offence.
Withdrawal is when a food is removed from the market up to and including when it is sold to the consumer. Withdrawal. There are also similar provisions for animal feed. a fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or both The defences under sections 20 and 21 of the Food Safety Act also apply to these regulations. 18(2) or (3) and 19 of the General Food Law Regulation (EC) 178/2002. Food hygiene legislation Food hygiene legislation is closely related to the legislation on the general requirements and principles of food law. and also other businesses to which their products have been supplied. Food businesses must also notify the competent authorities (their local authority and the Food Standards Agency). the information shall be made available to competent authorities on demand. food substances and food-producing animals supplied to their business. applying effective and proportionate controls throughout the food chain. Retailers and distributors must help with the withdrawal of unsafe food and pass on information necessary to trace it. they must immediately notify the competent authorities. recall is when customers are asked to return or destroy the product. In each case. . recall and notification Article 19 requires food business operators to withdraw food which is not in compliance with food safety requirements. if it has left their control and to recall the food if has reached the consumer. a fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or both on conviction in a Magistrates¶ Court. 16. 14(1). The legislation lays down the food hygiene rules for all food businesses. from primary production to sale or supply to the food consumer.Traceability Article 18 requires food business operators to keep records of food. Offences and penalties laid down by the General Food Regulations 2004 Regulation 4 creates criminal offences for breaches of Articles 12. Where food business operators have placed a food on the market that is injurious to health. Regulation 5 lays down the penalties for the breaches of the articles listed above: y y on conviction in a Crown Court.
but detection techniques have improved. . we list some of the biggest food recalls of the past decade that highlight a number of these growing concerns. US or Japan. of food recalls has increased over the last decade.Recent Law Enforcement The number. despite food practices getting much better. Below. or the more common salmonella and E -coli contamination have been behind some of the largest recalls or recent years. National food standards agencies have also been given further-reaching powers to reduce the risk of a food poisoning outbreak. So have we seen a decrease in the number of food recalls? Strangely. the answer is no. Food has also become more global. This has forced a number of food processors to increase the levels of quality control and hygiene at plants around the world. Outbreaks such as "mad-cow disease" in the UK. with imports rising from countries where quality control standards are less strict and certain food additives restricted in the Western world are still widely used. A food recall for salmonella poisoning can be devastating for a company ± a number of business have claimed bankruptcy as a result of a widespread recall. or at least the profile.
asp?pageID=2&bookType2=H&ISBN=0816069 689&searchText=satin&parent=&productType=&sortType=&Filter=Desc y http://www. Congressional Research Service.com/BookSearch.official-documents.who.com/2009/02/history-of-food-safety.euro.co.References: y http://ezinearticles.com/?Enforcing-Food-Safety---The-Governments-Responsibility&id=2231016 y http://www.html y http://factsonfile.gov.int/eprise/main/who/mediacentre/PR/2003/20031212_2 y Becker. 4/10/10 y http://www.uk/document/maffdh/fsa/preface. The Federal Food Safety System: A primer.infobasepublishing.food.co.htm y http://www.world-foodhistory.uk/aboutus/ourboard/boardmem/jeffrooker/ .guardian.archive. Geoffrey.uk/politics/2010/jul/11/food-standards-agency-abolished-health-secretary y http://www.
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