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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We thank Mr. S.N GHOSH in particular for assigning us this topic and
encouraging us to write in the first place. We owe much to Mr. S.N
GHOSH for his helpful comments.

We are indebted to all those who have been helpful throughout the
process of writing this Report- Mr Harish , Mr Anurag ,Mr Sahil ,Mr
vineet and Mr Tarun but as the cliché goes, we are solely responsible
for any remaining errors of fact or judgment.

(1) Sahil (2)Anurag (3) Harish (4) Vineet 1


(5) Tarun
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

CONTENT
1. ACKNOWLEDGMENT------------------------------------------------
2. ABSTRACT -----------------------------------------------------------
3. INTRODUCTION----------------------------------------------------
4. LABOUR SECTOR TODAY--------------------------------------
5. WORKPLACE HARMONY PROGRAM-----------------------
6. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION-----------------------------

(1) Sahil (2)Anurag (3) Harish (4) Vineet 2


(5) Tarun
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

ABSTRACT
Labour harmony is a situation were companies feels about the welfare
for the labour. Innovation is a new way of doing something or "new
stuff that is made useful". It may refer to incremental and emergent or
radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or
organizations.

INTRODUCTION
During the period of foreign rule, the British introduced
industrialisation and thereby heralded the advent of labour sector in

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(5) Tarun
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

this country. With the emergence of native industrialists the labour


sector expanded. The pace of industrialization and the expansion of
labour sector was accelerated by the first and second world wars. In
the early years the workers organised to obtain wages to meet limited
needs for livelihood and convenience to work decently. Labour
struggle became a part of national movement. The concepts of
freedom, democracy, secularism and socialism, were indoctrinated in
the labour movement, thanks to agitations for rights of workers.
Innovation is a new way of doing something or "new stuff that is made
useful". It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and
revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or
organizations. In many fields, such as the arts, economics and
government policy, something new must be substantially different to
be innovative. In economics the change must increase value, customer
value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to
make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased
productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an
economy.

 LABOUR SECTOR
1. Governments have formulated Labour policies as a part of Industrial
policy. This has also been a constraint in formulating labour policies
independent of the industrial policy. Consequent on the grave crisis in
the Indian economy, significant reforms based on liberalisation,
globalisation were enforced from 1991.
2. The state has a work force of around 83 lakhs of which 19 lakhs are
women workers. The vast majority work in the un-organized, or
informal sector; sometimes in conditions of partial employment, often
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(5) Tarun
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

without adequate access to decent wages or Social Security


protection. The attention of Government have been largely focused on
protecting the working conditions and the rights of the relatively
privileged minority of workers in the organised sector.
4. Hence labour policy initiatives are aimed at creating a favourable
environment for a planned effort, facilitating industrial promotion and
revival along with legislative and structural changes to bring in an
environment devoid of restrictive labour practices, but protecting the
rights and interests of the workers.

EXAMPLE
(1) Haryana has witnessed an unprecedented era of swift
industrialization since its formation on November,1966.
Maintenance of industrial peace and harmony, safeguarding and
improving the working conditions of the workers in industries is
the responsibility of the Labour Department. The department
seeks to promote a healthy and positive partnership between the
labour, the management and the Government. While the
department takes care of the interests of the worker, it is sensitive
to the needs of the industry. It is gratifying to record that Haryana
enjoys exemplary harmonious relations in the industrial sector.
This has been made possible by the conscious efforts of the
Government , the willing cooperation of the workers and the
managements.

(2) Tata Iron and Steel Company (Tisco) and its company town,
Jamshedpur.A relatively clean, spacious, and prosperous city
where more people live in middle-class neighborhoods than in
slums. With a population of 650,000, Jamshedpur is certainly the
largest company town in the world, and, because it is still
controlled and administered by the private company that founded
it in 1909, it is probably the oldest extant company town. Aside
from the town, the steel company itself holds a special place in
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

Indian industrial history. It was founded and capitalized in the


colonial period by the Indian business community of Bombay in
1907, began production in 1911, and thereafter took its place as
the largest private company in India and the largest integrated
steel mill in the British Empire. It has survived revolutionary
political changes, near-bankruptcy, and nationalization attempts,
largely because its directors convinced the British that it was an
essential defense industry and the Indian nationalists that it was a
national treasure run by men of integrity for the benefit of the
nation.

 Workplace Harmony Program (Employee Relations /


Industrial Relations)
Discipline is a state of peaceful and harmonious co-functioning of
Employers & Employees, Employees & Employees, Employees and
Customers and other stakeholders,
Where Members of an organization willfully
• Obey rules & regulations laid down by Management,
• Accept authority of Superiors to decide
• Observe orderliness,
• Follow fixed norms, and
Co-operate with Management voluntarily towards fulfillment of
organization goals even in the face of odds & provocations, highs
and lows.

Where deviation, delinquency or breach of discipline is dealt with


uniformly and fairly with impartiality, compassion and Goodwill.

Benefits of Discipline – For Management

Training/Educating Employees, Supervisors & Managers in “Why” and

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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

“How” of Discipline is a lasting solution, the only remedy to


indiscipline.
• Knowing that indiscipline is Frankenstein. Drub it and it is dead.
• Instills a sense of responsibility for Work.
• Removes misconceptions, myth, notion & confrontational stand
• Clears Perception of Inherent Arbitrariness in exercise of
Management Functions
• Promotes the Need for Self Discipline
• Clarifies Doubts about Legal & Procedural Requirements
• Restores Loss of Confidence in Authority
• Dissolves Mistrust, Suspicion, Disharmony
• Corrects Basic Idea of Discipline
• Satisfies Test of being Fair, Just & Reasonable in Disciplining.
• Explains why people show No Faith in Domestic Enquiry or its
outcome

Innovation :is a new way of doing something or "new stuff that is


made useful". It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and
revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or
organizations. In many fields, such as the arts, economics and
(1) Sahil (2)Anurag (3) Harish (4) Vineet 7
(5) Tarun
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

government policy, something new must be substantially different to


be innovative. In economics the change must increase value, customer
value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to
make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased
productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an
economy.
Technological innovation
Knowledge and innovation has become a key to corporate success,
technological prowess and economic development . Innovation is far
more important than land, physical capital, or labor in a knowledge-
based economy, and is the dominating factor affecting different
economic growth and development in nations. Technological
innovation can circumvent entry barriers and help firms to innovate to
keep pace with the latest ideas. Similarly, if a country failing to
innovate, it may be left behind as competitors devise more advanced
and more marketable products. Innovation is essential for latecomer
countries in Asia, such as India and China, to enhance economical
growth. Innovation arises from the recombination of existing
knowledge is now well established . To be innovative in highly
competitive industries requires the effective use of knowledge
management . Merging of knowledge from different sources is an
essential driver of firm innovation .
Knowledge diffusion can be beneficial to technological innovation,
because the entity can take advantage of both internal and external
knowledge to strengthen its innovational capability. Because the
spillovers arising from technological innovation can cross national
boundaries, the effect of innovation on national comparative advantage
depends on the geographic scope of its diffusion . The greater the
extent of knowledge resources in the network, the greater is the
opportunity set presented to firms located in it to access knowledge
and therefore innovate through merging their own knowledge with
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

acquired knowledge. That is, technological innovation depends on the


characteristics of the knowledge network and the knowledge linkages
of a firm with other entities . Due to the importance of interactions
between different national innovation systems, understanding
knowledge network is necessary for enhancing innovation capability.
By the end of the 1990s, it gave way to the upswing of the fifth
successive wave of technological paradigm that came with the
innovation of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies). A
higher level of ICT capital stock per capita allows a typical economy to
achieve a higher growth rate for given levels of growth in labor and
capital inputs . Due to the enormous contribution of the use of ICT in
economic growth, it advocates further the impact of ICT in contributing
to economic growth that occurs as a result of a country's development
partially assisted by the use of technology . Thus, it is important to
understand innovation capability and knowledge network of ICT in a
nation's economy.
Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan are also known as
East Asian Dragons. Four countries were noted for maintaining high
growth rates and rapid industrialization between 1970s and 1990s. In
21st century, with the four countries at or near to fully developed
status, attention has increasingly shifted to other Asian economies
which are experiencing rapid economic transformation at the present
time. Especially, India and China economies could become a much
larger force in the world economy . China and India together accounted
for roughly half of global GDP growth in 2005 . Consequently, this
research conducts a comprehensive study to investigate technological
innovation and knowledge network among six countries in Asia.
Restated, this study investigates four main issues related to
technological innovation and knowledge network in ICT among six
countries. First, indicators of technological innovation were evaluated

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(5) Tarun
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

and used to compare capability of technological innovation in ICT


between the six countries. Secondly, differences in innovation
configurations among six countries were manifested. Thirdly, relative
innovation strengths of these six countries were examined in five sub-
technological fields. Finally, this study consists of analyzing the
interactions into knowledge network among them; moreover, this study
manifests the difference of knowledge network in five sub-
technological field of ICT.
Comparison of innovation capability in ICT among six countries 2.1
Patent count
Patents actual granted are assigned a higher value than mere patent
applications because patents are only granted when they contain
technological innovations which exceed a certain level of newness .
Patent Count is a simple proxy for the summed value of those patents.
Patent Count defines the number of patents granted to a country during
a particular year. Fig. 1 displays the total number of patents granted in
ICT during six countries from 1976 to 2006. It had a low level of patent
count in ICT before the 1990 year, and had increased markedly over
time after the 1998 year, peaking in 2006 year.
Comparison of patent count in ICT during six countries from 1976 to
2006. Comparison of the numbers of patent granted among six
countries is not significantly different during 1976-1986. Both South
Korea and Taiwan had increased markedly over time after the 1991
year, peaking in 2006 year. Simultaneously, Singapore, Hong Kong and
India had a slightly growth tendency in number of patents. China had a
low level of patent count before the 2004 year, but it had increased
incrementally over time after the 2005 year, peaking in 2006 year.
Patent assigned to South Korea indices over 1976-2006 totaled 22,612.
Taiwan had the second highest (19,907) patent count. Singapore is the
third (1333). Hong Kong is the fourth (622). China and India received
only 440 and 81 patents, respectively. Both South Korea and Taiwan
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

account for almost 91.50% of total patents among six countries. That is,
South Korea and Taiwan are two major innovators in ICT among six
countries. However, the gap between the six countries in terms of
patent count has increased. Patent count assigned to South Korea and
Taiwan were similar to Hong Kong during 1986, but patent counts
assigned to South Korea and Taiwan were thirty times those assigned
to Hong Kong during 2006.
Citation
Patent quality is extremely heterogeneous with a few patents being of
high quality and most of being low quality. The underlying assumption
made in using patent citation to measure patent quality is that patents
that are highly cited, referred to in many subsequent patents, probably
contains important technological advances. Citation is measured by
total numbers of a country's patents are cited by later patents.
comparison of citation of ICT during six countries from 1976 to 2006.
Results of citations are similar to preceding results based on patent
count. South Korea and Taiwan account for almost 93.480% of total
citations among six countries. South Korea and Taiwan have higher
innovation quality than other four countries. Additionally, the gap
during the six countries in terms of citations has become broader. Total
citation of Hong Kong were more than South Korea and Taiwan during
1989, but total citation of South Korea and Taiwan were 22 times those
of Hong Kong during 2006.

(1) Sahil (2)Anurag (3) Harish (4) Vineet 11


(5) Tarun
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(TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND LABOUR HARMONY)

BIBLOGRAPHY

1. ET.COM
2. WIRED.COM
3. DEVISIONOFLABOUR.COM
4. FLIPKART.COM

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(5) Tarun
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