Está en la página 1de 449

West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 1

West Coast Publishing


Ocean 2014
Negative
Edited by Jim Hanson
Researchers
Alex Zendeh, Alyssa Lucas-Bolin, Ben Menzies, Eric Robinson,
Greta Stahl, Matt Stannard, William James Taylor

Thanks for using our Policy, LD, Public Forum, and Extemp Materials.

Please don’t share this material with anyone


outside of your school
including via print, email, dropbox, google drive, the web, etc.
We’re a small non-profit; please help us continue to provide our products.

Contact us at jim@wcdebate.com
www.wcdebate.com

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 2

Resolved: The United States federal


government should substantially increase
its non-military exploration and/or
development of the Earth's oceans.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 3

WEST COAST DEBATE


OCEAN 2014-2015
NEGATIVE
Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its non-military
exploration and/or development of the Earth's oceans.

Finding Arguments in this File


Use the table of contents on the next pages to find the evidence you need or the navigation bar on the left. We
have tried to make the table of contents as easy to use as possible. You’ll find scenario/impacts, affirmatives,
disadvantages, counterplans, and kritiks listed alphabetically in their categories.

Using the arguments in this File


We encourage you to be familiar with the evidence you use. Highlight (underline) the key lines you will use in the
evidence. Cut evidence from our files, incorporate your and others’ research and make new files. File the evidence
so that you can easily retrieve it when you need it in debate rounds. Practice reading the evidence out-loud;
Practice applying the arguments to your opponents’ positions; Practice defending your evidence in rebuttal
speeches.

Use West Coast Evidence as a Beginning


We hope you enjoy our evidence files and find them useful. In saying this, we want to make a strong statement
that we make when we coach and that we believe is vitally important to your success: DO NOT USE THIS EVIDENCE
AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR YOUR OWN RESEARCH. Instead, let it serve as a beginning. Let it inform you of important
arguments, of how to tag and organize your arguments, and to offer citations for further research. Don’t stagnate
in these files--build upon them by doing your own research for updates, new strategies, and arguments that
specifically apply to your opponents. In doing so, you’ll use our evidence to become a better debater.

Copying West Coast Evidence


Our policy gives you the freedom to use our evidence for educational purposes without violating our hard work.
 You may print and copy this evidence for those on your team.
 You may not electronically share nor distribute this evidence with anyone other than those on your team
unless you very substantially change each page of material that you share.
For unusual situations, you can e-mail us at jim@wcdebate.com and seek our consent.

Ordering West Coast Materials


1. Visit the West Coast Web Page at www.wcdebate.com
2. E-mail us at jim@wcdebate.com
3. Fax us at 877-781-5058

Copyright 2014. West Coast Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

Visit our web page!


www.wcdebate.com

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 4

Table of Contents
Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its non-military
exploration and/or development of the Earth's oceans. ......................................................... 2
WEST COAST DEBATE ................................................................................................................................ 3
Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................... 4
Debating on the Negative .................................................................................................... 13
Ocean Topicality-Definitions ................................................................................................ 17
Non-Military ........................................................................................................................................................18
Exploration ..........................................................................................................................................................19
And/Or ................................................................................................................................................................20
Development ......................................................................................................................................................21
Oceans ................................................................................................................................................................22

Ocean Topicality Shells ........................................................................................................ 23


1NC R&D .............................................................................................................................................................24
1NC Its =/= NGOs ................................................................................................................................................25
1NC Oceans = All .................................................................................................................................................26
1NC Oceans International ...................................................................................................................................27
1NC Non-Military ................................................................................................................................................28
1NC USFG = Not International Treaties ..............................................................................................................29
1NC International Cooperation ...........................................................................................................................30
1NC Exploration Means New ..............................................................................................................................31
1NC Development Is Minerals ............................................................................................................................32

Biodiversity of Ocean Fine ................................................................................................... 33


General Biodiversity ................................................................................................................................ 34
Biodiversity High Now .........................................................................................................................................35
De-extinction solves impacts ..............................................................................................................................36
No Extinction.......................................................................................................................................................37
AT: Keystone Species ..........................................................................................................................................38
Ocean-Specific Impacts ........................................................................................................................... 39
Oceans Alt Cause – Climate Change ...................................................................................................................40
Oceans Alt Cause – Climate Change ...................................................................................................................41
New Regulations Solve Oceans ...........................................................................................................................42
AT: Ocean Ecosystems/Biodiversity ....................................................................................................................43
AT: Overfishing ....................................................................................................................................................44
AT: Coral Reefs ....................................................................................................................................................45
AT: Ocean Acidification .......................................................................................................................................46

US China No Conflict ............................................................................................................ 47


No Conflict - General ...........................................................................................................................................48
No Conflict – East China Sea ...............................................................................................................................49
No Conflict – South China Sea .............................................................................................................................50
No Conflict - Taiwan ............................................................................................................................................51

US Russia No Conflict ........................................................................................................... 52

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 5

No Conflict – Ukraine ..........................................................................................................................................53


No Conflict – Arctic .............................................................................................................................................54
No Conflict – Missile Defense .............................................................................................................................55
No Conflict – Syria ...............................................................................................................................................56
No Conflict – Syria ...............................................................................................................................................57

Aquaculture Neg ................................................................................................................. 58


1NC Urban Aquaculture CP .................................................................................................................................59
2NC Solvency/Net Benefit Extension ..................................................................................................................60
2NC Avoids the Antibiotic Turn ...........................................................................................................................61
Politics Links ............................................................................................................................................ 62
Case Debate/Turns.................................................................................................................................. 63
1NC Environment Turn .......................................................................................................................................64
Environment Turn-Extensions.............................................................................................................................65
1NC Disease Turn ................................................................................................................................................67
Extensions-Disease Turn .....................................................................................................................................68
A2 Food Instability Advantage ............................................................................................................................69
Solvency ..............................................................................................................................................................71
Antibiotic Resistance Turn ..................................................................................................................................72
Biodiversity Defense ...........................................................................................................................................73
Biodiversity Keystone Flawed Theory .................................................................................................................74

Marine Reserves Negative ................................................................................................... 75


Topicality: Reserves and Protection Are Not Development ...............................................................................76
Topicality: Reserves and Protection Are Not Development ...............................................................................77
Protected Areas Don’t Solve ...............................................................................................................................78
Protected Areas Don’t Solve ...............................................................................................................................79
Barriers to PA Solvency .......................................................................................................................................80
Protected Areas Don’t Solve Biodiversity ...........................................................................................................81
Protected Areas Don’t Increase Fish Stocks ........................................................................................................82
Shift Disadvantage ..............................................................................................................................................83
Shift Disadvantage ..............................................................................................................................................84
Negative: Anthropocentrism Links......................................................................................................................85
Incentives Counterplan Solvency ........................................................................................................................87
Status Quo Fishery Management Solves ............................................................................................................88
Status Quo Fishery Management Solves ............................................................................................................89
High Seas Closure Counterplan: Solvency ...........................................................................................................90
High Seas Closure Counterplan: Solvency ...........................................................................................................91
Politics Links ........................................................................................................................................................92
Politics Links ........................................................................................................................................................93
Economy Links ....................................................................................................................................................94
Economy Links ....................................................................................................................................................95

Ocean Renewables MHK Negative ....................................................................................... 96


Off-Case................................................................................................................................................... 97
A-Spec / I-Spec violations....................................................................................................................................98
Reg-Neg CP solvency (Regulatory-Negotiation) ..................................................................................................99
Reg-Neg CP solvency (Regulatory-Negotiation) ................................................................................................100
Studies CP solvency ...........................................................................................................................................101
Studies CP solvency ...........................................................................................................................................103
A2: Inherency ....................................................................................................................................... 104

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 6

Federal support for MHK is high now ...............................................................................................................105


A2: Solvency ......................................................................................................................................... 106
MHK technologies fail .......................................................................................................................................107
Tidal/Wave Energy Bad ......................................................................................................................... 108
Tidal Energy – fails/not effective ......................................................................................................................109
Wave Energy - fails/not effective ......................................................................................................................110
Wave Energy - fails/not effective ......................................................................................................................112
Wave Energy – won’t displace fossil fuels ........................................................................................................113
A2: Biodiversity Advantage .................................................................................................................. 114
Marine renewables kill species .........................................................................................................................115
A2: artificial “reef effect” – General answers ..................................................................................................117
A2: Marine biodiversity – General impact answers .........................................................................................118
A2: Marine Biodiversity – Alternate causes (general) ......................................................................................120
A2: Climate Change Advantage ............................................................................................................ 122
Marine renewables cannot solve/bad ..............................................................................................................123
No solvency / Emissions are not key .................................................................................................................124
Climate change impact answers .......................................................................................................................125
Alternate Causes to warming/climate change ..................................................................................................127

Offshore Wind Negative .................................................................................................... 128


Off-Case................................................................................................................................................. 129
A/I-SPEC Violations ...........................................................................................................................................130
Politics Links – GOP Hates the Plan ...................................................................................................................131
Studies CP Solvency ..........................................................................................................................................132
A2: Inherency ....................................................................................................................................... 134
The federal government is increasing offshore wind now ...............................................................................135
A2: Advantage: Economy .................................................................................................................... 136
A2: Manufacturing ...........................................................................................................................................137
A2: U.S. Key to Global Economy .......................................................................................................................138
U.S. & Global Growth High Now .......................................................................................................................139
Impacts Answers ...............................................................................................................................................140
A2: Advantage: Hurricanes.................................................................................................................. 141
A2: Hurricanes Getting Worse .........................................................................................................................142
A2: Jacobsen / The Stanford Study ..................................................................................................................143
A2: Biodiversity / Ecosystems ..........................................................................................................................144
A2: Biodiversity / Ecosystems ..........................................................................................................................145
A2: Biodiversity / Ecosystems ..........................................................................................................................146
A2: Advantage: Climate ....................................................................................................................... 147
A2: IPCC Alarmism ............................................................................................................................................148
Reducing Emissions Will Not Solve ...................................................................................................................149
CO2 Emissions Good .........................................................................................................................................150
A2: Advantage: Ocean Biodiversity ..................................................................................................... 151
A2: Biodiversity – Avian Collisions ...................................................................................................................152
A2: Biodiversity – Noise Pollution ....................................................................................................................153
A2: Solvency ......................................................................................................................................... 154
General Solvency Answers ................................................................................................................................155

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 7

Technology Fails / Too Many Barriers ...............................................................................................................156


Technology Fails / Too Many Barriers ...............................................................................................................157
No Infrastructure ..............................................................................................................................................158
Too Costly .........................................................................................................................................................159

UNCLOS NEG ..................................................................................................................... 160


Case Answers ........................................................................................................................................ 161
1NC Arctic .........................................................................................................................................................162
1NC Arctic .........................................................................................................................................................163
2NC Arctic—Status Quo Solves .........................................................................................................................164
2NC Arctic—No War .........................................................................................................................................165
1NC China..........................................................................................................................................................166
1NC China..........................................................................................................................................................167
2NC China—Can’t Solve Chinese Interpretation ...............................................................................................168
2NC China—No War ..........................................................................................................................................169
2NC China—No Escalation ................................................................................................................................170
1NC Navy...........................................................................................................................................................171
2NC Navy—Naval Power Inevitable ..................................................................................................................172
2NC Navy—Navigational Access Inev ...............................................................................................................173
2NC Navy—AT Damaging Interpretations ........................................................................................................174
CPs ......................................................................................................................................................... 175
Statutory Enactment Counterplan ....................................................................................................................176
Statutory Enactment Counterplan ....................................................................................................................177
Arctic Submarines Counterplan ........................................................................................................................178
2NC Arctic Submarines CP—Solves Arctic Drilling ............................................................................................179
Disadvantages ....................................................................................................................................... 180
Politics DA .........................................................................................................................................................181
Economy DA ......................................................................................................................................................182
Economy DA – Litigation Link ............................................................................................................................183
Economy DA – Sovereignty Link........................................................................................................................184
Economy DA – Sovereignty Link........................................................................................................................185
Constitution Disadvantage ................................................................................................................................186
Topicality ............................................................................................................................................... 187
Topicality - 1NC Exploration/Development ......................................................................................................188

China DA ........................................................................................................................... 189


1NC – China Disad .............................................................................................................................................190
1NC – China Disad .............................................................................................................................................191
1NC – China Disad .............................................................................................................................................192
Uniqueness/Brink..............................................................................................................................................193
Links- Generic....................................................................................................................................................194
Link- Oceans Key ...............................................................................................................................................195
Link Boosters .....................................................................................................................................................196
Links- Fisheries ..................................................................................................................................................197
Links- Ocean Science .........................................................................................................................................198
Links- Sea Bed Mining .......................................................................................................................................199
Link- Soft Power ................................................................................................................................................200
Internal Link – Asian Institutions.......................................................................................................................201
Internal Link – Asian Institutions.......................................................................................................................202
Impact– Asian Instability ...................................................................................................................................203
Impact- Asian Institutions- Terror & Disease ....................................................................................................204

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 8

Impact- Asian Institutions- Economy ................................................................................................................205


Impact- Containment ........................................................................................................................................206
Impact- Chinese Soft Power ..............................................................................................................................207

China Alternative Energy DA .............................................................................................. 208


Explanation .......................................................................................................................................................209
1NC China Alternative Energy DA .....................................................................................................................210
1NC China Alternative Energy DA .....................................................................................................................211
Yes Chinese Ocean Energy ................................................................................................................................212
Yes Chinese Alternative Energy ........................................................................................................................213
Yes Chinese Alternative Energy ........................................................................................................................214
Yes Chinese Alternative Energy ........................................................................................................................215
Yes Chinese OTEC ..............................................................................................................................................216
Link – OTEC .......................................................................................................................................................217
Link – Offshore Wind ........................................................................................................................................218
Chinese Alternative Energy Good .....................................................................................................................219
Energy Key to China Econ .................................................................................................................................220
Chinese Growth Good – US Economy ...............................................................................................................221
Chinese Growth Good – War ............................................................................................................................222
Chinese Growth Good – War ............................................................................................................................223
Chinese Growth Good – War ............................................................................................................................224
Chinese Growth Good – Taiwan .......................................................................................................................225
Chinese Growth Good – Sino-Russian War .......................................................................................................226
Chinese Growth Good – Sino-Indian War .........................................................................................................227
AT: China is Resilient ........................................................................................................................................228
Chinese S&T Good – Warming ..........................................................................................................................229
Yes China Growth + Innovation ........................................................................................................................230
No China War ....................................................................................................................................................231

Fishing Industry DA............................................................................................................ 232


1NC Fishing Industry Shell 1/2 ..........................................................................................................................233
1NC Fishing Industry Shell 2/2 ..........................................................................................................................234
Uniqueness............................................................................................................................................ 235
Commercial Fisheries Are Rebounding .............................................................................................................236
Commercial Fisheries Are Rebounding .............................................................................................................237
Economic Growth Increasing Now ....................................................................................................................238
Economic Growth Increasing Now ....................................................................................................................239
Links ...................................................................................................................................................... 240
Links – Aquaculture ...........................................................................................................................................241
Links – Marine Reserves / Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) .............................................................................242
Links – Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) ..............................................................................................................243
Links – Offshore Wind .......................................................................................................................................244
Links – Offshore Wind .......................................................................................................................................245
Links - Regulations ............................................................................................................................................246
Links - Regulations ............................................................................................................................................247
Links – Tidal / Wave Energy ..............................................................................................................................248
Links – UNCLOS (Law of the Sea Treaty) ...........................................................................................................249
Links – UNCLOS (Law of the Sea Treaty) ...........................................................................................................250
Internal Link Extension.......................................................................................................................... 251
Displacement Hurts Fishers and Income ..........................................................................................................252
Displacement Hurts Fishers and Income ..........................................................................................................253

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 9

Impacts.................................................................................................................................................. 254
Fishing is Key to the Economy ...........................................................................................................................255
Economic Decline is Disastrous .........................................................................................................................256
Economic Growth Is Good ................................................................................................................................257

Ocean Climate Change DA ................................................................................................. 258


1NC Shell-UQ.....................................................................................................................................................259
1NC Shell- Development Link ............................................................................................................................260
1NC Shell- Exploration Link ...............................................................................................................................261
1NC Shell- Impact ..............................................................................................................................................262
***UQ Ext.*** ..................................................................................................................................................263
UQ- Tipping Point ..............................................................................................................................................264
UQ- Tipping Point ..............................................................................................................................................265
UQ- Tipping Point ..............................................................................................................................................266
UQ- Structural ...................................................................................................................................................267
UQ- International Efforts Now ..........................................................................................................................268
UQ- International Efforts Now ..........................................................................................................................269
UQ- Whale Populations on Brink ......................................................................................................................270
***Link Ext.*** .................................................................................................................................................271
Exploration- Sonar ............................................................................................................................................272
Exploration- Sonar Kills Species ........................................................................................................................273
Exploration- Oil (Offshore Drilling) ...................................................................................................................274
Exploration- Natural Gas ...................................................................................................................................275
Exploration/ Production (Oil/Gas)- Noise Pollution ..........................................................................................276
Ships- Gotta Build More ....................................................................................................................................277
Ships- Burn Dirty Fuel........................................................................................................................................278
Development- General......................................................................................................................................279
Development- Oil (Offshore Drilling) ................................................................................................................280
Development- Oil (Offshore Drilling) ................................................................................................................281
Geothermal .......................................................................................................................................................282
Tourism .............................................................................................................................................................283
***Impact Ext.*** ............................................................................................................................................284
Whales- Environment- Species/ Climate Change..............................................................................................285
Whales- Environment- Laundry List ..................................................................................................................286
Whales- Economy .............................................................................................................................................287
Overfishing/ Fish loss- A/T “Species Resilient” .................................................................................................288
Overfishing/ Species Loss- “Tipping Point” .......................................................................................................289
Overfishing/ Shark Loss—Coral Reef ................................................................................................................290
Coral Reef- Laundry List ....................................................................................................................................291
Noise Pollution- Sonar ......................................................................................................................................292
Noise Pollution- Sonar ......................................................................................................................................293
Oil Production Kills Environment ......................................................................................................................294
Oil Production Kills Environment ......................................................................................................................295
Oil Production= Runaway Climate Change .......................................................................................................296
Oil Production Kills Environment ......................................................................................................................297
Ocean Acidification= Species Loss ....................................................................................................................298
Ocean Acidification= Species Loss ....................................................................................................................299
Sea Level Rise ....................................................................................................................................................300
Sea Level Rise ....................................................................................................................................................301
Oceans Prevent Human Extinction/ Turns Economy ........................................................................................302
Oceans Prevent Human Extinction/ Turns Economy ........................................................................................303
Oceans Prevent Human Extinction ...................................................................................................................304
Oceans Prevent Human Extinction ...................................................................................................................305

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 10

Oceans Prevent Human Extinction ...................................................................................................................306


Oceans Prevent Human Extinction ...................................................................................................................307
Disad O/W Exploration .....................................................................................................................................308
Climate Change= Human Extinction .................................................................................................................309
Climate Change= Real/ Human Caused/ Extinction ..........................................................................................310
***Random Section*** ....................................................................................................................................311
A/T “Protected Zones Check Impact” ...............................................................................................................312
Offshore Drilling- Spills Inevitable.....................................................................................................................313

EU CP ................................................................................................................................ 314
EU CP – 1NC Shell ..............................................................................................................................................315
Solvency – Ocean Energy Development ...........................................................................................................316
Solvency – Indian Ocean ...................................................................................................................................317
Solvency – Pacific ..............................................................................................................................................318
Solvency – Deep Sea Fishing .............................................................................................................................319
Solvency – Maritime Security ...........................................................................................................................320
Solvency – Maritime Research ..........................................................................................................................321
Solvency – Marine Biotech................................................................................................................................322
Solvency – Marine Sensors ...............................................................................................................................323
Solvency – Biodiversity .....................................................................................................................................324
Solvency – Fines ................................................................................................................................................325
Solvency – Seabed Mapping .............................................................................................................................326
Solvency – Satellite Programs ...........................................................................................................................327
Solvency – Arctic Climate ..................................................................................................................................328
Solvency – Arctic Council/Exploration ..............................................................................................................329
2NC AT Perm .....................................................................................................................................................330
2NC AT Perm .....................................................................................................................................................331
2NC AT No Funding ...........................................................................................................................................332
2NC AT “All Show, No Action”...........................................................................................................................333

Geoengineering CP ............................................................................................................ 334


Geoengineering Explanation ................................................................................................................. 335
1NC Iron Fertilization CP ...................................................................................................................................336
Iron Fertilization Works ....................................................................................................................................337
AT: International Disagreement .......................................................................................................................338
AT: Iron Fertiliztaion Bad..................................................................................................................................339
Geoengineering Solves – Inevitable ..................................................................................................................340
Geoengineering Solves – Inevitable ..................................................................................................................341
Geoengineering Solves – Cheap........................................................................................................................342
AT: Acid Rain ....................................................................................................................................................343
AT: Monsoons ..................................................................................................................................................344

Seabasing CP ..................................................................................................................... 345


Seabasing Explanation .......................................................................................................................... 346
1NC Seabasing CP .............................................................................................................................................347
Seabasing Good – Hegemony ...........................................................................................................................348
Seabasing Outweighs Softpower ......................................................................................................................349
AT: No Capability ..............................................................................................................................................350
AT: No Capability ..............................................................................................................................................351
AT: Links to Politics ..........................................................................................................................................352
Eco Security Kritik ................................................................................................................................. 353
1NC Eco Security K ............................................................................................................................................354

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 11

1NC Eco Security K ............................................................................................................................................355


Link – Ocean Resources ....................................................................................................................................356
Link – Biodiversity .............................................................................................................................................357
Link – Eco Managerialism..................................................................................................................................358
Link – Environment ...........................................................................................................................................359
Link – Environment ...........................................................................................................................................360
Link – Ocean Diseases .......................................................................................................................................361
Link – Climate Change .......................................................................................................................................362
Link – Climate Change .......................................................................................................................................363
Link – Energy Security .......................................................................................................................................364
Link – State Reform ...........................................................................................................................................365
Link – Law..........................................................................................................................................................366
Impact – Security Bad .......................................................................................................................................367
Impact – Security Bad .......................................................................................................................................368
Impact – Turns Environment.............................................................................................................................369
Impact – Violence .............................................................................................................................................370
Impact – War ....................................................................................................................................................371
AT: Security Inevitable ......................................................................................................................................372
AT: Heg/Realism Key to Peace .........................................................................................................................373
Yes Global Violence ...........................................................................................................................................374
Alternative – Rejection .....................................................................................................................................375
Framework ........................................................................................................................................................376
Framework ........................................................................................................................................................377
Framework ........................................................................................................................................................378
AT: Perm...........................................................................................................................................................379
AT: Perm...........................................................................................................................................................380
AT: Perm...........................................................................................................................................................381
Predictions Fail ..................................................................................................................................................382

Eco Security Kritik .............................................................................................................. 383


1NC Eco Security K ............................................................................................................................................384
1NC Eco Security K ............................................................................................................................................385
Link – Ocean Resources ....................................................................................................................................386
Link – Biodiversity .............................................................................................................................................387
Link – Eco Managerialism..................................................................................................................................388
Link – Environment ...........................................................................................................................................389
Link – Environment ...........................................................................................................................................390
Link – Ocean Diseases .......................................................................................................................................391
Link – Climate Change .......................................................................................................................................392
Link – Climate Change .......................................................................................................................................393
Link – Energy Security .......................................................................................................................................394
Link – State Reform ...........................................................................................................................................395
Link – Law..........................................................................................................................................................396
Impact – Security Bad .......................................................................................................................................397
Impact – Security Bad .......................................................................................................................................398
Impact – Turns Environment.............................................................................................................................399
Impact – Violence .............................................................................................................................................400
Impact – War ....................................................................................................................................................401
AT: Security Inevitable ......................................................................................................................................402
AT: Heg/Realism Key to Peace .........................................................................................................................403
Yes Global Violence ...........................................................................................................................................404
Alternative – Rejection .....................................................................................................................................405
Framework ........................................................................................................................................................406

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 12

Framework ........................................................................................................................................................407
Framework ........................................................................................................................................................408
AT: Perm...........................................................................................................................................................409
AT: Perm...........................................................................................................................................................410
AT: Perm...........................................................................................................................................................411
Predictions Fail ..................................................................................................................................................412

Ocean Management Kritik ................................................................................................. 413


1NC Shell ...........................................................................................................................................................414
Links ...................................................................................................................................................... 418
Links – General Topic ........................................................................................................................................419
Links – Alternative / Renewable Energy ...........................................................................................................421
Links – Aquaculture (Marine) / Mariculture .....................................................................................................422
Links – “Biodiversity” / “Sustainability” Rhetoric..............................................................................................423
Links – Ecological Crisis/Security .......................................................................................................................425
Links – Fisheries Management ..........................................................................................................................428
Links – Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) / Marine Reserves .............................................................................431
Impacts.................................................................................................................................................. 433
Impacts – Biopolitics .........................................................................................................................................434
Impacts – Epistemology / Knowledge Production ............................................................................................436
Impacts – Rhetoric ............................................................................................................................................437
Impacts – Serial Policy Failure ...........................................................................................................................438
Impacts – Standing Reserve ..............................................................................................................................439
Impacts – Technological Enframing ..................................................................................................................442
Alternative Extensions .......................................................................................................................... 444
“Do Nothing” Alternative Extension .................................................................................................................445
Permutation Answers ........................................................................................................................... 447
Permutations Answers ......................................................................................................................................448

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 13

Debating on the Negative


Ben Menzies, Whitman College

Being negative on the oceans topic will require significant adaptation to the specifics of the affirmative.
Of course, this is the case on any topic, but because of the potentially drastic variability of topical
affirmatives, few generic negative arguments offer strategic paths to victory. The vast majority of
winning negative strategies will rely either on mitigating the affirmative case through an agent
counterplan or case defense and winning a small risk of a disadvantage or on simply going for a critique
of the affirmative. We will discuss how to implement several potential strategies in this section, but you
should regard all of these strategies as guidelines for further research depending on the affirmatives you
expect to debate.

Topicality
With such a massive topic, topicality seems like a natural choice for negatives to have ready.
Unfortunately, the wording of the oceans topic virtually guarantees no non-arbitrary limits to topical
affirmatives, with almost no limiting language contained in the resolution. Since few of the terms in the
resolution are even well-established in the relevant literature, negative teams will have a hard time
winning a definitive link to any topicality interpretation, making topicality an unusually difficult
proposition on this resolution. In general, then, negative teams will be best served by forwarding
substantive strategies to answer the affirmative. On the other hand, in the rare instance in which the
negative has a clear topicality objection, negatives should be guaranteed the high ground due to the
sheer size of the topic – no pushing of boundaries necessary.

Domestic actor counterplan, federal government disadvantage


In this strategy, the negative team forwards a counterplan advocating a different domestic actor
performs the mandates of the affirmative plan, with a net benefit articulating a disadvantage to the
federal government as a whole acting. This strategy is best deployed against affirmatives that
successfully isolate reasons why US actors are key but perhaps does not have a large impact upon the
international sphere, obviating the usefulness of perception disadvantages.
Potential counterplans in this setting include the 50 States counterplan, a specific federal agent
such as NOAA or the EPA, the military, or a different branch of government (specifically the courts or the
executive branch). Any of these actors can potentially implement US-specific action like the affirmative
plan while capturing the net benefit of being less controversial than the federal government. In most
cases, the decision of which counterplan to read should be based on specific solvency evidence and
which counterplan links less to the relevant disadvantage. For instance, in cases in which the affirmative
weakens federal regulations, a federal actor such as the courts or a federal agency would be superior,
while for a plan that provides economic incentives for a particular action, the states will likely be
sufficient to solve.
Disadvantages that function as net benefits in this strategy are likely to be based on the federal
government’s greater perception as a lightning rod of controversy. For instance, agenda politics
disadvantages will focus on the controversy of the plan derailing key elements of the federal lawmaking

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 14

agenda, a disadvantage that can be averted by implementing a similar policy through less perceptible
means (such as a federal agency).

International actor counterplan, domestic disadvantage


In this strategy, the negative team tests the necessity of US action by advocating that another
country or international organization performs the mandates of the plan while presenting a
disadvantage to US action. This strategy could be deployed against affirmatives that have large effects
on international geopolitics, such as by operating in international waters or conforming to international
treaties. Additionally, this strategy could be deployed against affirmatives that do actions that are not
US-specific, such as developing particular energy resources (technologies or oil drilling) that solve
problems affecting international actors (climate change or the global economy) and thus can be resolved
as easily through international actors.
Individual countries are likely to be most effective as counterplan agents for this strategy, as
most international organizations either have significant solvency problems or include the United States,
making the counterplan arguably uncompetitive. Therefore, which country to use as actor is mostly a
question of what the affirmative does. Drilling for oil may be best accomplished by a country like Canada
whereas scientific development could be best performed by wealthy, environmentally-conscious
countries in Europe that have well-established technological development records. One key to keep in
mind is that many affirmative advantages will have embedded reasons why a particular international
actor is bad; for instance, an advantage about drilling for oil in order to resolve US access to fossil fuels is
also a reason a China counterplan would probably not solve the advantage.
Disadvantages to US action are broad, although most are likely to have significant weaknesses,
making counterplan solvency important. After all, if the counterplan solves all of the affirmative,
winning any risk of the disadvantage becomes sufficient to win the debate. Any disadvantage from the
previous strategy related to federal policymaking would be acceptable, such as a US agenda politics
disadvantage or an elections disadvantage. In addition, affirmatives that are likely to trigger
international backlash would be acceptable net benefits, such as affirmatives that countries like China
could perceive as threatening their spheres of influence.

Status quo, major disadvantage


Most affirmative teams will have significant incentive to read non-controversial affirmatives that
make minimal changes to the status quo so as to avoid most disadvantage links. However, it is likely that
at least some affirmatives will be major changes to the status quo. In this case, it may be more strategic
to simply attack the case, defend the status quo, and win a large link to a sizeable disadvantage.
A good example might be a global warming disadvantage to an affirmative that drastically
increases oil production globally. If the negative can win that oil production will radically diminish in the
status quo, thus eliminating a major source of global CO2 emissions, the affirmative must merely win
that the benefits of the affirmative are insignificant. Generally, success in this strategy will depend on
the affirmative claiming a major effect on the status quo. In this case, the affirmative could be arguing
that a major increase in global oil supply is necessary to preserve the global economy, thus granting the
affirmative the necessary inroads to win an internal link to the warming disadvantage. Such an
advantage would likely outweigh any generic negative disadvantage, such as the politics disadvantage,
that relies on a counterplan to work. Negative teams should take advantage of affirmative boldness with
their own large disadvantages in the rare instances that they may link.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 15

Critique
The critique offers a means to defeat a broad range of affirmatives without necessarily
responding to the specifics of the policy in question. On a broad topic like the oceans topic in which
direct answers to specific affirmatives may be difficult to produce and few disadvantages offer credible
links or impacts to outweigh the affirmative, critiques are a way of generating a large “disadvantage” to
the affirmative due to the existence of a problematic ontology or epistemology.
Ecological criticisms are likely to link to virtually any topical affirmative. As any affirmative will
require conceiving of the ocean as a tool to be operationalized by humans or the United States or as a
space to be conquered or colonized through exploration, critiques based on the work of Martin
Heidegger arguing against ontologies, or states of being, based on dominating nature will be persuasive.
These critiques can gain rhetorical currency by noting language used by the affirmative intended to
“improve” the environment through management, a line of thought critiqued effectively by Timothy
Luke. Furthermore, work by ecofeminists emphasizes the ways in which masculine patriarchal notions of
control over the environment, which itself is represented as feminized, reinforce patriarchy broadly in
ways that lead to daily patriarchal injustices and global planetary destruction.

Potential negative arguments


China influence disadvantage
China reacts aggressively to increased US presence in international waters, especially near China.
Biodiversity disadvantage
Increased human development of the ocean has cascading negative effects on ocean ecosystems. For
instance, oil drilling could destroy crucial marine habitats.
Tradeoff disadvantage
Increasing funding for ocean development or research necessarily trades off with other government-
funded environmental protection programs, which could potentially spur worse crises. Even if there is
no link to government budgets specifically, the market signals sent by government policy likely could
cause capital flight away from established important industries.
Economy disadvantage
Increasing protected areas or environmental protection generally could interfere with economic activity
in the ocean by making business prohibitively expensive through an explosion of “red tape,” cascading
throughout the economy.

United Nations counterplan


The United Nations implements a policy for its member countries to do similar activities to the plan,
avoiding disadvantages to US-centric action.
China counterplan
China implements a policy similar to the plan mandates, avoiding disadvantages to US infringement on
Chinese interests.
Canada counterplan
Canada implements a policy similar to the plan mandates, avoiding disadvantages to US action while
retaining most benefits to US action by having an ally implement the policy (such as access to oil).
Enforcement counterplan
Rather than developing new policies, the US could simply enforce existing regulations in more effective
manner, such as prohibitions against illegal fishing and poaching, cutting off the problem at its source
without further legislation.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 16

Ecofeminism critique
The environment is constructed by patriarchal discourses as a feminized space in need of masculinist
“exploration” and “development,” fulfilling masculine fantasies of control and domination.
Heidegger critique
Instrumentalization of the natural environment engages in technological and calculative thinking,
making ontological reflection impossible and endorsing an emphasis on destructive piecemeal
“solutions” that merely replicate policy errors.
Imperialism critique
Representation of the US as responsible for “solving” the problems of the ocean as a whole implies that
the US owns the global ocean. This reinscribes US dominance, particularly over coastal and island
communities that are overwhelmingly victims of colonialism.

Conclusion
Unlike recent topics, negative teams must become accustomed to the idea of having multiple
“go-to” strategies highly dependent on the affirmative in question. Few good generic negative
strategies exist, and the strategies outlined above are highly dependent on the context of the debate.
Beginning by outlining answers to the affirmatives published by West Coast publishing will likely prepare
you for most genres of relevant debates on the oceans topic.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 17

Ocean Topicality-Definitions
Resolution
Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its non-
military exploration and/or development of the Earth’s oceans.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 18

Non-Military
Non-military excludes technologies that spillover to military use
R. Kenton Musgrave, Senior Judge in the United States Court of International Trade, 1-7-2003,
UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION v. UNITED STATES, lexis nexis
To obtain duty-free treatment, Note 3(c)(iv) states "that the imported article has been imported for use in civil aircraft, [and] that it
will be so used . . . ." (Emphasis added.) United Technologies hinges its statutory argument that the phrase "for use in civil aircraft" means that
the imported parts need not be actually installed on civil aircraft upon two premises. First, it asserts that the language of Note 3(c)(iv), that
"'civil aircraft' means
all aircraft other than aircraft purchased for use by the Department of Defense or the
United States Coast Guard," dictates that "for use in civil aircraft" merely means non-military aircraft and parts.
Second, it contends that the absence of any language explicitly mandating "installation" on an aircraft demonstrates that none is required. We
agree with Customs' interpretation that Note 3(c)(iv) requires that covered parts be used in actual flight. However, because it relies on one
subsequent Headquarters Ruling, and discusses it only in a conclusory manner, we think it is of minimal persuasive value. See Mead, 533 U.S. at
235 (stating that HN11Go to this Headnote in the case.Customs' classification ruling's power to persuade is [**12] dependent upon "the merit
of its writer's thoroughness, logic, and expertness, its fit with prior interpretations, and any other sources of weight"). As with the Agreement,
the adjective "civil" defines "civil aircraft" as non-military, but it does not affect the term "for use in civil aircraft." We need not reconstrue the
meaning of "for use in civil aircraft" because Note 3(c)(iv) is entitled "Articles Eligible for Duty-Free Treatment Pursuant to the Agreement on
Trade in Civil Aircraft," and we see no conflict between Note 3(c)(iv) and the Agreement. Thus HN12Go to this Headnote in the case.we
conclude that Note
3(c)(iv) does not accord duty-free treatment to experimental civil aircraft parts which are
not intended for installation on civil aircraft. The absence of separate "installation on an aircraft" language is irrelevant. The
phrase "that it will be so used," like "incorporation therein" from the Agreement, requires installation; United Technologies
cannot aver that the parts will be so used.

Non-military means not involving armed forces


Oxford Dictionary of American English, no date, “nonmilitary,” Oxford Dictionaries,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/nonmilitary
Not belonging to, characteristic of, or involving the armed forces; civilian:
“the widespread destruction of nonmilitary targets”

“Military” includes the entire staff of the Department of Defense


Black’s Law Dictionary, 1990, 5th Edition, p 92 “Military”
Pertaining to war or to the army; concerned with war. Also the whole of military forces, staff, etc. under
the Department of Defense.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 19

Exploration
Exploration means discovery – broad definitions are specifically key to education
about oceans
NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003, quoting NOAA 2000, Exploration of
the Seas: Voyage Into the Unknown, Committee on Exploration of the Seas, National Research Council,
http://explore.noaa.gov/sites/OER/Documents/national-research-council-voyage.pdf
As defined by the President’s Panel on Ocean Exploration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2000), exploration is
discovery through disciplined, diverse observations and the recording of findings. Ocean exploration has
included rigorous, systematic observation and documentation of the biological, chemical, physical, geological, and
archaeological aspects of the ocean in the three dimensions of space and in time. This definition of exploration is much broader than the
definition one would find, for example, within the context for the extractive industries, where exploration is a search for
hydrocarbon or mineral deposits. More general approaches allow researchers to develop and ask questions that
are not rooted in specific hypotheses and that often lead to unexpected answers — a difficult task to
promote within the current approaches to research funding.

Exploration is limited to searching for resources


Black’s Law Dictionary 1990, 5th Edition, “Exploration,” p 579
The examination and investigation of land supposed to contain valuable minerals, by drilling, boring,
sinking shafts, driving tunnels, and other means, for the purpose of discovering the presence of ore and
its extent.

Exploration is limited to searching for natural resources


Oxford English Dictionary, no date given, accessed May 4, 2014, “Exploration,”
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/exploration
1The action of searching an area for natural resources. ‘onshore oil and gas exploration’

Especially true in the context of ocean policy


Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, PL 106-580 43 U.S.C. 1301 Sec. 2, 2000,
http://www.epw.senate.gov/ocsla.pdf Accessed May 4, 2014
The term “exploration” means the process of searching for minerals, including (1) geophysical surveys
where magnetic, gravity, seismic, or other systems are used to detect or imply the presence of such
minerals, and (2) any drilling, whether on or off known geological structures, including the drilling of a
well in which a discovery of oil or natural gas in paying quantities is made and the drilling of any
additional delineation well after such discovery which is needed to delineate any reservoir and to enable
the lessee to determine whether to proceed with development and production.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 20

And/Or
And/or means either or both – means affirmative plans must pertain to exploration or
development or both
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1990, 5th Edition, “And/Or,” p 86
“And/or” means either or both of. Poucher v. State, 287 Ala. 731, 240 So.2d 695, 695.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 21

Development
Development means activities carrying a resource through to full scale utilization
UNESCO, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1-31-1964, “A Definition of
Natural Resources,” Conference on the Organization of Research and Training in Africa in Relation to the
Study, Conservation and Utilization of Natural Resources,
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001436/143605eb.pdf
6. Stages in developing a resource. Once a natural resource of real significance to the country is recognized or discovered, whether it be a
mineral deposit, a rich soil suitable for development in cultivation, or an area of wild life and fine scenery appropriate as a national park,
there should be an unbroken sequence of scientific and technical study and operations right through to
full scale utilization. This generally includes many intermediate stages, such as small scale experiments to check
that the resource is theoretically capable of development, pilot projects to test the practicability of methods, with a special eye also
to conservation as well as to exploitation. At a later stage it is likely that economic studies will be necessary into, for instance, the
establishment of markets and the organization and costs of production. Each problem needs to be gone into as
deeply as it is necessary to solve it, but with the minimum wastage of effort, money and time.

Development means converting minerals into useable resources


Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, PL 106-580 43 U.S.C. 1301 Sec. 2, 2000,
http://www.epw.senate.gov/ocsla.pdf Accessed May 4, 2014
The term “development” means those activities which take place following discovery of minerals in
paying quantities, including geophysical activity, drilling, platform construction, and operation of all
onshore support facilities, and which are for the purpose of ultimately producing the minerals
discovered.

Development requires international cooperation in the context of ocean policy


NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, no date, “NOAA Fisheries, International
Development,”
http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/ia/international_development/international_development.html
NOAA Fisheries has the authority to engage in international cooperation and development activities
with other countries in order to implement the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Our international development
work builds strategic partnerships with other nations , particularly with developing countries, to
promote sustainable and responsible management of fisheries and other relevant marine resources at
the national, regional, and global levels.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 22

Oceans
Oceans can’t be under the jurisdiction of a single country
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1990, 5th Edition, p 1080
The main or open sea; the high sea; that portion of the sea which does not lie within the body of any
country and is not subject to the territorial jurisdiction or control of any country, but is open, free, and
common to the use of all nations. U.S. v. Rodgers, 150 U.S. 249, 14 S.Ct. 109, 37 L.Ed 1071. Body of salt
water that covers over 70% of earth’s surface.

There is only one ocean – the plan must affect the entire ocean
NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, revised 1-23-2014, “There is only one global
ocean,” http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/howmanyoceans.html
While there is only one global ocean , the vast body of water that covers 71 percent of the Earth is
geographically divided into distinct named regions. The boundaries between these regions have evolved
over time for a variety of historical, cultural, geographical, and scientific reasons.

Seas are distinct – not oceans


National Ocean Service, 3-25-2014, “What's the difference between an ocean and a sea?” NOAA,
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/oceanorsea.html
Many people use the terms "ocean" and "sea" interchangeably when speaking about the ocean, but
there is a difference between the two terms when speaking of geography (the study of the Earth's
surface). Seas are smaller than oceans and are usually located where the land and ocean meet. Typically,
seas are partially enclosed by land.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 23

Ocean Topicality Shells

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 24

1NC R&D
A. Interpretation: Development means activities carrying a resource through to full
scale utilization
UNESCO, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1-31-1964, “A Definition of
Natural Resources,” Conference on the Organization of Research and Training in Africa in Relation to the
Study, Conservation and Utilization of Natural Resources,
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001436/143605eb.pdf
6. Stages in developing a resource. Once a natural resource of real significance to the country is recognized or discovered, whether it be a
mineral deposit, a rich soil suitable for development in cultivation, or an area of wild life and fine scenery appropriate as a national park,
there should be an unbroken sequence of scientific and technical study and operations right through to
full scale utilization. This generally includes many intermediate stages, such as small scale experiments to check
that the resource is theoretically capable of development, pilot projects to test the practicability of methods, with a special eye also
to conservation as well as to exploitation. At a later stage it is likely that economic studies will be necessary into, for instance, the
establishment of markets and the organization and costs of production. Each problem needs to be gone into as
deeply as it is necessary to solve it, but with the minimum wastage of effort, money and time.

B. Violation: the plan funds preliminary small-scale research

C. Standards
1. Limits explosion – allowing the affirmative to advocate any hypothetical technology
permits an infinite regression to science fiction technologies that the negative can
never be adequately prepared to debate
2. Ground – the topic calls for development – research into technologies that cannot
be utilized currently should be negative counterplan ground
D. Voter: Topicality is a voting issue – it is an a priori prima facie burden that the
affirmative team has failed to establish

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 25

1NC Its =/= NGOs


A. Interpretation: “its” refers to the United States federal government and requires
the federal government to effect a direct increase in the provision of exploration or
development
American Heritage Dictionary, 2014, 5th Edition, “its,”
http://www.ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?q=its
The possessive form of it.

B. Violation: The affirmative increases the exploration and/or development provided


by non-governmental organizations, not the United States federal government
C. Standards
1. Grammatical Precision: the meaning of the resolution can only be determined by
assessing the direct relationship between the words contained therein. It’s specifically
key to build awareness of the details of policies.
2. Ground: it is impossible for the negative to be prepared to debate about every
possible organization concerned with exploring and/or developing the ocean. Only the
federal government provides a sufficient locus for negation by being engaged in high
profile controversies and the subject of expert analysis
D. Voter: Topicality is a voting issue – it is an a priori prima facie burden that the
affirmative team has failed to establish

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 26

1NC Oceans = All


A. Interpretation – There is only one ocean – the plan must affect the entire ocean
NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, revised 1-23-2014, “There is only one global
ocean,” http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/howmanyoceans.html
While there is only one global ocean , the vast body of water that covers 71 percent of the Earth is
geographically divided into distinct named regions. The boundaries between these regions have evolved
over time for a variety of historical, cultural, geographical, and scientific reasons.

B. Violation – the affirmative only affects a part of the global ocean

C. Standards
1. Ground: the affirmative can always isolate a tiny part of the ocean in order to spike
out of all negative disadvantage links. Only creating policies that can affect all parts of
the ocean preserve negative preparation.
2. Precision: divisions between different regions of the ocean are unpredictable and
arbitrary. Only focus on the ocean as a singular mass is consistent with scientific
accuracy.
D. Voter: Topicality is a voting issue – it is an a priori prima facie burden that the
affirmative team has failed to establish

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 27

1NC Oceans International


A. Interpretation: Oceans can’t be under the jurisdiction of a single country
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1990, 5th Edition, p 1080
The main or open sea; the high sea; that portion of the sea which does not lie within the body of any
country and is not subject to the territorial jurisdiction or control of any country, but is open, free, and
common to the use of all nations. U.S. v. Rodgers, 150 U.S. 249, 14 S.Ct. 109, 37 L.Ed 1071. Body of salt
water that covers over 70% of earth’s surface.

B. Violation: the affirmative exclusively applies to waters under the jurisdiction of a


single country – the United States
C. Standards
1. Topic cohesion: compelling the affirmative to affect internationally-shared waters is
necessary in order to keep the topic’s focus international. Domestic education is
inevitable.
2. Most real world: all literature surrounding the ocean presumes the global sharing of
it. Arguments about backlash to United States encroachment on the ocean are key to
negative ground.
D. Voter: Topicality is a voting issue – it is an a priori prima facie burden that the
affirmative team has failed to establish

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 28

1NC Non-Military
A. Interpretation – Non-military excludes policies that spillover to military use
R. Kenton Musgrave, Senior Judge in the United States Court of International Trade, 1-7-2003,
UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION v. UNITED STATES, lexis nexis
To obtain duty-free treatment, Note 3(c)(iv) states "that the imported article has been imported for use in civil aircraft, [and] that it
will be so used . . . ." (Emphasis added.) United Technologies hinges its statutory argument that the phrase "for use in civil aircraft" means that
the imported parts need not be actually installed on civil aircraft upon two premises. First, it asserts that the language of Note 3(c)(iv), that
"'civil aircraft' means
all aircraft other than aircraft purchased for use by the Department of Defense or the
United States Coast Guard," dictates that "for use in civil aircraft" merely means non-military aircraft and parts.
Second, it contends that the absence of any language explicitly mandating "installation" on an aircraft demonstrates that none is required. We
agree with Customs' interpretation that Note 3(c)(iv) requires that covered parts be used in actual flight. However, because it relies on one
subsequent Headquarters Ruling, and discusses it only in a conclusory manner, we think it is of minimal persuasive value. See Mead, 533 U.S. at
235 (stating that HN11Go to this Headnote in the case.Customs' classification ruling's power to persuade is [**12] dependent upon "the merit
of its writer's thoroughness, logic, and expertness, its fit with prior interpretations, and any other sources of weight"). As with the Agreement,
the adjective "civil" defines "civil aircraft" as non-military, but it does not affect the term "for use in civil aircraft." We need not reconstrue the
meaning of "for use in civil aircraft" because Note 3(c)(iv) is entitled "Articles Eligible for Duty-Free Treatment Pursuant to the Agreement on
Trade in Civil Aircraft," and we see no conflict between Note 3(c)(iv) and the Agreement. Thus HN12Go to this Headnote in the case.we
conclude that Note
3(c)(iv) does not accord duty-free treatment to experimental civil aircraft parts which are
not intended for installation on civil aircraft. The absence of separate "installation on an aircraft" language is irrelevant. The
phrase "that it will be so used," like "incorporation therein" from the Agreement, requires installation; United Technologies
cannot aver that the parts will be so used.

And, “Military” includes the entire staff of the Department of Defense


Black’s Law Dictionary, 1990, 5th Edition, p 92 “Military”
Pertaining to war or to the army; concerned with war. Also the whole of military forces, staff, etc. under
the Department of Defense.

B. Violation – the affirmative increases ocean activities using military means

C. Standards
1. Topic cohesion – the topic wording specifically prohibits military applications of
topical activity. Allowing affirmatives to claim advantages or solvency based on
military action opens the floodgates to an entirely different topic.
2. Predictable limits – the negative can only predict civilian policies based on the
resolution. Military oceans policy is an entirely different body of literature. Allowing
the affirmative to access that precludes negative preparation and steals negative
counterplan ground.
D. Voter: Topicality is a voting issue – it is an a priori prima facie burden that the
affirmative team has failed to establish

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 29

1NC USFG = Not International Treaties


A. The United States federal government is the government in Washington D.C.
Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2K http://encarta.msn.com
“The federal government of the United States is centered in Washington DC”

B. Violation: the affirmative advocates action by governments other than the national
government of the United States. [x] treaty requires other governments to act.
C. Standards
1. Ground: destroys all negative preparation – nearly every country on Earth has
ocean policies that can be modified and each of those can exist in any organization.
Makes it impossible for negative teams to adequately prepare for non-US ocean
policies. Also, those countries should be negative counterplan ground.

2. Illogical: No American policymaker can make other countries’ policies – forces


illogical advocacies. Policy debate should model the most accurate form of real world
policymaking.

3. At best, they are extra-topical – they advocate non-topical action in addition to


topical action. This is just non-topicality in disguise – it justifies infinite regression to
non-topical affirmatives that include a negligible topical component.

D. Voter: Topicality is a voting issue – it is an a priori prima facie burden that the
affirmative team has failed to establish

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 30

1NC International Cooperation


A. Interpretation: Development requires international cooperation in the context of
ocean policy
NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, no date, “NOAA Fisheries, International
Development,”
http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/ia/international_development/international_development.html
NOAA Fisheries has the authority to engage in international cooperation and development activities
with other countries in order to implement the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Our international development
work builds strategic partnerships with other nations , particularly with developing countries, to
promote sustainable and responsible management of fisheries and other relevant marine resources at
the national, regional, and global levels.

B. Violation: the affirmative only increases development within the United States
C. Standards
1. Topical education: this topic offers a unique window into international cooperation.
The affirmative averts all of that education in order to focus on the same tired U.S.-
centered policy disputes on yet another topic.
2. Ground: all controversy related to oceans policy is inherently written in the context
of international cooperation. The affirmative artificially skews out of that debate in
order to avoid all negative arguments related to the actions of other countries. That
makes it impossible for us to negate
D. Voter: Topicality is a voting issue – it is an a priori prima facie burden that the
affirmative team has failed to establish

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 31

1NC Exploration Means New


A. Exploration means discovery – this is specifically key to education about oceans
NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003, quoting NOAA 2000, Exploration of
the Seas: Voyage Into the Unknown, Committee on Exploration of the Seas, National Research Council,
http://explore.noaa.gov/sites/OER/Documents/national-research-council-voyage.pdf
As defined by the President’s Panel on Ocean Exploration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2000), exploration is
discovery through disciplined, diverse observations and the recording of findings. Ocean exploration has
included rigorous, systematic observation and documentation of the biological, chemical, physical, geological, and
archaeological aspects of the ocean in the three dimensions of space and in time. This definition of exploration is much broader than the
definition one would find, for example, within the context for the extractive industries, where exploration is a search for
hydrocarbon or mineral deposits. More general approaches allow researchers to develop and ask questions that
are not rooted in specific hypotheses and that often lead to unexpected answers — a difficult task to
promote within the current approaches to research funding.

B. Violation – the affirmative only increases activity in already-known regions


C. Standards
1. Education – the entire literature base surrounding exploration presumes a search
for new discoveries – they skirt all education about presently unknown parts of the
ocean
2. Ground – their interpretation guarantees them better solvency evidence than the
resolution should give access. Of course they have good evidence about the things the
plan might research – it only researches things that are already known – the point of
exploration is the possibility of the unknown!
D. Voter: Topicality is a voting issue – it is an a priori prima facie burden that the
affirmative team has failed to establish

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 32

1NC Development Is Minerals


A. Interpretation: Development means converting minerals into useable resources
Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, PL 106-580 43 U.S.C. 1301 Sec. 2, 2000,
http://www.epw.senate.gov/ocsla.pdf Accessed May 4, 2014
The term “development” means those activities which take place following discovery of minerals in
paying quantities, including geophysical activity, drilling, platform construction, and operation of all
onshore support facilities, and which are for the purpose of ultimately producing the minerals
discovered.

B. Violation: the plan develops [x] – it doesn’t change minerals into a useable resource

C. Standards
1. Precision: only adhering to precise definitions of terms in the context of the
resolution ensures debates about salient policy issues in a narrow range of good
arguments.

2. Education: debate over oceans policy can only be relevant insofar as it is focused on
the resources that are part of the ocean – any other interpretation justifies an
unlimited topic with no negative ground.

D. Voter: Topicality is a voting issue – it is an a priori prima facie burden that the
affirmative team has failed to establish

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 33

Biodiversity of Ocean Fine

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 34

General Biodiversity

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 35

Biodiversity High Now


No major biodiversity decline – species loss offset by new species.
David Biello, Environment and Energy Editor at Scientific American, April 20, 2014, 60-second earth,
http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/biodiversity-survives-extinctions-for-now1/
(accessed 5/4/14)
We are living during what seem to be the opening stages of the sixth mass extinction in our planet's 4.5 billion year history. Species of birds,
fish, mammals and plants are disappearing at speeds rarely experienced, thanks in large part to human activities: pollution,
climate change, habitat destruction and other damage. But extinction apparently does not mean less biodiversity—at
least not yet. A new look at ecosystems from the poles to the tropics shows that losses in the number of
species in any given place do not yet translate to large changes in the overall number of different
species there. The study is in the journal Science. [Maria Dornelas et al, Assemblage Time Series Reveal Biodiversity Change but Not
Systematic Loss] The researchers analyzed 100 surveys that followed more than 35,000 different species over
various lengths of time. These long-term studies found that the number of different species in, say, a coral
reef remains relatively constant. Because the loss of a species, either locally or entirely, is often balanced by
the arrival of a new species. The meta-analysis showed that 40 percent of places had more species present, 40 percent had less and
20 percent were unchanged. In other words, the ecosystems of the current Anthropocene era are transformed,
but just as diverse—so far anyway. We are living in a world of novel ecosystems.

Predictions of species loss are highly speculative – don’t account for acclimation.
Craig Moritz, Research School of Biology and Centre for Biodiversity Analysis, The Australian National
University, and Rosa Agudo, The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Ecosystem Sciences Division, August 2, 2013, Science,
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/504.full (accessed 5/4/2014)
The actual predictions of effects on species persistence are often dire, however. For example, one prominent
analysis predicted that 15 to 37% of species would be endangered or extinct by 2050 (3). Another predicts more
than a 50% loss of climatic range by 2080 for some 57% of widespread species of plants and 34% of animals (4). Montane taxa are expected to
lose range area as they shift upward with warming. Again, predicted effects are catastrophic (43–45) and could be even worse for the highly
endemic biotas of tropical montane forests if the cloud base lifts (46). For the tropical lowlands, high levels of species attrition are predicted
because of narrower physiological tolerances (47) and a high velocity of change due to shallow temperature gradients (48). Reduction of
species ranges is expected to result in substantial loss of geographically structured genetic variation, perhaps including cryptic taxa (49, 50).
Yet, we must acknowledge the level of uncertainty of these predictions and the possibility that these
models are overestimating extinction risk. Future models should be improved by incorporating key
parameters such as finer-scale topographic heterogeneity (18), interaction of biotic (51, 52) and other
anthropogenic factors (7, 45, 53), species physiological constraints and plastic acclimation capacity (39), as
well as demographic processes [see for instance, the recent findings of Reed et al. (54) in a wild population in which density-
dependent compensation counteracts the reduced fledgling rates due to phenological mismatch provoked by climate change].

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 36

De-extinction solves impacts


De-extinction solves species loss impacts.
George Church, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School and director of the National Institutes
of Health Center of Excellence in Genomic Science at Harvard, August 20, 2013, Scientific American,
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/george-church-de-extinction-is-a-good-idea/ (accessed
5/4/2014)
“De-extinction” is not a novel idea. Medical researchers have resurrected the full genomes of the human
endogenous retrovirus HERV-K and the 1918 influenza virus. Insight into these reanimated species could save millions of
lives. Several other extinct genes, including for mammoth hemoglobin, have been reconstructed and tested for
novel properties. Moving from these few genes to most of the 20,000 or so in a bird or mammalian
genome may not be necessary, and even if it is, it may not be hard to do. The costs for a variety of
relevant technologies are low—and dropping. Breeding animals and raising them until there are
sufficient numbers to release into the wild is an ambitious undertaking, but the expense should be
comparable to breeding livestock or preserving other endangered wildlife. These costs could be reduced
if we used genetic means to improve the species we revive—boosting their immunity and fertility and
their ability to draw nutrition from available food and to cope with environmental stress. Aside from
bringing back extinct species, reanimation could help living ones by restoring lost genetic diversity. The
Tasmanian devil (aka Sarcophilus harrisii) is so inbred at this point that most species members can exchange tumor cells without rejection. A
rare transmissible cancer spread via facial wounds is driving the species toward extinction. Reanimating ancestral, diverse Sarcophilus
histocompatibility genes, which govern tissue rejection, could save it. Similar
arguments could be made for amphibians,
cheetahs, corals and other groups. Ancient genes could make them more tolerant of chemicals, heat,
infection and drought. Reanimation is not a panacea for ecosystems at risk. Preventing ongoing extinction of elephants, rhinoceroses
and other threatened species is critically important. By all means, we must set priorities for allocating finite conservation resources. But it is a
mistake to look at this issue as a zero-sum game. Just
as a new vaccine can free up medical resources that would
otherwise be spent on sick patients, reanimation may be able to help conservationists by giving them
powerful new tools. That this is even a possibility is reason enough to explore it seriously.

Criticisms are wrong – de-extinction leads to habitat protection and thriving species.
Adam Welz, environmental blogger for the Guardian, June 7, 2013, The Guardian,
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/nature-up/2013/jun/07/deextinction-critics-scientific-
american (accessed 5/5/2014)
If scientists bring back long-extinct, charismatic species, does anyone seriously think that politicians
would stand in the way of allowing them to thrive? People are strongly drawn to miraculous stories of
resurrection (Jesus of Nazareth has more than a few fans) and de-extinction could, if framed and conducted correctly, bring
new awareness to extinction and habitat protection. Perhaps the strongest argument for resurrection
biology is that it allows wildlife conservationists to push forward against the onslaught of extinction, in
some sense to win back territory that has been lost, to engage in restoration, rejuvenation and
rewilding. How long can an army remain motivated if it's never allowed to advance, if it's only allowed to hold the line or, step by painful
step, retreat?

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 37

No Extinction
Species loss won’t cause human extinction.
Holly Doremus, Professor of Law, University of California at Davis, 2000, Washington and Lee Law
Review, http://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1311&context=wlulr
(accessed 5/5/2014)
Reluctant to concede such losses, tellers of the ecological horror story highlight how close a catastrophe might
be, and how little we know about what actions might trigger one. But the apocalyptic vision is less
credible today than it seemed in the 1970s. Although it is clear that the earth is experiencing a mass wave of
extinctions, the complete elimination of life on earth seems unlikely. Life is remarkably robust. Nor is
human extinction probable any time soon. Homo sapiens is adaptable to nearly any environment. Even
ifthe world of the future includes far fewer species, it likely will hold people.

Species loss doesn’t threaten human extinction.


Thomas Gale Moore, Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, 1998, Climate of Fear,
http://www.stanford.edu/~moore/Climate_of_Fear.pdf (accessed 5/5/14)
Nevertheless, the loss of a class of living beings does not typically threaten other species. Most animals and
plants can derive their nutrients or receive the other benefits provided by a particular species from
more than a single source. If it were true that the extinction of a single species would produce a cascade
of losses, then the massive extinctions of the past should have wiped out all life. Evolution forces various
life forms to adjust to change. A few may not make the adaptation but others will mutate to meet the
new conditions. Although a particular chain of DNA may be eliminated through the loss of a species, other animals or plants
adapting to the same environment often produce similar genetic solutions with like proteins. It is almost
impossible to imagine a single species that, if eliminated, would threaten us humans. Perhaps if the E. coli that
are necessary for digestion became extinct, we could no longer exist. But those bacteria live in a symbiotic relationship with man and, as long as
humans survive, so will they. Thus any animal that hosts a symbiotic species need not fear the loss of its partner. As long as the host remains, so
will parasites and symbiotic species.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 38

AT: Keystone Species


No individual species is key and plan insufficient to solve.
Holly Doremus, Professor of Law, University of California at Davis, 2000, Washington and Lee Law
Review, http://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1311&context=wlulr
(accessed 5/5/2014)
Another response drops the horrific ending and returns to a more measured discourse of the many material benefits nature provides humanity.
Even these more plausible tales, though, suffer from an important limitation. They call for nature protection only at a high level of generality.
For example, human-induced increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels may cause rapid changes in global temperatures in the near future,
with drastic consequences for sea levels, weather patterns, and ecosystem services. Similarly, the
loss of large numbers of species
undoubtedly reduces the genetic library from which we might in the future draw useful resources. But it
is difficult to translate these insights into convincing arguments against any one of the small local
decisions that contribute to the problems of global warming or biodiversity loss." It is easy to argue that
the material impact of any individual decision to increase carbon emissions slightly or to destroy a small amount of
habitat will be small. It is difficult to identify the specific straw that will break the camel's back.
Furthermore, no unilateral action at the local or even national level can solve these global problems. Local
decisionmakers may feel paralyzed by the scope of the problems, or may conclude that any sacrifices they might make will go unrewarded if
others do not restrain their actions. In sum, at
the local level at which most decisions affecting nature are made, the
material discourse provides little reason to save nature. Short of the ultimate catastrophe, the material benefits of
destructive decisions frequently will exceed their identifiable material costs.

No specific species key – ecosystems adapt.


Mark Sagoff, researcher for the Institute of Philosophy and Public Policy at the University of Maryland,
June 1997, The Atlantic, https://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/97jun/consume.htm (accessed
5/5/14)
There is no credible argument, moreover, that all or even most of the species we are concerned to protect
are essential to the functioning of the ecological systems on which we depend. (If whales went extinct, for
example, the seas would not fill up with krill.) David Ehrenfeld, a biologist at Rutgers University, makes this point in
relation to the vast ecological changes we have already survived. "Even a mighty dominant like the
American chestnut," Ehrenfeld has written, "extending over half a continent, all but disappeared
without bringing the eastern deciduous forest down with it." Ehrenfeld points out that the species most likely to be
endangered are those the biosphere is least likely to miss. "Many of these species were never common or ecologically influential; by no
stretch of the imagination can we make them out to be vital cogs in the ecological machine."

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 39

Ocean-Specific Impacts

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 40

Oceans Alt Cause – Climate Change


No solvency - Climate change driving ocean destruction.
Angel Borja, PhD in Marine Biology and Head of Projects in Marine Research Division at AZTI-Tecnalia,
February 12, 2014, Frontiers, http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fmars.2014.00001/full
(accessed 5/4/14)
Sea waters are getting warmer, sea-level rise is accelerating and the oceans are becoming increasingly
acidic (Stocker et al., 2013). From a database of 1735 marine biological responses to global change,
Poloczanska et al. (2013) determined that 81–83% of all observations for distribution, phenology, community composition,
abundance, demography and calcification across taxa and ocean basins were consistent with the expected impacts
of climate change on marine life (Richardson et al., 2012). As there is an insufficient understanding of the
capacity for marine organisms to adapt to rapid climate change, Munday et al. (2013) emphasize that an evolutionary
perspective is crucial to understanding climate change impacts on our seas and to examine the approaches that may be useful for addressing
this challenge.

Even if you solve human causes, warming makes ocean ecosystem destruction
inevitable.
Jelle Bijma et al, Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 2013, Marine Pollution
Bulletin, http://www.stateoftheocean.org/pdfs/Bijma-et-al-2013.pdf (accessed 5/4/14)
Although the human-induced pressures of overexploitation and habitat destruction are the main causes
of recently observed extinctions (Dulvy et al., 2009) climate change is increasingly adding to this. Changes in
ocean temperatures, chemistry and currents mean that many organisms will find themselves in
unsuitable environments, potentially testing their ability to survive. Adaptation is one means of accommodating
environmental change, migration is another. However, global warming asks for a poleward migration whereas ocean
acidification would require an equatorward migration as colder waters acidify faster. Hence, the ‘‘green pastures’’
become scarce and will experience stronger competition. The recent IUCN Red List Assessment on
shallow-water reef-forming corals identified a dramatically increased threat to these organisms posed
by the climate change effect of mass coral bleaching (Carpenter et al., 2008). Habitat suitability modelling has also identified
a threat to deep-water corals from the shoaling of the aragonite saturation horizon, a further symptom of ocean acidification (Tittensor et al.,
2010). There are observed trends for some species shifting ranges polewards and into deeper, cooler
waters (Reid et al., 2009), but range shifts within short time frames may be unlikely for many species, such as
long-lived, slow growing, sessile habitat-forming species, leading to increased extinction risk. In the case of
coastal species, a poleward-shift in distribution may be limited by geography as organisms simply ‘‘run out’’
of coastline to migrate along and are faced with a major oceanic barrier to dispersal. Modelling studies
have also indicated the likelihood of range shifts, extinctions and invasions in commercial marine species
resulting from ocean warming with serious implications in terms of food security, especially for developing states
(Cheung et al., 2010). In the present paper we examine the current and potential future impacts of global climate change through temperature
rise, ocean acidification and increasing hypoxia, 3 symptoms of carbon pertubations. Carbon pertubations have occurred before in Earth history
and have left their fingerprints in the geological archive. We examine these changes in the light of the palaeontological record to see if there
are comparisons to be made to historical climate change and mass extinction.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 41

Oceans Alt Cause – Climate Change


Climate change makes ocean destruction inevitable.
Environment News Service, October 18, 2013, http://ens-newswire.com/2013/10/18/climate-
change-to-cause-massive-ocean-damage-by-2100/ (accessed 5/4/14)
By the year 2100, about 98 percent of the oceans will be affected by acidification, warming
temperatures, low oxygen, or lack of biological productivity, and most areas will be hit by a multitude of
these stressors, finds a new study of the impacts of climate change on the world’s ocean systems. These
biogeochemical changes triggered by human-generated greenhouse gas emissions will not only affect marine
habitats and organisms, but will often also occur in areas that are heavily used by humans, concludes
the international team of 28 scientists. “When you look at the world ocean, there are few places that will be free of changes;
most will suffer the simultaneous effects of warming, acidification, and reductions in oxygen and productivity,” said lead author Camilo Mora,
an assistant professor at the Department of Geography at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. “The
consequences of these co-
occurring changes are massive – everything from species survival, to abundance, to range size, to body
size, to species richness, to ecosystem functioning are affected by changes in ocean biogeochemistry,”
said Mora.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 42

New Regulations Solve Oceans


New treaty will solve ocean impacts.
Thalif Deen, UN Bureau Chief and Regional Director IPS North America, April 3, 2014, Inter Press
Service, http://www.ipsnews.net/2014/04/u-n-aims-treaty-protect-marine-biodiversity/ (accessed
5/4/14)
UNITED NATIONS, Apr 3 2014 (IPS) - At a political level, when the United Nations speaks of a “high seas alliance”, it is probably a coalition of
countries battling modern piracy in the Indian Ocean. But at
the environmental level, the High Seas Alliance (HSA) is a
partnership of more than 27 non-governmental organisations (NGOs), plus the International Union for the Conservation of
Nature (IUCN), fighting for the preservation of marine biodiversity. As a U.N. working group discusses a
proposed “international mechanism” for the protection of oceans, the HSA says high seas and the
international seabed area, which make up about 45 percent of the surface of the planet, “are brimming with biodiveristy
and vital resources.” But they are under increasing pressure from threats such as overfishing, habitat destruction and the impacts of
climate change. The HSA has expressed its strong support for negotiations to develop a new agreement to
establish a legal regime to safeguard biodiversity in the high seas. Any such treaty or convention will be a new
implementing agreement under the 1994 U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). The Working Group, which is expected to conclude
its four-day meeting Friday, says it is at a critical juncture of its work, and discussions
are expected to continue into the future.
“The next three meetings present a clear opportunity to try and overcome remaining differences and to
crystallise the areas of convergence into concrete action,” U.N. Legal Counsel Miguel de Serpa Soares said in his
opening remarks Monday.

New US executive policy solves ocean policy.


Allison Winter, writer for Greenwire, September 18, 2009, New York Times,
http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/09/18/18greenwire-broad-ocean-conservation-goals-pose-
significan-24019.html?pagewanted=all (accessed 5/5/2014)
The report includes a set of recommendations for implementation, with more detail and strategy than
many marine advocates had expected. For example, Zeitlin Hale was encouraged by the specific requirements
for the new interagency ocean council, which must meet several times a year to review whether agency
actions are in line with the ocean policy. It is significant that Obama's team started the ocean policy
recommendations so early in the administration, she said, indicating that the oceans are a high priority to
Obama's environment team and giving the administration time to try to put the words into action. "These are major steps
forward," Zeitlin Hale added. The council builds on a similar committee developed in the Bush administration but adds a host of new
requirements and goals for the panel. Top-level officials must meet at least twice a year, with more frequent staff-level
meetings. The council is supposed to create "sustained high-level engagement" within the federal
government on ocean stewardship, according to the report.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 43

AT: Ocean Ecosystems/Biodiversity


Marine reserves solve biodiversity.
New York Times, December 3, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/04/opinion/sustaining-
resilience-at-sea.html?_r=0 (accessed 5/4/2014)
New research indicates that marine reserves may have an even greater importance than scientists previously
supposed. A study recently published in Nature Climate Change found that marine reserves do more than merely
shelter species that live within them. By enhancing the resilience of marine communities, reserves help
ward off some of the effects of climate change, including invasion by species from warmer waters. The
study was based on research conducted at the Maria Island Marine Reserve, just off the coast of Tasmania. Though the reserve was only
established in 1991, data on marine life there had been collected for more than 70 years. Comparing
the reserve’s ecosystem
with similar but unprotected waters where fishing was allowed, scientists found greater long-term and
short-term stability. The overall health of the ecosystem helped create what the authors of the study
called “a feedback mechanism to promote stability.” The scientists found a substantial increase in the
number of large-bodied fish and much less fluctuation, year to year, in the population of smaller fish.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 44

AT: Overfishing
Overfishing claims exaggerated – new research proves studies are flawed.
Felicity Barringer, Environmental reporter for the New York Times, May 1, 2011, New York Times,
http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/05/01/one-fish-two-fish-false-ish-true-ish/ (accessed 5/5/2014)
Two University of Washington scientists have just published a study in the journal Conservation Biology in
collaboration with colleagues from Rutgers University and Dalhousie University arguing that the gloomiest predictions about
the world’s fisheries are significantly exaggerated. The new study takes issue with a recent estimate that
70 percent of all stocks have been harvested to the point where their numbers have peaked and are
now declining, and that 30 percent of all stocks have collapsed to less than one-tenth of their former numbers. Instead, it finds
that at most 33 percent of all stocks are over-exploited and up to 13 percent of all stocks have collapsed.
It’s not that fisheries are in great shape, said Trevor Branch, the lead author of the new study; it’s just that they are not
as badly off as has been widely believed. In 2006, a study in the journal Science predicted a general collapse in global fisheries by
2048 if nothing were done to stem the decline.

US protections already solve areas we control.


Jane Lubchenco, Valley Chair in Marine Biology at Oregon State University, February 3, 2014, UN
Sustainable Development Goals—Oceans & Seas, Biodiversity and Forests Keynote,
http://www.icsu.org/science-for-policy/sustainable-development-goals-
1/pdfs/OWG8_Oceans_Jane_Lubchenco.pdf (accessed 5/4/14)
Countries that have mandated that overfishing end and depleted stocks be rebuilt are demonstrating
that remarkable progress is possible and can bring rich rewards. After decades of overfishing, the U.S.
has turned the corner in ending overfishing. It now has management plans in place for every one of the
fisheries the U.S. manages. Each plan includes annual catch limits and accountability measures. And with
assistance of fishermen, the tough measures are working. The number of overfished species continues to
decline and over 30 previously depleted fisheries have been rebuilt since 2000, with most of those in rebuilt the last
few years.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 45

AT: Coral Reefs


Alternate causality - Climate change causing irreversible coral reef destruction.
Jelle Bijma et al, Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 2013, Marine Pollution
Bulletin, http://www.stateoftheocean.org/pdfs/Bijma-et-al-2013.pdf (accessed 5/4/14)
The appearance of the ‘‘deadly trio’’ of risk factors, ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation are
all consequences of a perturbation of the carbon cycle (fast release of carbon dioxide and/or methane) and are a
major cause of concern. Historically these factors have combined to contribute to mass extinction
events. The present rate of change is unprecedented. Perhaps most worrying is that this is happening to ecosystems that
are already undermined by many man-made stressors such as overfishing, eutrophication and pollution (Harnik et al., 2013). To re-emphasize
one example, the
combination of temperature rise, increased frequency and intensity of extreme events
and acidification may irreversibly destroy coral reefs, the most species-rich ecosystems in the ocean,
within 50–100 years (Veron et al., 2009).

Biorock regeneration solves coral reefs.


Eoghan Macguire, staff writer, January 26, 2012, CNN,
http://www.cnn.com/2012/01/26/world/biorock-coral-regeneration/index.html (accessed 5/5/2014)
A little over ten years ago the coral reefs of Pemuteran Bay in Bali, Indonesia, were in a state of terminal
decay. Fishing with dynamite and cyanide, untreated sewage and rising water temperatures had all pushed the reefs, and life they supported,
close to the limit. "Tourist numbers fell due to destruction of dive and snorkeling sites (while) fishermen had to go further and fish longer for
less catch. Hunger was a real threat," says Narayana Randall Dodge, project manager of the Pemuteran Coral Regeneration project. The fact
that the reef also acted as a natural flood barrier increased the town's exposure to coastal erosion from rising sea levels, he adds. Today
however, Pemuteran Bay's coral reefs are once again teeming with life thanks to Biorock -- an
electrically-powered coral reef growing scheme. Coral is placed on underwater electrified steel frames
that are connected to a power source on land. The electrification speeds up a process called "mineral
accretion" that helps damaged corals grow and repair themselves. "Living corals are carefully collected
and transplanted onto the structures by attaching with wires or wedged between (electric) steel bars," says Narayana The
project has been so successful that not only has it preserved the reef and surrounding marine ecosystem
but it has also become a tourist attraction in its own right, says Narayana.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 46

AT: Ocean Acidification


Studies prove acidification threat is alarmist hype.
Rupert Darwall, Consulting Director at the White House Writers Group, February 14, 2014, Wall Street
Journal, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304558804579376823612993090
(accessed 5/4/14)
The current crisis is supposedly ocean acidification, a term for a reduction in alkalinity coined more for its
public-relations value than its accuracy. A marine biologist known for his extreme views on coral survival tells Ms. Kolbert that
Australia's Great Barrier Reef will be reduced to rubble by 2050. Yet an unmentioned 2010 meta-analysis of 372 papers—
the most comprehensive analysis of experimental studies of the topic—concluded that marine biota are
"more resistant to ocean acidification than suggested by pessimistic predictions identifying ocean
acidification as a major threat to marine biodiversity," a distinctly less alarming conclusion than Ms. Kolbert's.

Acidification threats exaggerated – new studies prove.


Matt Ridley, writer with DPhil in Zoology and former visiting professor at Cold Spring Harbor
Laboratory, January 7, 2012, Wall Street Journal,
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970203550304577138561444464028 (accessed
5/5/2014)
But do the scientific data support such alarm? Last month scientists at San Diego's Scripps Institution of
Oceanography and other authors published a study showing how much the pH level (measuring alkalinity versus
acidity) varies naturally between parts of the ocean and at different times of the day, month and year. "On
both a monthly and annual scale, even the most stable open ocean sites see pH changes many times larger than
the annual rate of acidification," say the authors of the study, adding that because good instruments to
measure ocean pH have only recently been deployed, "this variation has been under-appreciated." Over
coral reefs, the pH decline between dusk and dawn is almost half as much as the decrease in average pH
expected over the next 100 years. The noise is greater than the signal. Another recent study, by scientists
from the U.K., Hawaii and Massachusetts, concluded that "marine and freshwater assemblages have always
experienced variable pH conditions," and that "in many freshwater lakes, pH changes that are orders of
magnitude greater than those projected for the 22nd-century oceans can occur over periods of hours."
This adds to other hints that the ocean-acidification problem may have been exaggerated. For a start,
the ocean is alkaline and in no danger of becoming acid (despite headlines like that from Reuters in 2009: "Climate Change
Turning Seas Acid"). If the average pH of the ocean drops to 7.8 from 8.1 by 2100 as predicted, it will still be
well above seven, the neutral point where alkalinity becomes acidity.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 47

US China No Conflict

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 48

No Conflict - General
Interdependence ensures US/China conflict is limited
Chen Weihua, Staff Writer, January 6, 2014,“China-US relations can go to a whole new level in 2014”,
http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/epaper/2014-01/06/content_17218238.htm, Accessed 4/28/14
To Cui Tiankai, China's ambassador to the United States, China-US relations are like a big ship that will continue to forge
ahead despite occasional stormy seas ahead. The two countries marked the 35th anniversary of their diplomatic ties this
month, a milestone Cui described as "an event of great international significance". The US announced on Dec 15, 1978, it would sever
diplomatic ties with Taiwan and establish diplomatic ties with the People's Republic of China.¶ In Cui's view,
China-US relations have
always been based on shared interests, from the initial strategic security needs to the present
broadening and deepening shared interests in bilateral, regional and global issues. "Great changes have
taken place in the world, in China and in the United States in the past 35 years, but our bilateral
relationship has generally kept its momentum moving forward," Cui told a press briefing on Friday in Washington.¶
Both nations have benefitted from the relationship. While bilateral trade each year has grown from almost
non-existence in the 1970s to approaching $500 billion, China and the US have become ever more intertwined in
almost every field.

No conflict – China prioritizes stability


Robert Sutter, Professor of International Affairs at George Washington University, March 19, 2014,
“China-U.S. Focus, Why China Avoids Confronting the U.S. in Asia,”
http://www.chinausfocus.com/foreign-policy/why-china-avoids-confronting-the-u-s-in-asia-2/, accessed
4/22/14
Forecasts talk of U.S. retreat from domineering China or an inevitable U.S.-China conflict. However, enduring circumstances hold
back Chinese leaders from confronting America, the regional leader.¶ Domestic preoccupations Chinese economic
growth and one-party rule require stability. And protecting Chinese security and sovereignty remains a
top concern. Though China also has regional and global ambitions, domestic concerns get overall
priority.

Nuclear deterrence checks US/China conflict


Keck 13 (Zachary – Assistant Editor of The Diplomat, 7/12, “Why China and the US (Probably) Won’t Go
to War”, The Diplomat, http://thediplomat.com/flashpoints-blog/2013/07/12/why-china-and-the-us-
probably-wont-go-to-war/)
But while trade cannot be relied upon to keep the peace, a U.S.-China war is virtually unthinkable because of two other
factors: nuclear weapons and geography. The fact that both the U.S. and China have nuclear weapons is
the most obvious reasons why they won’t clash, even if they remain fiercely competitive. This is because war
is the continuation of politics by other means, and nuclear weapons make war extremely bad politics. Put differently, war is fought in
pursuit of policy ends, which cannot be achieved through a total war between nuclear-armed states. This
is not only because of nuclear weapons destructive power. As Thomas Schelling outlined brilliantly, nuclear weapons have not actually
increased humans destructive capabilities. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that wars between nomads usually ended with the victors
slaughtering all of the individuals on the losing side, because of the economics of holding slaves in nomadic “societies.” What makes nuclear
weapons different, then, is not just their destructive power but also the certainty and immediacy of it. While extremely ambitious or desperate
leaders can delude themselves into believing they can prevail in a conventional conflict with a stronger adversary because of any number of
factors—superior will, superior doctrine, the weather etc.— none of this matters in nuclear war. With nuclear weapons, countries don’t have to
prevail on the battlefield or defeat an opposing army to destroy an entire country, and since
there are no adequate defenses for
a large-scale nuclear attack, every leader can be absolute certain that most of their country can be
destroyed in short-order in the event of a total conflict

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 49

No Conflict – East China Sea

ADIZ won’t provoke East China Sea conflict


Chen Weihua, Staff Writer, January 6, 2014,“China-US relations can go to a whole new level in 2014”,
http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/epaper/2014-01/06/content_17218238.htm, Accessed 4/28/14
As the largest developing nation and the largest developed nation with different histories, cultures, traditions and social systems, it
is
inevitable that China and the US have differences and even frictions, according to Cui."But both sides have
been working hard to find convergence of shared interest and effective ways to manage the
differences," he said. "Various mechanisms to facilitate communications and dialogue have been set up."
Cui dismissed the hype over China's announcement in November of the East China Sea Air Defense
Identification Zone as being an issue of major difference between the two nations. China only added itself to a
long list of ADIZs announced a long time ago by countries including the US. "The two sides have open lines of
communication," he said.¶ For Cui, reviewing the past 35 years of China-US relations provides very beneficial lessons on how to push the
relationship forward in the future.

China is bluffing – no conflict risk in East China Sea


Perry Chiaramonte, Staff Writer, February 19, 2014, “China preps military for 'short, sharp war' with
Japan, US Navy analyst says,” Fox News, http://www.foxnews.com/world/2014/02/19/china-preps-
military-for-short-sharp-war-with-japan-says-us-navy/, accessed 4/20/13
The Chinese have conducted training exercises aimed at Taiwan for decades--but haven't invaded,” Peters,
also a Fox News military analyst, told FoxNews.com. “The latest Chinese exercises that appear to rehearse an invasion of
the Senkaku Islands are probably in that vein: Military exercises as a show of strength, a closed-fist tool
of diplomacy, and, yes, a threat, but not one on which Beijing really desires to act.” Peters adds that the
exercises are likely China’s attempt at posturing.¶ “At present, China would have a great deal to lose by
attacking or otherwise provoking a confrontation with Japan,” he said. “At the same time, the Chinese feel they're the regional
(and global) rising power and they rather enjoy flexing their muscles. You might say they're proud of their
physique, but don't really want a fight. In that sense, these exercises are a strategic ‘selfie.’”

Interdependence checks East China Sea conflict


Justin McCurry, Econ and Japanese Studies from London University, February 5, 2014, “Why will Japan
and China avoid conflict? They need each other,” Christian Science Monitor,
http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2014/0205/Why-will-Japan-and-China-avoid-conflict-
They-need-each-other, accessed 4/22/14
Despite dark allusions to Germany and Britain in 1914, the two powers' economies are deeply intertwined, and
Japanese doing business in China are guardedly optimistic. One of the most striking warnings that Sino-Japanese tensions
could descend into conflict came from none other than Japan’s prime minister, Shinzo Abe. Speaking at the recent World Economic Forum in
Davos, Abe suggested that Japan’s relationship with China was in a “similar situation” to that between Britain and Germany before the
outbreak of World War I in 1914. The most common interpretation: that close economic ties between nations are not always enough to
prevent them from going to war with each other.¶ Japanese officials insisted that Mr. Abe’s comments, as reported by some foreign media, had
been taken out of context. But his analogy raises an important question about the ongoing territorial dispute between Japan and China:
whether strong
bilateral trade will be enough to pull them back from the brink or, at the very least, help
them weather the current diplomatic storm.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 50

No Conflict – South China Sea


China won’t go to war – threats are a diplomatic bargaining tool
Michael Kelly, Professor of Law and Associate Dean for International Programs at Creighton School of
Law, December 7, 2013, “Why China Doesn't Really Want the Senkaku Islands”,
http://jurist.org/forum/2013/12/michael-kelly-china-senkaku.php, accessed 4/14/14
Whatever the origins of the revived Senkaku claim forty three years ago, Mr. Xi knows he can get much more fossil fuel to feed his carbon-thirsty
economy from the South China Sea deposits than he could from the comparatively meager East China Sea. His strategy is to create the biggest fuss possible with
bring a frayed and twitchy Japan to the bargaining table, with the
brinksmanship tactics over the Senkaku Islands in order to
US nervously in the background pushing hard for peace. And then, he will pitch his grand bargain. In
exchange for relinquishing China's claim to the Senkakus, Mr. Xi would want Japan to support China's
claim to the South China Sea. Politically, the Japanese government comes home with a huge victory that
costs it virtually nothing. But of course, what Japan gives China in this grand bargain is far more valuable to China than a handful of rocks near
Okinawa. With Japan backing its claim in the South China Sea and the US backing off, China will be in a
position to deal bilaterally with the claims of the smaller states. Unable to withstand the political, economic and military might
of their vastly larger neighbor, the claims of Vietnam, Malaysia and the Philippines will eventually collapse through bribery, bullying and benevolence alternately
applied. Long the object of Euro-Japanese grand bargains that carved up its territory and subjugated its people, China
now seeks a grand bargain
of its own. Mr. Xi understands that his country has the leverage to pull one off, and he is gambling that
this feint to the Senkakus will get him the support from the other Great Powers to do it.

No South China Sea conflict – interests aren’t strong enough


Terry Wing, Staff Writer, September 4, 2012, “Will South China Sea Disputes Lead to War?” Voice of
America, http://www.voanews.com/content/south-china-sea-war-unlikely/1501780.html, accessed
4/26/14
A South China Sea War is Unlikely But that doesn’t mean a war. Storey said an escalation into full-blown conflict is
unlikely. “It is in no country’s interests to spill blood or treasure over this issue – the costs far outweigh
the benefits,” Storey said. Other experts agree.¶ James Holmes of the U.S. Naval War College says admires how China has
been able to get its way in spreading it claims of sovereignty without becoming a bully.¶ “[China]
gradually consolidated the nation's maritime claims while staying well under the threshold for triggering
outside -most likely American -intervention,” said Holmes.¶ “Is war about to break out over bare rocks? I
don't think so.” writes Robert D. Kaplan, Chief Political Strategist for the geopolitical analysis group Stratfor.¶ Kaplan, however, doesn’t
give much hope for negotiations. “The issues involved are too complex, and the power imbalance between China and its individual neighbors is
too great,” he said. For that reason, Kaplan says China holds all the cards.

No impact to South China Sea conflict – no interventionism


Lyle Goldstein, 11, Associate professor in the China Maritime Studies Institute at the U.S. Naval War
College, July 11, 2011, “The South China Sea's Georgia Scenario,”
http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/07/11/the_south_china_seas_georgia_scenario, accessed
4/17/14
The brutal truth, however, is that Southeast Asia matters not a whit in the global balance of power. Most of the
region comprises small, poor countries of no consequence whatsoever, but the medium powers in the region, such as
Vietnam, Indonesia, and Australia will all naturally and of their own accord stand up against a potentially more aggressive China. If China and Vietnam
go to war over some rocks in the ocean, they will inevitably both suffer a wide range of deleterious consequences,
but it will have only a marginal impact on U.S. national security

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 51

No Conflict - Taiwan
Relations are at an all-time high – economic and political integration
Felix Forbes, Staff Writer, March 11, 2014, “Fresh hope for China-Taiwan relations”, Nouse,
http://www.nouse.co.uk/2014/03/11/fresh-hope-for-china-taiwan-relations/, accessed 4/29/14
The People’s Republic of China and Taiwan have held their highest level talks since Taiwan’s secession from China
during the Chinese Civil War, which ended in 1949. During a meeting in Nanjing last month, described by Taiwan’s Mainland
Affairs minister Wang Yu-chi as formerly being “unimaginable”, the two nations agreed to open representative
offices in each other’s countries as soon as possible. Chinese media has hailed the talks as an important
step, with the shared view seeming to be best summed up by China Daily, which called the talks “a promising new starting
point

Relations have upward momentum – recent talks and trade agreements prove
Austin Ramzy, Staff Writer, February 12, 2014, “China and Taiwan Hold First Direct Talks Since ’49”,
NYT, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/12/world/asia/china-and-taiwan-hold-first-official-talks-since-
civil-war.html, accessed 5/1/14
Representatives of Taiwan and China held their first official talks on Tuesday since the end of China’s civil war
in 1949, a meeting expected to produce few concrete results but one that was a symbolic development in the easing of the
two sides’ longtime rivalry.¶ The setting was a resort hotel in the Chinese city of Nanjing, which was at times the capital of Chiang Kai-
shek’s Republic of China before its government fled to Taiwan after being defeated by Mao Zedong’s Communist forces.¶ “Before today’s
meeting, it was hard to imagine that cross-strait relations could get to this point,” said Wang Yu-chi, head of
Taiwan’s Mainland Affairs Council.¶ The improved ties were “hard-earned through efforts of generations,” said Zhang
Zhijun, head of China’s Taiwan Affairs Office, according to the state-run Xinhua news agency. “We should cherish it and work
together to maintain this favorable momentum

No conflict – relations stable and improving


Scott L. Kastner, Professor of Government at Maryland, August 15, 2013, "A Relationship
Transformed? Rethinking the prospects for conflict and peace in the Taiwan Strait,"
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2300070, accessed 4/26/14
After long being viewed as potential flashpoint, relations across the Taiwan Strait have stabilized tremendously
in recent years, reflecting moderation in the approaches both Beijing and Taipei have taken with regard to the
cross-Strait sovereignty dispute. This moderation has been most evident in Taiwan, where Ma Ying-jeou was elected president in 2008 (and reelected in
2012) after campaigning on an explicitly pro-status quo platform. But Beijing also moderated its Taiwan policies in recent years,
most notably by adopting a more flexible approach to the “one China” principle, de-emphasizing the “one country,
two systems” model for cross-Strait political integration (which was widely seen in Taiwan as being a non-starter), and consenting to the use of the “1992
consensus” as a basis for restarting quasi-official cross-Strait dialogue (which had been moribund for nearly a decade before 2008). The
result has been
an unprecedented improvement in relations across the Taiwan Strait, reflected in frequent dialogue
between officials from the two sides, numerous cooperative agreements (including, most notably, the 2010 Economic Cooperation
Framework Agreement), the establishment of direct travel and commercial linkages across the Strait, and a sharp
reduction in PRC threats of military force.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 52

US Russia No Conflict

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 53

No Conflict – Ukraine
No US/Russia war over Ukraine
Peter Weber, Senior editor at TheWeek.com, March 5, 2014, "What would a U.S.-Russia war look
like?" https://theweek.com/article/index/257406/what-would-a-us-russia-war-look-like, accessed
5/4/14
The chances that the U.S. and Russia will clash militarily over Moscow's invasion of Ukraine are very,
very slim. Ukraine isn't a member of NATO, and President Obama isn't likely to volunteer for another
war. But many of Ukraine's neighbors are NATO members, including Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary. And so are the the Baltic states
— Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia — further north and right on Russia's border. If any of those countries come to Ukraine's aid and find
themselves in a war with Russia, NATO is obliged to intervene. That's also true if Russia comes up with some pretext to invade any of those
countries, unlikely as that seems. If we learned anything from World War I, it's that huge, bloody conflicts can start with tiny skirmishes,
especially in Eastern Europe. Again, the U.S. and Russia almost certainly won't come to blows over Ukraine. But what
if they did?

Nuclear deterrence checks Ukraine conflict


Michael Peck, Defense and National Security editor for Foreign Policy Magazine, March 5th, 2014,
Forbes, “7 Reasons Why America Will Never Go To War Over Ukraine”,
http://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelpeck/2014/03/05/7-reasons-why-america-will-never-go-to-war-
over-ukraine/, accessed 4/23/14
America is the mightiest military power in the world. And that fact means absolutely nothing for the Ukraine crisis. Regardless of
whether Russia continues to occupy the Crimea region of Ukraine, or decides to occupy all of Ukraine,
the U.S. is not going to get into a shooting war with Russia. This has nothing to do with whether Obama
is strong or weak. Jimmy Carter or Ronald Reagan would face the same constraints. The U.S. may threaten to impose
economic sanctions, but here is why America will never smack Russia with a big stick:Russia is a nuclear
superpower. Russia has an estimated 4,500 active nuclear warheads, according to the Federation of American
Scientists. Unlike North Korea or perhaps Iran, whose nuclear arsenals couldn’t inflict substantial damage, Russia could totally
devastate the U.S. as well as the rest of the planet. U.S. missile defenses, assuming they even work, are
not designed to stop a massive Russian strike

Russia won’t risk conflict – market response deters.


Cowen 14 (Tyler Cowen, NYT, “Crimea Through a Game-Theory Lens”, 3/15/14,
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/16/business/crimea-through-a-game-theory-lens.html)
A more reassuring kind of deterrence has to do with the response of Russian markets to the crisis. Russia
is a far more globalized economy than it was during the Soviet era. On the first market day after the
Crimean takeover, the reaction was a plunging ruble, and a decline in the Russian stock market of more
than 10 percent. Russia’s central bank raised interest rates to 7 percent from 5.5 percent to protect the ruble’s value. Such market
reactions penalize Russian decision makers, who also know that a broader conflict would endanger
Russia’s oil and gas revenue, which makes up about 70 percent of its export income. In this case, market
forces provide a relatively safe form of deterrence. Unlike governmental sanctions, market-led penalties
limit the risk of direct political retaliation, making it harder for the Russian government to turn falling
market prices into a story of victimization by outside powers.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 54

No Conflict – Arctic
Status quo forums solve Arctic conflict
Igor Alexeev, Center for Research and Globalization, February 20, 2014, “Russia Chooses ‘Soft’
Approach to the Arctic”, http://www.globalresearch.ca/russia-chooses-soft-approach-to-the-
arctic/5369725, accessed 5/5/14
Existing international law framework and forums like the Arctic Chiefs of Defense Staff Conference
provide all the necessary mechanisms to treat and resolve all overlapping claims on the basis of
negotiations. In any case, there is no need for screaming headlines about “the new cold war”. Recent
examples of economic cooperation prove that business has become a gateway to regional political
accord, debunking popular myths about the race for resources in the Arctic.

Cooperation not conflict in the Arctic


Jonas Grätz, Center for Security Studies, International Relations and Security Network, July 2012, “The
Arctic: Thaw With Conflict Potential”, http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Articles/Detail/?id=157922
oday, the Arctic is characterised by a mixture of cooperation, competition, and conflicts of interest. There are indications that the growing
presence of non-Arctic players prompts more cooperation among the coastal states. Open conflicts are
unlikely to break out in the foreseeable future: While existing mechanisms for cooperation may be too weak to resolve some
conflicts of interest, the costs of military conflict will likely be considered too high in light of uncertain gains. If
conflicts were to occur, they would probably be limited in both time and space, aiming at the
enforcement of interpretations of international law. Having said that, as the involvement of all key political players
increases, the Arctic is also the scene of overarching geo-strategic competition and conflict. The extent to which the thawing of the Arctic
means conflict or rapprochement and cooperation will therefore also depend on the shape of the future world order and the relationships
between the different power centres.

Arctic relations high now – cooperation overcomes disputes.


Edle Astrup Tschudi, Brown Political Review, March 5, 2014, “As Ice Melts, the Arctic Warms Up to a
Global Presence”, http://www.brownpoliticalreview.org/2014/03/as-ice-melts-the-artic-warms-up-to-a-
global-presence/, accessed 5/2/14
Though diplomatic relations with Russia are cooling globally, one region stands out: the Arctic. The members
of the Arctic Council — Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States (Alaska) –
are making impressive diplomatic progress in the North. Here, the Russians and their neighbors are
marking the end of an often icy relationship that has persisted even after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Meetings of
the Arctic Council and other summits take a friendly and businesslike form, with politicians and
businessmen intermingling. The Arctic thaw is translating into a diplomatic thaw – a thaw that is
benefiting all parties involved. Perhaps the time is ripe not only for a Nordic model, but also for an Arctic
model for diplomacy. Over the last few years, enormous Russia has amped up relations with
comparatively minuscule neighbors such as Norway, seemingly benefiting the smaller party; Russia’s usual power
politics are clearly not as prominent in the area. Most surprisingly, Russia’s relationship with the NATO
countries Canada, Denmark, Iceland and Norway is blossoming. These relationships stand in stark contrast to Russia’s
problematic relationship to post-Soviet states like Ukraine and Georgia or the Baltic NATO members, to mention a few. The reason for this,
ironically, may be that the Arctic NATO member nations used to be Russia’s enemies during the Cold War. As a result, dependency
upon
“Mother Russia” was never established, which enables the Arctic countries to negotiate with Russia on a
relatively even footing. The threat of inclusion or exclusion from a Russian trade union is not a major
concern for Russia’s resource-rich Arctic neighbors. In other words, Russia’s bargaining power is completely
different in the Arctic than near its southern or western borders.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 55

No Conflict – Missile Defense


Talks still occurring – doesn’t hurt relations
Russia Behind the Headlines, February 1, 2014, “Russia still hopes to reach consensus on missile
defense with U.S. – diplomat,”
rbth.com/news/2014/02/01/russia_still_hopes_to_reach_consensus_on_missile_defense_with_us_-
_diplo_33758.html, accessed 5/5/14
Moscow is still hopeful that it could reach an agreement with Washington on a missile defense system, Director of
the Russian Foreign Ministry Security and Disarmament Department Mikhail Ulyanov said. "Such a chance certainly exists. Everything
depends on the U.S.'political will," Ulyanov said. U.S.-Russia relations More about U.S.-Russia relations The U.S. administration is
aware of Russia's reasons as to how a global missile defense system's threat to strategic stability could be reduced, he said. Russian and
U.S. experts are continuing consultations on the matter through military and diplomatic channels, he said. Asked
about the liquidation of an interagency task force on Russian-U.S. interaction on missile defense, Ulyanov said it was purely technical. "A
decision was made on its rearrangement. The newly established interagency task force on missile defense held its first session
on January 17," Ulyanov said. "Surely, it would be wrong to deny that a dialogue on missile defense has in fact reached a deadlock. However,
as is seen from the latest events surrounding, for instance, Iran or Syria, progress is possible even on the most
problematic issues if there is political will," he said.

Other issues overwhelm


Stewart Powell, Staff Writer, April 12, 2014, “U.S. talks tough, but keeps key ties with Russia”
http://www.myrecordjournal.com/news/national/4194131-129/us-talks-tough-but-keeps-key-ties-with-
russia.html, accessed 4/28/14
President Obama and members of Congress are finding it’s easier to talk the talk than to walk the walk when it
comes to punishing Russia for meddling in the Ukraine. The U.S. space program is relying on Russia to ferry U.S.
astronauts to and from the orbiting, U.S.-built International Space Station at a rate of $70 million a seat. Texas-based Exxon Mobil and
other far flung U.S. energy companies are deeply invested in multibillion-dollar oil exploration and production deals with Russia. And
despite U.S.-Russian tensions, the Pentagon is moving ahead to complete a politically sensitive, $1.1 billion deal to
provide 61 Russian-built helicopters to beleaguered Afghan allies as U.S. troops withdraw from a 13-year war. U.S. officials are
talking tough, but with so much invested in the U.S.-Russian relationship since the end of the Cold War,
questions persist over whether threatened U.S. penalties can make a difference.

Missile talks irrelevant – talks died years ago


Rio Novosti April 3, 2014, “OPINION: US Pullout on Missile Defense Talks Won’t Impact Russia”
http://en.ria.ru/military_news/20140403/189019932/OPINION-US-Pullout-on-Missile-Defense-Talks-
Wont-Impact-Russia-.html, accessed 4/25/14
MOSCOW, April 3 (RIA Novosti) - The Pentagon's recent talk of suspending anti-missile consultations
with Russia is hot air, as the negotiations lost their significance long ago, experts have told RIA Novosti.
The Russia-NATO missile shield talks have been treading water for years, ever since the two agreed at a 2010 Lisbon summit
to cooperate on the European project. The partners eventually deadlocked on the issue after Washington refused to
provide Moscow with legal guarantees that its strike forces in Europe would not target Russia's deterrence
capabilities. Elaine Bunn, a US Department of Defense official overseeing nuclear policy, earlier said that Russia's stance on the Ukrainian
crisis was a reason for the Pentagon putting its cooperation with Moscow on hold. Now experts say that Russia-NATO consultations were bound
to grind to a halt, citing Washington's reluctance to meet Moscow halfway. So the freeze on them now accurately reflects the
already existing state of affairs. "It's a matter of ritual. The consultations had been nothing but a failure for the
past four years," said Lt. Gen. Yevgeny Buzhinsky, who used to head the department of international agreements in Russia's Defense
Ministry. Buzhinsky underscored that the United States had long been blocking anti-missile talks. "Talks or no talks, they don't make a
difference anyway. I don't think they are a big loss," he told RIA Novosti.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 56

No Conflict – Syria
No conflict over Syria – mutual goals outweigh tensions
Jordain Carney, Staff Writer at National Journal, March 6, 2014, “Despite Ukraine Tensions, Russia Still
Involved in Syria”, http://www.nationaljournal.com/defense/despite-ukraine-tensions-russia-still-
involved-in-syria-20140306, accessed 4/30/14
Despite increasing tensions over Russia's occupation of Crimea, a top State Department official said that the
situation in Ukraine isn't impacting a push to destroy Syria's chemical-weapons arsenal. "I believe Russia
remains committed to the object here, which is the removal and destruction of all of Syria's chemical-
weapons stockpile," Deputy Secretary of State William Burns said at a Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearing Thursday about Syria
and Ukraine. Despite being seemingly unrelated, senators focused on a common thread the two scenarios have: Russia's involvement. And
Burns acknowledged that the United States has been "frustrated" about the Russian government's unwillingness to push harder on Syrian
President Bashar al-Assad's regime on areas including increasing access to humanitarian aid. Despite multiple delays by the Syrian government
to turn over chemical materials, Burns said he believes it
is still possible to meet a midyear deadline to destroy the
country's chemical-weapons program. "That's an area where I believe Russia has a self-interest in trying
to ensure that that happens, it's not a favor to the United States. It's something that Russia has
committed to, and I hope we can accomplish that goal," Burns said.

U.S.-Russian cooperation over Syria improving – no conflict now.


Leena Carmenates, Staff Writer at Foreign Policy Today, February 26, 2014 “Syria’s crisis: Why Geneva
II was not a complete failure”, http://www.fptoday.org/syrias-crisis-why-geneva-ii-was-not-a-complete-
failure/, accessed 5/1/14
With the conclusion of the Geneva II talks in mid-February, there seems to be little to no progress toward the hoped-for
diplomatic solution between the Syrian government and the opposition. However, there are small fragments of hope that can still
be built upon, provided the necessary participants agree to cooperate. The most notable success is the
recent passing of UN Security Council Resolution 2139 demanding access for humanitarian aid convoys.
The resolution is non-binding and diplomats were immediately skeptical as to the prospects of effective implementation. However, it passed
unanimously, marking a positive turn of events when compared to previous resolutions vetoed by
Russia. This success comes on the heels of the not-so-successful Geneva talks, which attempted to come up with a workable agenda for
achieving the parameters of the Geneva Communique of 2012. A sharp divergence of goals led to very little interaction between the two parties
in Geneva. The opposition focused on developing a transitional government, whereas Syrian government officials were keen on halting violence
by anti-Assad forces. Signs of progress Despite the disheartening turnout of the talks, elements of it show hope for some progress.The mere
presence of both sides at the table shows some degree of will on each side, regardless of how small. Though there
was a lack of negotiations, at least the meeting took place and if it happened once, it can happen again. The Syrian
opposition selected a new leader and is allegedly working to become a more organized force – a crucial step in ensuring a unified body of
organized response to the Assad regime. The lack of negotiations pressured outside actors to come to the fore. This
forced the hands
of the international community, namely the U.S. and Russia, to come up with alternative approaches.
Resolution 2139 is a testament to this. The unanimous vote on the resolution shows that Russia is not as
stubborn as may have been thought, indicating the possibility of future progress.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 57

No Conflict – Syria
No risk of Russian conflict over Syria – rhetoric is domestic hype.
Stephen Sestanovich, Senior Fellow for Russian and Eurasian Studies, September 6, 2013, Council on
Foreign Relations, “Syria & U.S.-Russian Relations: Three Things to Know,”
http://www.cfr.org/syria/syria-us-russian-relations-three-things-know/p31353, accessed 4/29/14
Same Taste, New Injury: Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russian leaders have had a tendency to engage
in anti-American rhetoric. "This was true even of a pro-American figure like Boris Yeltsin," Sestanovich says.
Russian provocation of the United States regarding Syria also has roots in its decades-long relationship
with the Syrian regime, which allows Russia to enjoy "access to naval facilities, arm sales, military and intelligence cooperation,"
Sestanovich adds. Injecting Personality Into Policy: Russian foreign policy reflects elements of Putin's personality,
according to Sestanovich. Putin places a premium on Russian sovereignty and largely "ignore[s]
international criticism," Sestanovich says. "For Putin, Assad is right to oppose outside pressure," he says. No Confrontation:
Putin and his generals have no desire to involve Russian military personnel in the Syria conflict. The Russians
may go as far as re-supplying the Syrian military, says Sestanovich, but unless the tide of the civil war turns against Assad, their policy will
not change. "Yes, he wants Assad to survive; no, he does not intend to go down in flames with him," he says.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 58

Aquaculture Neg

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 59

1NC Urban Aquaculture CP

SAMPLE TEXT: The United States federal government should invest in sustainable
urban aquaculture

The counterplan solves the aff while avoiding the environment and disease turns
Garrett Wheeler, J.D., Golden Gate University School of Law, 2013 “A Feasible Alternative: The Legal
Implications of Aquaculture in the United States and the Promise of Sustainable Urban Aquaculture
Systems,” Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, [accessed 5/7/2014]
As the United States begins to implement a variety of new ¶ aquaculture techniques in the ocean and on land, it will likely play a ¶ major role in
shaping a regulatory structure that can encourage the ¶ growth of environmentally responsible aquaculture practices. Whether ¶ that
development takes place on land, near the coast, or miles out to sea will largely depend on the outcome of future legal forays and policy¶
initiatives.¶ Although
considerable scholarly analysis has been devoted to the¶ environmental problems and
legal complexities surrounding the¶ development of open-ocean aquaculture, little has been written on
the¶ alternative: sustainable land-based facilities . These systems are models¶ of modern ecological
engineering and can be located anywhere,¶ including urban settings such as brownfields,abandoned
industrial¶ sites, and warehouses. They can feed local populations and provide local jobs without
compromising the health of our oceans and wild fish stocks . Sustainable land-based systems are already
operating in American cities¶ like Brooklyn, Baltimore, and Milwaukee. Recirculating aquaculture systems
(RAS) and aquaponic systems¶ are closed-loop, land-based farms that re-use water and are capable of¶
producing fish, vegetables, flowers, fruits, and herbs. RAS technology¶ eliminates the environmental problems
associated with conventional¶ aquaculture methods, such as outdoor pond systems and ocean net pen¶
systems. RAS facilities are “sustainable, infinitely expandable,¶ environmentally compatible, and have the ability to guarantee both the¶
safety and the quality of fish produced.” Unlike conventional systems,¶ which are limited by environmental and
geographic constraints, as well¶ as the threat of disease transference, indoor systems can produce fish
in¶ completely controlled environments without risk of escapement or spread of disease .18 Moreover, RAS
conserves heat and water through water¶ reuse, running on ninety to ninety-nine percent less water than¶ conventional systems and providing
environmentally safe wastemanagement¶ treatment.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 60

2NC Solvency/Net Benefit Extension


The counterplan avoids massive environmental and disease impacts of the aff
Garrett Wheeler, J.D., Golden Gate University School of Law, 2013 “A Feasible Alternative: The Legal
Implications of Aquaculture in the United States and the Promise of Sustainable Urban Aquaculture
Systems,” Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, [accessed 5/7/2014]
New technologies are allowing operators to cultivate fish and other¶ seafood in exposed, open-ocean environments that were inaccessible¶
only twenty years ago. However, the
rise of offshore aquaculture poses¶ significant threats to sensitive marine
environments and “represents a¶ fundamental transition in the human claim on the Earth’s surface.”¶
Open-ocean aquaculture facilities operate in largely pristine areas¶ and are intimately connected with
their surrounding aquatic¶ ecosystems. Common species cultivated in the open ocean include¶ mostly
finfish such as salmon, cod, and tuna . Large underwater cages¶ are placed in the water, and as ocean
currents flow through the cages, the¶ spread of waste and chemical byproducts can implicate the health
of the¶ seafloor and the surrounding water column. Escaped fish also pose a threat to marine ecosystems by introducing
non-indigenous species,¶ compromising the genetic fitness of native populations through¶ interbreeding, and disease translocation. Disease
and parasites may also¶ spread to nearby native populations, and attempts by operators to apply¶ drugs
and chemicals to contain those threats can damage the surrounding¶ ecosystem. Predatory fish and marine
mammals are also drawn to¶ cages full of captive fish, leading to injury, death, and harassment by¶ operators trying to protect their stocks.
Finally, operational failures are¶ all but inevitable: in at least one instance, an entire fish cage broke free¶ from a tow vessel and was sent
floating adrift in the open ocean,¶ endangering marine species as well as any ocean-going vessels¶ unfortunate enou 48¶ Compared to
the negative environmental impacts of ocean-based¶ aquaculture facilities, the negative impacts of
land-based systems are¶ easily minimized. Unlike ocean-based operations, isolated terrestrial¶
facilities have fewer problems with escapement . The spread of disease¶ is also easier to control
because fecal matter and feed waste are not in¶ direct contact with the surrounding marine
ecosystem.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 61

2NC Avoids the Antibiotic Turn

The counterplan avoids the antibiotic turn on case


Garrett Wheeler, J.D., Golden Gate University School of Law, 2013 “A Feasible Alternative: The Legal
Implications of Aquaculture in the United States and the Promise of Sustainable Urban Aquaculture
Systems,” Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, [accessed 5/7/2014]

While the effects of antibiotic resistance on marine life are beyond¶ the scope of this Comment, it
is worth noting that the FDA’s
regulation¶ of aquaculture has come under heavy scrutiny owing to potential¶ oversight problems
regarding antibiotic approval, genetic engineering¶ provisions, and labeling. The actual prevalence of
antibiotic use on¶ fish farms is also heavily underreported.161 Operators of sustainable¶ aquaculture
facilities , however, will have little trouble complying with¶ FDA requirements because technologies like
RAS systems have little¶ need to use antibiotics due to the increased ability to limit the entrance of¶
pathogens into the contained environment . Moreover, in the case of a¶ disease event, alternative treatments are more
effective in the RAS¶ context because of the relatively small quantity of water that must be¶ treated.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 62

Politics Links
The plan causes massive political backlash AND it must be pushed
Johns, J.D., University of Southern California Law School, 2013, “Farm Fishing Holes: Gaps in Federal
Regulation of Offshore Aquaculture,” 86 S. Cal. L. Rev. 681

Despite being endorsed by many environmental organizations, the National Sustainable Offshore Aquaculture bill died
in the 112th Congress and was referred to the House Committee on Natural Resources, having received zero co-
sponsors . The bill's failure may be due in part to the actions of the usual aquaculture opponents. Indeed,
after the bill was first introduced in 2009, an organization of commercial fishermen (SIC) sent a letter to
the House of Representatives voicing its opposition, criticizing the bill for allowing "offshore
aquaculture to be permitted in federal waters with limited safeguards and little or no accountability," and
urging the House to "develop legislation to stop federal efforts to rush growth of the offshore
aquaculture industry ." Furthermore, NOAA has yet to publicly endorse [*721] or even issue a position on the
bill . Agencies such as NOAA and other environmental organizations must soon come forward in loud
support of the bill to see that it is reintroduced and successful in Congress . If they do not, the current lack of any
comprehensive regulatory regime may very well sink the entire offshore aquaculture industry.

Massive grassroots opposition to aquaculture makes the plan politically difficult


Panorama Aquicola, 2013, “The Political Economics of United States Marine Aquaculture,”
http://www.panoramaacuicola.com/interviews_and_articles/2013/01/09/the_political_economics_of_
united_states_marine_aquaculture.html [accessed May 5th, 2014]
4. NGO’s have systematically and effectively opposed U.S. marine aquaculture. Numerous U.S. Non-
Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have invested significant funding and effort to advocate banning, delaying
,restricting, or regulating U.S. marine aquaculture. These organizations have played a major role in
influencing the public, the press, politicians, and regulators in ways which have contributed to
unfavorable leasing and regulatory policies towards marine aquaculture.This NGO’s include the Packard
Foundation, Greenpeace,the Environmental Defense Fund, and others. The scale, objectives, strategies, and
arguments of these groups vary widely, making it difficult to generalize about their motives, methods, and effects. ¶ Advocacy groups can
provide avaluable service by acting as an impartial watch dog of environmental issues and calling attention to legitimate concerns. However, a
very real and frustrating challenge for marine aquaculture supporters is that some NGO’s appear
willing to say anything to oppose marine aquaculture , with casual and sometimes blatant disregard for objectivity, truth,
or the complex reality of what experience and science have shown about the hugely varied effects of the hugely varied kinds of activities
collectively known as aquaculture.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 63

Case Debate/Turns

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 64

1NC Environment Turn

Aquaculture causes HUGE environmental impacts


Naylor, Julie Wrigley Senior Fellow at the Center for Environmental Science and Policy (CESP) at
Stanford University, PhD in applied economics from Stanford, 2004, “Threats to Aquatic Environments:
Is Aquaculture a Solution?,” [accessed 5/6/2014]
Additional environmental threats¶ Marine aquaculture places a variety of stresses on¶ the marine environment.
Like industrial livestock¶ systems, marine netpens contain large densities of¶ fish in confined spaces which pollute
surrounding¶ waters. By one estimate, a relatively modest¶ salmon farm of 200 000 fish releases an amount of¶ nitrogen, phosphorous
and fecal matter roughly¶ equivalent to the nutrients in untreated sewage¶ from 20 000, 25 000, and 65 000 people respectively¶ (Hardy 2000).
Antibiotics added to fishmeal¶ or chemicals placed directly in open netpens to¶ prevent the spread of
diseases and parasites also¶ flow directly into the marine environment (Goldburg¶ et al. 2001).¶ Aquaculture
presents risks of disease outbreaks, a¶ proliferation of possible disease transmission¶ routes in the
environment, and decreased immunity¶ of wild fish to disease — all of which can harm¶ wild fish
populations and the aquatic environments¶ in which they live. Transmission of pathogens and¶ diseases from
aquaculture to vulnerable wild fish¶ can occur through populations that are infected at¶ the hatchery source, contact with wild hosts of the¶
disease, infected fish that escape from netpens, and¶ wild fish migrating or moving within plumes of an¶ infected pen or disease outbreak
(Naylor et al.¶ 2004).Dense
cultures often lead to clinical expressions¶ of disease and a shedding of pathogens
into¶ the environment, and hence to a higher prevalence¶ of disease overall.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 65

Environment Turn-Extensions

Aquaculture destroys coastal ecosystems-fish waste release proves


Ocean Conservancy, 2011 “Right From the Start: Open-Ocean Aquaculture in the United
States,”
http://www.aces.edu/dept/fisheries/education/documents/Open_Ocean_Aquculture_R
ight_from_the_Start_bytheOceanConservancyorganization.pdf (accessed 5/1/2014)
In reviewing the experience of ocean ¶ fish farming internationally, the
scientific literature identifies five types ¶ of
environmental risk. Each must be ¶ addressed if there is to be environmentally ¶ responsible industry
expansion in the US.¶ 1. Pollution : Fish farms release fish waste, ¶ uneaten food, and chemical wastes ¶
directly into the ocean with meaningful ¶ consequences for the health of the water column and the
seafloor below. Like the poultry farms of Maryland’s Eastern shore, whose wastes flow onto Chesapeake Bay, such “over-
enrichment” of coastal ecosystems has generally emerged as a major environmental problem , occasionally
resulting in algal blooms, habitat loss, and the serious depletion of dissolved oxygen. Aquaculture must
proceed only in ways that do not contribute to the general problem of coastal eutrophication (over-
enrichment.)

Aquaculture destroys the ocean environment


Naylor, Julie Wrigley Senior Fellow at the Center for Environmental Science and Policy (CESP) at
Stanford University, PhD in applied economics from Stanford, 2004, “Threats to Aquatic Environments:
Is Aquaculture a Solution?,” [accessed 5/6/2014]

In addition, the escape of farmed fish from ocean¶ netpen systems — a common occurrence due to¶
storms and human error — can lead to competition¶ and interbreeding with populations of already¶
threatened wild fish (Naylor et al. 2001, 2004).¶ Most literature on the harmful effects of interbreeding¶ between introduced (farmed
and hatchery)¶ fish and wild fish concerns salmon. These¶ anadromous fish (i.e. they go from the ocean to¶ coastal waters or streams to spawn)
have subpopulations¶ adapted genetically to local conditions in¶ river drainages, and they are particularly prone to¶ reduced fitness from
interbreeding with escaped,¶ genetically distinct farmed and hatchery fish.¶ Other marine fish species now beginning to be¶ farmed are less
genetically differentiated, which¶ may lessen the genetic impact of interbreeding between¶ wild and farmed or hatchery fish. All the¶ same,
some marine fish do have distinct subpopulations.¶ Atlantic cod, for instance, form aggregations¶ that are genetically differentiated and
appear¶ to have little gene flow among them (Ruzzante et¶ al. 2001).¶ Pollution, disease and escapes from marine netpens¶ add to the
underlying environmental degradation¶ already plaguing marine ecosystems from¶ other human activities. Although
the geographic¶
extent of aquaculture is limited, the ecological impact¶ on marine resources if often much greater¶ than
the area suggests, since fish farming heavily¶ depends upon and interacts with wild fisheries.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 66

Aquaculture causes massive biodiversity loss through invasive species


Ocean Conservancy, 2011 “Right From the Start: Open-Ocean Aquaculture in the United
States,”
http://www.aces.edu/dept/fisheries/education/documents/Open_Ocean_Aquculture_R
ight_from_the_Start_bytheOceanConservancyorganization.pdf (accessed 5/1/2014)
2. Escaped Fish: Farmed fish invariably ¶ escape from aquaculture operations . ¶ In October 2009, 40,000 adult salmon
¶ escaped from Canada’s largest farm. ¶ From 2004 to 2008, Norwegian ¶ authorities reported cod escapes from ¶ farms in excess of 800,000
fish. Annual ¶ escapes of farmed salmon in Norway ¶ ranged from 2 million fish to 10 million ¶ fish per year from 1995 to 2005. ¶ These are very
large numbers. Without ¶ careful broodstock management, ¶ even the escape of native species can ¶
compromise the genetic fitness of wild ¶ fish through interbreeding . ¶ In Europe and the US, there are
already ¶ legitimate concerns that escaped ¶ Atlantic salmon could contribute to ¶ the eventual
extinction of wild salmon ¶ populations . If the fish that escape ¶ are exotic, or are genetically modified,
¶ the risks increase considerably, with ¶ the potential to permanently upset ¶ ecosystem balance as

these newly ¶ introduced fish out-compete, displace, ¶ or prey on native species . Invasive ¶ species are
listed second only to habitat ¶ destruction as a driver of extinction and ¶ are classified by the World Conservation ¶
Union as one of the four greatest ¶ threats to the world’s ocean. The kinds ¶ of fish and the ways in which they are ¶
farmed must be carefully controlled to ensure ocean ecosystems are not ¶ harmed by fish escapes from ocean fish farms.

Aquaculture causes environmental degradation


Sinead Lehane, ¶ FDI Research Analyst, 2013, “Fish for the Future: Aquaculture and Food
Security,” Future Directions, http://www.futuredirections.org.au/publications/food-and-water-
crises/1269-fish-for-the-future-aquaculture-and-food-security.html [accessed 5/4/2014]
Environmental Degradation¶ ¶ A
key concern with the practice of aquaculture is its environmental impact and
water quality degradation from its production processes. Effluent water from ponds causing
environmental pollution, nutrient buildup (mostly organic nitrogen and phosphorus) and wastes in ecosystems, land
clearing and chemical pollution, are just a few of the negative impacts if systems are not managed
correctly.Of particular concern is the environmental damage to oceans from marine aquaculture.
Chemical and effluent pollution can severely deplete oxygen levels in water, create algal blooms and kill
corals and other habitats. Antibiotics added to fishmeal, or chemicals added to pens as a disease preventative, flow directly into the
water. Large densities of fish populations in net pens increase pollutant outputs into surrounding waters,
putting increased stress on the marine ecosystem. Estimates indicate that a salmon farm of 200,000 fish releases levels of
nitrogen, phosphorus and fecal matter equivalent to the untreated sewage from over 20,000 people. ¶ ¶ Land degradation and changed river
ecology caused by inland farming are also challenges which need to be addressed to ensure production has a minimal effect on natural
biodiversity and ecosystems.
Commercial aquaculture poses a particular set of problems, with large-scale
production and limited management in some instances leading to critical environmental damage and
irreversible ecosystem degradation.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 67

1NC Disease Turn


Ocean aquaculture causes major disease outbreaks that spread
Ocean Conservancy, 2011 “Right From the Start: Open-Ocean Aquaculture in the United
States,”
http://www.aces.edu/dept/fisheries/education/documents/Open_Ocean_Aquculture_R
ight_from_the_Start_bytheOceanConservancyorganization.pdf (accessed 5/1/2014)

Diseases, Parasites, and Chemicals: ¶ Ocean fish farms can amplify and ¶ spread deadly diseases and parasites ¶
into natural environments . In turn, ¶ farm operators often apply drugs and ¶ chemicals to contain these
threats, ¶ sometimes with subsequent harm to wild ¶ animals. White spot disease decimated ¶ the
global shrimp farming industry in ¶ the 1990s . Today, infectious salmon ¶ anemia (ISA) is plaguing the
salmon ¶ farming industry in Chile, leading to the ¶ intentional destruction of millions of ¶ farmed fish,
with impacts confirmed on ¶ wild shrimp and likely on wild salmon. ¶ Several accounts have linked
salmon ¶ farms to disease outbreaks in wild fish ¶ populations .¶ In recent years, there has been a ¶ dramatic
spread of parasitic sea lice from ¶ farms to wild salmon at a cost of nearly ¶ $5 billion annually. As for
chemicals, ¶ fish farmers are known to regularly ¶ apply pesticides, antibiotics, fungicides, ¶ antifoulants, and
other chemicals. These ¶ chemicals dissolve in the water and are ¶ carried outside the farms, sometimes ¶
with marked effects on surrounding ¶ ecosystems. Responsible aquaculture ¶ management must ensure that farms ¶
minimize the use of all drugs and ¶ chemicals, and that farms don’t grow to ¶ a scale at which they become reliant on ¶ regular use of such
substances as has ¶ happened in other parts of the world.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 68

Extensions-Disease Turn

Aquaculture causes disease spread


Sinead Lehane, ¶ FDI Research Analyst, 2013, “Fish for the Future: Aquaculture and Food
Security,” Future Directions, http://www.futuredirections.org.au/publications/food-and-water-
crises/1269-fish-for-the-future-aquaculture-and-food-security.html [accessed 5/4/2014]
Disease and chemical contamination of farmed fish is an ongoing management issue for farmers. Disease is
most often caused by stress factors, induced by environmental changes. Lowered environmental health, increased levels of waste and
pollutants in waterways, high stock density and low quality, all increase stock susceptibility to disease. Closed
farming systems
where the breeding environment is closely monitored, are considered the safest option for disease
prevention and water quality control. Closed systems prevent escape, ensure the availability of optimum
levels of feed and water, and eliminate any danger of predators. The movement of live aquatic animals
across boundaries is a major cause of the spread of diseases and pathogens within the aquatic
environment . Improved technology and management systems are required to better regulate disease, improve water quality and ensure
sustainable production can be increased to meet future demands.

Aquaculture causes huge disease risk


Peter J. Walker, Head of Aquaculture and Aquatic Animal Health in CSIRO Livestock Industries, Adjunct
Chair in the Centre for Marine Studies at the University of Queensland, 2004, “Disease Emergence and
Food Security: Global Impact of Pathogens on Sustainable Aquaculture Production,” [accessed 5/5/2014]
Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly developing¶ sectors of global food production, contributing¶ significantly to socio-economic¶
development by providing food security and¶ export earnings from high-value products. The¶ importance of the industry to the expanding¶
world population is underscored by the growing¶ gap between supply and demand for seafood.¶ However, rapidgrowth in
aquaculture¶ has been accompanied by increasing problems¶ with disease, and disease is now seen¶ as a
very significant threat to sustainable production¶ and trade. During the past decade,¶ disease has devastated prawn farming
in Asia¶ and Latin America, with annual losses of up to¶ US$3 billion. Devastating losses have also hit¶ the salmon farming
industries of Europe and¶ North America, the diverse fish farming industries¶ of Japan, Taiwan and
China, and shellfish¶ production in Asia and Europe. Disease in¶ aquaculture is the result of ecological
disturbances¶ that disrupt the natural balance between¶ pathogens and their host. Farming is¶ often conducted
in unnatural habitats which¶ provide opportunities for exposure to new¶ pathogens. Culture conditions may be potentially¶
stressful, causing existing infections to¶ become more severe and precipitate disease¶ outbreaks.
Stocking densities are often high, increasing the risk of disease transmission¶ and spread. There is also a
growing trade in¶ live aquatic animals, inevitably resulting in¶ trans-boundary spread of disease and
subsequent¶ imposition of trade barriers. Solutions to the¶ growing disease menace lie in improved¶ methods for rapid disease
diagnosis and¶ pathogen detection, increased regulation of¶ trans-boundary movement of live aquatic animals,¶ closed-cycle breeding and
selection for¶ disease resistance, and improved education¶ and training for both health professionals and¶ farmers.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 69

A2 Food Instability Advantage


Chinese decline in production isn’t coming-They still export despite domestic demand
The World Bank, 2013, “Fish to 2030: Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture,”
Agriculture and Environmental Services Discussion Paper 03 [accessed 5/7/14]

Seafood demand from China, the single largest market for seafood,¶ has grown substantially, and its
influence on the global fi sh markets¶ and trade has intensified. China’s per capita fish consumption
grew¶ to 33.1 kilograms per year in 2010, at an annual rate of 6 percent¶ between 1990 and 2010. So
far, due particularly to growth in aquaculture¶ production, fish production in China has kept pace
with¶ the growth in consumption demand from population and income¶ growth . While Asia
accounted for 88 percent of world aquaculture¶ production by volume in 2011, China alone accounted
for 62 percent.¶ Aquaculture now represents more than 70 percent of the¶ total fi sh produced in China.
With the rapid growth in production,¶ China’s share in the global fish production grew from 7 percent in¶
1961 to 35 percent in 2011. Notwithstanding that China consumes¶ 34 percent of global food fi sh
supply, it is still a net exporter of food fi sh . Nevertheless, China is both an importer and exporter of
fish.

Disease turns the food security advantage


Peter J. Walker, Head of Aquaculture and Aquatic Animal Health in CSIRO Livestock Industries, Adjunct
Chair in the Centre for Marine Studies at the University of Queensland, 2004, “Disease Emergence and
Food Security: Global Impact of Pathogens on Sustainable Aquaculture Production,” [accessed 5/5/2014]
Conclusion¶ The devastating white spot pandemic and other¶ major disease outbreaks impacting on food
security¶ have been catalysts for profound changes in¶ the structure and operation of the aquaculture
industry,¶ and have led governments to address more¶ seriously the issue of aquatic animal disease
management.¶ The messages have been clear. Disease¶ emergence and spread are not simply unfortunate¶
natural disasters that are beyond our control. They¶ are a predictable consequence of the massive
sociological,¶ ecological and geo-economic changes¶ that have accompanied the development of this¶
new industry. As aquaculture continues to expand,¶ evolve and diversify, new diseases will emerge¶
and , if we are not adequately prepared , the consequences¶ will be devastating for food security , socio-economic
development and trade. The vast¶ potential for aquaculture development in Africa¶ remains relatively untapped, but will surely be the¶ source
of new disease challenges. To meet the¶ challenge of containing disease and ensuring efficient¶ and sustainable aquaculture production, we¶
must continue to improve our understanding of¶ aquatic animal pathogens and our diagnostic capabilities,¶ improve disease surveillance and
emergency¶ response capabilities, improve the¶ regulation of trans-boundary movement of aquatic¶ animals and other high-risk commodities,
and develop¶ improved technologies for low-cost, chemical-¶ free treatments and disease resistance. To¶ ensure food security at the level of
small-scale¶ farmers, we must also improve education and¶ training in practical disease management practices¶ that are effective and
affordable at the subsistence¶ level.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 70

No aquaculture shortage now-And it’s continuing to grow even absent the plan
The World Bank, 2013, “Fish to 2030: Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture,”
Agriculture and Environmental Services Discussion Paper 03 [accessed 5/7/14]

In contrast,the rapid expansion of global aquaculture production¶ has continued with no sign of peaking .
During the past three¶ decades, global aquaculture production expanded at an average¶ annual rate of more
than 8 percent, from 5.2 million tons in 1981¶ to 62.7 million tons in 2011 (FishStat). Aquaculture’s contribution to¶ total food
fi sh supply grew from 9 percent in 1980 to 48 percent in¶ 2011 (FAO 2013). The estimated number of fish
farmers also grew¶ from 3.9 million in 1990 to 16.6 million in 2010. The rapid and massive¶ growth of
aquaculture production has contributed significantly¶ to increased production of species whose supply
would be otherwise¶ constrained given the lack of growth in capture fisheries production.¶ As a result, the
prices of these species (for example, salmon¶ and shrimp) declined, especially during the 1990s and in the early¶
2000s (FAO 2012).

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 71

Solvency

Opt-out provision means the bill fails


Rosamond L. Naylor and Julie Wrigley Senior Fellows at the Center for Environmental
Science and Policy, Stanford, 2013, “Environmental Safeguards for Open-Ocean
Aquaculture,” Issues in Science and Technology, http://issues.org/22-3/naylor/
(accessed 5/3/2014)
The proposed bill gives coastal states an important role in influencing the future development of
offshore aquaculture. Indeed, coastal states would be permitted to opt out of offshore aquaculture activities. The bill states that offshore aquaculture
permits will not be granted or will be terminated within 30 days if the secretary of Commerce receives written notice from the governor of a coastal state that the
state does not wish to have the provisions of the act apply to its seaward portion of the EEZ. The
governor can revoke the opt-out
provision at any time, thus reinstating NOAA’s authority to issue permits and oversee aquaculture
operations in that portion of the EEZ. Although the bill does not grant coastal states any jurisdiction over that part of the EEZ, it does provide
them with potential exclusion from offshore aquaculture activities. ¶ This amendment ensures a role for coastal states that is stronger than that which would apply
through the Consistency Provision (section 307) of the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). Section 307 of the CZMA requires that federally permitted projects
be consistent with select state laws that safeguard coastal ecosystems, fisheries, and people dependent on those fisheries (collectively called the state’s “coastal
zone management program”). To
complete the permitting process for an offshore aquaculture project, the project
applicant must certify the project’s consistency with the state’s coastal zone management program to
NOAA. Even if the state objects to the applicant’s consistency certification, the secretary of Commerce
can override the state’s objection and issue the permit simply by determining that the project is
consistent with the objectives or purposes of the Federal Coastal Management Act or that the project is
necessary in the interest of national security. Thus, the Department of Commerce retains ultimate authority over whether state laws apply
to the EEZ.¶ Although the decision by different coastal states to opt out of the proposed offshore aquaculture bill is yet to be determined, some states have already
adopted policies related to aquaculture development within state waters. In Alaska, state law prohibits finfish farming within the 3-mile state zone. In Washington,
House Bill 1499 allows the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife to have more control over environmental damages caused by near-shore salmon farming. In
California, salmon farming and the use of genetically modified fish are prohibited by law in marine waters, and a new bill currently being reviewed in the state
assembly (SB. 210) requires strict environmental standards for all other forms of marine aquaculture introduced into state waters. The California legislation, in
particular, provides an excellent model for a redrafting of the National Offshore Aquaculture Act.

Industry expansion won’t solve because of alt causes


Rosamond L. Naylor and Julie Wrigley Senior Fellows at the Center for Environmental
Science and Policy, Stanford, 2013, “Environmental Safeguards for Open-Ocean
Aquaculture,” Issues in Science and Technology, http://issues.org/22-3/naylor/
(accessed 5/3/2014)

In the United States, aquaculture growth for marine fish and shellfish has been below the world average,
rising annually by 4% in volume and 1% in value. The main species farmed in the marine environment are Atlantic salmon, shrimp, oysters, and
hard clams; together they account for about one-quarter of total U.S. aquaculture production. Freshwater species, such as catfish, account for
the majority of U.S. aquaculture output.¶ The technology
is in place for marine aquaculture development in the
United States, but growth remains curtailed by the lack of unpolluted sites for shellfish production,
competing uses of coastal waters , environmental concerns, and low market prices for some major
commodities such as Atlantic salmon. Meanwhile, the demand for marine fish and shellfish continues to rise more rapidly than
domestic production, adding to an increasing U.S. seafood deficit (now about $8 billion annually).

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 72

Antibiotic Resistance Turn

Aquaculture expansion causes antibiotic resistance


Sara Hughes, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa
Barbara, and Joan B. Rose, Michigan State University, 2014 “Governing Aquaculture for
Human Security,” http://www.fisheriessociety.org/proofs/sf/hughes.pdf [accessed May
3rd, 2014]

One newly arising concern is the potential of antibiotic use in fish farms to spread antibiotic¶ resistance
in aquatic environments and within microbial populations. The main antibiotics used in¶ aquaculture systems include
furazolidone, niturpirinol, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, sulfamerazine,¶ trimethoprim/sulfadiazine, and florfenicol, with a majority of
these used in large finfish operations.¶ Throughout Europe and North America, such compounds are regulated for use in
aquaculture, and¶ Japan has a slightly wider range of antimicrobials (WHO 1999). However, while overall use of antimicrobials¶
in inland aquaculture and coastal shrimp farming is relatively low, as the intensity of farming¶ operations
increase so does the use of antimicrobials . Both human and animal health could be endangered¶ as
result of overuse of antibiotics and resistance . Fernández-Alarcón et al. (2010) studied fish¶ farms in
Chile and found that 21.8% of the Pseudomonas-type bacteria carried resistance to Florfenicol.¶
Interestingly, these resistant strains of bacteria were also resistant to streptomycin, chloramphenicol,¶ and
oxytetracycline, thus indicating that genetic resistance to one antibiotic can confer resistance¶ to many
other antibiotics.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 73

Biodiversity Defense
Biodiversity isn’t key to survival
Calgary Herald, August 30, 1997
Ecologists have long maintained that diversity is one of nature's greatest strengths, but new research suggests that diversity alone
does not guarantee strong ecosystems. In findings that could intensify the debate over endangered species and habitat conservation,
three new studies suggest a greater abundance of plant and animal varieties doesn't always translate to better ecological health. At
least equally important, the research found, are the types of species and how they function together. "Having a long list of Latin names
isn't always better than a shorter list of Latin names," said Stanford University biologist Peter Vitousek, co-author of one of the studies
published in the journal Science. Separate experiments in California, Minnesota and Sweden, found that diversity often had little
bearing on the performance of ecosystems -- at least as measured by the growth and health of native plants. In fact, the communities
with the greatest biological richness were often the poorest when it came to productivity and the cycling of nutrients. One study
compared plant life on 50 remote islands in northern Sweden that are prone to frequent wildfires from lightning strikes. Scientist
David Wardle of Landcare Research in Lincoln, New Zealand, and colleagues at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, found
that islands dominated by a few species of plants recovered more quickly than nearby islands with greater biological diversity. Similar
findings were reported by University of Minnesota researchers who studied savannah grasses, and by Stanford's Vitousek and
colleague David Hooper, who concluded that functional characteristics of plant species were more important than the number of
varieties in determining how ecosystems performed. British plant ecologist J.P. Grime, in a commentary summarizing the research,
said there is as yet no "convincing evidence that species diversity and ecosystem function are consistently and causally related." "It
could be argued," he added, "that the tide is turning against the notion of high biodiversity as a controller of ecosystem function and
insurance against ecological collapse."

Species loss is inevitable: they can’t solve all causes


New Straits Times (Malaysia), February 4, 2001
Monash University Malaysia's Bachelor of Science in Environmental Management trains students for careers with the
government, industry, non- governmental organisations such as WWF, Greenpeace, Malaysian Nature Society, Friends of the Earth,
schools and universities, consulting firms and research organisations. According to Monash lecturer specialising in the ecology
of tropical rivers and streams, Dr Catherine Yule, the programme ensures that students understand how the natural
environment works and how best to manage it and utilise it in a sustainable fashion. Students study subjects including of
environmental science, marine and freshwater biology, chemistry, ecology, soil science, environmental health, forest management,
atmospheric processes and microbiology, Yule said. She added that students are introduced to a wide range of laboratory techniques
and much of the practical work will be undertaken in the field, leading to careers both in laboratories and in the field. Graduates will
be able to conduct scientific studies, develop and enforce regulatory environmental standards and understand the broader social,
economic, political and legal aspects of environmental management, Yule said. Having worked as an environmental consultant in
Australia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and Malaysia for over 20 years, Yule said that environmental management is simply managing
the environment to ensure that all species, including human beings, work in harmony with the environment. "There are two ways of
looking at environmental management," Yule said. The environment in national forests and recreational parks are "managed from the
perspective of plants and animals, where we study what the animals and plants need to survive and multiply". From a human
perspective, environmental scientists study ways of protecting the environment in view of new developments in the country, such as
setting up of manufacturing plants, housing developments, mining activities, she said. Yule added that managing the environment
from a human perspective also includes the safety of the workers themselves. "There is a great need to protect our environment for
without it, humans will not survive. A cascade of events from pollution and natural disasters to famine will happen to cause the
extinction of the human race," she said. There are also economical reasons for sustainable management of natural resources, Yule
said. "Natural resources are a source of income and with these resources depleted, the world economy will not be able to survive. In
the end, it is for our own safety and interests to protect the environment. "Esthetically, people enjoy the outdoors and protecting the
environment is for self-satisfaction." Yule rates the loss of biodiversity as the number one environmental crisis. "The
extinction of species that we know and don't not know of is happening at an alarming rate, caused by
pollution and the destruction of habitats. Other crises include global warming, river and air pollution, destruction of
rainforests and even over population."

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 74

Biodiversity Keystone Flawed Theory


Keystone is FLAWED-It’s a myth
Mark Plummer, Senior Fellow at the Discovery Institute, and Charles Mann, Noah’s Choice, 1995, p.
130
In the 1970s, this thinking generated an outpouring of eco-"philosophy for the common man, as exemplified by the lovely vision that
"everything is connected to everything else"—to cite the first of biologist Barry Commoner's famous Three Laws of Ecology.
But this picture has been tested and found wanting. Indeed, some ecologists question whether ecosystems actually exist as
such. "There are the self-perpetuating, self-regulating systems you see in popular accounts." Daniel Simberloff told us, "but I am
unaware of any rigorous proof that [such perfectly meshed systems] occur frequently in nature." Biological
communities, he argued, are little more than creations of contingency. Collections of organisms that happen to share the
same living quarters. Species interact with one another, but so do the denizens of an apartment complex, and
nobody thinks the building will fall down if one family leaves.

Redundancy prevents ecosystem collapse-keystone theory is wrong


Chris Maser, internationally recognized expert in forest ecology and governmental consultant, 1992,
Global Imperative: Harmonizing Culture and Nature, p. 40
Redundancy means that more than one species can perform similar functions. It’s a type of ecological
insurance policy, which strengthens the ability of the system to retain the integrity of its basic relationships. The insurance of
redundancy means that the loss of a species or two is not likely to result in such severe functional
disruptions of the ecosystem so as to cause its collapse because other species can make up for the functional loss.

Species evolve to replace those lost

Larry D. Martin, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and curator of


vertebrate paleontology at the University of Kansas, World and I, February 1, 2001
Wells does not claim that there were any fish in the Cambrian seas, let alone fishermen. In fact, he accepts the fossil record and geological
time as presented by the geologists. There has been a lot of extinction at different times. Probably 95 percent of all the
species that have ever lived are now extinct, but this doesn't mean that at any time in the past there was nearly twenty times
the biodiversity there is today. Many extinctions were followed by the appearance of new taxa. Either there is a
Creator who operates according to the old motto "if at first you don't succeed, try again" or there is some
mechanism, like evolution, to replace lost diversity.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 75

Marine Reserves Negative

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 76

Topicality: Reserves and Protection Are Not Development


A. Definition and interpretation: Development of the ocean means extractive
development of resources.
Walter F. Clark, Ocean and Coastal Law Specialist at North Carolina Sea Grant College Program, and
Steven E. Whitesell, Research Assistant at North Carolina Sea Grant College Program, July 1, 1994
"North Carolina's Ocean Stewardship Area: A Management Study," Division of Coastal Management,
North Carolina Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources.
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CZIC-ht393-n8-n67-1994/html/CZIC-ht393-n8-n67-1994.htm (accessed
5/1/2014)
Drilling related to the exploration or extraction of oil or gas from North Carolina's coastal ocean would
constitute development as defined by CAMA. Development includes: any activity in a duly designated
area of environmental concern involving, requiring or consisting of the costruction or enlargement of a
structure; excavation; dredging; filling; dumping; removal of clay, silt, sand, gravel or minerals;
bulkheading; driving of pilings; clearing or alteration of land as an adjunct of construction; alteration or
removal of sand dunes; alteration of the shore, bank or bottom of the Atlantic Ocean or any sound, bay,
river, creek, stream, lake or canal.

B. Violation: Reserves specifically ban ocean development


Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, November 22, 2013
"Oregon Marine Reserves," Marine Resources: Commercial and Recreational Marine Fisheries,
http://www.dfw.state.or.us/MRP/marinereserves.asp (accessed 5/1/2014)
In 2012, Oregon completed designation of five marine reserve sites within its state waters (0-3 nautical
miles offshore). Each site consists of a no take marine reserve and most also include one or more, less
restrictive marine protected area(s). The marine reserves prohibit all take of fish, invertebrates, wildlife
and seaweeds as well as ocean development, except as necessary for monitoring or research. The
protected areas have varying levels of protection; allowing or prohibiting specific take and prohibiting all
ocean development.

C. Best for ground: Allowing preservation to be a subset of development makes


the topic bidirectional and precludes the negative from arguing an anti-
development, pro-conservation position
D. Topicality is a voting issue for reasons of fairness, community cohesion, and
education

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 77

Topicality: Reserves and Protection Are Not Development


Development activities degrade rather than replenish oceans
Biliana Cicin-Sain, fellow at Gerard J. Mangone Center for Marine Policy, University of Delaware, and
Stefano Belfiore, NOAA International Program Office, 2006
"Linking marine protected areas to integrated coastal and ocean management: A review of theory and
practice," http://cmsdata.iucn.org/,
http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/linking_mpas_to_integrated_coastal_management.pdf (accessed
5/3/2014)
Development activities in beach and dune systems can change patterns of sediment transport or alter
inshore current systems. Marine aquaculture activities in tropical areas which often involve removal of
mangrove forests to create aquaculture ponds, can interfere significantly with the many functions
mangrove systems perform, such as serving as buffers for coastal storms and nursery habitats for
juvenile fishes. Port development and dredging can degrade coral reefs and seagrasses through the
build up of sediments. Inland activities such as logging, agricultural practices (e.g., burning of cane
sugar), and animal husbandry practices (e.g., pollution of streams by animal waste) damage estuarine
and ocean areas through increased flow of sediment, nutrients, pesticides, and other pollutants into
riverine and estuarine systems.

Literature indicates protected areas are opposite of development


Biliana Cicin-Sain, fellow at Gerard J. Mangone Center for Marine Policy, University of Delaware, and
Stefano Belfiore, NOAA International Program Office, 2006
"Linking marine protected areas to integrated coastal and ocean management: A review of theory and
practice," http://cmsdata.iucn.org/,
http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/linking_mpas_to_integrated_coastal_management.pdf (accessed
5/3/2014)
A wide variety of economic and social activities taking place in the coastal zone and ocean affect the
functioning of MPAs. In addition to economic and social activities taking place in the coastal zone,
activities further inland and upland (and even upwind) can have significant impacts on coastal/ocean
areas and MPAs. Coastal and ocean development activities can significantly affect the ecology of the
coastal zone and the functioning of coastal and ocean processes and resources, as the following
examples indicate: Industrial development in the coastal zone can decrease the productivity of wetlands
by: introducing pollutants, including heavy metals and nutrients, and by changing water circulation and
temperature patterns. Diking and water withdrawals for agriculture can affect the functioning of
wetlands through reduced freshwater inflows and through changes in water circulation.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 78

Protected Areas Don’t Solve


Political and economic pressures cause protected areas to be isolated in low-value
locations, undermining biodiversity solvency
Bob Pressey, Professor and Program Leader, Conservation Planning at James Cook University, January
17, 2013
"Australia’s new marine protected areas: why they won’t work," The Conversation,
http://theconversation.com/australias-new-marine-protected-areas-why-they-wont-work-11469
On land and in the sea, we’re losing sight of what nature conservation is about. We’ve become
dangerously focused on protected areas, but rarely consider what they’re supposed to achieve. One
result is that biodiversity is declining almost everywhere while protected areas expand. Why the
apparent paradox? An important reason is that protected areas tend to be in the wrong places. On land,
it’s a safe generalisation that protected areas are biased to “residual” places - those with least promise
for commercial uses. In some regions, this is because only residual landscapes survive in anything like
their natural state. But another important factor is political pragmatism. Electorates in many countries
like the idea of nature conservation but are undiscerning about exactly what this means. Governments
can therefore present residual protected areas - and the more extensive the better - as real progress for
conservation.

Political pragmatism strips solvency, reducing protected areas to residual, giving us a


false sense of security and obscuring actual threats
Bob Pressey, Professor and Program Leader, Conservation Planning at James Cook University, January
17, 2013
"Australia’s new marine protected areas: why they won’t work," The Conversation,
http://theconversation.com/australias-new-marine-protected-areas-why-they-wont-work-11469
Meanwhile, the processes that threaten biodiversity continue largely unabated and declines in
biodiversity continue. Second, by giving a false impression of conservation progress, residual protected
areas use up societies’ tolerances of protection, progressively making future protected areas, especially
those that might be effective in averting threats, more difficult to establish. Third, residual protected
areas place the onus of real conservation on off-reserve measures. These vary greatly in effectiveness
and many can be diluted, ignored, or removed at political or administrative whim. These problems mean
that measuring conservation progress in terms of the extent of protected areas is usually meaningless.
Another implication is that residual protected areas can produce outcomes that are worse than neutral.
By failing to avert present or impending threats while pre-empting later protected areas that could be
more effective, their contribution can be irretrievably negative.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 79

Protected Areas Don’t Solve


Benefits of protected areas are exaggerated; biodiversity gains aren’t that high
Churchill B. Grimes and Stephen Ralston, National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012
"Marine Reserves: The Best Option for our Oceans?" Ecology and the Environment,
http://palumbi.stanford.edu/manuscripts/marine%20reserves%20the%20best%20option%20for%20our
%20oceans.pdf (accessed 4/30/2014)
We need to ask whether the biodiversity benefits inside the protected area are more valuable than the
biodiversity costs of additional fishing pressure outside. Once we realize that MPAs are effort-shifting
programs, we recognize that the comparison of abundance inside and outside protected areas is flawed;
the benefits estimated by comparing abundance inside and outside reserves, or before and after
reserves are established (Halpem and Warner 2002) will be exaggerated.

Policy and value conflict undermines solvency


Camilo Mora, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Peter F. Sale,
Institute for Water, Environment and Health, United Nations University, July 28, 2011
"Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the
technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea," Marine Ecology Progress
Series, Vol. 234, http://www.int-res.com/articles/theme/m434p251 (accessed 4/28/2014)
The establishment of PAs is known to generate several types of conflict among local residents, e.g.
among members of a community, among communities, between communities and the state, and among
stakeholder groups (Christie 2004). The nature of these conflicts is varied and may be derived from
accurate or erroneous perceptions of an inequitable distribution of the benefits of protection among
individuals or groups (Katon et al. 1999, Christie 2004). Conflicts may include power struggles, heavy-
handed enforcement methods, competing management goals (e.g. fisheries enhancement vs. tourism
development; Agardy et al. 2003, Christie et al. 2003, Christie 2004), and land- and resource-use
displacement (West et al. 2006).

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 80

Barriers to PA Solvency
Small areas increase risk of poaching
Camilo Mora, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Peter F. Sale,
Institute for Water, Environment and Health, United Nations University, July 28, 2011
"Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the
technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea," Marine Ecology Progress
Series, Vol. 234, http://www.int-res.com/articles/theme/m434p251 (accessed 4/28/2014)
Populations inside such small MPAs are also more vulnerable to the effects of poaching compared to
those in larger ones (Kritzer 2004). The deleterious effects of small PAs, via home ranges overlapping
their boundaries, also occur in terrestrial systems (Buechner 1987, Woodroffe & Ginsberg 1998), where
nearly 60% of the PAs are <1 km2 (Fig. 2e).

Coral loss caused by other stressors undermines solvency


Camilo Mora, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Peter F. Sale,
Institute for Water, Environment and Health, United Nations University, July 28, 2011
"Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the
technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea," Marine Ecology Progress
Series, Vol. 234, http://www.int-res.com/articles/theme/m434p251 (accessed 4/28/2014)
Human stressors not regulated in PAs can preclude the benefits of even well-managed PAs. In the case
of coral reefs, for instance, MPAs can have no direct effects on preventing the loss of corals due to
warming, acidification, or pollution (Jones et al. 2004, Coelho & Manfrino 2007, Graham et al. 2008,
Mora 2008). Given that corals play a key role in the supply of food and a structurally complex habitat
offering fish protection against predators, many species of fish inside well managed MPAs have
experienced comparable population declines due to the effects of coral loss, as have fish outside MPA
borders (Jones et al. 2004, Graham et al. 2008).

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 81

Protected Areas Don’t Solve Biodiversity


Human consumption outstrips biodiversity replenishment of protected areas
Camilo Mora, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Peter F. Sale,
Institute for Water, Environment and Health, United Nations University, July 28, 2011
"Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the
technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea," Marine Ecology Progress
Series, Vol. 234, http://www.int-res.com/articles/theme/m434p251 (accessed 4/28/2014)
Recognizing that biodiversity loss is intrinsically related to our high demand for ecological resources
suggests to us that global initiatives need to address our demand for resources more directly if
preservation of biodiversity is to be achieved. While we can limit human use of natural resources locally
through the effective implementation of PAs, this will only address some causes of biodiversity loss, and,
as shown in this review, there are numerous challenges to implement this strategy adequately across
the world. As long as our demand for ecological goods and services continues to grow so will the extent
of those challenges and the difficulty of using PAs to reduce biodiversity loss (Fig. 3). Therefore,
alternative solutions targeting human demand for ecological goods and services, while ensuring human
welfare should be prioritized and brought to the forefront of the international conservation agenda.

Climate change overwhelms solvency of PAs


Camilo Mora, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Peter F. Sale,
Institute for Water, Environment and Health, United Nations University, July 28, 2011
"Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the
technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea," Marine Ecology Progress
Series, Vol. 234, http://www.int-res.com/articles/theme/m434p251 (accessed 4/28/2014)
In the ocean, the ecological responses of biodiversity to different human threats are intricate and pose a
number of challenges to the proper design and success of MPAs. For animals with pelagic larval stages,
increases in temperature might accelerate development, reducing larval period and the scales at which
propagules will disperse (Almany et al. 2009, Munday et al. 2009). At the same time, habitat loss
resulting from ocean warming, acidification and catastrophic weather might cause suitable patches to
become more isolated (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Thus, climate change, by increasing habitat
isolation and reducing dispersal capabilities, can increase the extinction debts of MPAs as more and
more resident populations lose viability because they lose connectivity. Similar scenarios have been
described on land where climate change is displacing suitable habitats, which, depending upon
migration capabilities, is causing differential impacts on species and could lead to numerous extirpations
and possibly extinctions (Parmesan & Yohe 2003, Root et al. 2003). Existing statistics suggest, for
instance, that for Europe alone, between 58 and 63% of species of plants and terrestrial vertebrates
could lose suitable climate inside PAs by 2080, given conservative scenarios of climate change (Araujo et
al. 2011). The worldwide deterioration and increased patchiness of habitats due to human impacts is a
major challenge for the biological success of even rigorously managed PAs on land and sea (Klausmeier
2001, Jameson et al. 2002, McClanahan et al. 2002).

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 82

Protected Areas Don’t Increase Fish Stocks


Protected areas only effectively protect species that don’t migrate, with small
populations
Michael J. Fogarty, Associate Scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and NOAA Fisheries,
and Steven A. Murawski, Director, NOAA Office of Science and Technology, December 2004
"Do Marine Protected Areas Really Work?" Oceanus, http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/feature/do-
marine-protected-areas-really-work (accessed 4/25/2014)
MPAs have now been established throughout the world ocean, from the tropics to the poles. Most are
relatively small. Many are neither adequately enforced nor monitored to determine their effectiveness.
Of those that have been scientifically monitored, many are in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Fish in
these regions live most of their lives in specific habitats, such as reef structures, and don’t stray from
them. Their fidelity to a small territory is an important part of the potential success of their marine
reserve. Populations do increase in such reserves, and some studies suggest a spillover effect from the
reserve that augments fisheries nearby. By contrast, in temperate, boreal, and subarctic systems—
where most of the major world fisheries reside—many fish populations are wide-ranging and often
exhibit extensive seasonal migrations.

Solvency is dependent on spillover, which requires migration, difficult to predict


Michael J. Fogarty, Associate Scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and NOAA Fisheries,
and Steven A. Murawski, Director, NOAA Office of Science and Technology, December 2004
"Do Marine Protected Areas Really Work?" Oceanus, http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/feature/do-
marine-protected-areas-really-work (accessed 4/25/2014)
Despite increases in biomass, MPAs only benefit a fishery if fish eggs and larvae are exported from
closed areas to replenish open, harvested areas, and/or if some harvestable-size stock “spills over,”
moving from closed to open areas to be caught. But if fish at any age leave closed areas at high rates, it
will prevent a buildup within the reserve and cancel out any positive effects from the MPA. Estimating
the export of eggs and larvae is extremely difficult. But we can use the location of spawning
aggregations and hydrodynamic models to estimate the magnitudes and directions of eggs and larvae
dispersal.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 83

Shift Disadvantage
The shift to more vulnerable and less accountable sources will result in a net decline in
biodiversity
Ray Hilborn, professor of aquatic and fisheries science, University of Washington, April 12, 2014
"Protecting Marine Biodiversity with 'New' Conservation," Cool Green Science: The Science Blog of the
Nature Conservancy, http://blog.nature.org/science/2014/04/12/nature-longread-protecting-marine-
biodiversity-new-conservation-ray-hilborn/ (accessed 4/30/2014)
The protected-area approach in marine conservation has two major disadvantages. The first problem is
effort displacement. When an area is closed to fishing, the vessels move elsewhere, adding fishing
pressure to some areas that potentially equals or outweighs the benefits seen in the protected areas
(Pastoors et al. 2000). Hamilton et al. (2010) found that abundance of target species declined outside
reserves and increased inside reserves, yielding no net increase in abundance. The second biodiversity
problem is a reduction in the total sustainable yield of fish stocks when marine reserves are large. This
loss will almost certainly be made up by some other form of food production with negative biodiversity
consequences (Hilborn 2013). At the extreme, if lost fish production is compensated by cutting
rainforest to grow crops or cattle, we can be very sure that the total biodiversity consequences will be
negative.

Protected areas are ineffective and increase unsustainable fishing elsewhere


Ray Hilborn, professor of aquatic and fisheries science, University of Washington, April 12, 2014
"Protecting Marine Biodiversity with 'New' Conservation," Cool Green Science: The Science Blog of the
Nature Conservancy, http://blog.nature.org/science/2014/04/12/nature-longread-protecting-marine-
biodiversity-new-conservation-ray-hilborn/ (accessed 4/30/2014)
Closed areas are a very blunt and not very effective instrument to protect the biodiversity from this kind
of by-catch, although closed areas have generally been part of the package. A recent review of by-catch
mitigation for three species including a turtle, an albatross and a small cetacean (Senko et al. 2013)
concluded: “Time–area closures appeared to be of limited effectiveness for the focal species.” Many
have argued for closing biodiversity hot-spots (Worm et al. 2003). But since many of the species of
concern are highly mobile, closed areas will have the effect of intensifying fishing effort elsewhere with
little real reduction in mortality of these species.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 84

Shift Disadvantage
Shift inevitable and risks harvesting in more vulnerable areas
Michael J. Fogarty, Associate Scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and NOAA Fisheries,
and Steven A. Murawski, Director, NOAA Office of Science and Technology, December 2004
"Do Marine Protected Areas Really Work?" Oceanus, http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/feature/do-
marine-protected-areas-really-work (accessed 4/25/2014)
But by themselves, MPAs cannot attain all of today’s fishery management objectives. And they can
create unintended consequences. Preventing harvesting in some areas, for example, inevitably results in
people fishing in other, perhaps more vulnerable, locations.

Illegal overfishing undermines solvency


Ocean Sentry, August 21, 2009
"Overfishing: Oceans are Dying," oceansentry.org, http://www.oceansentry.org/en/2557-sobrepesca-
muerte-de-los-oceanos.html#sthash.oon8AdUC.dpuf (accessed 5/5/2014)
Today, the number of fish we pull in is actually shrinking. Illegal and unreported fishing, whose
magnitude has only recently been estimated by researchers, has contributed massively to the depletion
of the oceans, accounting for an estimated 30 per cent of global annual catches in recent years. Roughly
two thirds of the ocean is practically free of laws and the vessels only follow the laws ratified for their
flag country. However many fishing countries have not ratified any international convention to protect
the sea. Currently, 170 vessels with flag of convenience have a European charterer, half of them are
Spanish and, in addition, 600 illegal vessels fish in the Mediterranean Sea.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 85

Negative: Anthropocentrism Links


The conversation on protected areas begins with the assertion that humans have a
right to use the oceans
James Mize, Seattle Attorney, former NOAA Counsel, 2007
"Stakeholder engagement strategies for designating New Zealand marine reserves," Victoria University
of Wellington,
http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10063/366/thesis.pdf?sequence=3 (accessed
5/3/2014)
Coward et al. (2000) discuss fisheries ethics at length, focussing on “four kinds of justice: distributive,
productive, restorative and creative.” Of these, the most relevant to the present discussion is
“restorative justice” which refers to a need to restore degraded ecosystems, both for the benefits of the
plants and animals which live in the ecosystem, and the humans which depend on the ecosystem for
food and livelihood. In conclusion, they suggest: “Recognizing that we have the right to use our
environment as a necessary resource… we must also recognize the concurrent responsibility not to
abuse that right by taking more than we need, or more than the ecosystem can sustain…” Their
recommendations include promotion of the precautionary principle, and promotion of marine protected
area development.

Protected areas are plotted and enacted using human-centered criteria and values
James Mize, Seattle Attorney, former NOAA Counsel, 2007
"Stakeholder engagement strategies for designating New Zealand marine reserves," Victoria University
of Wellington,
http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10063/366/thesis.pdf?sequence=3 (accessed
5/3/2014)
Mill’s premise is an anthropocentric viewpoint, as is Rawls’; the happiness of non-humans does not
factor in the equation. As applied to the case of marine reserves, this anthropocentrism has
implications. The various sentient marine organisms or a given location’s marine ecology is irrelevant to
the calculation of worth except inasmuch as it impacts on some human value. Human values of marine
resources not only include extractive uses such as fishing, but also include in situ values such as
recreation (i.e. fish to look at while diving) or option values (i.e. the possibility of human use in the
future, such as protection of biodiversity for “bioprospecting” for medical research). Some ecologists
argue in favour of an inherent value of a marine organism for its own sake, however, under a utilitarian
perspective such does not exist. But “existence value” does exist in terms of human perception, that is,
the utility or “happiness” correlated with the thought of the existence of the marine organism regardless
of whether the organism is put to use.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 86

The ultimate aim of marine conservation is future social and economic development
Jon Nevill, director of OnlyOnePlanet Consulting (specialising in aquatic conservation policy), April 26,
2008
"Ethics, fisheries, and marine protected areas," Onlyoneplanet.com,
http://www.onlyoneplanet.com/marineProtectedAreaEthics.doc (accessed 5/4/2014)
Terrestrial scientists do have a track record, if somewhat uneven, in using ethical arguments to justify
the creation of protected areas – with Aldo Leopold being one of the most celebrated (more below). A
well known example from more recent times is the controversial judgement of Justice Douglas (US
Supreme Court) who argued that the moral rights of nature should be given legal recognition – based
partly on the arguments of terrestrial ecologists (see Stone 1996). Jim Chen, a prominent academic US
lawyer, continues to press such arguments (Chen 2005) again based on the findings of terrestrial
biologists. As a fairly typical example of a marine scientist arguing for the creation of marine protected
areas, Professor Terry Hughes argued that a substantial proportion (30% or more) of coral reef
ecosystems need to be protected from harvesting pressures in order to ensure ecosystem stability.
According to Hughes (2004) (my emphasis): “Our final recommendation, the most challenging, is for the
creation of institutional frameworks that align the marketplace and economic self-interest with
environmental conservation. The ultimate aim is to secure future options for social and economic
development” (my emphasis).

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 87

Incentives Counterplan Solvency


Incentives and cooperation solve better than PAs because many areas can’t be
mapped, but can be functionally controlled through agreements among stakeholders
Ray Hilborn, professor of aquatic and fisheries science, University of Washington, April 12, 2014
"Protecting Marine Biodiversity with 'New' Conservation," Cool Green Science: The Science Blog of the
Nature Conservancy, http://blog.nature.org/science/2014/04/12/nature-longread-protecting-marine-
biodiversity-new-conservation-ray-hilborn/ (accessed 4/30/2014)
And while protected areas seem to be an ideal solution for keeping sensitive habitats from the ravages
of bottom-contact gear, the data suggest that “new conservation” may be a more effective tool for even
this problem. For instance, the British Columbia continental shelf is subject to a bottom trawl fishery
that tends to fish soft grounds that are not particularly sensitive. The ocean floor there is a patchwork of
hard and soft areas, with corals and other sensitive structures scattered at various places along the
coast. Any protected areas approach would require a highly detailed map (which does not exist) of
these sensitive features and a very complex patchwork of closed areas. What does exist, however, is an
agreement negotiated between local environmental groups and the British Columbian fishing industry
that includes specific closed areas; individual vessel limits on the allowable catch of corals and sponges
that provide incentives for fishermen to avoid any place these might be caught; a reporting requirement
to broadcast immediately any large catch of corals and sponges to the entire fleet so that these sensitive
spots are identified and known; and a consultative process between government, NGOs and industry to
monitor and revise these methods.

Protected areas fail; incentives solve


Ray Hilborn, professor of aquatic and fisheries science, University of Washington, April 12, 2014
"Protecting Marine Biodiversity with 'New' Conservation," Cool Green Science: The Science Blog of the
Nature Conservancy, http://blog.nature.org/science/2014/04/12/nature-longread-protecting-marine-
biodiversity-new-conservation-ray-hilborn/ (accessed 4/30/2014)
But mixed-species fisheries may catch dozens of species in one set of the net, and the sustainable
exploitation rate may differ greatly between species. So how to harvest the most productive species and
avoid the least productive ones? “Old conservation” strategies would close the areas where the most
vulnerable species are typically found; the new conservation provides incentives to fishing vessels to
find areas where the target species can be caught and the vulnerable species can be avoided. These
latter approaches have been shown to be highly effective when applied (Branch and Hilborn 2008) and
are in fact much more effective at reducing the catch of vulnerable species than closed-area strategies.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 88

Status Quo Fishery Management Solves


Status quo fisheries are better-managed and fishing is widely restricted
Churchill B. Grimes and Stephen Ralston, National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012
"Marine Reserves: The Best Option for our Oceans?" Ecology and the Environment,
http://palumbi.stanford.edu/manuscripts/marine%20reserves%20the%20best%20option%20for%20our
%20oceans.pdf (accessed 4/30/2014)
The justification that is most often cited for establishing domestic MPAs is that traditional fisheries
management in the US is a failure. However, this is ill-informed. The present low levels of many fish
stocks reflect poor management decisions made many years ago. A closer look at current exploitation
rates reveals that current management is doing far better. Although many fisheries (eg cod in the
northwest Atlantic and certain rockfish stocks along the west coast of the US) are in severe decline,
many others, such as king mackerel in the Gulf of Mexico, summer and yellowtail flounder, Atlantic
mackerel, and sea scallop along the US Atlantic coast, are at sustainable levels. In fact, of the 283 (25%)
of 905 fish stocks managed by NMFS for which the status is known, only 15% are overfished and 39% are
fished at or near their long-term potential yield (NRC 2002). Moreover, many US fisheries are already
managed under severe spatial management regimes; for example, virtually the entire continental shelf
of the west coast is presently closed to groundfishing.

20 percent is unnecessary; fishery management corresponds to area controls,


resulting in optimal management
Churchill B. Grimes and Stephen Ralston, National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012
"Marine Reserves: The Best Option for our Oceans?" Ecology and the Environment,
http://palumbi.stanford.edu/manuscripts/marine%20reserves%20the%20best%20option%20for%20our
%20oceans.pdf (accessed 4/30/2014)
One simplistic generalization being touted by MPA advocates is that, at a minimum, 20% of a species'
habitat needs to be protected to realize the benefits of an MPA (Agardy 2003). This figure is apparently
based upon theoretical results showing that when fishing mortality is excessive, overall fishery yields
could be enhanced by substantial area closures. However, many studies also show that traditional
fishery management controls on fishing effort correspond directly to area controls, and that it is possible
to manage fisheries optimally just using effort controls (Mangel 1998; Hastingsand Botsford 1999),
which has been the general paradigm practiced within the US.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 89

Status Quo Fishery Management Solves


Lower population is self-correcting and sustainable; MPAs are unnecessary for
enhanced fishery levels
Churchill B. Grimes and Stephen Ralston, National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012
"Marine Reserves: The Best Option for our Oceans?" Ecology and the Environment,
http://palumbi.stanford.edu/manuscripts/marine%20reserves%20the%20best%20option%20for%20our
%20oceans.pdf (accessed 4/30/2014)
Moreover, the claim has been frequently made that MPAs will promote sustainable fisheries and
enhance fishery yields (Nowlis and Roberts 1998), but density-dependent theory tells us that per- capita
production is lowest at carrying capacity (ie in the absence of fishing), and that compensation at lower
population levels produces a surplus that can be sustainably harvested.

Sufficient arctic marine protections exist now


Jeanine Stewart, Americas Editor at Undercurrent News, April 15, 2014
"Greenpeace cries foul over Alaska canyons coral reef study decision," Undercurrent News,
http://www.undercurrentnews.com/2014/04/15/greenpeace-cries-foul-over-alaska-canyons-coral-reef-
study-decision/ (accessed 4/22/2014)

Over 1.2 million square miles of Marine Protected Areas (equal in size to 40% of the continental
United States) have already been established in waters off Alaska as a result of a science-based
precautionary approach to management, according to these industry groups.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 90

High Seas Closure Counterplan: Solvency


Nation-state and EEZ reserves can't solve; a global high seas approach is necessary
Greenpeace, 2008
"Closing Time For Overfishing- Creating Pacific High Seas Marine Reserves," Greenpeace International,
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/planet-2/report/2008/5/closing-time-
for-overfishing.pdf (accessed 5/7/2014)
Both legal and IUU fishing are taking vast quantities of tuna from the Pacific. Scientific warnings are
repeatedly made about the WCPO, which contains the largest and one of the last abundant tuna
fisheries left in the world. However, bigeye and yellowfin tuna are now being fished at unsustainable
levels that threaten the future viability of these stocks. The modern fishing reality is dominated by
industrial fishing vessels that far out-match nature's ability to replenish fish. Super-sized fishing vessels
using state-of-the-art fish finding sonar and helicopters or spotter planes can pinpoint schools of fish
quickly and accurately. These vessels also have fish processing and packing plants, huge freezing
systems, fishmeal processing plants and powerful engines to drag enormous fishing gear through the
ocean. In many cases, regulation of these fishing vessels is woefully inadequate – fish stocks are
plummeting and little regard is paid to the resulting impact on marine ecosystems. Many species are
being fished to commercial extinction with more on the way.

Closure allows replenishment and massively increases yields, solving overfishing


Nick Wilson, Staffwriter at San Luis Obispo Tribune, April 7, 2014
"Closing high seas to fishing would be beneficial, Cal Poly Professor says in study," sanluisobispo.com,
http://www.sanluisobispo.com/2014/04/07/3010484/close-high-seas-fishing-study.html (accessed
5/7/2014)
Costello and White’s research concludes that closing international waters to fishing could help rebuild
stocks of migratory species, ultimately aiding coastal fishing worldwide when those fish swim within 200
nautical miles of shore, where a nation has exclusive fishing rights.

Complete high seas closure allows state-by-state coordination of protection, reduces


overall exploitation, and facilitates stock rebuilding
Christopher Costello, professor of resource economics at UC Santa Barbara and Crow White,
assistant professor of biological sciences at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, March 25, 2014
"Close the High Seas to Fishing?" Public Library of Science: Biology,
http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001826 (accessed
5/7/2014)
Smaller MPAs, increasingly common and well-studied in coastal waters, are too small to produce
significant benefits for most migratory stocks [26]. Also, closing only a portion of the high seas may
simply displace fishing effort to other open-access areas [29], thereby leaving the problem unsolved.
Instead, a complete closure of the HS may simultaneously achieve three desirable outcomes: (1) It acts
as a coordination mechanism across EEZs; (2) it reduces overall exploitation rates; and (3) it protects a
sufficient range of the stock to allow rebuilding.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 91

High Seas Closure Counterplan: Solvency


High seas closure increases stocks within EEZs by 30 percent, increasing yields and
doubling profits
Jason G. Goldman, cognitive scientist and science writer based in Los Angeles, April 16, 2014
"Should we close the high seas to fishing?" http://www.eco-business.com/opinion/should-we-close-
high-seas-fishing/ (accessed 4/24/2014)
White and Costello created a mathematical model that accounted for the fraction of a fish stock’s range
covered by EEZs, the number of EEZs which is included in that species’ range, the biological parameters
of the stock (such as reproduction or life expectancy), and so on, in order to better understand what
would happen under various protection plans for the high seas. It’s notable that the current status quo,
in which the high seas are completely open and 42% of oceans are in EEZs, resulted in the worst
outcomes for fisheries, both in terms of sustainability and economics. But the answer isn’t to simply
enlarge the EEZs, because that just shifts the problem to one of overharvesting on the high seas to one
of conflict between nations. When their model allowed for a complete closure of the high seas, stocks
increased throughout the oceans: 400% on the high seas and 30% within EEZs. That is, even though
fishing would continue within the EEZs, stocks there would still increase. Monetary profit would more
than double, and yield would increase by more than 40 percent.

High seas closure results in huge spillovers to EEZs


Christopher Costello, professor of resource economics at UC Santa Barbara and Crow White,
assistant professor of biological sciences at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, March 25, 2014
"Close the High Seas to Fishing?" Public Library of Science: Biology,
http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001826 (accessed
5/7/2014)
When the HS were closed, countries would compete across EEZs, but no fishing would occur on the HS:
stock increased everywhere (4-fold on the HS and 30% in EEZs), profit more than doubled, and yield
increased by 42% (though profit and yield are still only 68% and 84% of their theoretical values under
complete cooperation). The disproportionate increase in profit is due to interacting effects of
elimination of the inefficient overexploitation on the HS, enhanced coordination across EEZs incentivized
by the spillover and protection of fish from the HS, and reduced fishery cost from harvesting a higher
stock density in the EEZs. Collectively, these factors raise profit (and yield) beyond the loss from not
fishing on the HS.

Enforcement is feasible
Christopher Costello, professor of resource economics at UC Santa Barbara and Crow White,
assistant professor of biological sciences at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, March 25, 2014
"Close the High Seas to Fishing?" Public Library of Science: Biology,
http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001826 (accessed
5/7/2014)
Finally, although perfect compliance with a HS closure may not be necessary for gains to emerge (Figure
S6), enforcement is a concern [8],[25]. Yet major advances in fishery surveillance technology [23], recent
increases in the scope and use of agreements on the HS (including with MPAs) [8],[23],[25],[37],[38],
and perhaps part of the fishery gains due to the HS closure, could be used to support its enforcement.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 92

Politics Links
Reserves and protected areas are politically contentious and poorly debated
Trevor J. Willis, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand, 2013
"Scientific and biodiversity values of marine reserves," DOC Research and Development Series 340,
http://eprints.port.ac.uk/14319/1/Willis_2013_drds340entire_copy.pdf (accessed 4/29/2014)
Marine reserves are areas of marine habitat that are permanently closed to all fishing or any type of
human disturbance (apart from permitted activities). They tend to engender controversy during their
establishment, at least partly because their goals are often not clearly expressed (Agardy et al. 2003),
because Fishery professionals and environmental advocates present conflicting information about their
usefulness (Polunin 2002; Russ 2002; Kaiser 2005), or because the conclusions drawn from the science
to date (Willis et al. 2003e; Sale et al. 2005) remain contentious.

Empirically fishing limits cause lobbyists to overwhelm the political process and are
contentious
Michael Conathan, Director of Ocean Policy at American Progress, May 3, 2013
"Fish on Fridays: A ‘Day of Reckoning’ for the New England Groundfishery," Center for American
Progress, Fish on Fridays: A ‘Day of Reckoning’ for the New England Groundfishery (accessed 5/1/2014)
Back in January, at a meeting of the New England Fishery Management Council, John Bullard, the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s top official in the northeast region, told the
assembled crowd that a “day of reckoning” was coming to America’s oldest fishery. New science had
shown that the populations of several fish species were in far worse shape than previously thought, and
under the law that meant 2013 would be the first year catch limits would have to reflect this new reality.
Still, NOAA officials have faced increasing pressure from powerful politicians, acerbic journalists, and
stalwarts of the fishing industry, who have all demanded that it find a way to circumvent the law and
impose less drastic catch limits on several species of fish.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 93

Politics Links

NOAA is always politically controversial


Jacob Levenson, marine biologist who has worked with National Marine Fisheries Service’s Fishery
Statistics Office, April 23, 2010
"New top cop for NOAA, same problems for fishermen," Tradeonlytoday.com,
http://http://blog.tradeonlytoday.com/tradetalk/?p=168 (accessed 5/1/2014)
It is absolutely unfair how the regulations for fishing are stacked against fishermen. One simple mistake,
and suddenly a law has been violated and a fine must be paid. No wonder Dale Jones was so unpopular.
But here’s the thing. If fishery regulations don’t change — if they stay as complicated as they are today
— then NOAA’s top cop will always be unpopular. There’s no way to win if the rules you need to enforce
are too complicated to understand and affect a popular group of people.

Empirically, fishing restrictions spark GOP blocking tactics requiring further political
maneuvering to overcome
Bill Estep, staffwriter at Herald-Leader, May 21, 2013
"Congress approved bill barring fishing restrictions near dams on Cumberland River," Kentucky.com,
http://www.kentucky.com/2013/05/21/2648443/congress-approves-bill-barring.html (accessed
5/2/2014)
The U.S. House on Tuesday approved a measure barring enforcement of controversial fishing restrictions
at dams on the Cumberland River, according to Republican U.S. Sen. Mitch McConnell. The U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers planned to cut off fishing from boats in zones above and below dams because of
safety concerns. Three people had been killed in turbulent waters below dams since 2009, the Corps
said. People who fish the river and lakes protested, however, saying the rule would eliminate some
prime fishing spots, including tailwaters at Wolf Creek Dam in Russell County and at Lake Barkley in
Western Kentucky. McConnell, along with GOP Sens. Rand Paul of Kentucky and Lamar Alexander and
Bob Corker of Tennessee, introduced a measure barring the Corps from enforcing the restrictions. The
Senate first passed the measure as part of a larger bill. It could have taken months for that proposal to
get through the House, so McConnell then pushed through a separate rule barring the Corps from
putting the fishing restrictions in place for two years. That's the measure the House approved Tuesday.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 94

Economy Links
Reserve costs are uniquely damaging: They fall disproportionately on particular
stakeholders and benefits take a long time to materialize; research and development
is expensive
Marjo Vierros, Adjunct Senior Fellow at the United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies,
Biliana Cicin-Sain, Director of the Gerard J. Mangone Center for Marine Policy, Salvatore Arico,
Programme Specialist for Biodiversity at UNESCO's Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences, and
Christophe Lefebvre, Associate Professor at University Lille, 2010
"Draft Policy Brief on Preserving Life: Marine Biodiversity and Networks of Marine Protected Areas," 5th
Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts and Islands,
http://globaloceanforumdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/biodiversitypb_4web.pdf (accessed
5/2/2014)
The economic and social costs and benefits of biodiversity conservation are not equitably shared. The
short-term costs of, for example, establishing an MPA may be disproportionately borne by certain
communities or resource users, while benefits may be shared by a larger group of users and could take a
significant amount of time to materialize. In many developing countries, biodiversity conservation may
be too costly when compared to other more immediate needs. Certain research activities, that can lead
to improvements in scientific knowledge and provide a stronger basis for conservation efforts, can
prove to be beyond the financial and technical capabilities of many developing nations.

Initial expansion to solvency levels of 20-30% require massive expenditures


Sarika Cullis-Suzuki and Daniel Pauly, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,
2010
"Marine Protected Area Costs as 'Beneficial' Fisheries Subsidies: A Global Evaluation," Coastal
Management Vol. 38,
http://www.seaaroundus.org/researcher/dpauly/PDF/2010/JournalArticles/MarineProtectedAreaCosts
AsBeneficialFisheriesSubsidies.pdf (accessed 5/1/2014)
Given that current MPAs cover only 0.7% of the entire ocean (Wood et al., 2008), but cost nearly 870
million US$ to maintain, one could assume that it would cost about 25–37 billion US$ annually to
protect 20–30% of the global oceans.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 95

Economy Links
Costs are enhanced by small size of many reserves
Sarika Cullis-Suzuki and Daniel Pauly, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,
2010
"Marine Protected Area Costs as 'Beneficial' Fisheries Subsidies: A Global Evaluation," Coastal
Management Vol. 38,
http://www.seaaroundus.org/researcher/dpauly/PDF/2010/JournalArticles/MarineProtectedAreaCosts
AsBeneficialFisheriesSubsidies.pdf (accessed 5/1/2014)
This value is higher than the 5–19 billion US$ cost estimate in Balmford et al. (2004) because it is
affected by the many small, and hence relatively costly, MPAs. In the MPA database we used in this
study, which is comprised of over 4,400 entries, the mean size of an MPA is 544 km2, whereas the
median is 4.6 km2. This vast disparity between mean and median values is a result of the world’s ten
largest MPAs, which together make up 68% of the world’s cumulative MPA area (Wood et al., 2008). In
contrast, Balmford et al. (2004) based their projections on 83, generally larger MPAs.

Short-run costs are inevitable and will inform economic perceptions of the fishing
industry and community
Martin D. Smith, Nicholas School of the Environment at Duke University, John Lynham, Department
of Economics at University of Hawaii, James N. Sanchirico, Department of Environmental Science and
Policy at University of California-Davis, and James A. Wilson, School of Marine Sciences at University
of Maine, December 9, 2009
"Political Economy of Marine Reserves: Understanding the Role of Opportunity Costs," Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences, http://www2.hawaii.edu/~lynham/Welcome_files/PNAS-2010-Smith-
0907365107-2.pdf (accessed 5/1/2014)
Although our long-run model compares a world with the reserve and a world without one at each time
step, Fig. 2 implies that when a reserve is formed, fishermen’s perceptions of shortrun vs. long-run
benefits and costs hinge critically on their perceptions of the dispersal process. But from an opportunity
cost perspective, reserves are always costly in the short run, regardless of beliefs about dispersal. Even
in cases where fishermen would eventually be willing to pay to create the reserve, there are costs to the
fishery during the transition (6, 27). Therefore, opposition at the time a reserve is created depends on
how fishermen weigh the near-term costs against the potential but uncertain long-run benefits. For
conservation planners, it is important to acknowledge that fishermen will likely place greater weight on
the more certain short-term outcomes and discount the uncertain future returns.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 96

Ocean Renewables MHK Negative

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 97

Off-Case

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 98

A-Spec / I-Spec violations


Identifying specific technologies is essential to predictable ground and
implementation
(OREC) Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, November 2011, U.S. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable
Energy Roadmap, A National Strategy to Support U.S. Energy Security and Create Jobs through the
Commercialization of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies, http://www.oceanrenewable.com/wp-
content/uploads/2011/05/MHK-Roadmap-Final-November-2011.pdf, Accessed 4/26/2014
Since there are over one hundred different MHK technologies under investigation worldwide,
development should concentrate on maturing technologies and issues with broad application. The MHK
industry benefits from efforts that focus on critical path issues, areas of common interest, and shared
technical challenges, where knowledge gained can be leveraged across multiple implementations.
Therefore, the Roadmap concentrates on devices that capture wave energy, tidal energy and current
energy from oceans, rivers, and streams. The technologies for these devices are maturing and have
broad application. This overall R&D strategy emphasizes the essential roles of enabling technologies,
test facilities and resource characterization in realizing MHK commercialization.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 99

Reg-Neg CP solvency (Regulatory-Negotiation)


The status quo is a regulatory nightmare that undermines MHK commercialization
(OREC) Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, November 2011, U.S. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable
Energy Roadmap, A National Strategy to Support U.S. Energy Security and Create Jobs through the
Commercialization of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies, http://www.oceanrenewable.com/wp-
content/uploads/2011/05/MHK-Roadmap-Final-November-2011.pdf, Accessed 4/26/2014
MHK technology and project developers alike must coordinate efforts with the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), the Bureau of
Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the
Department of Energy (DOE) and several additional federal and state government agencies for
permitting projects. This regulatory burden results in a lengthy, arduous and expensive process, even for
just testing and demonstration activities. The status quo presents a significant barrier to the responsible
commercialization of the MHK industry.

Inconsistency and uncertainty plagued the current regulatory framework, which


creates a chilling effect for new development
Todd J. Griset, Attorney with Preti Flaherty’s Energy and Telecommunications Group, 2011,
“Harnessing the Ocean's Power: Opportunities in Renewable Ocean Energy Resources,” Ocean and
Coastal Law Journal, 395, pp. 151-190.
The history of federal regulation of ocean renewable power projects has involved regulation and
assertions of jurisdiction by a wide variety of federal agencies. Depending on the technologies involved
in a given project, as well as the proposed location of the project, project developers have been required
to seek out a variety of permits from numerous federal agencies. Indeed, federal law governing which
agencies may issue permits for ocean renewable energy projects has been variable and inconsistent
over time. This has led to regulatory uncertainty, which in turn has imposed increased costs, a decreased
ability of project developers to secure project financing, and an overall chilling effect on the
development of the nation’s marine renewable power resources. While the current regulatory status
quo is more favorable to project development than previous regimes were, federal regulation of
renewable ocean energy production continues to lack a holistic regulatory scheme.

Regulatory burdens are the #1 non-technical burden to development. Regulatory


negotiation reduces costs for marine renewables
Todd J. Griset, Attorney with Preti Flaherty’s Energy and Telecommunications Group, 2011,
“Harnessing the Ocean's Power: Opportunities in Renewable Ocean Energy Resources,” Ocean and
Coastal Law Journal, 395, pp. 151-190.
Furthermore, clarification and simplification of the patchwork of regulatory regimes governing
renewable ocean energy projects will bring about additional reductions in the cost of energy from the
sea. As a general principle, uncertainty or inconsistency of regulation tends to deter development and
investment. Unknown or shifting regulatory regimes add risk to the development of any given project.
Indeed, in the context of ocean energy, regulatory uncertainty has been called “the most significant
non-technical obstacle to deployment of this new technology.” Consistent government commitment and
the simplification of licensing and permitting procedures, rank among the hallmarks of a well-planned
system for developing ocean renewable energy.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 100

Reg-Neg CP solvency (Regulatory-Negotiation)


Despite reforms, offshore renewables development faces a web of regulations that
undermine cost-effectiveness
Todd J. Griset, Attorney with Preti Flaherty’s Energy and Telecommunications Group, 2011,
“Harnessing the Ocean's Power: Opportunities in Renewable Ocean Energy Resources,” Ocean and
Coastal Law Journal, 395, pp. 151-190.
A developer of an offshore renewable energy project faces a relatively complex patchwork of legal
regimes. Although this regulatory structure has recently been partially clarified and streamlined, the
determination of which substantive and procedural regulations apply remains dependent on where the
project will be located. Even after this regulatory reform, the complexity of the regulatory regimes
applicable to renewable energy projects may not prove optimal for the cost-effective development of
such resources.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 101

Studies CP solvency
We should learn more about the environmental impacts of MHK technologies before
deployed
Chad Augustine, Et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012, Renewable Electricity Futures
Study, Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies,
http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/, Accessed 4/27/2014
The possible environmental effects associated with new and emerging MHK technologies is not well
understood. Boehlert et al. (2008) reviewed the possible environmental effects of wave development,
and Grecian et al. (2010) independently reviewed the specific potential effect of wave development on
marine birds. Polagye et al. (2010) reviewed the potential environmental effects of tidal development,
and Gill (2005) and Inger et al. (2009) called for multi-disciplinary scientific research to develop a better
understanding of the environmental implications of MHK technologies before they are widely deployed.

MHK technologies are immature and unproven. The environmental questions means
people won’t invest
Chad Augustine, Et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012, Renewable Electricity Futures
Study, Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies,
http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/, Accessed 4/27/2014
Today and for the foreseeable future, the MHK industry does not appear to have manufacturing,
transportation, facilities, or basic materials barriers to continued development or deployment. The
current size, complexity, and materials for fabricated of MHK devices do not represent a manufacturing
or deployment challenge. Even over the longer term, the manufacturing challenges are comparable in
many ways to the wind turbine and the oil and gas industry and are felt to be manageable with the
continued growth of the industry. The major challenges for the MHK industry are a consequence of its
newness, and lack of a proven record of accomplishment, as a renewable energy generator. The more
mature renewable technologies, such as solar and wind, have 30 or more years of experience and much
more is understood about their performance, cost, and environmental benefits and impacts. In contrast,
MHK technologies remain immature and unproven, and they have not been deployed in significant
numbers, resulting in costs that are estimated to be too high to be competitive. There also remain many
concerns about potential environmental impacts, which makes it difficult to site and permit projects.
Finally, the financial investors are unwilling to take on the amount of risk that MHK projects would
require with the current level of uncertainty.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 102

The 1AC is not based on sound science. New research should be prioritized before
action
Olivia Langhamer, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2012,
“Artificial Reef Effect in Relation to Offshore Renewable Energy Conversion: State of the Art,” The
Scientific World Journal, pp. 1-8.
Still, research on offshore renewable industry is in the beginning phase. Both long-term studies and
large scale effects are topics of high scientific value that need to be prioritised. Furthermore, there is a
lack of both replication and baseline studies that are very essential for reliable results that can be used
for more general decision makings. So far, the impacts during the construction phase of offshore
installations seem to be at its highest during this phase, including a lot of noise, boat traffic, cable laying,
and seabed disruptions. During maintenance, the noise generation of the turbines/generators,
vibrations from the installations, and their physical presence may be some of the critical impact factors.
The marine environment may on the other hand benefit from the installation of offshore renewable
energy, since trawling will be excluded and new hard substrate will be introduced. In this paper I will
discuss the opportunities of offshore renewable energy as a habitat enhancement. Specifically for
threatened or commercially interesting species, such as for example, juvenile whiting, cod and lobsters
this may lead to a great benefit for nature conservation. There is a high plausibility that offshore energy
installations act as artificial reefs which in its way can support both environmental and commercial
interests.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 103

Studies CP solvency
Absent greater study, increasing marine renewables disrupts marine ecosystems in 7
ways
Peter J. Schaumberg, counsel and Ami M. Grace-Tardy, associate, both with Beveridge & Diamond,
P.C., Winter 2010, “The Dawn of Federal Marine Renewable Energy Development,” Natural Resources
& Environment, Vol. 24, No. 3, Accessed 4/28/2014,
http://www.bdlaw.com/assets/htmldocuments/2010%20The%20Dawn%20of%20Federal%20Marine%2
0Renewable%20Energy%20Development%20NRE%20P%20Schaumberg%20and%20A.%20Grace-
Tardy.pdf
As with many new technological advancements, marine renewable energy will have unknown impacts
on the marine environment. Efforts to better understand the environmental effects of marine
renewable energy development are underway at a number of federal agencies, including the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Department of Energy. These government
agencies, as well as academics and technology developers, have identified a number of potential
impacts that renewable energy technologies could have on the marine ecosystem, including: (1)
alteration of currents and waves; (2) changes to sediment transport or deposition and benthic habitats;
(3) impacts from noise and electromagnetic fields; (4) impacts from releases of toxic chemicals; (5)
interference with fish and marine mammal movement and migration; (6) changes to the ocean’s visual
appearance or cultural resources; and (7) conflicts with other ocean users. U.S. Department of
Commerce, Ecological Effects of Wave Energy Development in the Pacific Northwest (Oct. 2007)
available at http://spo.nwr. noaa.gov/tm/Wave%20Energy%20NOAATM92% 20for%20 web.pdf; U.S.
Department of Energy, Presentation, Draft Potential Envtl. Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy
Technologies (Nov. 25, 2008), available at
www.ornl.gov/sci/eere/EISAReport/pdfs/webinar_presentation.pdf. All of these potential impacts will
require extensive study to ensure that marine ecosystems are not unduly harmed.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 104

A2: Inherency

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 105

Federal support for MHK is high now


The federal government is supporting MHK technologies at unprecedented levels
Peter J. Schaumberg, counsel and Ami M. Grace-Tardy, associate, both with Beveridge & Diamond,
P.C., Winter 2010, “The Dawn of Federal Marine Renewable Energy Development,” Natural Resources
& Environment, Vol. 24, No. 3, Accessed 4/28/2014,
http://www.bdlaw.com/assets/htmldocuments/2010%20The%20Dawn%20of%20Federal%20Marine%2
0Renewable%20Energy%20Development%20NRE%20P%20Schaumberg%20and%20A.%20Grace-
Tardy.pdf
The federal government is supporting renewable energy at unprecedented levels. In February 2009,
President Obama and Congress agreed to significant U.S. support of renewable energy in the stimulus
bill. The president and Congress have dramatically increased funding for the U.S. Department of
Energy’s wave and tidal technologies program. In addition, President Obama has advocated that by
2012, 10 percent of our domestic energy supply should come from renewable resources, increasing to
25 percent by 2025. Also, now that federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions is increasingly likely,
the focus on the renewable energy sector is sharpening.

Marine renewables have unprecedented support now through the A.R.R.A.


Peter J. Schaumberg, counsel and Ami M. Grace-Tardy, associate, both with Beveridge & Diamond,
P.C., Winter 2010, “The Dawn of Federal Marine Renewable Energy Development,” Natural Resources
& Environment, Vol. 24, No. 3, Accessed 4/28/2014,
http://www.bdlaw.com/assets/htmldocuments/2010%20The%20Dawn%20of%20Federal%20Marine%2
0Renewable%20Energy%20Development%20NRE%20P%20Schaumberg%20and%20A.%20Grace-
Tardy.pdf
The dawn of marine renewable energy is here. This new industry stands ready to catch up with the land-
based solar and wind energy sectors thanks to the recent convergence of several events. First, the
federal government is providing unprecedented support for marine renewable energy. The availability
of new renewable energy tax subsidies, loans, and billions of dollars in cash grants under the American
Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has dramatically increased the federal government’s investment
in this technology and provided substantial financial incentives to development companies. Ocean
Renewable Energy Coalition, Stimulus Bill Promises to Buoy Marine Renewables Industry (Feb. 20, 2009),
available at www.oceanrenewable. com/2009/02/20/stimulus-bill-promises-to-buoy-marine-
renewables- industry/#more-527. The Omnibus Appropriations Act for fiscal year 2009 quadrupled U.S.
Department of Energy water power research funds, including funds for wave and tidal technology, and,
if approved as proposed, the Omnibus Appropriations Act for fiscal year 2010 will provide significant
new research funding in this area as well. U.S. Department of Energy, FY 2010 Control Table by
Appropriation (May 6, 2009), available at www.cfo.doe.gov/budget/10budget/Content/AppControl.pdf.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 106

A2: Solvency

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 107

MHK technologies fail

MHK systems are only in the planning stages and won’t be cost-competitive
Joshua Hunt and Diane Cardwell, Staff Writers, April 28, 2014, “Experimental Efforts to Harvest the
Ocean's Power Face Cost Setbacks,” The New York Times, p. B3
Although some renewable energy technologies -- conventional hydropower, solar and wind -- have
reached commercial viability and can compete in some markets with fossil fuels, the emerging water-
based approaches called marine hydrokinetic technologies are far from meeting that mark. Tidal power,
which captures energy from currents moving in one direction at a time, as opposed to the wave-based
technology of the Ocean Power buoys, is farther along, said Paul Jacobson, ocean energy leader at the
Electric Power Research Institute. One reason, he said, is that tidal power is easier to engineer and has
been able to adapt expertise from the conventional hydroelectric industry. But electricity generation
from the ocean's waves is more complex, and only a few projects are in the planning stages, despite the
vast potential, even outside the best areas like the West Coast and Alaska. ''The cost is still greater than
the alternatives, even other renewables,'' Mr. Jacobson said. ''The expectation is that the cost will come
down, but we're not there yet.''

Despite progress, four major barriers prevent widespread deployment of marine


renewables
Peter J. Schaumberg, counsel and Ami M. Grace-Tardy, associate, both with Beveridge & Diamond,
P.C., Winter 2010, “The Dawn of Federal Marine Renewable Energy Development,” Natural Resources
& Environment, Vol. 24, No. 3, Accessed 4/28/2014,
http://www.bdlaw.com/assets/htmldocuments/2010%20The%20Dawn%20of%20Federal%20Marine%2
0Renewable%20Energy%20Development%20NRE%20P%20Schaumberg%20and%20A.%20Grace-
Tardy.pdf
Despite all the positive attributes of marine renewable energy and the technological advances in this
field, this energy sector must overcome substantial hurdles before it can become commercially viable in
the United States. Commercial-scale marine projects have yet to be tested in this country. Some also
believe that renewable energy projects will have economic limitations because they are ultimately
dependent on federal government subsidies or favorable climate change legislation. Moreover, private
funding, the primary source for the enormous upfront investment required for these projects, has
declined since the world’s economic crisis began in 2008. Finally, although FERC and MMS resolved the
jurisdictional uncertainty regarding hydrokinetic projects on the OCS, it remains to be seen whether
these agencies’ regulatory regimes can be harmonized and effectively implemented for renewable
energy projects.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 108

Tidal/Wave Energy Bad

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 109

Tidal Energy – fails/not effective


Tidal power is not ready for commercialization because huge costs deter investment,
disrupts marine ecosystems, and cannot displace fossil fuels
Ken Silverstein, Staff Writer, June 6, 2013, “Tidal Energy Could Be Next Big Wave,” Forbes,
http://www.forbes.com/sites/ kensilverstein/2013/06/06/tidal-energy-could-be-next-big-wave/,
Accessed 5/3/2014
The Electric Power Research Institute performed feasibility studies in this area. The Palo Alto, Calif.-
based research arm of the electric utility sector said that unlike hydropower, tidal energy does not
require the permanent impediment of water flow and the subsequent harm to aquatic life. Existing tidal
plants, it adds, impound the water before releasing it into generators. And newer tools are even more
progressive and use underwater turbines that ultimately connect to cables to transport the power.
Scientists and engineers must still show that their work can be done on a large-scale basis. And rough
waters lay ahead. Environmentally, tidal power plants can impede sea life migration and can affect local
ecosystems. The optimal solution, says the Energy Department, is to carefully select sites that preserve
scenic shorelines. Economically, barriers also exist. Operational costs are reasonable. But building and
maintaining those plants is expensive. Therefore, the return on investment takes a long time. It is
furthermore problematic when it comes to getting the power to shore. While generally predictable, tidal
energy is still not as dependable as fossil-fired or nuclear generation.

Tidal energy is still in the development stage and will take a long time
Nasir Mehmood, College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Et al, September
15, 2012, “Harnessing Ocean Energy by Tidal Current Technologies,” Research Journal of Applied
Sciences, Engineering and Technology 4(18): 3476-3487.
Tidal power, also referred as tidal energy, is a wide source of consistent energy. Tidal energy
technologies include tidal barrages, tidal fence and tidal current technologies. Present efforts are
focused on tidal current technologies that utilize the kinetic energy of tidal currents. The growing
interest in exploring tidal current technologies has many compelling reasons such as environment
friendly nature, intermittent but predictable, security and diversity of supply and limited social and
environmental impacts. Tidal current technologies are still in development phase and need some time to
mature to prove their full potential.

Tidal power has huge construction costs and takes a decade to build
The Ocean Energy Council, 2014, “Tidal Energy,” http://www.oceanenergycouncil.com/ocean-
energy/tidal-energy/, Accessed 5/3/2014
Tidal power is a form of low-head hydroelectricity and uses familiar low-head hydroelectric generating
equipment, such as has been in use for more than 120 years. The technology required for tidal power is
well developed, and the main barrier to increased use of the tides is that of construction costs. There is
a high capital cost for a tidal energy project, with possibly a 10-year construction period. Therefore, the
electricity cost is very sensitive to the discount rate.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 110

Wave Energy - fails/not effective


There is no proven design for ocean wave power
Dave Levitan, Staff writer for Yale Environment 360, April 28, 2014, “Why wave power has lagged far
behind as an energy source,” The Guardian,
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/apr/28/why-wave-power-has-lagged-far-behind-as-
an-energy-source, Accessed 5/3/2014
But a central challenge has proven to be the complexity of harnessing wave power, which has led to a
host of designs, including writhing snake-like attenuators, bobbing buoys, even devices mounted
discreetly on the ocean floor that work by exploiting differences in pressure as a wave passes by. Some
devices generate the electricity on the spot and transmit it via undersea cables to shore, while others
pass the mechanical energy of the wave along to land before turning it into electrical energy. Which of
these drastically divergent concepts might emerge as a winner is far from clear. “We may not have even
invented the best device yet,” said Robert Thresher, a research fellow at the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory. From a technical point of view, operating in the ocean is far more difficult than on land;
building offshore wind installations, for example, tends to be significantly more expensive than
constructing wind farms onshore. Saltwater is a hostile environment for devices, and the waves
themselves offer a challenge for energy harvesting as they not only roll past a device but also bob up
and down or converge from all sides in confused seas. This provides enticing opportunities for energy
capture, but a challenge for optimum design.
Past investments prove wave power is a non-starter
Todd Woody, Staff Writer, February 27, 2012, “The Next Wave In Renewable Energy From the Ocean,”
Forbes, http://www.forbes.com/sites/toddwoody/2012/02/08/the-next-wave-in-renewable-energy-
from-the-ocean/, Accessed 4/11/2014
And now the reality check: 5 megawatts. That’s how much electricity—enough to light about 4,000
American homes – is being currently generated by wave energy worldwide despite years of work by a
plethora of startups and many millions of dollars in government support, according to research firm
Bloomberg New Energy Finance. What happened? Before the financial crash, the great green tech boom
unleashed a rush of startups and speculators staking claims on federal waters to build massive wave
farms, while in Europe governments, including Portugal and Scotland, placed big bets on wave energy.
But making green off blue power soon proved to be so much California dreaming as plans for West
Coast wave energy arrays sank under opposition from surfers, fishermen and local residents.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 111

Wave power requires massive research and investment and decades to even catch up
with other renewables
Dave Levitan, Staff writer for Yale Environment 360, April 28, 2014, “Why wave power has lagged far
behind as an energy source,” The Guardian,
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/apr/28/why-wave-power-has-lagged-far-behind-as-
an-energy-source, Accessed 5/3/2014
Wind and solar power have taken off in the past decade or two, as costs have come down rapidly and
threats from climate change have made clear the need to transition away from fossil fuels. Meanwhile,
numerous studies have concluded that wave power — and to a lesser extent, tidal power — could
contribute massive amounts to the overall energy picture. But while the industry has made halting
progress, experts agree that it remains decades behind other forms of renewables, with large amounts
of money and research required for it to even begin to catch up. No commercial-scale wave power
operations now exist, although a small-scale installation did operate off the coast of Portugal in 2008
and 2009. In February, U.S. corporate giant Lockheed Martin announced a joint venture to create the
world’s biggest wave energy project, a 62.5-megawatt installation slated for the coast of Australia that
would produce enough power for 10,000 homes. Scotland, surrounded by the rough waters of the
Atlantic and the North Sea, has become a hotbed of wave-energy research and development, with the
government last year approving a 40-megawatt wave energy installation in the Shetland Islands.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 112

Wave Energy - fails/not effective


New wave developments take at least 5 years
(OREC) Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, November 2011, U.S. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable
Energy Roadmap, A National Strategy to Support U.S. Energy Security and Create Jobs through the
Commercialization of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies, http://www.oceanrenewable.com/wp-
content/uploads/2011/05/MHK-Roadmap-Final-November-2011.pdf, Accessed 4/26/2014
Depending on its complexity, wave device development can take five or more years from concept to
ocean prototype testing. Typically, a new concept is simulated with a numerical model to explore its
performance and dynamic behavior at low cost. Next, scale models of the devices undergo tank tests to
validate and improve the modeling. After satisfactory vetting of the small-scale models, the developer
conducts open ocean prototype tests with a device at full, or near full, scale. Building and testing a full-
scale prototype is only warranted if there is a high probability of producing a superior device that can be
successfully commercialized.

Even DOE researchers doubt the potential of wave power. There are too many cost
and design barriers
Dave Levitan, Staff writer for Yale Environment 360, April 28, 2014, “Why wave power has lagged far
behind as an energy source,” The Guardian,
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/apr/28/why-wave-power-has-lagged-far-behind-as-
an-energy-source, Accessed 5/3/2014
“I’d like to be optimistic, but I don’t think realistically I can be,” said George Hagerman, a research
associate in the Virginia Tech University’s Advanced Research Institute and a contributor to the U.S.
Department of Energy’s assessment of wave energy’s potential. “You’ve got all those cost issues of
working in the ocean that offshore wind illustrates, and then you’ve got [an energy] conversion
technology that really no one seems to have settled on a design that is robust, reliable, and efficient.
With wind, you’re harnessing the energy as a function of the speed of the wind. In wave energy, you’ve
not only got the height of the wave, but you’ve got the period of the wave, so it becomes a more
complicated problem.”

Europe proves wave energy breaks down. Prototypes don’t translate to scale
Todd Woody, Staff Writer, February 27, 2012, “The Next Wave In Renewable Energy From the Ocean,”
Forbes, http://www.forbes.com/sites/toddwoody/2012/02/08/the-next-wave-in-renewable-energy-
from-the-ocean/, Accessed 4/11/2014
Even California regulators, who had green-lighted Pacific Gas & Electric’s contract to buy electricity from
a solar power station that would orbit the Earth, balked at the utility’s deal with a wave energy startup,
concluding the technology was too risky. And when companies finally began deploying their first wave
energy generators in Europe, punishing ocean conditions took their toll as some devices broke down or
failed to perform as expected. “They may work well in prototype in a very small size, but when you scale
them they don’t necessarily work as well in a harsh seawater environment,” says Angus McCrone, who
follows the wave industry for Bloomberg New Energy Finance.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 113

Wave Energy – won’t displace fossil fuels


Wave energy can’t compete with fossil fuels
Joshua Hunt and Diane Cardwell, Staff Writers, April 28, 2014, “Experimental Efforts to Harvest the
Ocean's Power Face Cost Setbacks,” The New York Times, p. B3
Indeed, wave energy has at least a decade before it can compete with fossil fuels and other renewables
in major markets, said Bill Staby, chief executive of Resolute Marine Energy, a start-up that is working on
a demonstration project in a remote village in Alaska. ''Scale is not working in our favor yet,'' he said,
comparing the current state of wave energy with that of wind when different technologies were being
tested before the industry settled on the current three-blade, horizontal axis structure in use now.

Wave energy is not feasible and could only produce 6% of electricity at a maximum
Todd J. Griset, Attorney with Preti Flaherty’s Energy and Telecommunications Group, 2011,
“Harnessing the Ocean's Power: Opportunities in Renewable Ocean Energy Resources,” Ocean and
Coastal Law Journal, 395, pp. 151-190.
In addition to the energy embodied in water flowing due to tides and currents, power can be extracted
from moving water in the form of waves. Looking strictly at coastal regions with a mean wave power
density greater than 10 kilowatts per meter, the United States may have a total wave power flux of
2,100 terawatt-hours per year. This figure is more than half of the entire United States electric power
industry’s recent annual generation. Unfortunately, practical considerations significantly limit the ability
to extract usable power from wave energy. For example, more than half of this estimated total wave
power flux falls on the southern coast of Alaska and the Aleutian island chain, areas generally remote
from significant load centers. Given current electricity transmission technology and cost, the remoteness
of this portion of the nation’s wave energy resource makes its commercial-scale development unlikely.
Furthermore, wave power devices fall short of 100 percent efficiency. However, extracting just 15
percent of this total flux and converting the power to electricity with an efficiency of 80 percent would
yield 252 terawatt-hours per year, about 6 percent of the nation’s current electricity consumption. As of
February 2011, FERC had issued ten preliminary permits for marine wave hydrokinetic projects with a
total projected capacity of 3,446 megawatts. Although wave energy is an immature technology, the
sheer magnitude of energy embodied in waves nevertheless offers great potential as a future electricity
resource.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 114

A2: Biodiversity Advantage

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 115

Marine renewables kill species


Marine renewables kill fish and migratory birds
George W. Boehlert, Ph.D. in Marine Biology, former Director of the Hatfield Marine Center and
Andrew B. Gill, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Aquatic Ecology, Environmental Science and Technology
Department, School of Applied Sciences at Cranfield University, 2010, “Environmental and Ecological
Effects Of Ocean Renewable Energy Development, A Current Synthesis,” Oceanography, Volume 23,
Number 2,
http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/16152/23-
2_boehlert_hi.pdf?sequence=1, Accessed 4/13/2014
Moving parts of marine renewable devices can lead to “blade strike,” typically viewed as a problem with
migratory birds and wind energy devices. In-water turbines, such as current or tidal energy devices,
generally move at slower speeds and thus the likelihood of blade strike is lower. However, the speed of
the tip of some horizontal axis rotors could be an issue for cetacean, fish, or diving bird strikes, and
further analysis is merited. An additional consideration is that the energy withdrawn from air, water, or
waves may also have potential effects in both near- and far-field scales. Although not generally viewed
as an issue by wind energy engineers and scientists, energy removal by devices in water, as well as
blockage effects, can lead to localized changes in water movement energy and turbulence—these
changes, in turn, can cause benthic sediment scouring and resultant habitat changes. In the water
column, modifications to water movement energy and turbulence could lead to changes in turbulence
and stratification, potentially altering vertical movements of marine organisms and resulting in prey and
predator aggregation.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 116

Marine renewables create a host of hazards for ocean life


George W. Boehlert, Ph.D. in Marine Biology, former Director of the Hatfield Marine Center and
Andrew B. Gill, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Aquatic Ecology, Environmental Science and Technology
Department, School of Applied Sciences at Cranfield University, 2010, “Environmental and Ecological
Effects Of Ocean Renewable Energy Development, A Current Synthesis,” Oceanography, Volume 23,
Number 2,
http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/16152/23-
2_boehlert_hi.pdf?sequence=1, Accessed 4/13/2014
As noted above, a diversity of concerns exists for marine mammals across all ORED technologies;
entanglement and collision, mainly for cetaceans, are primary concerns. Blade strike in the case of ocean
current or tidal devices may also be of concern. For those devices with cables and moorings, the nature
of mooring cables (slack or taut, horizontal or vertical, diameter) is critical to entanglement issues.
Should fish and invertebrates be concentrated around devices as predicted, both cetaceans and
pinnipeds could be attracted by the feeding opportunity (as has been suggested in studies around
Danish wind farms once construction has ceased; DONG Energy et al., 2006), thereby increasing the
likelihood of impact. Special attention should be paid to migratory routes or special feeding grounds. In
the case of gray whales along the Pacific coast of North America, the migration along the coast passes
through optimal regions for wave energy device deployment. The acoustic signature of the devices could
either attract or repel marine mammals. EMF effects on marine mammals is poorly known; for species
that rely on Earth’s geomagnetic field, there is the potential for orientation to the magnetic fields
emitted if they are large enough and/or discernible from background levels, and this should be
investigated. Fundamental baseline data will be needed (mammal biology, presence/absence/species
diversity, information on prey species) to understand projects’ impacts and the cumulative effects as
ORED reaches commercial scales. As pilot or demonstration projects are put in the water, immediate
monitoring of potential receptor cetaceans and pinnipeds (e.g., videography, beachings, tagging, vessel
surveys) will be needed to understand how they interact with OREDs.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 117

A2: artificial “reef effect” – General answers


The artificial reef effect is offset by EMF and noise pollution
Angus Jackson, Ph.D. at the Environmental Research Institute, North Highland College UHI, University
of the Highlands and Islands, and Andrew Gill, Ph.D. at the Integrated Environmental Systems Institute,
June 19, 2013, “Marine Renewables, Biodiversity and Fisheries,” Plymouth Marine Institute at Plymouth
University, http://www.foe.co.uk/sites/ default/files/downloads/marine_ renewables_biodiver.pdf,
Accessed 4/28/2014
When measuring effects at an MRE device we are recording the combined effects of multiple
stressors/effectors. Some of these may be additive, other may counteract. A good example is that we
assume the artificial reef effect or the FAD effect will bring fish in and protect them from fishing, which
is good. However this MPA or No Fishing Zone effect may not occur if for example the operational EMF
or noise causes some counteracting effect. The change in effects over greater spatial and/or temporal
scale should be highlighted too. So whilst a small development may not be regarded as causing any
significant change (particularly in light of other influential factors) many of them or larger sized
developments may cause significant change. There is also the aspect of cumulative effect not just of
other MRE devices but other activities that need to be considered. This consideration should be
objective as there may be trade-offs whereby the MRE device reduces other pressures on species or
where a combination of different activities causes a differential outcome (there is a lot to develop within
this topic area but it all comes under cumulative aspects).

The artificial reef effect increases predators risking greater collisions, entanglement,
and noise exposure
Brendan Godley, Researcher at the Centre for Ecology & Conservation, University of Exeter, Et al.,
June 19, 2013, “Marine Renewables, Biodiversity and Fisheries,” Plymouth Marine Institute at Plymouth
University, http://www.foe.co.uk/sites/ default/files/downloads/marine_ renewables_biodiver.pdf,
Accessed 4/28/2014
Indirect positive effects of MRE installations on marine mammals have also been suggested. The
potential for MRE devices to act as new habitats has been advocated. These may act as artificial reefs,
increasing the available habitat for sessile marine species and consequently, attracting marine life in
search of food, hence providing prey for marine mammals. The floating nature of wave energy
converters may lend them to become fish aggregating devices, thereby attracting potential prey. This
could draw predatory species into the area increasing the risk of collision and/or entanglement, as well
as prolonged exposure to noise. Risks ought to be taken into consideration when designing the devices
and implementing mitigation measures. Commercial fishing may be reduced in the vicinity of the devices
to minimise the potential collision between fishing gear and MRE devices, which may lead to the
establishment of de facto marine protected areas albeit that there is still significant anthropogenic
influence within them. This could further enhance fish stocks and increase prey availability. Data to
examine whether these potential effects are manifested are only likely to be available after several
years of monitoring and only once devices are in operation. If there is evidence for creation of beneficial
habitats, these need to be maintained beyond the life span of the device, to ensure that the loss of
habitat during decommissioning is not more dramatic than during construction.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 118

A2: Marine biodiversity – General impact answers


The size of the oceans means humans can’t have a significant impact
Bjørn Lomborg, Director of the Environmental Assessment Institute, 2001, The Skeptical
Environmentalist, p. 189
But the oceans are so incredibly big that our impact on them has been astoundingly insignificant - the
oceans contain more than 1,000 billion liters of water. The UN’s overall evaluation of the oceans
concludes: “The open sea is still relatively clean. Low levels of lead, synthetic compounds and artificial
radionuclides, though widely detectable, are biologically insignificant. Oil slicks and litter are common
among sea leans, but are, at present, a minor consequences to communities of organisms living in ocean
waters.

Ocean biodiversity is getting better. Previous government reforms are paying off and
deny their impact
Leon Panetta,, former US secretary of state, co-chaired the Pew Ocean Commission and founded the
Panetta Institute at California State University, Monterey Bay, July 17, 2013, “Panetta: Don't take
oceans for granted,” CNN, http://www.cnn.com/2013/07/17/opinion/panetta-oceans/index.html,
Accessed 5/2/2014
The situation the commission found in 2001 was grim. Many of our nation's commercial fisheries were
being depleted and fishing families and communities were hurting. More than 60% of our coastal rivers
and bays were degraded by nutrient runoff from farmland, cities and suburbs. Government policies and
practices, a patchwork of inadequate laws and regulations at various levels, in many cases made matters
worse. Our nation needed a wake-up call. The situation, on many fronts, is dramatically different today
because of a combination of leadership initiatives from the White House and old-fashioned bipartisan
cooperation on Capitol Hill. Perhaps the most dramatic example can be seen in the effort to end
overfishing in U.S. waters. In 2005, President George W. Bush worked with congressional leaders to
strengthen America's primary fisheries management law, the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation
and Management Act. This included establishment of science-based catch limits to guide decisions in
rebuilding depleted species. These reforms enacted by Congress are paying off. In fact, an important
milestone was reached last June when the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
announced it had established annual, science-based catch limits for all U.S. ocean fish populations. We
now have some of the best managed fisheries in the world. Progress also is evident in improved overall
ocean governance and better safeguards for ecologically sensitive marine areas. In 2010, President
Barack Obama issued a historic executive order establishing a national ocean policy directing federal
agencies to coordinate efforts to protect and restore the health of marine ecosystems. President George
W. Bush set aside new U.S. marine sanctuary areas from 2006 through 2009. Today, the
Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, one of several marine monuments created by the
Bush administration, provides protection for some of the most biologically diverse waters in the Pacific.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 119

Oceans are resilient


Victor Kennedy, PhD, Professor of Environmental Science, University of Maryland and Former
Director, Cooperative Oxford Laboratory, August 2002, Coastal and Marine Ecosystems and Global
Climate Change: Potential Effects on U.S. Resources, http://www.pewtrusts.org/
uploadedFiles/wwwpewtrustsorg/Reports/Protecting_ocean_life/environment_pew_climate_marine.pd
f, Accessed 5/2/2014
There is evidence that marine organisms and ecosystems are resilient to environmental change. Steele
(1991) hypothesized that the biological components of marine systems are tightly coupled to physical
factors, allowing them to respond quickly to rapid environmental change and thus rendering them
ecologically adaptable. Some species also have wide genetic variability throughout their range, which
may allow for adaptation to climate change.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 120

A2: Marine Biodiversity – Alternate causes (general)


3 factors are converging to cause cascading disruptions in marine biology
IPSO, International Programme on the State of The Ocean, October 3, 2013, “Greater, Faster, Closer,
Latest review of science reveals ocean in critical state from cumulative impacts,”
http://www.stateoftheocean.org/pdfs/IPSO-PR-2013-FINAL.pdf, Accessed 5/1/2014
Among the latest assessments of factors affecting ocean health, the panel identified the following areas
as of greatest cause for concern: De-oxygenation: the evidence is accumulating that the oxygen
inventory of the ocean is progressively declining. Predictions for ocean oxygen content suggest a decline
of between 1% and 7% by 2100. This is occurring in two ways: the broad trend of decreasing oxygen
levels in tropical oceans and areas of the North Pacific over the last 50 years; and the dramatic increase
in coastal hypoxia (low oxygen) associated with eutrophication. The former is caused by global warming,
the second by increased nutrient runoff from agriculture and sewage. Acidification: If current levels of
CO2 release continue we can expect extremely serious consequences for ocean life, and in turn food and
coastal protection; at CO2 concentrations of 450-500 ppm (projected in 2030-2050) erosion will exceed
calcification in the coral reef building process, resulting in the extinction of some species and decline in
biodiversity overall. Warming: As made clear by the IPCC, the ocean is taking the brunt of warming in
the climate system, with direct and well-documented physical and biogeochemical consequences. The
impacts which continued warming is projected to have in the decades to 2050 include: reduced seasonal
ice zones, including the disappearance of Arctic summer sea ice by ca. 2037; increasing stratification of
ocean layers, leading to oxygen depletion; increased venting of the GHG methane from the Arctic
seabed (a factor not considered by the IPCC); and increased incidence of anoxic and hypoxic (low
oxygen) events. The ‘deadly trio’ of the above three stressors - acidification, warming and
deoxygenation - is seriously effecting how productive and efficient the ocean is, as temperatures,
chemistry, surface stratification, nutrient and oxygen supply are all implicated, meaning that many
organisms will find themselves in unsuitable environments. These impacts will have cascading
consequences for marine biology, including altered food web dynamics and the expansion of pathogens.

Ocean acidification disrupts marine food webs and ecosystems


Sasha Henriques, Division of Public Information. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),
September 2013, “Healthy Oceans, Happy Planet,” IAEA Bulletin,
http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull543/54305610506.pdf, Accessed 5/1/2014
One sign of an unhealthy marine environment is ocean acidification. This is the name given to the
disruption of the sea’s normal acid/alkaline balance, an imbalance that can cause some marine species
to die off, because they are incapable of adapting to a more acidic environment, thereby disrupting the
entire ecosystem and food webs.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 121

Seabed destruction and water pollution kills off marine ecosystems


IPSO, International Programme on the State of The Ocean, 2014, “Big Threats: The main factors
destroying ocean health,” http://www.stateoftheocean.org/pdfs/IPSO-PR-2013-FINAL.pdf, Accessed
5/1/2014
We are destroying marine habitats in the Ocean in two significant ways. Firstly, when we directly
eliminate the habitat in question: by destroying seabed communities such as coral reefs through the
practice of bottom trawling, for example. And secondly, when we change the marine environment
through activities which alter water quality, making it unsuitable for the many marine animals with
precise environmental requirements. The result in either case is the loss of marine habitats that support
species, communities and - ultimately - ecosystems.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 122

A2: Climate Change Advantage

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 123

Marine renewables cannot solve/bad


MHK technologies increase GHG emissions in at least 7 ways
Chad Augustine, Et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012, Renewable Electricity Futures
Study, Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies,
http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/, Accessed 4/27/2014
MHK technologies do not burn fuel to generate electricity, so there are no GHG emissions associated
with generation of electricity from MHK like there are with conventional fuel-burning technologies.
However, MHK technologies contribute to GHG emissions during their life cycle stages, including the
extraction of raw materials, transportation, and manufacturing into mechanical components, plant
construction, O&M, dismantling, and disposal. However, because MHK technologies are not deployed in
RE Futures scenarios, their GHG emissions are not considered in this study.

Ocean energy sources face a host of barriers to prevent climate change. We won’t see
impacts from the plan until at least 2020
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2011, IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy
Sources and Climate Change Mitigation, O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P.
Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer,
C. von Stechow (eds), http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/, Accessed 4/26/2014
Ocean energy offers the potential for long-term carbon emissions reduction but is unlikely to make a
significant short term contribution before 2020 due to its nascent stage of development. In 2009,
additionally installed ocean capacity was less than 10 MW worldwide, yielding a cumulative installed
capacity of approximately 300 MW by the end of 2009. All ocean energy technologies, except tidal
barrages, are conceptual, undergoing research and development (R&D), or are in the pre-commercial
prototype and demonstration stage. The performance of ocean energy technologies is anticipated to
improve steadily over time as experience is gained and new technologies are able to access poorer
quality resources. Whether these technical advances lead to sufficient associated cost reductions to
enable broad-scale deployment of ocean energy is the most critical uncertainty in assessing the future
role of ocean energy in mitigating climate change. Though technical potential is not anticipated to be a
primary global barrier to ocean energy deployment, resource characteristics will require that local
communities in the future select among multiple available ocean technologies to suit local resource
conditions.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 124

No solvency / Emissions are not key


Even if we stopped CO2 emissions today, temperatures would be constant or increase
for another 50 years
Thomas Lukas Frölicher, Et al, November 24, ‘13, Environmental Physics, Institute of Biogeochemistry
and Pollutant Dynamics, and Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton
University, “Continued global warming after CO2 emissions stoppage,” Nature Climate Change,
http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate2060.html, Accessed 4/30/2014
Recent studies have suggested that global mean surface temperature would remain approximately
constant on multi-century timescales after CO2 emissions are stopped. Here we use Earth system model
simulations of such a stoppage to demonstrate that in some models, surface temperature may actually
increase on multi-century timescales after an initial century-long decrease. This occurs in spite of a
decline in radiative forcing that exceeds the decline in ocean heat uptake—a circumstance that would
otherwise be expected to lead to a decline in global temperature. The reason is that the warming effect
of decreasing ocean heat uptake together with feedback effects arising in response to the geographic
structure of ocean heat uptake overcompensates the cooling effect of decreasing atmospheric CO2 on
multi-century timescales. Our study also reveals that equilibrium climate sensitivity estimates based on
a widely used method of regressing the Earth’s energy imbalance against surface temperature
change are biased. Uncertainty in the magnitude of the feedback effects associated with the magnitude
and geographic distribution of ocean heat uptake therefore contributes substantially to the uncertainty
in allowable carbon emissions for a given multi-century warming target.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 125

Climate change impact answers


Humans will survive a climate change apocalypse
Annalee Newitz, Staff Writer, May 19, 2013, “Humans: We will survive!,” Boston Globe,
http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/ 2013/05/18/humans-will-
survive/4xwoH2GARqtdyBx5EyvapL/story.html, Accessed 5/2/2014
We’re beginning to feel the effects of climate change, as superstorms and megadroughts strike with
increasing regularity. Extinctions are ripping through amphibian populations in the Americas, while bees
are threatened by colony collapse disorder. Indeed, many environmental scientists believe that we’re in
the early stages of a mass extinction, where over 75 percent of all species on Earth may eventually be
wiped out. When you look at humans—with our fleshy, vulnerable bodies, need for a 21 percent oxygen
atmosphere, and susceptibility to disease—the odds don’t exactly seem to be in our favor. But the
apocalypse is complicated. The planet has already suffered through five mass extinctions in the past
half-billion years, and geological history reveals that these catastrophes often take a million years. There
is no sudden tipping point or global zombie scourge: Doom usually comes slowly. And through the
shocks that Earth has experienced before, some organisms have always found a way to survive. So
here’s some encouraging news: Humans happen to have a lot in common with many of the species that
have made it through previous mass extinctions—plus a few advantages of our own. And that means
there just might be hope for human survival after all. Here are some of the reasons we might make it—
along with a few survivor role models from millennia past.

We have decades or centuries before the devastating impacts of warming


Geoffrey Lean, Staff Writer, April 5, 2013, “Global warming: time to rein back on doom and gloom?,”
The Guardian, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/environment/globalwarming/9974397/Global-
warming-time-to-rein-back-on-doom-and-gloom.html, Accessed 5/3/2014
The research, moreover, comes at a time when many experts are beginning to despair that warming can
be prevented from running out of control. Six weeks ago, for example, Prof Sir Robert Watson – the
deeply respected former chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – said he
believed the world had now missed its chance to keep the average rise in global temperature to less
than 2C – the level at which dangerous effects are thought inevitable. But if the new research is right, it
might be held below this ominous threshold after all, if determined worldwide action is taken.
Prediction, as they say, is tough, especially when it’s about the future – and that’s especially true when it
comes to the climate, whose complexity we only partially understand. It is, as we all know, naturally
immensely variable. And the effect of human intervention is subject to long timelags: it will be decades,
even centuries, before the full consequences of today’s emissions of carbon dioxide become clear.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 126

TTL mitigates warming


ScienceDaily, Staff Writer, February 2, 2014, “Nature can, selectively, buffer human-caused global
warming, say scientists,” Science Daily, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/02/140202111055.htm,
Accessed 5/3/2014
Can naturally occurring processes selectively buffer the full brunt of global warming caused by
greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities? Yes, find researchers from the Hebrew
University of Jerusalem, Johns Hopkins University in the US and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. As
the globe warms, ocean temperatures rise, leading to increased water vapor escaping into the
atmosphere. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, and its impact on climate is amplified
in the stratosphere. In a detailed study, the researchers from the three institutions examined the causes
of changes in the temperatures and water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The TTL is a
critical region of our atmosphere with characteristics of both the troposphere below and the
stratosphere above. The TTL can have significant influences on both atmospheric chemistry and climate,
as its temperature determines how much water vapor can enter the stratosphere. Therefore,
understanding any changes in the temperature of the TTL and what might be causing them is an
important scientific question of significant societal relevance, say the researchers.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 127

Alternate Causes to warming/climate change


The U.S. transportation sector emits more CO2 than most other countries
Union of Concerned Scientists, January 31, 2014, “Clean Vehicles,”
http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/why-clean-cars/global-warming/cars-and-trucks-and-
global.html, Accessed 5/3/2014
Earth is warming because of global warming pollution, and transportation-related sources are a major
contributor. In fact, the U.S. transportation sector alone emits more carbon emissions than all but three
other countries' total emissions. Sixty percent of these emissions come from cars and trucks (the rest
come primarily from heavy-duty vehicles and airplanes).

Massive amounts of methane outweigh CO2 emissions. Methane is 21 times more


potent
Fox News, Staff Writer, November 26, 2013, “Big methane burp: Cow farts a greater problem than
EPA previously thought, study says,” http://www.foxnews.com/science/2013/11/26/big-methane-burp-
cows-refineries-spew-gas/, Accessed 5/3/2014
The United States is spewing 50 percent more methane — a potent heat-trapping gas — than the
federal government estimates, a new comprehensive scientific study says. Much of it is coming from just
three states: Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. That means methane may be a bigger global warming issue
than thought, scientists say. Methane is 21 times more potent at trapping heat than carbon dioxide, the
most abundant global warming gas, although it doesn't stay in the air as long. Much of that extra
methane, also called natural gas, seems to be coming from livestock, including manure, belches, and
flatulence, as well as leaks from refining and drilling for oil and gas, the study says. It was published
Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. The study estimates that in 2008, the
U.S. poured 49 million tons of methane into the air. That means U.S. methane emissions trapped about
as much heat as all the carbon dioxide pollution coming from cars, trucks, and planes in the country in
six months.

Even ending all emissions won’t solve. Arctic warming is post-brink and releasing
massive CO2 and methane
Bobby Magill, Staff Writer, May 1, 2014, “Arctic Methane Emissions ‘Certain to Trigger Warming’,”
Climate Central, http://www.climatecentral.org/news/arctic-methane-emissions-certain-to-trigger-
warming-17374, Accessed 5/3/2014
Warming and thawing permafrost stimulate methane release, which enhances the greenhouse effect,
creating a feedback loop, she said. “Even if we ceased all human emissions, permafrost would continue
to thaw and release carbon into the atmosphere,” Turetsky said. “Instead of reducing emissions, we
currently are on track with the most dire scenario considered by the IPCC. There is no way to capture
emissions from thawing permafrost as this carbon is released from soils across large regions of land in
very remote spaces.”

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 128

Offshore Wind Negative

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 129

Off-Case

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 130

A/I-SPEC Violations
Multiple agencies within the federal government have authority over the plan
Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind & Water Power
Program and Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and
Enforcement, February 2011, A National Offshore Wind Strategy: Creating an Offshore Wind Energy
Industry in the United States, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/
national_offshore_wind_strategy.pdf, Accessed 4/13/2014
Numerous state and federal entities have authority over siting, permitting, and installation of offshore
wind facilities. Table 2 below, adapted from Appendix A of Large‐Scale Offshore Wind Power in the
United States (W. Musial 2010), lists the key statutes and responsible agencies involved in the
permitting of offshore wind power projects. DOI, through the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management,
Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), serves as the lead agency in permitting offshore wind energy on
the OCS. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), which is responsible for permitting any potential
obstruction or alteration of U.S. navigable waters, currently serves as the lead federal agency in
permitting offshore wind in state waters, including the Great Lakes. Several federal entities also have
mandates to review and/or approve certain aspects of offshore wind projects, such as the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS),
Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NOAA’s National
Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD),
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Numerous state, local,
and tribal government entities, as well as other stakeholders, must also be consulted in the permitting
process. The mandates of these various entities include managing protected species, managing
commercial and recreational fisheries, protecting marine and coastal habitats, and designation and
protection of marine areas with special significance due to their conservation, recreational, ecological,
historical, scientific, cultural, archeological, educational, or aesthetic qualities.

There are tons of variations of design. That has a specific impact on the types of fish
attracted
Manuela Truebano, Ph.D., Lecturer in Marine Biology at the Plymouth Marine Institute, Plymouth
University, et al., June 19, 2013, “Marine Renewables, Biodiversity and Fisheries,” Plymouth Marine
Institute at Plymouth University, http://www.foe.co.uk/sites/ default/files/downloads/marine_
renewables_biodiver.pdf, Accessed 5/12/2014
There is considerable potential for variations in the design of the components of the installation to
influence the type of species they attract. Designs could potentially be adapted to maximize the
presence of certain species, as well as to increase the distribution of mobile species within the local
area. For example, the use of large boulders around the base of wind turbines creates a rocky
environment suitable for lobsters, crabs and reef fish. Wilhelmsson et al recorded different fish species
confined to certain structural fisheries of wind farm monopiles (e.g. small fish only found in pockets of
steel mouldings, eelpouts observed in the corner where the wall met the seabed, turbot on the seabed
near the turbine etc.) The low level of structural complexity provided by holes on wave power
foundations was sufficient to provide some level of protection for edible crabs, which were largely found
associated with the holes, but not for fish, which did not utilise them to any significant degree.
Andersson et al found that, during the first few months after submersion, different materials were
colonised by specific assemblages of epibenthic organisms. These studies highlight the importance of a
careful design and choice of materials.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 131

Politics Links – GOP Hates the Plan


Amendments prove the plan is highly controversial along partisan lines
Blake A. Treu, J.D. and John Treu, Esq., LL.M., C.P.A., May 17, 2014, Fuller Professional Tax Education,
http://fulleredu.com/taxblog/ expire-act-hits-snag-in-senate-over-amendments/, Accessed 5/19/2014
The Senate yesterday began legislative proceedings as expected by considering the EXPIRE Act. From
there, things quickly declined. Senator Wyden (D-OR) first gave his oft-repeated plug for passage of the
bill. Senator Hatch (R-UT) then called for an “open process” that would give the senators who were not
part of the discussion of the EXPIRE Act during its spell in the Finance Committee a chance to “express
their views” regarding the bill and propose amendments. The Senate then moved on to a vote on a
motion for cloture on the matter of the EXPIRE Act, led by Senator Reid (D-NV). However, the motion
failed to secure the necessary two-thirds majority vote, with a final vote count of 53-40. In response to
this series of events, Reid attacked the Republicans by stating they have “voted against the second
bipartisan bill in less than a week” and insisted that the Republicans merely want to take advantage of
the EXPIRE Act by merely using the opportunity for amendments as a chance to “roll back part of
ObamaCare.” The Republicans, on the other hand, insist that they’re merely looking for the opportunity
to make improvements to the bill. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) stated, “We have a
tax bill here that members from both sides want to improve and support. Yet, we don’t get a chance to
amend it.”

Republicans hate the plan because it trades off with fossil fuel exploration
Zack Colman, Staff Writer, March 7, 2014, “Offshore wind lobbies for credit to keep industry from
blowing away,” Washington Examiner, http://washingtonexaminer.com/offshore-wind-lobbies-for-
credit-to-keep-industry-from-blowing-away/article/2545151, Accessed 5/14/2014
But the offshore credit has its detractors as well. Most of them are Republicans who say the White
House is putting subsidized clean energy ahead of fossil fuel production -- which is blocked in the
Atlantic Ocean through 2017 -- during what should be a time of fiscal belt-tightening. "Selling leases in
the Atlantic shouldn't be exclusive for the wind industry, especially when traditional energy is
completely shut out of the same area," said Sen. David Vitter, R-La., the top Republican on the
Environment and Public Works Committee.

The GOP hates wind energy


Michael Bastasch, Staff Writer, May 9, 2014, “Feds Fund 12 Offshore Wind Turbines… At $12 Million
Each,” Daily Caller, http://dailycaller.com/2014/05/09/feds-fund-12-offshore-wind-turbines-at-12-
million-each/, Accessed 5/14/2014
“The Energy Department is working with public and private partners to harness this untapped resource
in a sustainable and economic manner. The offshore wind projects announced today further this
commitment — bringing more clean, renewable energy to our homes and businesses, diversifying our
energy portfolio, and reducing costs through innovation.” Environmentalists and many Republicans have
hammered the Obama administration for its support of wind power. Republicans argue that the wind
industry has benefited from subsidies and green energy mandates for decades and federal funding for
such projects are wasteful.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 132

Studies CP Solvency
Offshore wind causes acoustic and electromagnetic disruptions that interfere with air-
land-sea navigation and sonar. This undermines operations for the Dept. of Defense
and Homeland Security. We should study this first
Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind & Water Power
Program and Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and
Enforcement, February 2011, A National Offshore Wind Strategy: Creating an Offshore Wind Energy
Industry in the United States, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/
national_offshore_wind_strategy.pdf, Accessed 4/13/2014
It is possible that under certain conditions, offshore wind turbine arrays may cause electromagnetic or
acoustic interference with specific electronic navigation, detection, or communication equipment. This
potential for interference presents a serious concern for many stakeholders, including operators of
commercial, recreational, and fishing vessels, the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of
Homeland Security (DHS).
While many potential electromagnetic interference issues will be similar to those associated with land‐
based wind systems, there are also circumstances unique to offshore facilities that may potentially
affect equipment such as land‐based radar, airborne radar, Automatic Identification Systems (AIS),
Global Positioning Systems (GPS), shipboard radios, Sound Navigation & Ranging (SONAR) and Coastal
Ocean Dynamics Applications Radar (CODAR). Therefore, additional research is needed to effectively
assess any potential operational impacts, characterize the technical challenges and develop mitigation
options. Assessments of potential electromagnetic or acoustic challenges presented by offshore wind
energy facilities to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems must include engagement
with key stakeholders to proactively identify the full range of concerns, characterize potential impacts to
operations, identify known requirements and options for mitigation, and establish research and policy
needs.

Most studies on acoustic effects are short-term and small scale. Our conclusions will
likely change after better study and better maps
Lena Bergström, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,
Skolgatan, et al., 2014, “Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife—a generalized impact
assessment,” Environmental Research Letters, v. 9, http://iopscience.iop.org/ 1748-
9326/9/3/034012/pdf/1748-9326_9_3_034012.pdf, Accessed 5/11/2014
The strongest remaining uncertainties were seen for acoustic disturbances during the operational phase
and effects of fisheries exclusion. As most empirical information today is from short term studies in
relatively small scale OWF’s, it is likely that conclusions made today will change when information
accumulates from larger OWFs, over longer time scales, or when techniques to diminish negative
impacts are developed. Current studies have to no or limited extent addressed combined effects, such
as the effects of several marine activities within the same area, or long term effects on the food web.
Many potential negative effects of OWF can be reduced within the planning process, by avoiding
important recruitment habitats and by timing construction activities outside of important breeding
seasons. Obviously, such measures should be based on real knowledge on the distribution and
population status of local species and habitats. Given the high dependency of the obtained conclusion
on local environmental conditions, a fundamental issue for the sustainable development of OWF is the
availability of reliable seafloor and habitat maps and information on population connectivity.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 133

There are major gaps in understanding that will cause delays and overrun the risk of
investment. Only long-term research investment before expansion of offshore wind
power solves
Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind & Water Power
Program and Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and
Enforcement, February 2011, A National Offshore Wind Strategy: Creating an Offshore Wind Energy
Industry in the United States, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/
national_offshore_wind_strategy.pdf, Accessed 4/13/2014
Hundreds of environmental studies have been conducted in Europe in conjunction with offshore wind
development. Although the United States can leverage lessons learned from these studies, few studies
have been done in U.S. waters. Consequently, major data gaps exist that can delay and add significant
risk to the installation of offshore facilities for both project developers and regulators. Filling these gaps
requires upfront investments in long‐term, expensive research that—while of substantial benefit to the
entire industry—falls largely to the first generation of individual project developers.

Current research is insufficient to avoid the risks. Only further study avoids the case
turns
Walter Musial, Principal Engineer, National Wind Technology Center at NREL and Bonnie Ram, Ram
Power, L.L.C., September 2010, “Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States, Assessment of
Opportunities and Barriers, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NERL),
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/40745.pdf, Accessed 5/10/2014
Research is also needed to fill gaps in the knowledge base and prioritize risks based on analysis of
uncertainties and potential impacts. Several important gaps and uncertainties include visual effects,
public perception of deployment risks, endangered and migrating species, conflicting use of military and
recreational spaces, and construction impacts. BOEM and other federal and state agencies are beginning
to fill these gaps with baseline surveys and studies. Sector-by-sector impact analyses, however, as
required with NEPA documentation, are limited in revealing the true risks to the ocean or lake ecologies.
Applying an integrated risk framework that compares costs and benefits of deploying offshore wind as
opposed to another energy option is needed to inform decisions about the actual risks. Developing
prudent siting policies will likely avoid coastal areas with intense competing uses and sensitive habitats
and will reflect the sensitivities of multiple stakeholder groups. Siting strategies are needed that go
beyond narrow technical appraisals of sites to include collaborative approaches with potential host
states and communities. Well-developed risk communication and stakeholder involvement strategies
need exploration and are essential to the successful development of offshore wind projects.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 134

A2: Inherency

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 135

The federal government is increasing offshore wind now


The DOE just handed out $141 million to expand offshore wind development
Business Green, Staff Writer, May 8, 2014, “US awards $141m to innovative offshore wind farm
projects,” Accessed 5/13/2014, http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/2343636/us-awards-
usd141m-to-innovative-offshore-wind-farm-projects
The US Department of Energy (DoE) has handed out $141m to three developers planning wind farms off
the coasts of New Jersey, Oregon, and Virginia. The three projects are set to add 67MW of offshore wind
capacity in US waters by 2017 and make use of new technologies designed to drive down costs for
future wind farms, the DoE said in a statement. "Offshore wind offers a large, untapped energy resource
for the United States that can create thousands of manufacturing, construction and supply chain jobs
across the country and drive billions of dollars in local economic investment," said Energy Secretary
Ernest Moniz in a statement. "The offshore wind projects announced today further this commitment -
bringing more clean, renewable energy to our homes and businesses, diversifying our energy portfolio,
and reducing costs through innovation."

The Department of the Interior is increasing offshore wind now


Bureau of Ocean Management, 2014, “Offshore Wind Energy,”
http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program/Renewable-Energy-Guide/Offshore-Wind-
Energy.aspx, Accessed 4/9/2014
The first offshore wind project was installed off the coast of Denmark in 1991. Since that time,
commercial-scale offshore wind facilities have been operating in shallow waters around the world,
mostly in Europe. With the U.S. Department of the Interior’s “Smart from the Start” initiative, wind
power projects will soon be built offshore the United States. Newer turbine and foundation technologies
are being developed so that wind power projects can be built in deeper waters further offshore.

The DOE is already expanding offshore wind energy now


José Zayas, Director, Wind and Water Power Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy, January
2014, “Advancing Ocean Renewable Energy In the United States,” Sea Technology Magazine,
http://www.sea-technology.com/features/2014/0114/1.php, Accessed 4/11/2014
In 2013, the Energy Department finalized awards for support of the initial design and permitting phase
of seven competitively selected offshore wind demonstration projects. Through cost-share funding,
technical assistance and interagency coordination to accelerate the deployment of these projects, the
Department intends to validate new technologies to reduce costs, eliminate uncertainties and mitigate
risks to support growth of a robust offshore wind energy industry. In 2014, the Department plans to
select up to three of the seven projects to support, with up to $47 million in additional funding each to
progress through final design, fabrication, construction and, finally, to full operation. These projects are
anticipated to be grid-connected by the end of 2017.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 136

A2: Advantage: Economy

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 137

A2: Manufacturing
They have it backwards. We have to rebuild the manufacturing base before we can
start on wind
Michael Hahn and Patrick Gilman, Navigant Consulting, Inc., October 17, 2013, Offshore Wind
Market and Economic Analysis, Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy,
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/offshore_wind_market_and_economic_analysis.pdf, Accessed
5/10/2014
Offshore wind turbines are currently not manufactured in the United States. Domestic manufacturing
needs to be in place in the United States in order for the industry to fully develop. The absence of a
mature industry results in a lack of experienced labor for manufacturing, construction, and operations.
Workforce training must therefore be part of the upfront costs for U.S. projects.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 138

A2: U.S. Key to Global Economy


China will outpace the U.S. role in global growth this year
The Economic Times, Staff Writer, April 30, 2014, “China poised to overtake US economy: World
Bank ranking,” http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/business/china-poised-to-
overtake-us-economy-world-bank-ranking/articleshow/34433509.cms, Accessed 5/18/2014
In 2005, on a PPP basis, Chinese output amounted to about 43.0 percent of US GDP, but in 2011 this had
risen to nearly 87.0 percent, doubling its relative performance. China has been catching up for several
years, since it became a player across the global economy. It now looks possible that in the course of
this year, the Asian behemoth will overtake the United States in terms of output on a purchasing-power
basis.

China will surpass the U.S. this year as the most important economy
Kevin Lamarque, Staff Writer, May 02, 2014, “No longer #1? China may replace US as biggest
economy this year – World Bank,” RT, http://rt.com/business/155892-china-overtake-us-economy/,
Accessed 5/18/2014
Sometimes size DOES matter. China may pass the US and become the world’s most important economy
this year, according to the World Bank. It would take the position the US has held since 1872. Previous
studies have suggested China could become the world's biggest economy by 2019. Ever since the 2008
financial crisis, the Chinese economy has contributed a quarter of total global growth. Between 2011-
2014, China’s economy will account for 24 percent, according to IMF estimates.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 139

U.S. & Global Growth High Now


U.S. and global economic growth will grow this year
Moody's Investors Service, Staff Writer, May 8, 2014, “Advanced economies likely to drive global
growth in 2014-15 as emerging markets slow down,” Global Credit Research,
https://www.moodys.com/research/Moodys-Advanced-economies-likely-to-drive-global-growth-in-
2014--PR_298858, Accessed 5/18/2014
Moody's notes that reforms and accommodative monetary policy in the aftermath of the global financial
and the euro area crises are slowly bearing fruit in advanced economies. After a soft patch at the start of
the year, US economic activity is set to pick up during 2014 on the back of strong corporate balance
sheets, favourable financing conditions, a smaller fiscal drag and strong price competitiveness.
Moreover, after two years of recession, the euro area will contribute positively to global growth in 2014
as exporters benefit from competitiveness-improving reforms and as constraints on households'
budgets ease.

Global economic growth will be steady this year


Moody's Investors Service, Staff Writer, May 8, 2014, “Advanced economies likely to drive global
growth in 2014-15 as emerging markets slow down,” Global Credit Research,
https://www.moodys.com/research/Moodys-Advanced-economies-likely-to-drive-global-growth-in-
2014--PR_298858, Accessed 5/18/2014
Overall, positive developments in advanced economies will raise global growth this year to around 3%.
For emerging markets, growth in 2014 is likely to be lower than in 2013. In 2015, as stronger trade spills
over to improved domestic activity in most countries, global growth is expected to rise further, to reach
close to 3.5% for the G20 economies, in line with historical averages.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 140

Impacts Answers
Economic doomsaying deters investment and lending, which hurts the economy
Zachary Karabell, Guest contributor and a money manager, May 1, 2014, “Cassandras Everywhere,”
Slate, http://www.slate.com/
articles/business/the_edgy_optimist/2014/05/global_economic_collapse_the_cassandras_who_are_pre
dicting_a_crash.html, Accessed 5/18/2014
The cult of doom has been thriving ever since the meltdown of 2008. With so many having been caught
off guard by the cascading crisis triggered by the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008, a
never-again mentality took hold, especially in the United States. Europe had its own reckoning over the
euro soon after, and has been mired not just in stagnant growth but pessimism ever since. The reasons
for today’s caution verging on paranoia are understandable, but the effects are no less destructive.
Trillions of dollars sit on corporate balance sheets unused as companies and their CEOs wonder whether
now is a good time to spend. Banks, trying to preserve capital provided to them largely by government,
have been reluctant to lend, though they are certainly doing so more now than in the immediate
aftermath of 2008–2009. Believing that the financial system is imperiled by a Fed out of control and by
trillions in debt, wide swaths of the political class emboldened by the Tea Party continue to sound the
klaxon of austerity, forcing ever more shrinkage of what little government spending there is on
infrastructure, science, and investment.

Economic decline does not lead to war


Robert Jervis, Adlai E. Stevenson Professor of International Politics in the Department of Political
Science, and a Member of the Arnold A. Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia
University, July 2011, “Force in Our Times,” Saltzman Working Paper No. 15,
http://www.siwps.com/news.attachment/saltzmanworkingpaper15-842/SaltzmanWorkingPaper15.PDF,
Accessed 5/18/2014
Even if war is still seen as evil, the security community could be dissolved if severe conflicts of interest
were to arise. Could the more peaceful world generate new interests that would bring the members of
the community into sharp disputes? 45 A zero-sum sense of status would be one example, perhaps
linked to a steep rise in nationalism. More likely would be a worsening of the current economic
difficulties, which could itself produce greater nationalism, undermine democracy, and bring back old-
fashioned beggar-thy-neighbor economic policies. While these dangers are real, it is hard to believe that
the conflicts could be great enough to lead the members of the community to contemplate fighting
each other. It is not so much that economic interdependence has proceeded to the point where it
could not be reversed – states that were more internally interdependent than anything seen
internationally have fought bloody civil wars. Rather it is that even if the more extreme versions of free
trade and economic liberalism become discredited, it is hard to see how without building on a pre-
existing high level of political conflict leaders and mass opinion would come to believe that their
countries could prosper by impoverishing or even attacking others. Is it possible that problems will not
only become severe, but that people will entertain the thought that they have to be solved by war?
While a pessimist could note that this argument does not appear as outlandish as it did before the
financial crisis, an optimist could reply (correctly, in my view) that the very fact that we have seen such
a sharp economic down-turn without anyone suggesting that force of arms is the solution shows that
even if bad times bring about greater economic conflict, it will not make war thinkable.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 141

A2: Advantage: Hurricanes

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 142

A2: Hurricanes Getting Worse


Hurricanes will become less frequent
Bryan Walsh, Senior Editor, July 09, 2013, “Climate Change Could Make Hurricanes Stronger—and
More Frequent,” Time,
http://science.time.com/2013/07/09/a-new-study-says-hurricanes-will-get-stronger-and-more-
frequent-thanks-to-climate-change/, Accessed 5/14/2014
But there was one hopeful side effect to climate change, at least when it came to tropical storms. The
prevailing scientific opinion—seen in this 2012 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change—is that while tropical storms are likely to become more powerful and rainier as the climate
warms, they would also become less common. Bigger bullets, slower gun.

Their hurricane predictions are false. Only 6.3% actually cause damage
Bryan Walsh, Senior Editor, May 24, 2013, “Tornadoes Were Just the Beginning. This Hurricane Season
Is Going to be Stormy,” Time,
http://science.time.com/2013/05/24/tornadoes-were-just-the-beginning-this-hurricane-season-is-
going-to-be-stormy/, Accessed 5/14/2014
It’s important to remember that NOAA is only predicting whether or not hurricanes and tropical storms
will develop—not whether they will make landfall like Superstorm Sandy did last fall. Only three of the
19 named storms that formed in the Atlantic last year made enough of an impact on the U.S. to cause
any real damage. Most storms form in the Atlantic and never leave. It’s not just the strength of a storm
that makes it dangerous—it’s location.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 143

A2: Jacobsen / The Stanford Study


The Stanford study assumes more turbines than exist in the world
Wendy Koch, Staff Writer, February 26, 2014, “Offshore wind farms can tame hurricanes, study finds,”
USA Today, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/02/26/offshore-wind-farms-tame-
hurricanes/5813425/, Accessed 5/10/2014
Jacobson says his study, published online in Nature Climate Change, is the first to look at how offshore
turbines interact with hurricanes. He says the impact may seem surprising but makes sense: Turbines
produce power by taking energy from wind and thus slowing it down. His team used complex modeling
to simulate the impact that tens of thousands of turbines — more than exist in any single wind farm
worldwide — would have had on three hurricanes: Sandy and Isaac, which struck New York and New
Orleans, respectively, in 2012 and Katrina, which devastated New Orleans in 2005.

Jacobsen’s wind farm proposal can’t suck out enough wind


Victoria Bekiempis, Staff Writer, April 9, 2014, “Taming hurricanes,” Sydney Morning Herald,
http://www.smh.com.au/environment/ weather/taming-hurricanes-20140408-36aal.html, Accessed
5/14/2014
And then there are the sceptics. When first asked about Jacobson's wind-farm hypothesis, Nicholas
Coch, an expert in northern hurricanes at Queens College in New York, exclaimed, "Holy cow!" Coch
then emphatically rejected the premise. "That wind farm couldn't possibly drain that much energy out
of the wind," he says. Despite his incredulity, Coch is not at all surprised by the proposal. Several years
ago, he and several other scientists, including Emanuel, participated on a PBS program on hurricanes
that included a call-in segment. One of the callers also wanted to deter these great storms with wind
farms. That gentleman "wanted to build windmills along the Florida coast to blow hurricanes back to
Africa," Coch recalls with a laugh.

Building enough turbines to stop hurricanes is not feasible


Wendy Koch, Staff Writer, February 26, 2014, “Offshore wind farms can tame hurricanes, study finds,”
USA Today, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/02/26/offshore-wind-farms-tame-
hurricanes/5813425/, Accessed 5/10/2014
"This is a pretty neat idea, but it's expensive and borderline feasible," says Stephen Rose, an expert on
wind energy at Carnegie Mellon University. He led a 2012 study that said hurricanes could destroy some
turbines. Yet his team later issued a correction, saying there's only a 7% risk of hurricanes destroying at
least half of turbines off the Gulf Coast and almost no chance of such damage on the East Coast. "It's not
practical — 78,000 turbines," says Dominique Roddier, an engineer who's working on a new design for a
floating wind turbine by Seattle-based Principle Power, referring to the size of wind farms in Jacobson's
study. "That's an insane number of wind turbines. You can't build that many." The two largest pending
offshore U.S. wind farms — the Deepwater Wind Energy Center in New England and the Baryonyx Rio
Grande Wind Farms in Texas — are each slated to have at most 200 turbines.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 144

A2: Biodiversity / Ecosystems


The damage from hurricanes is offset by environmental renewal. It’s key to some
species and ecosystems
Tricia Edger, Staff Writer, August 26, 2011, “A Fresh Start: Hurricanes, Forest Fires, and Renewal
Through Disaster,” Decoded Science,
http://www.decodedscience.com/a-fresh-start-hurricanes-forest-fires-and-renewal-through-
disaster/2699, Accessed 5/17/2014
Now, we can’t prescribe hurricanes. We can’t plan for them to take place in areas where there are very
few people. We don’t have the luxury of organization behind them, and so we fear these powerful
storms, and rightly so. They hurt people and their homes, and they change ecosystems. However, even
though hurricanes can cause profound changes to ecosystems, it is also possible to see these changes as
a new beginning. Hurricanes move warmth and water. They’re powered by warm tropical air, which they
redistribute to other, cooler parts of the globe. Thirsty deserts and landlocked areas benefit from the
water that hurricanes bring. They’re also nature’s cleanse. Need to flush out toxic substances from a
small water body? Just call up a hurricane. All right, we can’t do that yet, but we can thank hurricanes
for renewing the water quality in small bodies of water every year. For some animals and plants, the
hurricane is vital. It can move animals to new places, expanding their range. Many shorebirds cannot
nest in areas that have too much seaside vegetation. What removes this vegetation? Hurricanes do an
awfully good job. So even as you’re battening down the hatches, the piping plover is shouting hurrah.
And yes, even as the hurricanes are plowing through islands and reefs, they’re also leaving sand behind,
building up different parts of the islands. If the reefs are healthy, the pieces that have broken apart may
even start new colonies.

Hurricanes are natural ecosystem cleansers that are key to habitat protection
Peter Carlson, Staff Writer, September 20, 2003, “Divine wind?: Hurricane is punishing but creates
some benefits,” Seattle Times,
http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20030920&slug=benefits20, Accessed
5/17/2014
Maddock is an environmental analyst for the Center for Biological Diversity. He works on Hatteras
Island, off the mainland of North Carolina. Despite worries about the destructive power of the storm, he
is comforted by the thought that Isabel is creating some wonderful nesting places for the piping plover
and other seashore birds: the black skimmer and the common tern and the American oyster-catcher. "A
storm like this is so powerful," he said, "that it will push massive amounts of sand and water across the
island and you'll have large areas of open sand without vegetation, and those are the areas where next
summer the shore birds will breed." A hurricane is like a forest fire, Maddock said: It causes a lot of
destruction, but it also "plays an important role in protecting the habitat."

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 145

A2: Biodiversity / Ecosystems


Hurricanes are good for ecosystems on multiple levels
Peter Carlson, Staff Writer, September 20, 2003, “Divine wind?: Hurricane is punishing but creates
some benefits,” Seattle Times,
http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20030920&slug=benefits20, Accessed
5/17/2014
"You have to look at the silver lining," said Frank Marks, a research meteorologist for the hurricane
research division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "They're good for the
ecosystem, even if they're bad for us." Not only are hurricanes good for the ecosystem, they're also
good for the aquifer. And for Florida's Lake Okeechobee. And for coral reefs. And for barrier islands. And
for the piping plover. In fact, if it wasn't for hurricanes, the poor piping plover would have no place to
mate. The piping plover is a seashore bird. It makes its nest in sandy stretches of beach. If too much
vegetation grows on the beach, the piping plover can't nest there. If they can't nest, they can't mate.
And the piping plover already is classified as a "threatened" species. "Hurricanes," Sidney Maddock said,
"create the habitat conditions that allow these birds to nest."

Because hurricanes are becoming clustered, it’s good for the environment
Global Change Institute, Staff Writer, October 18, 2011, “Clustered hurricanes reduce impact on
ecosystems, researchers find,” Science Daily,
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111017155614.htm, Accessed 5/17/2014
New research has found that hurricane activity is 'clustered' rather than random, which has important
long-term implications for coastal ecosystems and human population. The research was carried out by
Professor Peter Mumby from The University of Queensland Global Change Institute and School of
Biological Sciences, Professor David Stephenson and Dr. Renato Vitolo (Willis Research Fellow) at the
University of Exeter's Exeter Climate Systems research centre. Tropical cyclones and hurricanes have a
massive economic, social and ecological impact, and models of their occurrence influence many
planning activities from setting insurance premiums to conservation planning. Understanding how the
frequency of hurricanes varies is important for the people that experience them and the ecosystems
that are impacted by hurricanes. The findings published in the journal Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences map the variability in hurricanes throughout the Americas using a 100-year
historical record of hurricane tracks. Short intense periods of hurricanes followed by relatively long quiet
periods, were found around the Caribbean Sea and the clustering was particularly strong in Florida, the
Bahamas, Belize, Honduras, Haiti and Jamaica. Modelling of corals reefs of the Caribbean found that
clustered hurricanes are 'better' for coral reef health than random hurricane events as the first
hurricane always causes a lot of damage but then those storms that follow in quick succession don't add
much additional damage as most of the fragile corals were removed by the first storm. The following
prolonged period without hurricanes allows the corals to recover and then remain in a reasonable state
prior to being hit by the next series of storms.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 146

A2: Biodiversity / Ecosystems


Ecosystems are resilient and ecological change from hurricanes are not bad
Tricia Edger, Staff Writer, August 26, 2011, “A Fresh Start: Hurricanes, Forest Fires, and Renewal
Through Disaster,” Decoded Science,
http://www.decodedscience.com/a-fresh-start-hurricanes-forest-fires-and-renewal-through-
disaster/2699, Accessed 5/17/2014
Just as humans are resilient, ecosystems are as well. Just as humans will change and adapt to the new
circumstances of their lives, ecosystems will also change, sometimes for the better. As the hurricanes
approach, know that there will be change. However, in ecological terms, change does not have a value
judgement. It’s not good or bad, it is just the way that ecosystems are. So, as Hurricane Irene and her
friends move closer, think about that silver lining – and keep yourself safe this storm season.

Sea level rise and storms make 233 at risk species extinction inevitable in the U.S.
alone
Center for Biological Diversity, Staff Writers, December 10, 2013, “New Report: Rising Seas
Threaten 233 Federally Protected Species,”
http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2013/12/10/18747564.php, Accessed 5/14/2014
Sea-level rise driven by climate change poses a deadly threat to 233 federally protected animal and
plant species in 23 coastal states, according to a new scientific report from the Center for Biological
Diversity, and U.S. wildlife protection agencies are not doing enough to protect at-risk species. For the
“Deadly Waters” report, Center scientists analyzed data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and
National Marine Fisheries Service, as well as scientific literature. The Center found that 17 percent — 1
in 6 — of the nation’s threatened and endangered species are at risk from rising sea levels and storm
surges. The report also details the specific danger to five of the species most threatened by sea-level
rise.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 147

A2: Advantage: Climate

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 148

A2: IPCC Alarmism


Be skeptical of their warming claims. The IPCC consistently exaggerates their
estimates
The Australian, Staff Writer, November 8, ‘13, “Climate science should be read, not believed as
faith,” p. 13. , JT
Across five years, the dynamic of the global warming debate, as Mr. Howard says, has shifted. The
exaggerated acceptance of the worst possible implications of what climate scientists say has given way
to a more balanced and questioning approach. Even the UN's climate change chief, Rajendra Pachauri,
when questioned during a flying visit to Australia this year, said no issues should be off-limits for
discussion. He agreed debate about controversial science and politically incorrect views was an essential
part of dealing with climate change. On our front page, he also acknowledged the 17-year plateau in
global temperatures confirmed by Britain's Met Office. First principles, as Mr Howard points out, tell us
``never to accept that all of the science is in on any proposition''. The importance of remaining open to
the relevance of new research is a good reason for reading, rather than believing, scientific reports
on climate change. A detailed study of the IPCC and other reports during the past quarter century shows
climate models have consistently overstated the rise in global temperatures. In 2010, for example, the
IPCC was forced to apologise for its assertion three years earlier that glaciers in the Himalayas would
disappear by 2035 or sooner. Even the most ardent believers in the ``scientific consensus'' would find it
impossible to regard the unfolding science as infallible doctrine. Calculations by Bjorn Lomborg, an
adjunct professor at the Copenhagen Business School, show the average of all climate models since
1980 have overestimated actual temperature rises by 71 to 159 per cent. Some scientists have warned
of 6C rises.

Alarmist IPCC predictions are based on flawed computer models


Christopher Booker, Staff Writer, April 5, 2014, “How did the IPCC’s alarmism take everyone in for so
long?,” The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/environment/climatechange/10746497/How-
did-the-IPCCs-alarmism-take-everyone-in-for-so-long.html, Accessed 4/23/2014
Most of the particularly alarmist predictions came from a report by the IPCC’s Working Group II. This
was concerned with assessing the impact on the world of those changes to the climate predicted by the
equally flawed computer models relied on by Working Group I, which was charged with assessing the
science of climate change. The technical report published last week was its sequel, also from Working
Group II, and we can at once see, from its much more cautious treatment of the subjects that caused
such trouble last time, that they knew they couldn’t afford any repeat of that disaster.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 149

Reducing Emissions Will Not Solve


Arctic warming means even ending all emissions will not solve
Bobby Magill, Staff Writer, May 1, 2014, “Arctic Methane Emissions ‘Certain to Trigger Warming’,”
Climate Central, http://www.climatecentral.org/news/arctic-methane-emissions-certain-to-trigger-
warming-17374, Accessed 5/16/2014
Warming and thawing permafrost stimulate methane release, which enhances the greenhouse effect,
creating a feedback loop, she said. “Even if we ceased all human emissions, permafrost would continue
to thaw and release carbon into the atmosphere,” Turetsky said. “Instead of reducing emissions, we
currently are on track with the most dire scenario considered by the IPCC. There is no way to capture
emissions from thawing permafrost as this carbon is released from soils across large regions of land in
very remote spaces.”

Temperatures would be constant or increase for 50 years after we stopped CO2


emissions
Thomas Lukas Frölicher, Et al, November 24, 2013, Environmental Physics, Institute of
Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, and Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton
University, “Continued global warming after CO2 emissions stoppage,” Nature Climate Change,
http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate2060.html, Accessed
12/14/2013, JT
Recent studies have suggested that global mean surface temperature would remain approximately
constant on multi-century timescales after CO2 emissions are stopped. Here we use Earth system model
simulations of such a stoppage to demonstrate that in some models, surface temperature may actually
increase on multi-century timescales after an initial century-long decrease. This occurs in spite of a
decline in radiative forcing that exceeds the decline in ocean heat uptake—a circumstance that would
otherwise be expected to lead to a decline in global temperature. The reason is that the warming effect
of decreasing ocean heat uptake together with feedback effects arising in response to the geographic
structure of ocean heat uptake overcompensates the cooling effect of decreasing atmospheric CO2 on
multi-century timescales. Our study also reveals that equilibrium climate sensitivity estimates based on
a widely used method of regressing the Earth’s energy imbalance against surface temperature
change are biased. Uncertainty in the magnitude of the feedback effects associated with the magnitude
and geographic distribution of ocean heat uptake therefore contributes substantially to the uncertainty
in allowable carbon emissions for a given multi-century warming target.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 150

CO2 Emissions Good


CO2 increases forest and vegetative productivity that offsets warming
James M. Taylor, J.D., Senior Fellow, The Heartland Institute; Managing Editor, Environment and
Climate News, April 8, 2014, “Comprehensive Report Documents Beneficial Impacts of Global
Warming,” http://news.heartland.org/newspaper-article/2014/04/08/ comprehensive-report-
documents-beneficial-impacts-global-warming, Accessed 5/18/2014
Biological Impacts documents increasing productivity of forests and grasslands as CO2 levels have
increased both in recent decades and in centuries past, countering IPCC assertions to the contrary. The
new volume also presents the scientific evidence that a more productive biosphere effectively
sequesters much of the carbon dioxide IPCC claims will cause additional warming. “The ongoing rise in
the air’s CO2 content is causing a great greening of the Earth. All across the planet, the historical
increase in the atmosphere’s CO2 concentration has stimulated vegetative productivity. This observed
stimulation, or greening of the Earth, has occurred in spite of many real and imagined assaults on Earth’s
vegetation, including fires, disease, pest outbreaks, deforestation, and climatic change,” Biological
Impacts reports.

Studies prove CO2 is key to global agriculture


Craig D. Idso, October 21, 2013, Ph.D. Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change, “The
Positive Externalities of Carbon Dioxide: Estimating the Monetary Benefits of Rising Atmospheric CO2
Concentrations on Global Food Production,” CO2 Science,
http://www.co2science.org/education/reports/co2benefits/MonetaryBenefitsofRisingCO2onGlobalFood
Production.pdf, Accessed 5/18/2014
Numerous studies conducted on hundreds of different plant species testify to the very real and
measurable growth-enhancing, water-saving, and stress-alleviating advantages that elevated
atmospheric CO2 concentrations bestow upon Earth’s plants. In commenting on these and many other
CO2-related benefits, Wittwer (1982) wrote that “the ‘green revolution’ has coincided with the period of
recorded rapid increase in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and it seems likely that some
credit for the improved [crop] yields should be laid at the door of the CO2 buildup.” Similarly, Allen et al.
(1987) concluded that yields of soybeans may have been rising since at least 1800 “due to global carbon
dioxide increases,” while more recently, Cunniff et al. (2008) hypothesized that the rise in atmospheric
CO2 following deglaciation of the most recent planetary ice age, was the trigger that launched the global
agricultural enterprise.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 151

A2: Advantage: Ocean Biodiversity

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 152

A2: Biodiversity – Avian Collisions


Only a site and species specific approach can avoid the risk of avian collisions
Anthony Bicknell, Ph.D., Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre at the Plymouth Marine
Institute, Plymouth University, et al., June 19, 2013, “Marine Renewables, Biodiversity and Fisheries,”
Plymouth Marine Institute at Plymouth University, http://www.foe.co.uk/sites/
default/files/downloads/marine_ renewables_biodiver.pdf, Accessed 5/12/2014
The impact of these non-lethal effects will be highly dependent on the species and location, size, and
number of MRE installations. Wind-farms are of most concern as they are highly visible to birds and
known to invoke strong avoidance responses in some species, but tidal and wave may still cause
displacement from feeding habitat if badly located, especially during construction. A site- and species
specific approach needs to be taken to assess the effects, but sensible development planning to avoid
sensitive foraging areas and improve wind-farm design (e.g. spacing of turbines and flight corridors) will
help mitigate possible population impacts.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 153

A2: Biodiversity – Noise Pollution


Wind renewables generate noise pollution that is lethal to fish
Manuela Truebano, Ph.D., Lecturer in Marine Biology at the Plymouth Marine Institute, Plymouth
University, et al., June 19, 2013, “Marine Renewables, Biodiversity and Fisheries,” Plymouth Marine
Institute at Plymouth University, http://www.foe.co.uk/sites/ default/files/downloads/marine_
renewables_biodiver.pdf, Accessed 5/12/2014
Fish utilise biological noise to obtain information about the environment in terms of presence of prey
and/or predators, communication and orientation using a number of morphological structures to detect
sound (noise and vibrations). These hearing structures are extremely diverse among fishes, resulting in
different auditory capacity and sensitivity and, consequently, different responses to noise between fish
species. Different aspects of the construction and operation of MRE devices result in noise levels that
could have a negative effect in some fish. During the construction phase, wind turbine foundation
installation can generate acute noise (peak levels around 206 dB re 1 μPa), potentially leading to
mortality, physical injury, hearing loss and avoidance responses. During wind farm operation, more
subtle effects could be expected, including physiological and behavioural changes, such as impairment
of aggressive and reproductive strategies through masking of communicative signals.

Offshore wind construction causes noise pollution that harms endangered marine
species
The University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Staff Writer, November 4,
2013, “Assessing impact of noise from offshore wind farm construction may help protect marine
mammals,” http://www.umces.edu/cbl/release/ 2013/oct/16/assessing-impact-noise-offshore-wind-
farm-construction-may-help-protect-marine-m, Accessed 5/18/2014
Growth in offshore wind generation is expected to play a major role in meeting carbon reduction targets
around the world, but the impact of construction noise on marine species is yet unknown. A group of
scientists from the United Kingdom and the United States have developed a method to assess the
potential impacts of offshore wind farm construction on marine mammal populations, particularly the
noise made while driving piles into the seabed to install wind turbine foundations. Their work is
published in the November issue of Environmental Impact Assessment Review. “Pile-driving during the
construction of offshore wind farms produces an incredible amount of noise,” said Helen Bailey, one of a
group of scientists at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science who are studying the
impacts of wind turbines on the environment. “This is potentially harmful to marine species and has
been of greatest concern to marine mammal species, such as protected populations of seals, dolphins
and whales.”

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 154

A2: Solvency

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 155

General Solvency Answers


The plan cannot overcome resource characterization, high start-up costs, grid
connection, and infrastructure barriers
Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind & Water Power
Program and Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and
Enforcement, February 2011, A National Offshore Wind Strategy: Creating an Offshore Wind Energy
Industry in the United States, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/
national_offshore_wind_strategy.pdf, Accessed 4/13/2014
Significant challenges to offshore wind power deployment related to resource characterization, grid
interconnection and operation, and infrastructure will need to be overcome. The offshore wind resource
is not well characterized. This significantly increases uncertainty related to potential project power
production and turbine and array design considerations, which in turn increase financing costs. The
implications for adding large amounts of offshore wind generation to the power system need to be
better understood to ensure reliable integration and to evaluate the need for additional grid
infrastructure such as an offshore transmission backbone. Finally, with current technology, cost‐
effective installation of offshore wind turbines requires specialized vessels, purpose‐built portside
infrastructure, robust undersea electricity transmission lines, and grid interconnections. These vessels
and this infrastructure do not currently exist in the U.S. Although foreign‐flagged turbine installation and
maintenance vessels exist, legislation such as the Jones Act limits the ability of these vessels to operate
in U.S. waters.

Transmission planning issues will cause delays in development


Michael Hahn and Patrick Gilman, Navigant Consulting, Inc., October 17, 2013, Offshore Wind
Market and Economic Analysis, Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy,
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/offshore_wind_market_and_economic_analysis.pdf, Accessed
5/10/2014
The offshore wind industry faces similar transmission planning issues as the land-based wind industry.
There has always been a “chicken and egg” dilemma when it comes to transmission expansion, often
leading to project delays. Wind developers often will not build wind farms without sufficient
transmission. Transmission operators often will not build new transmission lines without sufficient
assurances that they will be able to recover their costs. Cost allocation methodologies are complicated
as well, and require adequate advance planning time on the part of multiple stakeholders.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 156

Technology Fails / Too Many Barriers


New tech developments and planning are required before offshore wind power
José Zayas, Director, Wind and Water Power Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy, January
2014, “Advancing Ocean Renewable Energy In the United States,” Sea Technology Magazine,
http://www.sea-technology.com/features/2014/0114/1.php, Accessed 4/11/2014
To effectively develop the vast U.S. offshore wind resource, technology innovations are needed to lower
system costs and address site-specific requirements, such as hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the
Atlantic, icing in the Great Lakes, and deep waters in the Northeast, Great Lakes and West Coast. In
addition, environmental impact assessments, multiuser planning and transmission grid interconnection
strategies are required.

The technology is not ready and there are too many barriers
Walter Musial, Principal Engineer, National Wind Technology Center at NREL and Bonnie Ram, Ram
Power, L.L.C., September 2010, “Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States, Assessment of
Opportunities and Barriers, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NERL),
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/40745.pdf, Accessed 5/10/2014
The opportunities for advancing offshore wind technologies are accompanied by significant challenges.
Turbine blades can be much larger without land-based transportation and construction constraints;
however, enabling technology is needed to allow the construction of a blade greater than 70-meters in
length. The blades may also be allowed to rotate faster offshore, as blade noise is less likely to disturb
human habitations. Faster rotors operate at lower torque, which means lighter, less costly drivetrain
components. Challenges unique to the offshore environment include resistance to corrosive salt waters,
resilience to tropical and extra-tropical storms and waves, and coexistence with marine life and
activities. Greater distances from shore create challenges from increased water depth, exposure to
more extreme open ocean conditions, long distance electrical transmission on high-voltage submarine
cables, turbine maintenance at sea, and accommodation of maintenance personnel.

Lack of demand means we cannot overcome technical and infrastructure barriers. We


have to increase demand first
Michael Hahn and Patrick Gilman, Navigant Consulting, Inc., October 17, 2013, Offshore Wind
Market and Economic Analysis, Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy,
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/offshore_wind_market_and_economic_analysis.pdf, Accessed
5/10/2014
The absence of strong demand for offshore wind in the United States makes it difficult to overcome
these technical and infrastructure challenges. In order to develop the required infrastructure and
technical expertise, there must first be sufficient demand for offshore wind, and that is not expected in
the near term due to the high cost of offshore wind and the low cost of competing power generation
resources, such as natural gas.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 157

Technology Fails / Too Many Barriers


90% of offshore wind resources are out of reach for current technology
Bureau of Ocean Management, 2014, “Offshore Wind Energy,”
http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program/Renewable-Energy-Guide/Offshore-Wind-
Energy.aspx, Accessed 4/9/2014
Commercial-scale offshore wind facilities are similar to onshore wind facilities. The wind turbine
generators used in offshore environments include modifications to prevent corrosion, and their
foundations must be designed to withstand the harsh environment of the ocean, including storm waves,
hurricane-force winds, and even ice flows. Roughly 90% of the U.S. OCS wind energy resource occurs in
waters that are too deep for current turbine technology. Engineers are working on new technologies,
such as innovative foundations and floating wind turbines, that will transition wind power development
into the harsher conditions associated with deeper waters.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 158

No Infrastructure
We don’t have the infrastructure for development or capability for operation and
maintenance
Michael Hahn and Patrick Gilman, Navigant Consulting, Inc., October 17, 2013, Offshore Wind
Market and Economic Analysis, Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy,
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/offshore_wind_market_and_economic_analysis.pdf, Accessed
5/10/2014
The infrastructure required to install offshore wind farms, such as purpose-built ports and vessels, does
not currently exist in the United States. There is also insufficient capability for domestic operation and
maintenance. While turbine installation and maintenance vessels exist in other countries, legislation
such as the Jones Act may limit the ability of these foreign vessels to operate in U.S. waters. These issues
also apply to transmission infrastructure for offshore wind.

We only have about 2,000 megawatts in development now


Walter Musial, Principal Engineer, National Wind Technology Center at NREL and Bonnie Ram, Ram
Power, L.L.C., September 2010, “Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States, Assessment of
Opportunities and Barriers, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NERL),
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/40745.pdf, Accessed 5/10/2014
Although the United States has built no offshore wind projects so far, about 20 projects representing
more than 2,000 MW of capacity are in the planning and permitting process. Most of these activities are
in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions, although projects are being considered along the Great Lakes,
the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pacific Coast. The deep waters off the West Coast, however, pose a
technology challenge for the near term.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 159

Too Costly
Offshore wind is the second costliest energy source around
The Daily Caller News Foundation, Staff Writer, February 27, 2014, “Study claims giant offshore
wind turbines will blow away hurricanes,” Red Alert Politics,
http://redalertpolitics.com/2014/02/27/study-claims-giant-offshore-wind-turbines-will-blow-away-
hurricanes/, Accessed 5/14/2014
There is also the issue of cost. Wind power costs have been coming down in recent years, but are still
significantly higher than traditional energy sources like coal or natural gas. Offshore wind is one of the
costliest energy sources, according to the Energy Information Administration, costing about $222 per
megawatt hour — onshore wind only costs $86 per megawatt hour. The only source of energy that’s
more costly to generate than offshore wind is solar thermal energy at $261 per megawatt hour.

Investors still perceive it too risky to sign on


Michael Hahn and Patrick Gilman, Navigant Consulting, Inc., October 17, 2013, Offshore Wind
Market and Economic Analysis, Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy,
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/offshore_wind_market_and_economic_analysis.pdf, Accessed
5/10/2014
Offshore wind has higher financing costs, due to the heightened perceived risk. Since it is not yet a
mature industry, investors still perceive offshore wind as risky, due to regulatory and permitting issues,
construction and installation risk, and long-term reliability of energy production. As a result, insurance
and warranty premiums remain high. There are also extremely high risks to early-stage capital, given the
uncertainty around the price and availability of future off-take agreements for offshore wind.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 160

UNCLOS NEG

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 161

Case Answers

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 162

1NC Arctic
Can’t solve—allied free-riding and bureaucratic failures
Doug Bandow, senior fellow at the Cato Institute, specializing in foreign policy and civil liberties,
05/11/12, “Law of the Sea Treaty: A Tool to Combat Iran, China, and Russia?,”
http://www.cato.org/blog/law-sea-treaty-tool-combat-iran-china-russia, accessed 5/5/14
These international controversies will be magically resolved if only the Senate ratifies the convention. If
this sounds too good to be true, it is. It is not clear the treaty would do much at all to alleviate these
flashpoints. Especially since the two most important potential antagonists, China and Russia, already have ratified LOST. And it is
certainly not the best option policy-wise for the United States with each issue: Iran’s bluster in the Strait of
Hormuz may prove its weakness. U.S. policy in the South China Sea suffers from a far more serious flaw:
encouraging free-riding by allied states. Russia’s move into the Arctic has nothing to do with
Washington’s absence from LOST. The treaty itself, not substantially altered since 1994, is still plagued by
the same problems that have halted its ratification for decades. Primarily, it will cede decisionmaking on
seabed and maritime issues to a large, complex, unwieldy bureaucracy that will be funded heavily by—
wait for it—the Untied States.

Status quo solves—US already involved in multilateralism


Steven Groves, Bernard and Barbara Lomas Senior Research Fellow, 8/24/11, “Accession to the U.N.
Convention on the Law of the Sea Is Unnecessary to Secure U.S. Navigational Rights and Freedoms”,
http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/08/accession-to-un-convention-law-of-the-sea-is-
unnecessary-to-secure-us-navigational-rights-freedoms, accessed 5/5/14,
The United States is an active participant in many multilateral organizations and forums that deal with
law of the sea issues, such as the annual meetings of the Major Maritime Powers, IMO proceedings, and
meetings of the states parties to UNCLOS, which the U.S. attends as an observer nation. Despite
repeated claims to the contrary, the United States effectively protects its Arctic interests, navigational
and otherwise, regardless of its nonmembership in UNCLOS. It was a founding member of the Arctic
Council, an eight-member intergovernmental body established to foster coordination among Arctic
nations that recently adopted an agreement on search and rescue cooperation in the Arctic Ocean.[145]

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 163

1NC Arctic
No Arctic War—capitalist peace theory
Chad P. Pate, Major, United States Air Force B.S., Iowa State University, 1996 M.S. Troy University,
2008, December 2010 “EASING THE ARCTIC TENSION: AN ECONOMIC SOLUTION”,
www.hsdl.org/?view&did=11038, accessed 5/5/14]
Climate change in the Arctic is affecting the ice melt more rapidly than previously anticipated and the
Arctic is now forecast to be ice-free by 2013. International borders, fossil fuel reservoirs and new sea
routes for navigation are just a few of the issues at stake due to the receding ice cover. Contrary to
those who perceive U.S.-Russian conflict arising out of the region and advocate a military response, this
thesis argues that the Arctic, precisely because of its rich hydrocarbon resources, may prove to be
amenable to a capitalist peace. Research suggests that nations linked by economic interdependence are
less apt to engage in conflict with each other. Nations seeking foreign direct investment will be less likely
to initiate conflict, as this would diminish the potential for attracting foreign capital. Russia’s economy is
dependent on oil and natural gas exports and these industries have created enormous wealth for the
nation. Yet Russia’s existing fossil fuel reservoirs are nearing exhaustion. Tapping into Arctic reserves is a
strategic imperative for Russia; however, it lacks the technological capacity to do so. The energy industry
in the West is farther along in developing such extractive technology. This thesis argues that Russia’s
need of foreign assistance in its hydrocarbon sector will make Russia more pacific, thereby offsetting
realist fears of a military conflict in the Arctic.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 164

2NC Arctic—Status Quo Solves


Status quo solves—the arctic council promotes cooperation
Fabrizio Tansari non-resident Senior Fellow at the German Marshall Fund and the Head of Foreign
Policy and EU Studies at the Danish Institute for International Studies, 09/07/12, “Avoiding a Scramble
for the High North”, http://blog.gmfus.org/2012/09/07/avoiding-a-scramble-for-the-high-north/,
accessed 5/5/14
For a peaceful Arctic environment to emerge, the political discourse and ensuing practices need
rebalancing. Besides abstract musings about the normative virtues of multilateralism, straightforward considerations of enlightened self-
interest should justify the drive for cooperation. As The Economist put it in a recent report, “The five Arctic littoral countries … would sooner
develop the resources they have than argue over those they do not have.” Some recent developments point in this direction.
The Arctic Council, the main regional forum grouping the littoral countries plus Iceland, Sweden, and Finland, has grown into a
premier venue of high-level interaction among Arctic powers. The stature of outsiders queuing up for
permanent observer status, including China and the EU, testifies to the growing importance of this body. In
2011, the Council’s members strengthened cooperation on search and rescue operations (a crucial matter for such a territorially vast area). In
2008, the five littoral countries joined together in a statement, the Ilulissat Declaration, by which they
committed to settle in an orderly manner disagreements that may arise on issues such as navigation
rights and delineation of the outer limits of the continental shelf.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 165

2NC Arctic—No War


Major powers want to cooperate
Michael Byers, Law and Politics Professor and senior expert on Arctic politics – University of British
Columbia, April 2nd, 2010, “Interview: Expert decodes Arctic conflict,” UPI,
http://www.upi.com/Science_News/Resource-Wars/2010/04/02/Interview-Expert-decodes-Arctic-
conflict/UPI-36031270235949/, accessed 5/5/14
Q. China is a country that has major interests in the Arctic. A. Yes, and these are all about shipping. China has become the
dominant export country in the world. We are talking about significant shortcuts -- up to 6,000 miles -- from China to Europe, so yes, they're
looking at this with great interest. At the same time China does not want a Wild West situation in the Arctic. It will worry
about piracy, the need for search and rescue, the need for ports of refuge that ships can sail to in the case of emergencies.
China will want the Arctic Ocean countries to provide a basic support system for shipping, so it has every
incentive to work with the Arctic Ocean countries rather than against them. Q. What about the Arctic's vast oil and
gas resources? China has a growing hunger for these resources and would be happy to tap into the Arctic fields. Is there potential for a conflict? A. I don't
think so. China is very much part of the international economy. They buy oil and gas on the global market and also invest in oil-
and gas-producing countries. You don't need sovereignty in order to access oil and gas -- you need money for foreign
investment and money to purchase oil and gas on the market. We're not in a 19th-century situation anymore. Q. But
military activities have increased in the region. And there are observers who fear a potential military conflict over resources in the Arctic. A. That's
unrealistic. If you look at the statements by government officials -- in most instances, the military buildup is directed at non-state
threats. When they talk about their Arctic rights they almost always talk about rights that are already within their
jurisdiction if they are an arctic ocean country like Russia. Or in the case of China, they are talking about rights in the internationalized areas that will remain
in the central Arctic Ocean. I understand that potential for conflict sells more newspapers but my sense is that countries like
Russia and China have enough problems elsewhere and therefore don't want to create problems in the
Arctic.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 166

1NC China
China will interpret LOST in their favor
Doug Bandow, a senior fellow at the Cato Institute, September 12, 2011, Washington’s Night of the
Living Dead: The Law of the Sea Treaty Stirs,
http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/washingtons-night-living-dead-law-sea-treaty-stirs,
accessed 5/5/14
Perhaps the area of greatest controversy is the South China Sea. China vehemently denounced U.S.
intelligence activities 75 miles off of China’s Hainan Island and harassed the naval vessel concerned.
Washington had the better legal argument, but Beijing’s LOST interpretation was not implausible. In this
case only U.S. naval power offered certain, unambiguous protection of navigational freedom. Beijing has
been similarly asserting ownership of islands and control of waters against its neighbors, treaty
members all. Nor have the Chinese worried about consistency, sending their survey ships into waters
claimed by Japan. Two years ago Director of National Intelligence Dennis C. Blair testified before the Senate
Armed Services Committee: “In the past several years, they have become more aggressive in asserting
claims for the [EEZ] which are excessive under almost any international code.”

Enforcement barriers makes LOST useless


Max Boot, a leading military historian and foreign-policy analyst. The Jeane J. Kirkpatrick Senior Fellow
in National Security Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, 06/01/12, “China Tests Law
of the Sea Treaty”, http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2012/06/01/china-tests-law-of-the-sea-
treaty/, accessed 5/5/14
China seems bent on laying claim to those resources, no matter what the Law of the Sea Treaty says, which highlights
the chief problem with international law: the difficulty of actually enforcing it. That will require the U.S.
to take an increasingly assertive stance to back up, with naval and air power if need be, the rights of our
allies against China’s resources-grab. Sending a U.S. Navy cruiser or destroyer to Scarborough Shoal to
support our Philippine friends would have sent a far more powerful message of compliance with
international law than Senate ratification of the Law of the Sea Treaty.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 167

1NC China
China won’t go to war over sea – threats are a diplomatic bargaining tool
Michael Kelly, Professor of Law and Associate Dean for International Programs @ Creighton School of
Law, December 7, 2013, “Why China Doesn't Really Want the Senkaku Islands”, JURIST - Forum,
http://jurist.org/forum/2013/12/michael-kelly-china-senkaku.php, Accessed 5/5/14
Whatever the origins of the revived Senkaku claim forty three years ago, Mr. Xi knows he can get much more fossil fuel to
feed his carbon-thirsty economy from the South China Sea deposits than he could from the comparatively meager East
China Sea. His strategy is to create the biggest fuss possible with brinksmanship tactics over the Senkaku
Islands in order to bring a frayed and twitchy Japan to the bargaining table, with the US nervously in the
background pushing hard for peace. And then, he will pitch his grand bargain. In exchange for
relinquishing China's claim to the Senkakus, Mr. Xi would want Japan to support China's claim to the
South China Sea. Politically, the Japanese government comes home with a huge victory that costs it
virtually nothing. But of course, what Japan gives China in this grand bargain is far more valuable to China than a handful of rocks near
Okinawa. With Japan backing its claim in the South China Sea and the US backing off, China will be in a
position to deal bilaterally with the claims of the smaller states. Unable to withstand the political,
economic and military might of their vastly larger neighbor, the claims of Vietnam, Malaysia and the
Philippines will eventually collapse through bribery, bullying and benevolence alternately applied. Long the
object of Euro-Japanese grand bargains that carved up its territory and subjugated its people, China now seeks a grand bargain of
its own. Mr. Xi understands that his country has the leverage to pull one off, and he is gambling that this
feint to the Senkakus will get him the support from the other Great Powers to do it.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 168

2NC China—Can’t Solve Chinese Interpretation


China will coopt the treaty in their favor
Max Boot, a leading military historian and foreign-policy analyst. The Jeane J. Kirkpatrick Senior Fellow
in National Security Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, 06/01/12, “China Tests Law
of the Sea Treaty”, http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2012/06/01/china-tests-law-of-the-sea-
treaty/, accessed 5/5/14
I confess I don’t understand the fervor of proponents and opponents of the Law of the Sea Treaty, which
is still awaiting Senate ratification and has been since 1982. The former seem to imagine that it will be a vast advance for American
interests; the latter that it will be a vast infringement on American sovereignty. Both views seem overblown to me. I have no problem with
ratifying the treaty, but at the same time I
have no great expectations for what ratification will achieve. Case in point:
the South China Sea, the subject of a long New York Times article today. China has actually signed the
Law of the Sea Treaty, but that is not preventing it from asserting a cockamamie “right” to do what it
wants within 200 miles of its coast–and within 200 miles of each group of tiny rocks and islands in the
South China Sea that Beijing implausibly claims as its national territory. If taken seriously, China’s claims
would give it access to the entire sea, even though those waters are also claimed by the Philippines,
Malaysia, Vietnam, Taiwan, and Brunei. The Law of the Sea Treaty, by contrast, recognizes freedom of
navigation for any nation only 12 miles beyond a country’s shoreline.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 169

2NC China—No War


SCS war won’t happen or escalate – no Chinese incentive
Terry Wing, Voice of America, 9/4/12, “Will South China Sea Disputes Lead to War?”,
http://www.voanews.com/content/south-china-sea-war-unlikely/1501780.html, accessed 5/5/14
A South China Sea War is Unlikely But that doesn’t mean a war. Storey said an escalation into full-blown conflict is
unlikely. “It is in no country’s interests to spill blood or treasure over this issue – the costs far outweigh
the benefits,” Storey said. Other experts agree. James Holmes of the U.S. Naval War College says admires how China has
been able to get its way in spreading it claims of sovereignty without becoming a bully. “[China] gradually
consolidated the nation's maritime claims while staying well under the threshold for triggering outside -
most likely American -intervention,” said Holmes. “Is war about to break out over bare rocks? I don't think
so.” writes Robert D. Kaplan, Chief Political Strategist for the geopolitical analysis group Stratfor. Kaplan, however, doesn’t give much hope for
negotiations. “The issues involved are too complex, and the power imbalance between China and its individual neighbors is too great,” he said.
For that reason, Kaplan says China holds all the cards. Kaplan doesn’t look for Chinese
military aggression against other
claimants. That, he says, would be counterproductive for its goals in the region. “It would completely
undermine its carefully crafted ‘peaceful rise’ thesis and push Southeast Asian countries into closer
strategic alignment with the US,” said Kaplan. At the same time, he said Chinese leaders probably will be unable to compromise.
“The primordial quest for status still determines the international system, and these bare rocks in the South China Sea have become, in effect,
logos of nationhood,” Kaplan said. What is China Thinking? Trying to get inside the heads of China’s leader is a challenge, especially during a
time of political turnover. With the power transition now underway in China, some analysts are seeing signs of nationalistic tendencies. And
that, they say, could lead to a greater willingness to use force. “If the PRC continues on its current path, it would seem that it is willing to
militarize the whole South China Sea issue,” said Dean Cheng, a China military and foreign policy expert at the Heritage Foundation. Cheng
offers another possibility – Beijing’s current hardline policies might be DUE to the power shift. “Once Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, et. al., have secured
their position in 2013-2014,” said Cheng, “they [could] focus on domestic issues and assume a LESS hardline
position.” In that case, Cheng said it is possible the Chinese will become more conciliatory. Defusing Asia’s biggest
flashpoint would be in everyone’s interest. “All countries have a strongly vested interest in the
maintenance of freedom of navigation in Southeast Asian waters,” said Ian Storey. “Ensuring the free flow of
maritime trade through the sea is especially important at a time of global economic downturn.” Secretary
Clinton’s discussions in Beijing could fall flat, or they could go a long way easing tensions. “As long as both sides take appropriate
precautionary measures, we should be okay,” said David Arase. “The rising tension could be productive if it
prompts an effort to find compromise.” “China and the United States both have a deep interest in dominating [the South China
Sea],” says Strator’s Kaplan. For that reason, experts agree the two superpowers look to have the most to say about the future of the
waterway.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 170

2NC China—No Escalation


No impact to South China Sea conflict – no interventionism
Lyle Goldstein, associate professor in the China Maritime Studies Institute at the U.S. Naval War
College in Newport, R.I. He is co-editor of the recent volumes China, the United States and 21st-Century
Sea Power: Defining a Maritime Security Partnership and Chinese Aerospace Power: Evolving Maritime
Roles. 07/11/11, “The South China Sea's Georgia Scenario,”
http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/07/11/the_south_china_seas_georgia_scenario, Accessed
5/5/14
The brutal truth, however, is that Southeast Asia matters not a whit in the global balance of power. Most of the
region comprises small, poor countries of no consequence whatsoever, but the medium powers in the region, such
as Vietnam, Indonesia, and Australia will all naturally and of their own accord stand up against a potentially more aggressive China. If China
and Vietnam go to war over some rocks in the ocean, they will inevitably both suffer a wide range of deleterious
consequences, but it will have only a marginal impact on U.S. national security. True, these sea lanes are
critical to the Japanese and South Korean economies, but both of these states are endowed with large
and capable fleets -- yet another check on Beijing's ambitions. China, moreover, is all too aware of what
happened to Georgia in 2008. In that unfortunate case, the United States showered a new ally with
high-level attention and military advisors. But when Russian tanks rolled in, effectively annexing a large
section of the country and utterly destroying Tbilisi's armed forces, Washington's response amounted to
a whimper: There was, in the end, no appetite for risking a wider conflict with Moscow over a country of marginal
strategic interest. The lessons for Southeast Asia should be clear. Washington must avoid the temptation -- despite local states cheering it on at
every opportunity -- to overplay its hand. The main principle guiding U.S. policy regarding the South China Sea has
been and should remain nonintervention. Resource disputes are inherently messy and will not likely be decided by grand
proclamations or multilateral summitry. Rather, progress will be a combination of backroom diplomacy backed by the
occasional show of force by one or more of the claimants. In fact, Beijing's record of conflict resolution over the last
30 years is rather encouraging: China has not resorted to a major use of force since 1979.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 171

1NC Navy
Naval power inevitable and LOST not key
Doug Bandow, senior fellow at the Cato Institute, specializing in foreign policy and civil liberties,
05/11/12, “Law of the Sea Treaty: A Tool to Combat Iran, China, and Russia?,”
http://www.cato.org/blog/law-sea-treaty-tool-combat-iran-china-russia, accessed 5/5/14
On national security, the U.S. Navy does not need such a treaty to operate freely. Its power relative to all other
navies is the ultimate guarantee. Serious maritime challengers do not exist today. Russia’s navy is a
rusted relic; China has yet to develop capabilities that come close to matching ours. Moreover, it is doubtful
that the United States needs to defend countries such as the Philippines when flashpoints over islands in
the region affect no vital American interests. The average American knows very little about this treaty, and rightly so. It is
an unnecessarily complicated and entangling concoction that accomplishes little that the longstanding
body of customary international law on the high-seas or the dynamics of markets do not account for. My
conclusion in testimony before the Senate Committee on Armed Services in 2004 still holds true:

LOST doesn’t affect navigational rights or access


Doug Bandow, a senior fellow at the Cato Institute, September 12, 2011, Washington’s Night of the
Living Dead: The Law of the Sea Treaty Stirs,
http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/washingtons-night-living-dead-law-sea-treaty-stirs,
accessed 5/5/14
An additional paper guarantee might be nice to have, but as Steven Groves of the Heritage Foundation noted in a recent study, “The
navigational rights and freedoms enjoyed by the United States and the Navy are guaranteed not by
membership in a treaty, but rather through a combination of long-standing legal principles and
persistent naval operations.” In any case that really affected U.S. security—think naval transit during a
period of crisis or in a war—LOST would not matter. A country contemplating halting U.S. vessels would
weigh its interest and capability, not the treaty’s provisions. Washington responding to foreign
interference with navigation would do the same. Over the last couple centuries powerful naval powers, particularly Great
Britain (Napoleonic Wars, War of 1812, World War I), Germany (World War I), and the U.S. (Civil War), routinely ignored the
protests of neutrals and tramped underfoot customary international law and treaty obligations which
restricted maritime operations during war.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 172

2NC Navy—Naval Power Inevitable


US naval powers ensures access rights
Doug Bandow, senior fellow at the Cato Institute, specializing in foreign policy and civil liberties, April
8, 2004, “The Law of the Sea Treaty: Inconsistent With American Interests”,
http://www.cato.org/publications/congressional-testimony/law-sea-treaty-inconsistent-american-
interests, Accessed 5/5/14
As for military transit, with or without the LOST, America needs to concentrate on maintaining good
relations with the handful of strategically-placed countries. The prowess of the U.S. Navy, not the LOST,
will remain the ultimate guarantor of America’s ability to roam the seas. Of course, even with friendly
states Washington would prefer not “to have to use muscle to exercise our rights,” observed former LOST
negotiator Elliot Richardson. But the treaty is likely to matter only where countries have neither the incentive nor
the ability to interfere with U.S. shipping. Moreover, in a world in which the U.S.S.R. has disappeared,
the Red Navy is rusting in port, China has yet to develop a blue water navy, and Third World conflicts no
longer threaten America through their connection to the Cold War, Washington is rarely going to have
to send its fleet where it is not wanted.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 173

2NC Navy—Navigational Access Inev


American allies will inevitably provide access
Doug Bandow, senior fellow at the Cato Institute, specializing in foreign policy and civil liberties, April
8, 2004, “The Law of the Sea Treaty: Inconsistent With American Interests”,
http://www.cato.org/publications/congressional-testimony/law-sea-treaty-inconsistent-american-
interests, Accessed 5/5/14
Moreover, American friends and allies, both in Asia and Europe, have an incentive to protect American
navigational freedom. So long as the U.S. maintains good relations with them — admittedly a more
difficult undertaking because of strains in the aftermath of the war in Iraq — it should be able to defend
its interests indirectly through surrogates. If the nations which most benefit from American navigational
freedom are unwilling to aid the U.S. while Washington is outside the LOST, they are unlikely to prove
any more steadfast if Washington is inside the LOST.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 174

2NC Navy—AT Damaging Interpretations


Other countries will interpret LOST to minimize naval mobility
Doug Bandow, senior fellow at the Cato Institute, specializing in foreign policy and civil liberties, April
8, 2004, “The Law of the Sea Treaty: Inconsistent With American Interests”,
http://www.cato.org/publications/congressional-testimony/law-sea-treaty-inconsistent-american-
interests, Accessed 5/5/14
Further, treaty advocates contend that whatever the faults of LOST, only participation in the treaty can prevent future damaging
interpretations, amendments, and tribunal decisions. However, there
is no guarantee that interpretations under the LOST
would not impinge upon U.S. military activities. In his Senate testimony last fall, State Department legal adviser William H.
Taft IV noted the importance of conditioning acceptance “upon the understanding that each Party has
the exclusive right to determine which of its activities are ‘military activities’ and that such
determination is not subject to review.” Whether other members will respect that claim is not so certain.
Adm. Michael G. Mullen, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations, acknowledges the possibility that a LOST
tribunal could assert jurisdiction and rule adversely, impacting “operational planning and activities, and
our security.”

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 175

CPs

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 176

Statutory Enactment Counterplan


Text: The United States congress should enact a statute codifying the navigational
components of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The United
States federal government should not ratify the United Nations Convention on the
Law of the Sea.
The counterplan solves the aff and avoids the net benefits – ratification is unnecessary
Jon Kyl, United States Senator, June 4, 2012, “The Perils of Global Governance”,
http://thehill.com/images/stories/blogs/globalaffairs/kyl_lost.pdf, accessed 4/12/14
As Jeane Kirkpatrick, former ambassador to the United Nations and a long-time fellow here at AEI, testified before the Senate Armed Service
Committee, “The Law of the Sea Treaty was, and I believe, is disadvantageous to American industry — especially in the participation in seabed
mining — and to American interests generally.” She explained the Reagan administration’s decision: “Viewed from the perspective of U.S.
interests and Reagan administration principles, it was a bad bargain.” I have long agreed with Ambassador Kirkpatrick’s analysis of the Law of
the Sea Treaty, and I
have opposed Senate ratification because it would harm our national security and
economic interests. Nevertheless, we are now told the Treaty (unamendable) could be considered by the Senate this year. A
Madisonian approach might give us a way out of the “bad bargain.” Congress could enact a statute that
makes the navigational parts of the treaty, which codify the historical practice of seafaring nations, the
law of the land. Then the Senate need not ratify the treaty, which still contains unacceptable provisions,
including issues related to the exploitation of the seabed. A statute in effect, can separate the wheat from
the chaff. And the United States will contribute to the clarification of customary international law, by
contributing its practices and legal opinions on the law of the sea.

The CP ensures all the benefits of LOST


Hope Hodge, June 5, 2012, “SEN. KYL: SEPARATE WHEAT FROM CHAFF ON LOST”,
http://www.humanevents.com/2012/06/05/sen-kyl-separate-wheat-from-chaff-on-lost/, accessed
5/5/14
Should the U.S. sign the UN Law of the Sea Treaty or reject it? According to Sen. John Kyl (R-Ariz.), there
could be a third way. Kyl told an audience at the American Enterprise Institute on Monday that he would like to take a
page from founding father James Madison and adopt the treaty with a caveat that allows Congress to
reject problem areas, such as submission to an international bureaucracy that would collect and redistribute royalties from economic
activities taking place on the continental shelf. Choosing a “Madisonian” rather than a “Westphalian” approach to
international law, Kyl argued, would allow the nation to benefit from navigational rights and agreements
outlined in LOST, which would be an operational boon to American businesses and the U.S. Navy. “My
point is if you split the Law of the Sea Treaty into two pieces, one is supported by the Navy,” Kyl said. “That ‘good’ part of the treaty,
about which there is little debate, could be codified by separating the wheat from the chaff.” It’s a
solution that might preserve American sovereignty as paramount while giving the nation the “seat at the
table” that Secretary of State Hillary Clinton advocated for in a hearing last month. “Such regulations (as
outlined in the treaty) should be adopted through democratic processes,” Kyl said. “Respecting constitutional
processes is crucial to protecting the substances of our God-given rights.”

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 177

Statutory Enactment Counterplan


The CP still ensures access rights
Jon Kyl, United States Senator, June 4, 2012, “The Perils of Global Governance”,
http://thehill.com/images/stories/blogs/globalaffairs/kyl_lost.pdf, accessed 4/12/14
I want to emphasize that this view does not arise out of any aversion on my part to international law as such. I believe America and the
world benefit from proper international legal order. America has an interest in promoting respect for
international law abroad and at home in a manner that strengthens rather than undermines our
constitutional system. Application of the Madisonian principles I described could help legitimate and
strengthen international law, consistent with our Constitution. Because it focuses on the democratic process, the
Madisonian approach may point the way toward the solution of other difficult foreign relations issues,
such as the Law of the Sea. Although the United States participated in the drafting of the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention, the Reagan
administration wisely declined to seek Senate advice and consent for the agreement. The Convention contains important
provisions that remain within our national interest: it recognizes the right of free passage through
territorial waters, among other navigation rights, which are critical to the operations of the U.S. Navy.
But, despite alterations, UNCLOS also contains provisions that harm our national interest and undermine
American sovereignty: for example, the treaty creates a new multinational bureaucracy — designated an
“Authority” — that claims exclusive authority to govern economic development of the resources of the
deep seabed and would require half of all royalties paid to the federal or state governments to be given
to the U.N. for redistribution to poor countries.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 178

Arctic Submarines Counterplan


Text: The United States federal government should substantially increase funding for
the DARPA Assured Arctic Awareness program including the procurement of mobile
floating ice sensors to be used to supplement US submarines.
The CP ensures arctic stability—prevents accidents and war
Robert Beckhusen, writer at Wired, 09/19/12, “To See in the Arctic, Darpa Might Stick Sensors on
Icebergs”, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/09/arctic-sensors/, accessed 5/5/14
Hyped-up fears of a coming Arctic war have, appropriately, cooled down recently. But Arctic ice is melting faster than ever,
which could mean more activity — military and commercial — in an environment notoriously unforgiving to sensors and other location tools.
Leave it to the Pentagon’s far-out researchers at Darpa to work on a solution: an all-seeing network of sensors to
track what’s going on in the Arctic all year round — including, it seems, sensors placed on icebergs. According to a Darpa
briefing, the agency wants to leverage “mobile floating-ice” for electromagnetic and acoustic sensors, and
to help track ships and submarines. In the briefing, floating icebergs are illustrated with networked sensors stuck on them (.pdf).
The electromagnetic sensors are seen stuck on top, with acoustic sensors attached to the icebergs’ undersides, which
could help with mapping the Arctic seafloor . The reason why is the icebergs drift up to six kilometers per
day — which has been speeding up with global warming — which can allow the military to “leverage ice movement.”
It’s all part of an umbrella program Darpa calls “Assured Arctic Awareness,” or AAA.

Submarines allow through the arctic


James Kraska is the Howard S. Levie Chair of Operational Law, member of the faculty of the
International Law Department, and Senior Associate in the Center for Irregular Warfare and Armed
Groups at the U.S. Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, May/June 2010, “Northern Exposures”,
http://www.the-american-interest.com/article-bd.cfm?piece=810, Accessed 5/5/14
Navigation: The Arctic Ocean is a difficult operating environment . Extreme wind chill, darkness and ice-
covered decks in pitching seas pose serious safety challenges for sailors. Surface warships face damage from
topside icing when operating at high latitudes. Rime ice (freezing fog) on the windward side and ice build-up coating the topside of
warships has to be removed with baseball bats in order to maintain a vessel’s reserve buoyancy . Floating
ice or pack ice endangers bow-mounted sonar domes and interferes with towed arrays. Propellers, rudders, fin
stabilizers and sea chests are all vulnerable in ice-infested waters.9 Extreme conditions affect more mundane systems as well,
weakening steel hulls, exceeding hydraulic temperature tolerances, and cracking or shedding protective coatings and insulators. One way
to escape or mitigate these conditions is to get out of the wind and go under the ice. Submarine
navigation is the safest, fastest and most efficient method of transiting the Arctic Ocean. A warmer climate,
however, will facilitate surface transit, increasing naval and shipping traffic. Strategic mobility throughout the Arctic Ocean has global
implications for the military, since the seas are interconnected and form a single world ocean. Surface transit through the Arctic promises to cut
days or weeks off heavy sealift logistics transit times, thereby facilitating force surge and sustainment to virtually any other corner of the globe.
Since the United States has the best logistics capabilities in the world, an ice-free Arctic works to relative U.S. advantage. Utilizing the Arctic
route could facilitate improved crisis response and accelerate time-phased force deployment schedules to move forces from one theater to
another.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 179

2NC Arctic Submarines CP—Solves Arctic Drilling


CP allows us to monitor drilling safely
Steve Hargreaves is a staff writer for CNNMoney.com, where he focuses on the energy industry
06/08/12, “Greenpeace to monitor Shell Arctic drilling with submarines”,
http://money.cnn.com/2012/06/08/news/economy/greenpeace-subs/index.htm, accessed 5/5/14
NEW YORK (CNNMoney) -- Greenpeace plans on deploying two submarines to keep tabs on Royal Dutch Shell
when the oil company starts drilling in the Arctic, which could begin as soon as next month. The subs, a two-person and a
one-person craft, are currently on board the Greenpeace ship Esperanza, docked in Seattle. The Esperanza plans on tailing Shell's
drilling fleet, also docked in Seattle, when the fleet leaves for Arctic waters. Shell is waiting for the last batch of federal permits, expected
any day, before deploying its ships. Once the operation begins, Shell plans on drilling up to five exploratory wells
in Arctic waters -- three about 70 miles off the Alaskan coast in the Chukchi Sea, and two about 17 miles off Alaska's North Slope in the
Beaufort Sea. They will be some of the first wells drilled in U.S. Arctic waters, and have touched off a debate about whether the country should
be exploring for oil in the sensitive Arctic environment. Greenpeace plans on deploying the subs at the Chukchi site
and will monitor the Beaufort site by ship . "We want to be there so we can see if anything goes
wrong," said John Hocevar, oceans campaign director for Greenpeace, who will pilot one of the subs. Due to its penchant for disrupting
certain industrial operations, a federal judge has barred Greenpeace from getting within one mile of Shell's drill ships. But Hocevar said that
shouldn't be a problem -- any
oil leaks or other trouble should be able to be well documented from even a
mile away. He said the submarines will also take a look at the sea floor, taking inventory of the abundant
starfish, mollusks, and sponges that are thought to live in the region. It will be the first time this part of the ocean has
been explored by manned submersibles. On board the Esperanza, Greenpeace will monitor the impact the drilling is

having on the larger wildlife in the region, which include whales, polar bears and walruses.

The sonar capabilities allow us to do more targeted oil searches which prevents spills
The Economist, 12/01/12, , “Trouble beneath the ice”,
http://www.economist.com/news/technology-quarterly/21567196-energy-technology-oil-exploration-
moves-arctic-new-methods-are-being, accessed 5/5/14
The newest approach to detecting oil under ice approaches the problem from another angle:
underwater. It relies on a combination of two existing oceanographic technologies: robot submarines, known as autonomous
underwater vehicles (AUVs), and sonar. Unlike remotely operated underwater vehicles, which must be tethered to a control system on a
boat and are therefore limited to a range of several hundred metres, AUVs can be programmed to rove beneath the ice
over distances of several kilometres. Submarine dream In tests carried out earlier this year at the Cold Regions Research
Engineering Laboratory in New Hampshire, researchers from the Scottish Association for Marine Science equipped
AUVs with a suite of sensors, including multi-beam sonar. Once under the ice, the AUV fired pulses of sound
upwards. Ice and oil reflect the sound waves back again in different ways, allowing the presence of oil to
be mapped. The thickness of the oil layer could be measured to within millimetres , says Jeremy Wilkinson, who
led the project. Combining multiple detection systems, including cameras, sonar and lasers, could improve
accuracy and reliability. “It may not be the silver bullet, but at least we have a package that can work
in conditions where other technologies struggle,” he says.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 180

Disadvantages

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 181

Politics DA
Strong opposition to LOST passing
Sean Lengell, Writer at the Washington Times, 07/16/12, “DeMint: Law of the Sea Treaty now dead”,
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/jul/16/demint-says-law-sea-treaty-now-dead/?page=all,
accessed 5/5/14
The United Nations Law of the Sea Treaty now has 34 senators opposed to it and thus lacks the Senate votes needed
for U.S. ratification, a key opponent of the treaty announced Monday. But the treaty’s main Senate proponent denies the treaty is
sunk, saying plenty of time still exists to win support before a planned late-year vote. The Law of the Sea Treaty, which entered into force in
1994 and has been signed and ratified by 162 countries, establishes international laws governing the maritime rights of countries. The treaty
has been signed but not ratified by the U.S., which would require two-thirds approval of the Senate. Critics
of the treaty argue that
it would subject U.S. sovereignty to an international body, require American businesses to pay royalties
for resource exploitation and subject the U.S. to unwieldy environmental regulations as defined. The list
of treaty opponents has been growing, and on Monday, Sen. Jim DeMint, South Carolina Republican and a
leader of efforts to block it, announced that four more Republicans have said that they would vote
against ratification: Sens. Mike Johanns of Nebraka, Kelly Ayotte of New Hampshire, Rob Portman of Ohio and Johnny Isakson of
Georgia. “With 34 senators against the misguided treaty, LOST will not be ratified by the Senate this year,” Mr. DeMint said in a
statement on his website. This head count of treaty opponents — if the number stands — would make it
impossible to reach the 67 votes needed to ratify the pact, which Sen. John F. Kerry, Massachusetts Democrat and Senate
Foreign Relations Committee chairman, plans to bring to a vote.

Republican senators continue to block


John Bellinger, Senior Fellow for International and National Security Law at Council on Foreign
Relations, Nov. 11, 2014, "Should the United States ratify the UN Law of the Sea?," Ask CFR Experts,
www.cfr.org/treaties-and-agreements/should-united-states-ratify-un-law-sea/p31828, accessed
4/15/2014
Unfortunately, some Republican Senators have blocked Senate approval of the Law of the Sea Convention
based on myths and misperceptions about the treaty, including concerns that president Reagan opposed
the treaty when it was originally drafted in 1982, and that it might now infringe on U.S. sovereignty. But
the flaws identified by president Reagan were fixed by amendments to the treaty in 1994 (which led all other major industrial countries to join
the treaty). And far from infringing on U.S. sovereignty, joining the Law of the Sea Convention would codify U.S. sovereignty over vast new oil
and gas resources in the Arctic. Other countries have benefited greatly by joining the Convention, and the United States is losing out by
remaining on the sidelines.

Sovereignty concerns overwhelm support


Michael J. Kelly, Professor of Law at Creighton, Fall 2012, “United States Ratification of the Law of the
Sea Convention: Securing Our Navigational Future While Managing China’s Blue Water Ambitions,” CASE
WESTERN RESERVE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, VOL. 45, Lexis-Nexis, accessed 5/5/14
For the past two decades, both Democratic and Republican presidents have urged the US Senate to
approve the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) without success. Despite near universal agreement that the benefits of
joining this multilateral treaty far exceed any drawbacks, US ratification has not been forthcoming. Latent, largely unfounded
sovereignty concerns appear to be holding back a sufficient minority of Senators from consenting. However,
China’s recently assertive moves in oceanic affairs, coupled with its new and quickly developing naval capability, make US ratification all the more urgent.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 182

Economy DA
LOST causes economic collapse
Julie Borowski, Policy Analyst at FreedomWorks, May 31, 2012, “The U.N.’s Law of the Sea Treaty
Threatens Our National Sovereignty,”
http://townhall.com/columnists/julieborowski/2012/05/31/the_uns_law_of_the_sea_treaty_threatens
_our_national_sovereignty/page/full, accessed 4/28/14
The U.N. is openly hostile to our national sovereignty and republican form of government. The
ratification of LOST would open up a Pandora’s Box of problems. It would impose global taxes and
regulations that cripple collapse economic growth while exposing ourselves to high-stakes
environmental lawsuits. We need to sink LOST once and for all.

LOST ratification causes massive lawsuits that will severely damage the economy
Doug Bandow, Senior Fellow at CATO, March 19, 2012, “Dragging America into court Law of the Sea
and Global Litigation” http://www.forbes.com/sites/dougbandow/2012/03/19/dragging-america-into-
court-law-of-the-sea-and-global-litigation/, Accessed 4/21/14
Many environmentalists believe that LOST could be used against the U.S. in the same way. A few years ago an
environmental activist mistakenly sent me an email after our debate on the treaty. He acknowledged that it might be difficult to convince
Americans that the treaty would not similarly bind America when the World Wildlife Federation and Citizens for Global Solutions were
promoting LOST by claiming that the convention would stop Russia from polluting the Arctic. He worried that this inconsistency suggested that
the treaty was in fact “some kind of green Trojan Horse.” It is. Groves noted that “Some environmental activist
groups have already demonstrated a propensity for supporting, participating in, and in some cases
actually filing climate change lawsuits against U.S. targets, as well as taking other legal actions relating to
the marine environment in U.S. courts and international forums.” LOST also incorporates the so-called “no harm” rule,
which obligates countries to regulate activities in order to avoid negatively impacting neighboring states. The duty makes sense as a guiding
principle in designing domestic regulations and undertaking specific international obligations. But, warned Groves, approving LOST
would transform “a sensible principle to regulate conduct between two neighboring countries into a
seemingly unconstrained doctrine to impute global liability for alleged acts of atmospheric pollution.”
Unaccountable international legal forums then would enforce the rule. Worse, the debate over climate
change has opened up grand new litigation vistas. And treaty enthusiasts are anxious to take advantage.
William C.G. Burns of the Monterey Institute of International Studies exulted that LOST “may prove to be one of the primary
battlegrounds for climate change issues in the future.”He pointed to the Treaty’s expansive definition of marine pollution:
“the potential impacts of rising sea surface temperatures, rising sea levels, and changes in ocean pH as a consequence of rising levels of carbon
dioxide in sea water” all could “give rise to actions under the Convention’s marine pollution provisions.” Even
if the litigation did not
succeed, he suggested that “the specter of litigation may help to deepen the commitment of States” to
legislate on the issue.

Lawsuits are inevitable after UNCLOS ratification


EPA Abuse, Advocacy group, 2012, “Climate Change Lawsuits in America’s Future,”
http://epaabuse.com/5804/news/climate-change-lawsuits-in-americas-future/, Accessed 5/1/14
If the United States joins the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), it will likely end up
involved in numerous and costly lawsuits over climate change. That’s the theme of a recently posted Heritage
Foundation backgrounder, “Accession To U.N. Convention On The Law Of The Sea Would Expose The U.S. To Baseless Climate Change
Lawsuits.” America
is at the top of the list of targets from environmental lawyers, academics and activists
who hope to bring down our country.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 183

Economy DA – Litigation Link


Ratification of UNCLOS exposes the US to costly lawsuits
Doug Bandow, Senior Fellow at CATO, March 19, 2012, “Dragging America into court Law of the Sea
and Global Litigation” http://www.forbes.com/sites/dougbandow/2012/03/19/dragging-america-into-
court-law-of-the-sea-and-global-litigation/, Accessed 4/21/14
However, as Groves warned, acceding to the treaty “would expose the U.S. to lawsuits on virtually any maritime
activity, such as alleged pollution of the marine environment from a land-based source or even through
the atmosphere. Regardless of the case’s merits, the U.S. would be forced to defend itself against every such
lawsuit at great expense.” Litigation could occur in several venues: the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the International
Court of Justice, an arbitral tribunal, and a “special” arbitral tribunal. There would be no appeals and all suffer from political elements which
would interfere with the delivery of genuine “justice.” Indeed, noted Groves, the U.S. “has suffered adverse judgments in high-profile
international lawsuits in the past.” LOST
would reinforce the litigation danger by creating obligations directly
enforceable by U.S. courts. Annex III, Article 21(2) of the treaty states that tribunal decisions “shall be enforceable in the territory of
each State Party.” In a 2008 case Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens contrasted another treaty with LOST, which, he wrote, did
“incorporate international judgments into international law.” As a result, U.S. judges would become international enforcers.

The U.S. is avoiding a tidal wave of litigation now - LOST opens the floodgates
Stephen Groves, Fellow at the Heritage Foundation, January 10, 2013, “Don’t Open the Door to Law of
the Sea Litigation,” http://blog.heritage.org/2013/01/10/dont-open-the-door-to-law-of-the-sea-
litigation/, accessed 5/2/14
Doug Bandow of the Cato Institute warns of the dangers of litigation if the United States joins the U.N. Convention
on the Law of the Sea, more commonly known as the Law of the Sea Treaty (LOST). Some of the litigation
“greatest hits” highlighted by Bandow include: The recent intrusion of the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea—an international court
established by LOST—into a commercial dispute being litigated in Ghana. In that case, the tribunal disregarded the well-reasoned opinion of a
Ghanaian judge and ordered Ghana to release an Argentine naval vessel that was being held to satisfy a debt caused by Argentina’s massive
$80 billion bond default. The “MOX Plant” case, where Ireland sued the United Kingdom under LOST for having the temerity to build a nuclear
fuel reprocessing plant on its own territory. Threats made
by international environmental activists and lawyers to
use LOST as a vehicle to sue the United States for alleged climate change damages. Naturally, the proponents
of U.S. accession to LOST don’t include these nasty lawsuits in their talking points or Senate testimonies. That is by design. Major advocates of
LOST such as the University of Miami’s Bernard Oxman have warned their allies to stay away from such matters—at least until the U.S. has
joined the convention. As Bandow points out: Years ago, Bernard Oxman wrote in the European Journal of International Law urging treaty
proponents to keep quiet about issues which might concern ratifying governments, calling for “restraint in speculating on the meaning of the
convention or on possible differences between the Convention and customary law.” After all, he explained, “The Convention is an easy target.”
Thus, advocates should shut up: “it is essential to measure what we say in terms of its effect on the goal [i.e. universal ratification]. Experienced
international lawyers know where many of the sensitive nerve endings of governments are. Where possible, they should try to avoid irritating
them.” So, “mum’s the word” on international lawsuits until the U.S. is foolish enough to ratify. But exposure to
litigation is not the only serious flaw in the convention. If the U.S. joins LOST, it will be required to siphon off billions of dollars in hydrocarbon
royalties to the International Seabed Authority in Kingston, Jamaica, for redistribution to the “developing world.” Membership would also
require the U.S. and its mining companies to submit themselves to the complete regulation and control of the Authority in regard to deep
seabed mining. In private practice, attorneys regularly advise their clients on ways to avoid exposure to baseless and expensive litigation. The
U.S. can avoid costly and embarrassing international lawsuits by remaining a non-party to LOST, as it has
done for the past 30 years.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 184

Economy DA – Sovereignty Link


Lost sovereignty over offshore areas would cost the economy trillions
Orrin Hatch, Utah Republican Senator, 5/23, 2012, “Law of the Sea Treaty will sink America’s
Economy,” http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2012/05/23/law-sea-treaty-will-sink-america-economy/
Accessed 4/24/14
The treaty that Reagan refused to sign in 1982 is reappearing once again in the Senate. The truth is, LOST contains numerous

provisions that hurt the U.S. economy at a time when we need more jobs – not fewer. Under the guise of
being for “the good of mankind, ” LOST would obligate the United States to share information and technology in
what amounts to global taxes and technology transfer requirements that are really nothing more than
an attempt to redistribute U.S. wealth to the Third World. At the center of these taxes and transfers is the International Seabed
Authority (ISA), a Kingston, Jamaica based supra-national governing body established by the treaty for the purpose of redistributing cash and
technology from the “developed world” to the “developing world.” Ceding authority to the ISA would mean that the
sovereignty currently held by the U.S. over the natural resources located on large parts of the
continental shelf would be lost. That loss would mean lost revenue for the US government in the form of
lost royalties that the U.S. government collects from the production of those resources. According to the U.S.
Extended Continental Shelf Task Force, which is currently mapping the continental shelf, the resources there “may be worth billions if
not trillions ” of dollars. In case proponents of LOST have not noticed, the US is over $15 trillion in debt, and we still have more than 20

million Americans who can’t find a job. The last thing we need to do redistribute funds from our country to our
economic and strategic competitors.

Causes a massive tax hike


Orrin Hatch, Utah Republican Senator, 5/23, 2012, “Law of the Sea Treaty will sink America’s
Economy,” http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2012/05/23/law-sea-treaty-will-sink-america-economy/
Accessed 4/24/14
Americans despise taxes. After all, one of the key issues that paved the way for the American Revolution was the unfair taxation that
King George III levied against the Colonies. Now some in the US Senate want to say yes to an international tax. It would
be the first time in history that an international organization would possess taxing authority, and it would
amount to billions of American dollars being transferred out of the US Treasury. The U.N. Convention on the Law
of the Sea, or the Law of the Sea Treaty (LOST) is the vehicle through which such taxes would be imposed on U.S.-
based commercial enterprises.

Tech transfers stunt innovation and competitiveness


Orrin Hatch, Utah Republican Senator, 5/23, 2012, “Law of the Sea Treaty will sink America’s
Economy,” http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2012/05/23/law-sea-treaty-will-sink-america-economy/
Accessed 4/24/14
In other words, US companies would be forced to give away the very types of innovation that historically
have made our nation a world leader while fueling our economic engine.
Under the best of US economic circumstances, the Senate should say no to such an egregious breach of
the trust Americans have placed in us. Our current economic struggles are all the more reason to say no
to a treaty that is all cost and no benefit.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 185

Economy DA – Sovereignty Link


LOST undermines the US economy by forcing compliance with stringent rules
Julie Borowski, Policy Analyst at FreedomWorks, May 31, 2012, “The U.N.’s Law of the Sea Treaty
Threatens Our National Sovereignty,”
http://townhall.com/columnists/julieborowski/2012/05/31/the_uns_law_of_the_sea_treaty_threatens
_our_national_sovereignty/page/full, accessed 4/28/14
If the U.S. ratifies LOST, U.S. energy companies would be forced to pay a part of their royalties to the International Seabed Authority in
Kingston, Jamaica. This supra-national governing body would be tasked with the mission of distributing revenue to “developing states” such as
Somalia, Zimbabwe, and Burma. Like all forms of foreign “aid”, it’s likely that a big chunk of this money will end up
in the hands of corrupt dictators thus propping up authoritarian regimes. The U.N. would be granted the power to
regulate deep-sea exploration in U.S. waters. LOST would do irreparable harm to U.S. companies by forcing them to
comply with global environmental rules. The treaty would create a new international tribunal known as the International
Tribunal of LOST (ITLOS) to adjudicate a number of different issues. It wouldn’t just be used to resolve maritime issues like boats accidently
wrecking into each other. Radical environmentalists would likely use the ITLOS to file costly international climate change lawsuits against the
United States. Signing LOST is certainly not in the best economic interest of the United States. The text of the U.N.
treaty states that, “states shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from or through
the atmosphere.” The autonomy of the United States is threatened if we allow our domestic laws to be crafted by an international body that is
not accountable to the American people. LOST could even lead to a back door implementation of another U.N. treaty that the United States has
never ratified: the Kyoto Protocol on global warming. This U.N. treaty would require the United States to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 7
percent below 1990 levels. Patrick J. Michael of the Cato Institute finds that it would likely reduce the gross domestic product of the United
States by 2.3 percent per year while not having a noticeable effect on the global climate. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy
Information Administration, the Kyoto Protocol would
increase the price of electricity by 86 percent, add $1,740 to
the average household’s energy bill, and permanently raise the price of gasoline by 66 cents per gallon.
It would inevitably raise the price for basic goods and cause millions of Americans to lose their jobs. The
scientific debate on anthroprogenic global warming continues to rage. We shouldn’t sacrifice our standard of living based on this unsettled
issue. Remember that some scientists were warning us about man-made global cooling in the 1970’s. TIME Magazine even ran a cover story on
“How to Survive the Coming Ice Age” in April 1977. Climate change fear-mongering has been going on for decades—let’s not fall for the
propaganda so easily

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 186

Constitution Disadvantage
Ratifying LOST violates the constitution
Julie Borowski, Policy Analyst at FreedomWorks, May 31, 2012, “The U.N.’s Law of the Sea Treaty
Threatens Our National Sovereignty,”
http://townhall.com/columnists/julieborowski/2012/05/31/the_uns_law_of_the_sea_treaty_threatens
_our_national_sovereignty/page/full, accessed 4/28/14
The latest threat to U.S. sovereignty is the United Nations’ Law of the Sea Treaty (LOST) that is being pushed by the Obama administration.
LOST rises from the dead every few years. For more than thirty years, the United States has refused to become a party to LOST
for good reasons. But this could be the year that the United States surrenders its sovereignty over the seas to an international body if Obama
gets his way. Under this treaty, the U.N. would have control over 71 percent of the Earth’s surface. This would be
a huge step towards global governance. The Senate may vote to ratify the sea treaty as early as next week. President Ronald
Reagan rejected LOST back in 1982, stating it would grant the U.N. the power to tax U.S. companies and redistribute
wealth from developed to undeveloped nations. For the first time in history, the U.N. would have the authority
to collect taxes from U.S. citizens. The thought of global taxation should send goose bumps down the
spine of every American. Any form of global taxation would be a direct violation of the U.S. Constitution.
American citizens are already overtaxed and overregulated. The last thing we need is an unelected, unconstitutional
international body imposing even more harmful taxes and regulations on us. LOST could end up costing
trillions of dollars and the American people would have no say on how the money is spent.

Constitutional violation is a decision rule


Daryl Levinson, Professor of Law at Virginia, May 4, 2000, “Making Government Pay: Markets, Politics,
and the Allocation of Constitutional Costs,”
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=224708, accessed 5/1/14
Extending a majority rule analysis of optimal deterrence to constitutional torts requires some explanation, for we do not usually think of
violations of constitutional rights in terms of cost-benefit analysis and efficiency. Quite the opposite, constitutional
rights are most
commonly conceived as deontological side-constraints that trump even utility-maximizing government action.
Alternatively, constitutional rights might be understood as serving rule-utilitarian purposes. If the disutility to
victims of constitutional violations often exceeds the social benefits derived from the rights-violating activity, or if rights violations create long-
term costs that outweigh short-term social benefits, then constitutional rights can be justified as tending to maximize global
utility, even though this requires local utility-decreasing steps. Both the deontological and rule-utilitarian descriptions
imply that the optimal level of constitutional violations is zero; that is, society would be better off, by whatever
measure, if constitutional rights were never violated.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 187

Topicality

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 188

Topicality - 1NC Exploration/Development


The US has all authority LOST could grant—it only decreases exploration
Steven Groves, Bernard and Barbara Lomas Senior Research Fellow, 8/24/11, “Accession to the U.N.
Convention on the Law of the Sea Is Unnecessary to Secure U.S. Navigational Rights and Freedoms”,
http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/08/accession-to-un-convention-law-of-the-sea-is-
unnecessary-to-secure-us-navigational-rights-freedoms, accessed 5/5/14,
No legal barriers prohibit U.S. access, exploration, or exploitation of the resources of the deep seabed.
Deep seabed mining is a “high seas freedom” that all nations may engage in regardless of their
membership or non-membership in UNCLOS or any other treaty. Like other high seas freedoms, the right to engage in
deep seabed mining is inherent to all sovereign nations under customary international law. Rather, it is the convention that
attempts to restrict access to the deep seabed and infringe on the intrinsic rights of the United States
and other nations that have chosen to remain non-parties.

And, it decreases development


Doug Bandow, senior fellow at the Cato Institute, specializing in foreign policy and civil liberties, April
8, 2004, “The Law of the Sea Treaty: Inconsistent With American Interests”,
http://www.cato.org/publications/congressional-testimony/law-sea-treaty-inconsistent-american-
interests, Accessed 5/5/14
The LOST’s fundamental premise is that all unowned resources on the ocean’s floor belong to the
people of the world, meaning the United Nations. The U.N. would assert its control through an International
Seabed Authority, ruled by an Assembly, dominated by poorer nations, and a Council (originally on which the then-U.S.S.R. was granted
three seats), which would regulate deep seabed mining and redistribute income from the industrialized
West to developing countries. The Authority’s chief subsidiary would be the Enterprise, to mine the seabed, with the coerced
assistance of Western mining concerns, on behalf of the Authority. Any extensive international regulatory system would
likely inhibit development, depress productivity, increase costs, and discourage innovation, thereby wasting much of the benefit to be
gained from mining the oceans. But the byzantine regime created by the LOST is almost unique in its perversity. Unfortunately, the
amendments made in 1994, which I discuss below, do not change the essential character of the treaty

It creates barriers to exploration and development


Michaela Dodge, Fellow at the Heritage Foundation, July 12, 2011, “The Many Problems of Getting
LOST,” http://blog.heritage.org/2011/07/12/the-many-problems-of-getting-lost/, Accessed 4/20/14
Creates barriers to exploration . Third, LOST claims the deep seabed resources of the oceans as “the common
heritage of mankind” and forbids mining unless permission is first received by the ISA. This might
create an international obstacle for U.S. companies willing to invest their time and money in exploring and
developing vast deep seabed resources. It might take months to secure the ISA’s permission, which would likely discourage U.S.
companies from participating in such activities. Meanwhile, the magnitude of the mineral wealth on and beneath the U.S. extended continental
shelf remains to be determined.
.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 189

China DA
The plan, through US action, serves as a provocative action towards China because
China views competition over ocean development with the United States as zero sum.
However, the Chinese don’t have that same framework of competition to interpret EU
action through, and thus the counterplan does not increase Chinese strategic threat
perceptions.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 190

1NC – China Disad


A. The risk of maritime conflict is low now because the US isn’t challenging China’s rise
Brahma Chellaney, Professor of Strategic Studies at the New Delhi-based Centre for Policy Research
and former Fellow at the Norwegian Nobel Institute, which wards the Nobel Peace Prize, November 5,
2013, “Tackling new maritime challenges”, The Hindu, http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-
opinion/tackling-new-maritime-challenges/article5315556.ece, accessed 5/19/14
President Xi Jinping has championed efforts to build China into a global maritime power, saying his
government will do everything possible to safeguard China’s “maritime rights and interests” and
warning that “in no way will the country abandon its legitimate rights and interests.” China’s increasing
emphasis on the oceans was also evident from the November 2012 report to the 18th national congress of the
Chinese Communist Party that outlined the country’s maritime power strategy. It called for safeguarding China’s maritime rights and
interests, including building improved capacity for exploiting marine resources, and for asserting the country’s larger
rights. The risks of maritime conflict arising from mistake or miscalculation are higher between China and
its neighbours than between China and the U.S. There has been a course correction in the Obama
administration’s “pivot” toward Asia, lest it puts it on the path of taking on Beijing. Washington has bent
over backward to tamp down the military aspects of that policy. Even the term “pivot” has been abandoned in
favour of the softer new phrase of “rebalancing.” The U.S., moreover, has pointedly refused to take sides in sovereignty
disputes between China and its neighbours. It has sought the middle ground between seeking to restrain China and reassure allies
but, as former U.S. Deputy Secretary of State James Steinberg has put it, “without getting ourselves into a shooting war.” China has also shied
away from directly challenging U.S. interests. It has been careful not to step on America’s toes. Its assertiveness has been largely directed at its
neighbours. After all, China is seeking to alter the territorial and maritime status quo in Asia little by little. This can be described as a “salami-
slice” strategy or, what a Chinese general, Zhang Zhaozhong, this year called, a “cabbage” strategy — surrounding a contested area with
multiple security layers to deny access to the rival nation.

B. China is pursing ocean development comparable to the aff- it’s competitive and
aims at maritime dominance
Takeda Jun’ichi, Visiting Research Fellow at the Ocean Policy Research Foundation, Apr 23, 2014,
“China’s Rise as a Maritime Power: Ocean Policy from Mao Zedong to Xi Jinping”,
http://islandstudies.oprf-info.org/research/a00011/, accessed 5/12/14
The first time the importance of the seas was officially raised at the National Congress of the CPC, which stands at the summit of China’s
political leadership, was at the fifteenth Congress, held in 1997, during the rule of Jiang Zemin. The general
secretary’s report to the
congress noted, “The seas are an important element of the national territory and resources that can be
developed on an ongoing basis.” The 16th Congress, held in 2002, after Hu Jintao took the helm, acknowledged “the need for a
strategic organ to implement maritime development.” In an extension of this recognition, the State Council, in the “Outline of the Plan
for National Marine Economic Development” it adopted the following year, declared that China would build itself into a maritime power in
stages. This was the first time that the Chinese government set forth the term “maritime power” in an official document. And it was noted at
the opening of the eighteenth Congress of the CPC in 2012 that building
China into a maritime power had become
established as a strategic objective. Facing increasingly serious shortages of food, energy, and water
resources, China is leaning more and more to the seas. The new trend is an omnidirectional maritime
strategy, including the development of new fields like renewable maritime energy sources and deep-
seabed mineral resources, prevention and mitigation of marine disasters, and expansion of Arctic and
Antarctic observation activities.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 191

1NC – China Disad


C. US challenges to Chinese maritime power risks miscalculated conflict at sea
Dean Cheng, Senior Research Fellow, Asian Studies Center Heritage Foundation, July 11, 2011, “Sea
Power and the Chinese State: China’s Maritime Ambitions”, The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder
#2576, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/07/sea-power-and-the-chinese-state-chinas-
maritime-ambitions, accessed 5/12/14
Although China’s maritime ambitions do not yet pose a dire threat to the United States, the situation does
demand a very specific response: careful, sober policymaking. Sino–American conflict at sea is not a
foregone conclusion, but conflicting claims and legal interpretations, lack of agreed terms of engagement, aggressive
behavior by China on behalf of its claims, and lack of official transparency regarding Chinese capabilities and aims all increase the
potential for miscalculation. It is essential to recognize that China will be a maritime power. Given the
importance of the world’s oceans to sustaining China’s economic development and its position as the
world’s second-largest economy, the Chinese leadership undoubtedly views the seas as essential both to
national survival and to their own hold on power. Opposing Chinese development in this regard would
be futile and antagonistic. Therefore, the United States should accept China as a major sea power with significant maritime interests. In
some cases, such as the anti-piracy efforts off Somalia or enforcement of fishing limits, those interests may even converge and offer
opportunities for Sino–American cooperation.

D. Those miscalculations escalate


Avery Goldstein, Professor of Global Politics and International Relations, Director of the Center for the
Study of Contemporary China, University of Pennsylvania, “China’s Real and Present Danger”, Foreign
Affairs, Sep/Oct 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139651/avery-goldstein/chinas-real-and-
present-danger, accessed 5/12/14
Communicating through actions is also problematic, with many possibilities for distortion in sending
messages and for misinterpretation in receiving them. Chinese analysts seem to overestimate how easy
it is to send signals through military actions and underestimate the risks of escalation resulting from
miscommunication. For example, the analysts Andrew Erickson and David Yang have drawn attention to Chinese military writings that
propose using China’s antiship ballistic missile system, designed for targeting U.S. aircraft carriers, to convey Beijing’s resolve during a crisis.
Some Chinese military thinkers have suggested that China could send a signal by firing warning shots intended to land near a moving U.S.
aircraft carrier or even by carefully aiming strikes at the command tower of the U.S. carrier while sparing the rest of the vessel. But as the
political scientist Owen Coté has noted, even
a very accurate antiship ballistic missile system will inevitably have
some margin of error. Consequently, even the smallest salvo of this kind would entail a risk of inadvertent
serious damage and thus unintended escalation.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 192

1NC – China Disad


E. Risks nuclear war and extinction
Lawrence S. Wittner, Emeritus Professor of History – State University of New York Albany and Former
Editor – Peace and Change Journal, November 28, 2011 “Is a Nuclear War With China Possible?”,
www.huntingtonnews.net/14446, accessed 5/12/14
While nuclear weapons exist, there remains a danger that they will be used. After all, for centuries national conflicts have
led to wars, with nations employing their deadliest weapons. The current deterioration of U.S. relations
with China might end up providing us with yet another example of this phenomenon. The gathering
tension between the United States and China is clear enough. Disturbed by China’s growing economic and military
strength, the U.S. government recently challenged China’s claims in the South China Sea, increased the U.S.
military presence in Australia, and deepened U.S. military ties with other nations in the Pacific region.
According to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, the United States was “asserting our own position as a Pacific power.” But need this lead
to nuclear war? Not necessarily. And yet, there are signs that it could. After all, both the United States
and China possess large numbers of nuclear weapons. The U.S. government threatened to attack China with nuclear
weapons during the Korean War and, later, during the conflict over the future of China’s offshore islands, Quemoy and Matsu. In the midst of
the latter confrontation, President Dwight Eisenhower declared publicly, and chillingly, that U.S. nuclear weapons would “be used just exactly
as you would use a bullet or anything else.” Of course, China didn’t have nuclear weapons then. Now that it does, perhaps the behavior of
national leaders will be more temperate. But the loose nuclear threats of U.S. and Soviet government officials during the Cold War, when both
nations had vast nuclear arsenals, should convince us that, even as the military ante is raised, nuclear saber-rattling persists. Some
pundits
argue that nuclear weapons prevent wars between nuclear-armed nations; and, admittedly, there
haven’t been very many—at least not yet. But the Kargil War of 1999, between nuclear-armed India and
nuclear-armed Pakistan, should convince us that such wars can occur. Indeed, in that case, the conflict
almost slipped into a nuclear war. Pakistan’s foreign secretary threatened that, if the war escalated, his country felt free to use
“any weapon” in its arsenal. During the conflict, Pakistan did move nuclear weapons toward its border, while India, it is claimed, readied its own
nuclear missiles for an attack on Pakistan. At the least, though, don’t nuclear weapons deter a nuclear attack? Do they? Obviously, NATO
leaders didn’t feel deterred, for, throughout the Cold War, NATO’s strategy was to respond to a Soviet conventional military attack on Western
Europe by launching a Western nuclear attack on the nuclear-armed Soviet Union. Furthermore, if U.S. government officials really believed that
nuclear deterrence worked, they would not have resorted to championing “Star Wars” and its modern variant, national missile defense. Why
are these vastly expensive—and probably unworkable—military defense systems needed if other nuclear powers are deterred from attacking
by U.S. nuclear might? Of course, the bottom line for those Americans convinced that nuclear weapons safeguard them from a Chinese nuclear
attack might be that the U.S. nuclear arsenal is far greater than its Chinese counterpart. Today, it is estimated that the U.S. government
possesses over five thousand nuclear warheads, while the Chinese government has a total inventory of roughly three hundred. Moreover, only
about forty of these Chinese nuclear weapons can reach the United States. Surely the United States would “win” any nuclear war with China.
But what would that “victory” entail? A
nuclear attack by China would immediately slaughter at least 10 million
Americans in a great storm of blast and fire, while leaving many more dying horribly of sickness and
radiation poisoning. The Chinese death toll in a nuclear war would be far higher. Both nations would be
reduced to smoldering, radioactive wastelands. Also, radioactive debris sent aloft by the nuclear
explosions would blot out the sun and bring on a “nuclear winter” around the globe—destroying
agriculture, creating worldwide famine, and generating chaos and destruction.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 193

Uniqueness/Brink
The risk of naval conflict is high but the US isn’t being provocative now
Benjamin Carlson, senior China correspondent, The Global Post, “China is playing chicken with the US
military in the South China Sea”, 1/30/14, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/asia-
pacific/china/140127/china-US-military-confrontation-south-china-sea-chicken, accessed 5/11/14
Unfortunately, vessels from the US military and from other countries increasingly find themselves in such high-
stakes confrontations on the East Asian seas, where China has adopted a strategy of making rivals flinch
or risk collision. Just this week, Chinese sailors parked three ships on a disputed reef 50 miles from the Malaysian coast and performed a
ceremony in which they swore an oath “to safeguard [China’s] sovereignty and territorial interests.” Malaysia also claims the reef, and is
building a naval base nearby to protect it against China’s claim. That’s just the latest in an escalating series of incidents. In
November, China declared its right to patrol and regulate a large swath of airspace, including a zone controlled by Japan and areas regularly
used by the US military. Since then, China
says it has repeatedly dispatched surveillance planes to tail, monitor,
and identify foreign fighters. In December, a Chinese ship halted in the path of the USS Cowpens, in
international waters, forcing it to change course or risk a crash. The American cruiser complied.

Communication solving status quo conflict


Chen Weihua, Staff Writer, January 6, 2014,“China-US relations can go to a whole new level in 2014”,
http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/epaper/2014-01/06/content_17218238.htm, Accessed 4/28/14
As the largest developing nation and the largest developed nation with different histories, cultures, traditions and social systems, it
is
inevitable that China and the US have differences and even frictions, according to Cui."But both sides have
been working hard to find convergence of shared interest and effective ways to manage the
differences," he said. "Various mechanisms to facilitate communications and dialogue have been set up."
Cui dismissed the hype over China's announcement in November of the East China Sea Air Defense
Identification Zone as being an issue of major difference between the two nations. China only added itself to a
long list of ADIZs announced a long time ago by countries including the US. "The two sides have open lines of
communication," he said.¶ For Cui, reviewing the past 35 years of China-US relations provides very beneficial lessons on how to push the
relationship forward in the future.

Maritime tensions are high but controlled now


Bill Gertz, National Security Studies Program at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced
International Studies and Syracuse University Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, February
12, 2014, “Inside the Ring: U.S., China in war of words over South China Sea air zone,” Washington
Times, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/feb/12/inside-the-ring-obama-pushback-against-
china-is-pr/, accessed 4/15/14
In an apparent attempt to remedy the problem, senior military leaders and White House and State Department
officials in recent days issued relatively tough warnings to Beijing not to impose an air defense
identification zone (ADIZ) over the contested South China Sea. China heightened tensions in the region late last
year by imposing an ADIZ over the East China Sea, including waters off Japan’s Senkaku islands that China claims as its
territory. Japan, South Korea and the United States said they will ignore China’s claims over the sea.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 194

Links- Generic
China perceives oceanic control as competitive with the west and crucial to its
national power
Geoff Dyer, covers US foreign policy and is a former Beijing bureau chief for the FT, February 20, 2014,
“US v China: is this the new cold war?”, Financial Times, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/78920b2e-99ba-
11e3-91cd-00144feab7de.html#axzz32mK6gWdR, accessed 5/13/14
China’s turn to the seas is rooted in history and geography in a manner that transcends its current
political system. It was from the sea that China was harassed during its “century of ‐humiliation” at the
hands of the west. China was one of the most prominent victims of 19th-century gunboat diplomacy, when Britain, France and
other colonial powers used their naval supremacy to exercise control over Shanghai and a dozen other ports
around the country. The instinct to control the surrounding seas is partly rooted in the widespread desire
never to leave China so vulnerable again. “Ignoring the oceans is a historical error we committed,” says
Yang Yong, a Chinese historian. “And now even in the future we will pay a price for this error.”

Access to ocean resources is inherently competitive


Henry E. Eccles, Rear Admiral U.S. Navy, “This work is the culmination of 29 years' experience at the
Naval War College”, 1979, Military Power in a Free Society, http://archive.org/stream/military
powerinf00eccl/militarypowerinf00eccl_djvu.txt, accessed 5/13/14
On the one hand, as the competition for scarce resources grows, it becomes clear that this world includes
most of the areas and many of the important causes of human conflict. There is economic competition
for oceanic trade, transportation, and for minerals on the ocean bed. There is the question of fishing
rights as they are related to national sovereignty, the area and zonal control of waters, and, in particular, to
the worldwide need for more food. There is the concept of "Freedom of the Seas" as it relates to zonal and
territorial waters and the right of "Innocent Free Passage" for warships. There is the urgent need to protect the world
oceans from pollution by atomic waste, oil spills, industrial wastes, and sewage. The measures of control, however, conflict with the
economic development aspirations of various "Third World" nations.

Oceans development is a zero-sum game between powers


Jianhai Xiang, editor, 2010, “Marine Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050”, A Research
Group on Marine of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Publication, P. 5-6
The sea covers 71% of the surface of the earth, containing a vast reservoir of energy and resources significant in political, military and
economic strategy. It is the place of competition in world’s off shore nations for ocean development and
utilization. In the 21st century, focusing on the development of marine resources, marine environment,
and marine rights and interests security, a new round of competition in the ocean has been taken
internationally. Power-building strategy in marine realm is put again on the agenda of every waterfront
nation. As the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea is about to come into effect at the
international level, countries around the world ocean development are re-taking actions for marine
resources, marine rights and interests, and the division of marine territory.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 195

Link- Oceans Key


Maritime policy key to China’s great power status
Adam P. MacDonald, Winter 2013, “China’s Maritime Strategy: A Prolonged Period of Formulation”,
Canadian Naval Review, Volume 8 Number 4, http://www.navalreview.ca/wp-content/uploads/
public/vol8num4/vol8num4art3.pdf, accessed 5/12/14
Shifting Focus: Beijing’s Turn to the Maritime Domain Over the last three decades the maritime domain has changed from an
area of peripheral interest to one of vital importance for Chinese leaders. The most influential facilitators of this shift
have been the end of the Cold War and the transformation of the international system to an interconnected globalized world dependent on
seaborne trade. For years China had been fixated internally and towards the continent. This was because of tense relations with its land
neighbours, the Soviet Union and India, and economics related to China’s command-style system. The disappearance of the Soviet Union, the
explosion of export-driven economic growth initiated by the Open Door reforms of the 1980s, and the growth of population centres along the
coastline motivated China’s leaders to look to the seas. With improving relations with land neighbours and a reconfiguration of economic
development, Beijing has increasingly tied its success to the world economic system of seaborne trade.
Approximately 85% of all Chinese trade moves via the sea. As well, in 2010 China briefly became the world’s
largest shipbuilder (but has now slipped behind South Korea), creating an industry of massive companies with revenues in the billions,
employing hundreds of thousands of people.1 The problem for China is that economic development is reliant on foreign
markets and energy imports. This causes concern in Beijing over the potential vulnerability of China’s
extensive sea lines of communications (SLOCs) worldwide. In addition to securing China’s economic lifelines, the new focus on
the maritime domain also incorporates territorial and maritime claims in adjacent waters including Taiwan, and the Paracel and Spratly
Islands. Tied to the importance of these disputes is a growing sense of nationalism which promotes the enhancement
of Chinese military power at sea not simply in support of economic interests but as a fundamental step towards
becoming a great power. For Beijing these dynamics – the products of government reforms, emerging domestic forces and changing
international circumstances – have come to be the motivating factors of China’s expanded involvement in the maritime domain.

China views ocean resources as key to their national power


Roy Kamphausen, David Lai, Andrew Scobell, Editors, June 2010 THE PLA AT HOME AND ABROAD,
//www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=995, accessed 5/12/14
China’s leadership has identified the security of China’s seaborne imports and exports as critical to the
nation’s overall development, and hence a vital and growing mission for the PLAN. The last two of the four “new historic missions”
with which President Hu Jintao charged the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in 2004 reflect new emphases, and the fourth is unprecedented; all
but the first may be furthered by naval development,4 provided that the operation is UN-led, multilateral, and targeted at nontraditional
threats.5 Hu has also stated specifically: “As we strengthen our ability to fight and win limited wars under informatized conditions, we have to
pay even more attention to improving non-combat mili tary operations capabilities.”6 In an attempt to transform Hu’s general guidance into
more specific policy, articles in state and military news media have argued that to
safeguard China’s economic growth, the
PLA must go beyond its previous mission of safeguarding national “survival interests” to protecting national
“development interests”.7 High level PLAN officers are now conducting sophisticated analysis of the “nonwar military operations”
needed to promote these interests.8 This guidance and policy implementation is informed by clear economic realities—themselves of
particular importance for a leadership that has staked its political legitimacy on maintaining roughly 8
percent growth of an economy that remains reliant on extremely high levels of resource imports and
manufactured goods exports. China depends on maritime transportation for 90 percent of its imports
and exports. By some metrics, China has more seafarers, deep sea fleets, and ocean fishing vessels than any other
nation.9 As of 2006, maritime industries accounted for $270 billion in economic output (nearly 10 percent of gross
domestic product [GDP]).10 Already at least tied with South Korea for status as the world’s largest shipbuilder,
China aims to become the largest by 2015.11 Chinese oil demand, growing rapidly, has reached 8.5 million barrels per day
(mbtd) even amid the global recession.12 China became a net oil importer in 1993, and will likely become a net gasoline importer by the end of
2009. While still a very significant oil producer, China now imports half of its crude oil, with 4.6 mbpd in imports as of July 2009. Seaborne
imports, which even ambitious overland pipeline projects lack the capacity to reduce, constitute more than 80 percent of this total.13 At
present, therefore, 40 percent of China’s oil comes by sea.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 196

Link Boosters
International relations are highly scrutinized by the Chinese media- ensures plan is
perceived
Susan Shirk, served as deputy assistant secretary for China at the U.S. State Department from 1997 to
2000., 2007, CHINA: FRAGILE SUPERPOWER, p. 84
The media, competing with one another, naturally try to appeal to the tastes of their targeted
audiences. Editors make choices about which stories to cover based on their judgments about what will
sell commercially. That means a lot of reports about Japan, Taiwan, and the United States, the
international relationships that are the objects of intense interest and emotion. The publicity given to
these topics makes them domestic political issues and constrains the way China's leaders and diplomats
deal with them.

Nothing is too small, foreign policy issues are politically sensitive


Susan Shirk, served as deputy assistant secretary for China at the U.S. State Department from 1997 to
2000., 2007, CHINA: FRAGILE SUPERPOWER, p. 85
News media, competing for audiences but "guided" by the propaganda authorities, reinforce nationalist myths."
Chinese journalists have a saying, "There are no small matters in foreign affairs." Foreign affairs topics
are considered politically sensitive and potentially dangerous territory for journalists. Journalists also have to satisfy
two masters: their audiences and the Propaganda Department. A nationalist slant on news events works for both of them. Nationalism
has become the politically correct point of view, enforced by the marketplace as well as the censors, as
the public reaction to the Freezing Point article on history textbooks illustrates. But encouraging
nationalism can backfire, as Chinese leaders learned from the anti-American demonstrations that
followed the Belgrade embassy bombing in 1999. After that crisis, Chinese leaders ordered the Propaganda Department to
moderate the media message about the United States to calm public opinion and protect the relationship with Washington.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 197

Links- Fisheries
China sees control of global fish stocks as critical to their national power
Tabitha Grace Mallory, Ph.D. Candidate, China Studies Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International
Studies, January 26, 2012, “China as a Distant Water Fishing Nation”, Testimony before the U.S.-China
Economic and Security Review Commission, http://origin.www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/
transcripts/1.26.12HearingTranscript.pdf, accessed 5/25/14
In September 2010, a task force composed of twelve people affiliated with the State Council, Chinese DWF
companies, industry associations, and universities published a report advocating supporting and strengthening
China’s DWF industry. In advocating for expansion of distant water fishing for food security reasons,
the report argues that “marine biological resources are seen as the largest store of protein, therefore
owning and mastering the ocean means owning and mastering the future” The report sees expanding
DWF as a way to guard China’s ocean interests and seek international space for development because,
it says, the more international space China has, the more resources and benefits it can obtain. The report
argues that while the ocean ecosystem should be managed under a framework of sustainable development, at the same time those
countries that have had a longer history of using the ocean have achieved more say in how ocean
resources are distributed and thus receive a larger share of those resources; in other words, the authors say, the
international fisheries management system is one of “if you occupy and possess, then you have rights
and interests.”

Access to fish stocks is zero sum- conflict over access is inevitable


Simon Dalby, Spring 1998, Review of “Conflict and the Environment”, Environmental Change and
Security Project Report, Issue 4, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/report4c.pdf, accessed
5/25/14
The third section has two chapters on fisheries, one by Jennifer Bailey on the question of high seas fisheries stocks and the
extension of state sovereignty. She argues, contrary to the usual assumptions that UN agreements and
international management will promote peaceful cooperation, that the complexity of the issues and the
demands of numerous groups may in many cases precipitate conflict as fish extraction increasingly
becomes a zero sum competition between many actors. Marvin Somos’ analysis of the 1995 Turbot war between
Spain and Canada over fish caught just outside the 200 nautical mile limit off Canada’s coast suggests
that such conflicts are perhaps inevitable, but can, as happened in this case, spur on the further development of international
agreements and the better management of endangered stocks.

Fish competition can cause interstate conflict


Tabitha Grace Mallory, Ph.D. Candidate, China Studies Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International
Studies, January 26, 2012, “China as a Distant Water Fishing Nation”, Testimony before the U.S.-China
Economic and Security Review Commission, http://origin.www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/
transcripts/1.26.12HearingTranscript.pdf, accessed 5/25/14
My testimony addresses China’s international fishing operations, particularly distant water fishing
operations, as well as China’s compliance with international ocean governance institutions related to
fisheries. In one sense China’s expanding fisheries activities might seem to be a narrow topic with
limited security and global implications. However, beyond its importance to the global economy, the
findings of this paper have significant implications along the lines of the following issues: l) Can the Chinese government
control the behavior of its companies and agents in the world system as it goes global? 2) Is China abiding by the agreements it has signed and
will China be a responsible actor in the global system? 3) To what degree is competition for ocean resources going to be a
source of interstate conflict? 4) And finally, will sustainable development be a relevant concept to the Chinese system as it develops
nationally and internationally

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 198

Links- Ocean Science


China perceives ocean science as strategically important- key to maintain sea lane
control
Jianhai Xiang, editor, 2010, “Marine Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050”, A Research
Group on Marine of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Publication, P. 20-21
Understanding and forecasting the dynamic changes of the marine environment are essential to national
security to protect the marine environment. At present, more than 70% of the total Chinese oil imports are through the
Straits of Malacca, and nearly 60% of the vessels are Chinese ones through the strait every day. The lifeline
of Chinese ocean shipping includes the Taiwan Strait, the South China Sea, Strait of Malacca, the Indian Ocean, and the Arabian Sea. Therefore,
the protection on the sea passageways is clearly the need of national strategic interests expansion, and
has risen to an issue of national socio-economic development, social security, and national security, as an overall strategic focus.
In the access to information of marine environment, the gap between China and the United States is
huge. The United States has conducted the ocean exploration and monitoring for more than 30 years, the acquired information of marine
environment is far more than we have, in the global coastal waters, including China off shore. As a result, of national and historical reasons,
China has rarely conducted survey in the Pacific to the Indian Ocean, and almost be nil in the Atlantic Ocean. In particular, in the areas of the
normal access to the controversial area of the western Pacific and the key sea channel and other military-sensitive areas where Chinese naval
vessels can hardly enter, the data of these regions are almost blank in China. To
access and use the environment data of
critical area and main sea-lanes, to enhance the protection to the marine environment, to safeguard the
national security, and to improve the sustainable and stable development of the country, are of great
strategic significance.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 199

Links- Sea Bed Mining


China is competing for control of resource access through sea bed mining- plan raises
tensions
Brahma Chellaney, Professor of Strategic Studies at the New Delhi-based Centre for Policy Research
and former Fellow at the Norwegian Nobel Institute, which wards the Nobel Peace Prize, November 5,
2013, “Tackling new maritime challenges”, The Hindu, http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-
opinion/tackling-new-maritime-challenges/article5315556.ece, accessed 5/19/14
The new international maritime challenges, however, go beyond China’s jurisdictional “creep.” The oceans
and seas not only have become pivotal to any power’s security and engagement with the outside world but they also constitute the
strategic hub of the global geopolitical competition. The growing importance of maritime resources and
of sea-lane safety, as well as the concentration of economic boom zones along the coasts, has made
maritime security more critical than ever. The maritime challenges extend to non-traditional threats such as climate security,
transnational terrorism, illicit fishing, human trafficking, and environmental degradation. The overexploitation of marine
resources has underscored the need for conservation and prudent management of the biological
diversity of the seabed. Deep seabed mining has emerged as a major new strategic issue. From seeking to tap
sulphide deposits — containing valuable metals such as silver, gold, copper, manganese, cobalt and zinc — to phosphorus nodule mining for
phosphor-based fertilizers used in food production, the inter-state competition over seabed-mineral wealth underscores
the imperative for creating a regulatory regime, developing safe and effective ocean-development technologies, finding ways to share benefits
of the common heritage, and ensuring environmental protection. Inter-state competition over seabed minerals is sharpening in the Indian
Ocean, for example. Even China, an extra-regional power, has secured an international deep-seabed block in
southwestern Indian Ocean from the International Seabed Authority to explore for polymetallic sulphides. More broadly, some of
the outstanding boundary, sovereignty and jurisdiction issues — extending from the Arctic to the Indian
Ocean — carry serious conflict potential. The recrudescence of territorial and maritime disputes, largely
tied to competition over natural resources, will increasingly have a bearing on maritime peace and
security. Bangladesh and Myanmar have set an example by peacefully resolving a dispute over the delimitation of their maritime boundaries
in the Bay of Bengal. They took their dispute to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea for adjudication. The Tribunal’s verdict,
delivered in 2012, ended a potentially dangerous dispute that was fuelled in 2008 when, following the discovery of gas deposits in the Bay of
Bengal, Myanmar authorised exploration in a contested area, prompting Bangladesh to dispatch warships to the area. However, some
important maritime powers, including the U.S., are still not party to the 1982 U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Iran recently
seized an Indian oil tanker, holding it for about a month, but India could not file a complaint with the International Tribunal for the Law of the
Sea because Tehran has not ratified UNCLOS. The seizure of the tanker, carrying Iraqi oil, appeared to be an act of reprisal against India’s sharp
reduction of Iranian oil purchases under U.S. pressure. The threats to navigation and maritime freedoms, including in critical straits and
exclusive economic zones (EEZs), can be countered only through adherence to international rules by all parties as well as through monitoring,
regulation and enforcement. Great-power rivalries, however, continue to complicate international maritime security. The rivalries are mirrored
in foreign-aided port-building projects; attempts to assert control over energy supplies and transport routes as part of a 21st-century-version of
the Great Game; and the establishment of listening posts and special naval-access arrangements along the great trade arteries. The evolving
architecture of global governance will determine how the world handles the pressing maritime challenges it confronts. The
assertive
pursuit of national interest for relative gain in an increasingly interdependent world is hardly a recipe for
harmonious maritime relations. Another concern is the narrow, compartmentalised approach in which each maritime issue is
sought to be dealt with separately, instead of addressing the challenges in an integrated framework.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 200

Link- Soft Power


U.S. and Chinese soft power are zero-sum- plan threatens it
Singapore News, June 27, 2005, “China a growing soft power,”
http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore, accessed 5/12/14
"Today, China is an economic giant reshaping the landscape of world trade. China's growing soft power
makes it increasingly difficult for the United States to maintain a hard line against Chinese initiatives and
interests." Dr Tan said this was evident in the cross-Atlantic dispute over European countries lifting an arms embargo against China. And
Beijing is currently embarking on its most important public relations project - the 2008 Olympics - as a means to show the world what China can
"The question can be asked
do. So Dr Tan's conclusion is that softer forms of power are becoming increasingly important. He said:
whether the US has lost its monopoly on hard and soft power. "Between a status quo super power like
the US and a rising power like China, there will inevitably be tension and competition. "While most military,
technological and economic power remains concentrated in American hands, we can say that the relative soft power positions of China and the
US in Asia and in the world have undergone changes."

Chinese soft power’s vulnerable- plan saps their overall relevance


Jacques deLisle director of the Asia Program at FPRI, Professor of Law and professor of political science,
University of Pennsylvania, Fall 2010, “Soft Power in a Hard Place: China, Taiwan, Cross-Strait Relations
and U.S. Policy,” http://www.fpri.org/orbis/5404/delisle.chinataiwan.pdf, accessed 5/12/14
Third, key types of Chinese soft power resources remain thin. As many analysts at home and abroad have noted, China’s
political institutions and official values do not enjoy broad appeal, nor does China’s record on social
equity, the environment, international human rights and other matters.66 The international relevance,
content and even existence of a China Model for development are as much foci of debate as they are
rich sources of soft power that can alter foreigners’ attitudes and preferences in ways that serve Chinese interests. China’s soft
power remains heavily statist, lacking the popular culture, commercial and civil society dimensions that
provide much of the might of American soft power.67 A slowing of China’s growth rate or rise in its
perceived collateral costs is far from unimaginable and would dim the luster of the China Model. Even
continued success could sap soft power as a more prosperous China would become, like Taiwan,
seemingly less relevant to the developing world.

US/China soft power is zero sum


Singapore News, June 27, 2005, “China a growing soft power,”
http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore, accessed 5/12/14
China is a growing soft power, says Singapore's Deputy Prime Minister Tony Tan, referring to China's
economic and cultural influence. Dr Tan noted that both soft and hard power, which refers to military
capability, had been regarded a monopoly of the United States. But analysts now argue that the soft
power of the US may already have peaked as other players are learning to play the game, particularly
China.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 201

Internal Link – Asian Institutions


Water policy determines if Asian security will be cooperative or competitive- China is
key
Brahma Chellaney, Professor of Strategic Studies at the New Delhi-based Centre for Policy Research
and former Fellow at the Norwegian Nobel Institute, which wards the Nobel Peace Prize, November 5,
2013, Water: Asia's New Battleground, P. 247
Yet, despite such dependency on cross—border flows, intercountry water resources increasingly are being seen
from the national security prism by policy-makers in Asia. Indeed, with water becoming a prized resource, a number
of Asian nations already are jockeying to control upstream basin resources, prompting lower-riparian states to demand a say
in the building of large water projects on international rivers. Competition over water resources is becoming a source of
political tensions, heightening the risks of inter-riparian conflicts in the years ahead. Those risks are most
apparent when, as this chapter does, the water disputes of China, Israel, and India with their multiple neighbors are examined. The analysis
reveals that water
has emerged as a key issue capable of shaping the direction of tomorrows Asia—an Asia
on the path of building mutual security and prosperity through harmonious, ruled-based cooperation, or
an Asia driven by fierce resource competition and self-injurious power politics. Probably no country is
likely to influence that direction more than China because of its unique status.

China and water determine success of Asian institutions


Brahma Chellaney, Professor of Strategic Studies at the New Delhi-based Centre for Policy Research
and former Fellow at the Norwegian Nobel Institute, which wards the Nobel Peace Prize, November 5,
2013, Water: Asia's New Battleground, P. 15-16
Water indeed has emerged as a key issue that could determine whether Asia is beaded toward greater
cooperation or deleterious competition. No country would influence this direction more than China, which
controls the Tibetan Plateau, the source of most major rivers of Asia. Tibet’s vast glaciers and high altitude have endowed it with the world’s
greatest river systems. The future of the Tibetan Plateau’s water reserves is tied to ecological conservation and protection. But as China’s
hunger for primary commodities has grown, so too has its exploitation of Tibet’s rich water and mineral resources. Large hydropower projects
and a reckless exploitation of mineral resources already threaten Tibet’s fragile ecosystems, where ore tailings from mining operations are
beginning to contaminate water sources. The big issue in Asia, apart from climate change, is whether China will exploit its control of the Tibetan
Plateau to increasingly siphon off for its own use the waters of the international rivers that are the lileblood of the countries located in a
continuous arc from Vietnam to Afghanistan. China is not only building megadams on the international rivers running out of the Tibetan Plateau
but is also clamming the transboundary streams in its north and west that flow to Russia and Kazakhstan. Rudyard Kipling’s
“Great
Game,” played out over the middle to late nineteenth century, has been revived in the twenty-first century with new
competitors.44 Instead of Tsarist Russia taking on Imperial Britain in Central Asia, rising China—hungry for water, energy,
land, and raw materials—is shaping the new Great Game across much of Asia. Today, China is involved in
water disputes with most of its riparian neighbors—from the countries on the Indochina Peninsula and India to Kazakhstan and
Russia. Although China seems intent to aggressively pursue upstream projects on transnational rivers, the forestalling of water wars demands a
cooperative Asian framework among river basin states so that they can work toward a common ownership of shared resources and thereby
securely share the benefits. Broadly, water shortages threaten to intensify intrastate and interstate tensions in
Asia, besides spurring food insecurity, hindering rapid economic growth, promoting unemployment, and triggering large-scale migrations
within and across international borders. According to the FAOSTAT data maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations, the
water stress in Asia holds a direct bearing on Economic and human development as well as
environmental protection there. A 2009 report from the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
(UNESCAP) captured the Asian crisis through an Index of Water Available for Development—a measure of per capita water availability for
human, economic, and ecological uses per year on the basis of each country s internal renewable water resources minus total water used. This
index for selected countries, employing 1980 as the benchmark, reveals that there have been steep declines in water availability for
development since that year in several Asian nations, including the two giants that make up nearly two—fifths of the global population China
and India. The water situation in India appears the most ominous because of a dramatic decline in water availability for development during the
past three decades. The UNESCAP report gave the following warning about the regional water situation: “Water shortfalls on this scale heighten
competition for a precious resource and frequently lead to conflicts, which are emerging as new threats to social stability.’’

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 202

Internal Link – Asian Institutions


Asia lies at a crossroads between ruthless competition and new forms of cooperation-
water issues are the test case- key to growth and stability
Brahma Chellaney, Professor of Strategic Studies at the New Delhi-based Centre for Policy Research
and former Fellow at the Norwegian Nobel Institute, which wards the Nobel Peace Prize, November 5,
2013, Water: Asia's New Battleground, P. 300-301
This raises the question of whether, far from being liberal or rules—based, the new international order will be
influenced by authoritarian powers and be centered on the classical balance-of-power strategies of its major players. And this, in
turn, begs another question: Is Asia going to crimp its ability to shape the new global order by remaining an arena of old—style geopolitics? Or
will the prospects of shared prosperity and stability propel Asian states to pursue growing institutionalized cooperation on the basis of shared
interests? In past history, the competition for a balance of power centered on Europe. Even the Cold War was not really an East\West rivalry
but a competition between two blocs over Europe. For the first time, with the world at a defining moment in its
history, developing a stable and durable balance of power in Asia has become critical to international
peace and security. The global power equilibrium, in fact, will be greatly influenced by developments in
Asia, whose significance in international relations, in some respects, is beginning to rival that of Europe in the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Yet the geopolitical risks of greater tensions, brinkmanship, and
strained relationships are increasing in Asia. Present trends suggest that Asia’s power dynamics are likely to remain fluid, as
new or shifting alliances, strengthened military capabilities, and sharpening resource competition continue to challenge
strategic stability. This has only reinforced the need to find new ways to stabilize important interstate relationships and promote
cooperative Asian approaches to help tackle festering security, resource, territorial, and history issues. If Asian nations choose
collaborative approaches, Asia certainly will be able to preserve ie, stability, and continued rapid
economic growth, besides helping to reform global institutions in such a way that it gains a much greater say in
international political, financial, and security matters. ASIA’S TEST ON THE FRESHWATER FRONT Against this background, water
has emerged as a test case of Asia’s ability to build cooperation, not competition, over a critical
resource. The mounting water stress indeed is a key security challenge for Asia, where the combination of the worlds
fastest economic growth and the largest concentration of population is fueling spiraling demand for
water and energy. Asia’s economic renaissance has only whetted intercountry rivalries on matters ranging from resource acquisition to
geopolitical influence. Environmentally unsustainable national development policies, coupled with the pursuit of narrow geopolitical objectives,
have intensified interstate competition over shared basin resources. Such policies and practices represent a danger to regional and
environmental security and to long—term hydrological stability. The exacerbation of resource competition due to economic and social
pressures at home, interstate territorial and maritime disputes, and sharpening geopolitics threatens to engender conflict and
stall Asia’s continued rapid growth.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 203

Impact– Asian Instability


Asian instability risks extinction
Paul Kennedy, Profess of IR at Yale, Jan. 10, 2000, Daily Yomiuri, “21st Century--Dialogues on the
Future/ Globalization's sway in evolution of states put in focus,” http://the-japan-
news.com/news/article/0001306566, accessed 5/25/14
Kennedy: Over the past two or three decades, many Asian nations have increased their defense budgets, while European
countries have done otherwise. During this time, there have been many flash points in Asia, such North Korea, Taiwan
and Kashmir. Some Asian countries have developed nuclear weapons, as contrasted with few Europeans who even
want nuclear power stations today. We have good reason to feel worried that Asia could become a tinderbox should there be
any conflict in disputed territories like the Spratly Islands and an autistic North Korean regime that does
not bother to understand the outside world. Taiwan is often rash to provoke Beijing, while the Kashmir
conflict could grow into an India-Pakistan war. There is great concern about how we should ensure that bitter rivalries in
the Asian part of the globe will not bring down a system that is emerging in the world now. We do not
want a repeat of 1914. I am concerned that an armed conflict might arise in South or East Asia in 2008,
for example, and bring down the credit, financial flow and capital in the region. Irie: I share Prof. Kennedy's sense
of pessimism about some serious problems facing the world today. There are many more sovereign nations today, and the majority of them are
newly independent states. Therefore, they are even more nationalistic. Nationalism has often served as the only symbol of national unity for
some African, Asian and Middle Eastern countries that have been grated in their regions without national traditions comparable to those of
European countries. This has made matters even worse. Nationalism is all that can keep a country together. It is essential to ensure
that local conflicts will be kept from blowing up the entire world.

Asia is key to the global economy


Ralph Cossa, President of Pacific Forum CSIS, February 2009, “The United States and the Asia-Pacific
Region: Security Strategy for the Obama Administration,” www.cna.org/documents/CampbellPatel
Ford_US_Asia-Pacific_February2009.pdf, accessed 5/15/14
Asia is reemerging as a central political and economic player and an engine of the global economy.
The countries in East and Southeast Asia house almost one-third of the world’s population, generate
about a quarter of global output, and produce about a quarter of global exports. Asian manufacturers
have captured a large share of global production chains. Asian governments and government- controlled
institutions hold about two-thirds of the world’s $6 trillion-plus foreign exchange reserves. Until the recent
financial crisis, growth rates in many parts of Asia in the last decade approached or exceeded double digits,
lifting tens of millions of people out of absolute poverty. Asia’s market-oriented policies and successful
engagement with the global economy set a good example for other regions. By almost any measure,
Asia is highly globalized. Growing wealth and technological sophistication mean that Asian
governments and private actors have greater capacity than ever before to help stabilize the global
economy and contribute to the solution of global problems. By the same token, threats from Asia, such as crime and disease, can also
spread quickly, exacerbating these problems. Asia’s growing demand for energy and other resources has created tensions among nations
and environmental problems that yield new security threats and challenges. For example, Chinese and Indian demand for energy and other
commodities was a major factor in the run-up of energy and commodity prices in 2006 and 2007, and will continue to influence global
markets in the decades to come. A decade ago, Asia was an important economic region; today it is critical for U.S. prosperity.
Two-way merchandise trade between the United States and Asia is almost $1 trillion a year, amounting to 27 percent of total U.S.
merchandise trade with the world versus 19 percent with the European Union. (Europe leads in investment ties, however, and Canada and
Mexico are the top two U.S. trading partners.) Asia straddles vital sea lines of com-munication for the United States and its allies, partners,
and friends. The world’s six largest ports, both container and cargo, are in Asia.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 204

Impact- Asian Institutions- Terror & Disease


Strengthening East Asian regional security efforts is key to solve terrorism, territorial
disputes, disease, environmental degradation, and maritime security
Dick Nanto, Specialist in Industry and Trade Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division for
Congressional Research Services, January 4, 2008, “East Asian Regional Architecture: New Economic
and Security Arrangements and U.S. Policy,” www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33653.pdf, accessed 5/25/14
A stronger regional security organization in East Asia could play a role in quelling terrorism by violent
extremists. Since terrorism is a transnational problem, the United States relies on international
cooperation to counter it. Without close multilateral cooperation, there are simply too many nooks and
crannies for violent extremists to exploit. Currently, most of that cooperation is bilateral or between the
United States and its traditional allies. While the ASEAN Regional Forum and ASEAN + 3, for example, have addressed the issue of terrorism,
neither has conducted joint counter-terrorism exercises as has the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Neither organization as a group,
moreover, has joined U.S. initiatives aimed at North Korean nuclear weapons (e.g., the Proliferation Security Initiative). Meanwhile, tensions
continue across the Taiwan Strait, and disputes over territory and drilling rights have flared up between China and Japan and between Japan
and South Korea. (For the United States, there is a growing possibility of nationalist territorial conflicts between two or more U.S. allies.102)
The North Korean nuclear issue remains unresolved; North Korea has conducted tests of ballistic missiles and a nuclear weapon; and the
oppressive military rule in Burma/Myanmar continues. Added
to these concerns are several regional issues: diseases
(such as avian flu, SARS, and AIDS), environmental degradation, disaster mitigation and prevention, high seas piracy, and
weapons proliferation.

Terrorism triggers global nuke war


Speice, Associate at Gibson, Dunn, and Crutcher, 2006, 47 Wm and Mary L. Rev. 1427, accessed
5/20/14
Accordingly,
there is a significant and ever-present risk that terrorists could acquire a nuclear device or
fissile material from Russia as a result of the confluence of Russian economic decline and the end of
stringent Soviet-era nuclear security measures. Terrorist groups could acquire a nuclear weapon by a number of
methods, including “steal[ing] one intact from the stockpile of a country possessing such weapons, or …[being] sold or given one by such a
country, or [buying or stealing] one from another subnational group that had obtained it in one of these ways.” Equally threatening,
however, is the risk that terrorists will steal or purchase fissile material and construct a nuclear device on their own. Very little material is
necessary to construct a highly destructive nuclear weapon. Although nuclear devices are extraordinarily complex, the technical barriers to
constructing a workable weapon are not significantMoreover, the end of the Cold War eliminated the rationale for maintaing a large
military-industrial complex in Russia, and the nuclear cities were closed. This resulted in at least 35,000 former scientists who are
unemployed or underpaid and who are too young to retire, raising the chilling prospect that these scientists will be tempted to sell their
nuclear knowledge, or steal nuclear material to sell, to states or terrorist organization with nuclear ambitions. The potential consequences
of the unchecked spread of nuclear knowledge and material to terrorist groups that seek to cause mass destruction in the United States are
truly horrifying. A
terrorist attack with a nuclear weapon would be devastating in terms of human and
economic losses. Moreover, there would be immense political pressure in the United States to
discover the perpetrators and retaliate with nuclear weapons, massively increasing the number of
casualties and potentially triggering a full-scale nuclear conflict.

Drug resistant diseases threaten human extinction


Corey Powell, Staff Writer, October 2000, “Twenty Ways the World Could End,” Discover Magazine,
http://discovermagazine.com/2000/oct/featworld, accessed 5-2-2013
If Earth doesn't do us in, our fellow organisms might be up to the task. Germs and people have always
coexisted, but occasionally the balance gets out of whack. The Black Plague killed one European in four during the 14th
century; influenza took at least 20 million lives between 1918 and 1919; the AIDS epidemic has produced a similar death toll and is still going
strong. From1980 to 1992, reports the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, mortality from
infectious disease in the United States rose 58 percent. Old diseases such as cholera and measles have
developed new resistance to antibiotics. Intensive agriculture and land development is bringing humans
closer to animal pathogens. International travel means diseases can spread faster than ever.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 205

Impact- Asian Institutions- Economy


An enhanced Asian regional security regime covering maritime security is key to
prevent a collapse of the global economy and international trade
JD Davis, Lieutenant Commander US Navy, 2006, “Maritime Security and the Strait of Malacca: A
Strategic Analysis, www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA479400, accessed 5/12/14
The Strait of Malacca is one of the world’s most important waterways. The global importance of this
waterway is such that its closure, or even restriction, would severely impact world economies. The strait
stretches from Singapore to the Aceh region of Indonesia (see figure 1) and handles over 25 percent of the world’s
commerce and over one half of the world’s oil shipping.1 It is second only to the Strait of Hormuz in the amount of oil
alone that passes through its waters, 11.7 million barrels per day in 2004.2 Other raw materials, such as ore and textile materials destined for
goods from those factories, are moved constantly through the strait, impacting
factories, as well as the finished
the United States’ and other Pacific nations’ economies. The Lloyds Market Association, advisors to the
Lloyds of London insurance underwriters, has recently declared the Strait a “war risk zone” based on
piracy and terrorism concerns.3 This declaration may be a bellwether of conditions in the strait and the
countries that surround it. 1There are over 200 straits and canals throughout the world. Only a few are considered strategic
chokepoints for the movement of raw and finished goods. Fewer still are controlled by multiple nations. The confined waters of a
strait make the ships that transit them vulnerable to piracy and terrorism. The ability to secure these
straits while allowing for innocent passage is exceedingly more difficult in areas where straits are
controlled by multiple nations. Straits controlled by a single nation, such as the Bosporous Strait
controlled by Turkey, do not require bilateral or multilateral agreements in order to delineate security
procedures or security responsibilities.4 Straits controlled by multiple nations present sovereignty and
enforcement issues making security agreements that establish security and enforcement procedures
imperative.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 206

Impact- Containment
Chinese perception of containment emboldens nationalist aggression- causes great
power war from miscalculation
Ramesh Thakur, Director of the Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament, Crawford
School of Public Policy, Australian National University, Feb 7, 2013, “Turning China into an enemy,”
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2013/02/07/, accessed 5/15/14
Fourth, for China, matters of status and identity trump calculations of economic gain and pain. We may believe
that the growing integration and interdependence of China with the global economy makes armed conflict too costly, and that the Pacific
military balance is weighted so heavily toward the United States that Beijing would not be foolish enough to challenge Washington.
What if
China believes that the costs to Washington would be so high that the U.S. would back down? Along
many such misperceptions and miscalculations do the bloody rivers of human history flow into the
ocean of oblivion for once-great powers. It would be foolish to underestimate the power of raw politics
to inflame nationalist passions to the point of a destructive conflagration. During this critical transition,
conflict will turn to war if China’s legitimate aspirations are thwarted and its interests attacked, particularly
in the context of two centuries of slights, injustices and humiliations inflicted on it by the West and Japan. But equally, the stage will be set for
conflict down the line if the opposite posture of appeasement is adopted. The rise in tensions over disputed claims to islands and rocky
outcrops in the South China Sea has the potential to impact adversely on Australia’s interests. As argued by professor Michael Wesley, more
than half of Australia’s trade passes through these seas; any outbreak of armed conflict to Australia’s north would destabilize its strategic
region; and any restrictions on the U.S. naval presence and movements would degrade the Pacific strategic balance to Australia’s net
disadvantage. How should Australia respond? According to former ambassador to China Geoff Raby, Australia’s 2009 defense white paper “was
read and understood by media in both Australia and China as being about the ‘China threat’. ” Some believe that in Chinese eyes, Canberra has
joined the U.S. in a de facto containment strategy as indicated by public statements in both capitals, the U.S. pivot to Asia, the decision to
station a new contingent of U.S. marines in Darwin, and the buildup of military links with India by both. Others counter that China’s rapid
military modernization and assertive behavior pose a direct challenge to the U.S. and allies that requires a robust response. A third group is
skeptical of the quality of China’s military and believes that the U.S. and allies will retain a significant edge well into the foreseeable future. It is
premature to accommodate to the realities of China’s power, although it would be dangerously provocative to develop an indigenous military
capability to challenge China around Australia’s approaches. A policy of containment could become self-fulfilling by
provoking China’s hostility. Former Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser has voiced concern that under the rhetorical rubric of a strategic
pivot to Asia, with Australian complicity-cum-collusion, the U.S. risks turning China into an enemy that Australia does not
need and China does not want to be.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 207

Impact- Chinese Soft Power

Leadership in ocean development is key to Chinese national prestige


Takeda Jun’ichi, Visiting Research Fellow at the Ocean Policy Research Foundation, Apr 23, 2014,
“China’s Rise as a Maritime Power: Ocean Policy from Mao Zedong to Xi Jinping”,
http://islandstudies.oprf-info.org/research/a00011/, accessed 5/14/14
Ocean-related economic activity accounts for almost 10% of China’s gross domestic product, and the share is said to be above 16% in coastal
regions. This activity is the source of some 33.5 million jobs. Meanwhile, the growth rate of the Chinese economy was 7.8% in 2012, falling
below 8% for the first time in 13 years. In the context of this slowdown, local authorities particularly in coastal regions are
looking at
the seas as a new engine of growth to replace the urban development activities that have leveled off,
and they have been coming out one after another with plans for marine economic development. One
now often hears comments from key officials declaring that China’s future is as a maritime power and
that the marine economy is the engine for achieving this. In 2010 China overtook Japan in terms of
nominal GDP, becoming the world’s second-largest economy. And it has a huge pool of scientific researchers. But it produces few
scientific or technological innovations on its own, and it has a low ratio of domestically developed key core technologies. And
it has been noted that the level of transfer of research results to industry is still not high. Even so, under its system of one-party rule, China is
able to carry out basic and cutting-edge research under state auspices in areas that are not commercially profitable, along with large-
scale projects in fields like space development and military technology; these activities double
as boosters of national prestige. In
the field of maritime research, in 2012 the Jiaolong, a domestically built submersible, carried its crew to a maximum depth of 7,062
meters in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean, an accomplishment that suggests the potential for exploitation of
deep-sea resources. And in 2011 China successfully launched the Haiyang 2 (HY-2), an observation satellite capable of real-time
monitoring of dynamic conditions in the ocean environment. The keywords for China’s new oceanic frontiers are “deep-
sea,” “polar,” and “space.”

Chinese international influence is an existential impact


Wei Wei Zhang, Prof of Diplomacy and IR at the Geneva School of Diplomacy. 9/4/2012“The Rise of
China’s Political Softpower” http://www.china.org.cn/opinion/2012-09/04/content_ 26421330.htm,
accessed 5/25/14
As China plays an increasingly significant role in the world, its soft power must be attractive both
domestically as well as internationally. The world faces many difficulties, including widespread poverty,
international conflict, the clash of civilizations and environmental protection. Thus far, the Western
model has not been able to decisively address these issues; the China model therefore brings hope that
we can make progress in conquering these dilemmas.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 208

China Alternative Energy DA

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 209

Explanation
This disadvantage argues that an expansion of US alternative energy produced from the oceans trades
off with Chinese alternative energy. The impact to this tradeoff is that Chinese growth becomes
unsustainable if it lacks a vibrant alternative energy sector. A decline in their economic potential causes
the Chinese Communist Party to lose control over the population which causes a variety of terrible
things to happen. Contained within this file are links to two major affirmative; OTEC and offshore wind.
This file also contains a large number of affirmative answers to this position. You should be ready to
answer this DA if your affirmative expands the use of alternative energies that draw their power from
the oceans.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 210

1NC China Alternative Energy DA


China is winning in ocean renewable energy and renewable energy overall
Steve Hargreaves, senior writer, 9-23-2010, “China winning renewable energy race,” CNN Money,
http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/21/news/international/china_renewables/ Accessed 5-5-2014
NEW YORK (CNNMoney.com) -- Five miles off the coast of Shanghai, the Chinese recently completed the
country's first offshore wind farm.¶ The project was completed before construction on the first American
offshore wind farm has even begun.¶ 204¶ Email¶ Print¶ Comment¶ The Shanghai project is not just
another wind farm. It's the next generation in wind power technology and the latest example of how
China is jumping ahead of the United States.¶ Earlier this month, the accounting firm Ernst & Young
named China the most attractive place to invest in renewables, knocking the United States out of the
top position.¶ The study ranked countries on such things as regulatory risk, access to finance, grid
connection and tax climate. It cited the lack of a clear policy promoting demand for renewables in the
United States -- a product of Congress' failure to pass an energy bill -- as one of the main factors for the
dethroning.¶ China has already surpassed the United States in the amount of wind turbines and solar
panels that it makes. China is also gaining on the United States when it comes to how much of their
energy comes from renewable energy sources.¶ The country that leads in the renewable energy industry,
is opening the door to more home-grown jobs.¶

Expanding US alternative energy trades off with Chinese energy –


David Roberts, a staff writer for Grist, 2-11-2011, “Are we in a ‘clean energy race’ with China?” Grist,
http://grist.org/energy-policy/2011-02-10-are-we-in-a-clean-energy-race-with-china/ Accessed 5-5-2014
Fears of China lead quickly to calls for protectionism, through steep barriers to clean energy imports
or to Chinese investment in U.S. clean energy projects and firms; investment and imports are currently
relatively small, but have great potential to grow. Such moves hurt support for Washington’s efforts to
open up foreign markets (including Chinese ones) to U.S. firms. They slow the flow of clean energy
technology across borders, stifling innovation and delaying much-needed cuts in the cost of green
technology. They starve capital-hungry U.S. firms of investment, while depriving U.S. consumers of
access to cheaper sources of pollution-free power. At the same time, the Sputnik rhetoric is bound to
sap lawmakers’ enthusiasm for the sort of clean energy cooperation with China that President Barack
Obama will push for during Hu’s visit. This will hobble the development of cheaper sources of clean
energy, delaying the much-needed expansion of clean energy markets and increasing costs for U.S.
consumers.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 211

1NC China Alternative Energy DA


Chinese energy expansion key to Chinese economic growth
Liu Yuanyuan, Director of Operations and Co-Founder of Nanjing Shanglong Communications, 2-1-
2012, “China Set to Vigorously Develop Green Economy ,” Renewable Energy World,
http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2012/02/china-set-to-vigorously-develop-
green-economy Accessed 5-5-2014
BEIJING -- Due to growing urbanization and resulting environmental threats, China has invested nearly
US$50 billion annually into its renewable energy sector since 2009. China's five-year investment in
environmental protection is on track to reach 3.1 trillion yuan (US$454 billion). By 2015, its
environmental protection industry is expected to top 2 trillion yuan (US$317 billion).¶ China will
introduce favorable tax and financial policies to support the development of its green economy,
according to its 12th five-year plan, which started last year. A strong “green” policy is essential if China is
to maintain its rapid and sustainable growth. "China will build a good fund raising environment for
companies to develop green technologies by establishing green technology investment and related
equity funds," said Wang Yuqing, deputy director of the Committee of Population, Resources and
Environment of the CPPCC National Committee. ¶ The transition to a global green economy may
generate a large market exceeding US$1 trillion. During the 12th five-year plan period, the Chinese
government will invest US$468 billion in green sectors compared to US$211 billion over the previous
five-year period, with a focus on three sectors: waste recycling and re-utilization; clean technologies;
and renewable energy. With this amount of public investment, China's environmental protection
industry is expected to continue growing at an average of 15 to 20 percent per year, and its industrial
output is expected to reach US$743 billion, up from US$166 billion in 2010. The multiplier effect of this
emerging sector is estimated to be 8 to 10 times larger than other industry sectors.

Nuclear war results from Chinese economic collapse


Herbert Yee, Professor of Politics and International Relations at the Hong Kong Baptist University, and
Ian Storey, Lecturer in Defence Studies at Deakin University, 2002, “The China Threat: Perceptions,
Myths and Reality,” RoutledgeCurzon, 5. Accessed 5-5-2014
The forth factor contributing to the perception of a China threat is the fear of political and economic
collapse in the PRC, resulting in territorial fragmentation, civil war and waves of refugees pouring into
neighbouring countries. Naturally, any or all of these scenarios would have a profoundly negative impact
on regional stability. Today the Chinese leadership faces a raft of internal problems, including the
increasing political demands of its citizens, a growing population, a shortage of natural resources and a
deterioration in the natural environment caused by rapid industrialization and pollution. These
problems are putting a strain on the central government’s ability to govern effectively. Political
disintegration or a Chinese civil war might result in millions of Chinese refugees seeking asylum in
neighbouring countries. Such an unprecedented exodus of refugees from a collapsed PRC would no
doubt put a severe strain on the limited resources of China’s neighbours. A fragmented China could also
result in another nightmare scenario—nuclear weapons falling into the hands of irresponsible local
provincial leaders or warlords. From this perspective a disintegrating China would also pose a threat to
its neighbours and the world.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 212

Yes Chinese Ocean Energy


China is winning the ocean energy race
Simon Hall, energy analyst, 4-2-2014, “China at the helm in global race to harness power of the sea,”
The Australian, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/wall-street-journal/china-at-the-helm-in-
global-race-to-harness-power-of-the-sea/story-fnay3ubk-1226871337724# Accessed 5-5-2014
A RACE is under way to unlock one of the world’s biggest untapped sources of clean energy — the ocean
— with China emerging as an important testing ground.¶ That could heighten competition with Western
companies down the line, especially if Chinese businesses begin using technologies developed with
joint-venture partners.¶ The EU so far has led efforts to harness the sea to make electricity, for which
there are three principal techniques: underwater turbines that draw power from the ebb and flow of
tides, surface-based floats that rely on wave motion, and systems that exploit differences in water
temperature.¶ The world’s first commercial, grid-connected tidal-flow generator was installed in
Northern Ireland in 2008. Germany’s Siemens, a big investor in wave and tidal power, predicts that tidal
currents alone could power 250 million households worldwide. France’s Alstom also is developing the
technology.¶ But with 17,000km of coastline rich with energy potential and pollution that is getting
worse, China is seen by many as an ideal location to pioneer and commercialise ocean-energy
technologies.¶ China is increasing spending in the sector, and foreign companies, including Lockheed
Martin of the US are testing equipment and entering joint ventures in the country.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 213

Yes Chinese Alternative Energy


China is winning the race
Ariel Schwartz, senior editor, 5-1-2013, “China Is Still Winning The Clean Energy Race,” Fast Coexist,
http://www.fastcoexist.com/1681871/china-is-still-winning-the-clean-energy-race Accessed 5-5-2014
The U.S. simply can’t match China’s ability to deploy solar panels and wind turbines--and other countries
are starting to catch up.¶ The clean energy sector--especially the solar industry--has looked a little
depressing in the past few years, especially in the bankruptcy-ridden U.S. and China. And yet, the annual
Pew clean energy report implores us to stay optimistic. Because while clean energy investments
dropped 11% in 2012 compared to the previous year’s levels, the solar industry added 88 GW of
generating capacity--a new record.¶ Pew’s Who’s Winning the Clean Energy Race? report tells us that, as
in previous years, China is still winning, with $65.1 billion in investments in 2012 (up 20% from 2011)
and 25% of all solar investments worldwide. The country also attracted 37% of wind investments and
47% of renewable investments lumped into the "other" category, which includes biomass, geothermal,
and hydro power. All that in spite of the fact that nearly 200 Chinese solar companies merged or went
out of business in 2012.

China is winning the clean energy race


Meg Handley, political analyst, 4-17-2013, “China Leads the Renewable Energy World,” US News,
http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/04/17/china-leads-the-renewable-energy-world Accessed
5-5-2014
In the global clean energy race, China reclaimed the top spot from the United States in terms of
attracting investment to its clean energy sector, "advancing its position as the epicenter of clean energy"
according to a new report released by the Pew Charitable Trusts Wednesday.¶ Investors shoveled more
than $65 billion into China's wind, solar, and other renewable energy projects in 2012, 20 percent more
than in 2011 and 30 percent of total clean energy investment in G-20 countries.¶ [POLL: Americans
Overwhelmingly Support Alternative Energy]¶ The investment ramping up in China underscores a more
fundamental shift in the global clean energy sector, Asia (and Oceania) are emerging as the leaders in
renewable energy initiatives and installations. Investment in the region grew 16 percent, to more than
$100 billion in 2012, accounting for about 42 percent of total global investment in the clean energy
sector.

Non-US and non-Chinese countries can’t keep up


Meg Handley, political analyst, 4-17-2013, “China Leads the Renewable Energy World,” US News,
http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/04/17/china-leads-the-renewable-energy-world
Meanwhile, investment in the Middle East, Africa, and even Europe declined 22 percent. Experts blame
the lack of policy certainty for the pullback in clean energy progress in traditional leading markets such
as Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Spain, where the government has curtailed state-sponsored
incentive programs in light of recent budget woes.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 214

Yes Chinese Alternative Energy


China is beating the US in the clean tech race
Meg Handley, political analyst, 4-17-2013, “China Leads the Renewable Energy World,” US News,
http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/04/17/china-leads-the-renewable-energy-world Accessed
5-5-2014
Likewise in the United States, the on-again-off-again nature of clean energy programs such as the wind
production tax credit have made investors more hesitant to make large financial commitments in the
sector.¶ [REPORT: Solar Scores Big Gains in Electricity Generation]¶ "This is largely due to policy
uncertainty," says Phyllis Cuttino, director of Pew's clean energy program. "We have no clean energy
standard and while there are tax incentives on the books for oil and gas, there are none for clean
energy. That makes investors a little nervous."¶ The decline is a double-whammy for the United States
according to Cuttino, because it's the U.S. that has pushed clean energy technology the furthest.¶ "This is
a sector of the global economy that we've traditionally led," Cuttino adds. "We have invented many of
the clean energy technologies, so to see China come along and the United States fall back is very
troubling."

Investments prove China is winning the clean energy race


Steve Hargreaves, senior writer, 9-23-2010, “China winning renewable energy race,” CNN Money,
http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/21/news/international/china_renewables/ Accessed 5-5-2014
Cash is pouring in: From an investment point of view, the trend is clear.¶ In 2009, nearly $35 billion in
private money flowed into Chinese renewable energy projects, including factories that make wind
turbines and solar panels, according to the research firm Bloomberg New Energy Finance. The United
States attracted under $19 billion.¶ "Within the past 18 months, China has become the undisputed global
leader in attracting new investment dollars," Ethan Zindler, head of policy analysis at New Energy
Finance, recently told a congressional committee.¶ Zindler said the money came from not only the
Chinese government and banks, but also Western private equity funds and individual investors buying
publicly-traded Chinese stocks.

Job expansion proves China is winning the renewable energy race


Steve Hargreaves, senior writer, 9-23-2010, “China winning renewable energy race,” CNN Money,
http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/21/news/international/china_renewables/ Accessed 5-5-2014
Jobs growth, for China: The result of all this investment money is jobs.¶ In wind power, China-based
companies are on track to make 39% of the turbines sold worldwide in 2010, according to New Energy
Finance. U.S.-based companies will make just 12%.¶ In solar, China-based firms will make 43% of the
panels. U.S. firms will make 9%.¶ "Countries that make the most investments will create the most jobs,"
said Chris Lafakis, an economist at Moody's Analytics, an economic consultancy.¶ Lafakis, citing a Pew
Charitable Trusts study, noted that the overall "green" economy is still pretty small - in the U.S. it
employees 770,000 people. But It's growing rapidly - three times as fast as the overall economy.¶ "It's
important to invest in this sector because the jobs of tomorrow will be created here," he said.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 215

Yes Chinese Alternative Energy


Chinese renewable technology is growing and is key to Chinese stability
Thomas Friedman, writer for the NYT, 9-18-2010, “Aren’t we clever?” NYT,
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/19/opinion/19friedman.html Accessed 5-5-2014
“There is really no debate about climate change in China,” said Peggy Liu, chairwoman of the Joint U.S.-China Collaboration
on Clean Energy, a nonprofit group working to accelerate the greening of China. “China’s leaders are mostly engineers and scientists, so they
don’t waste time questioning scientific data.” The push for green in China, she added, “is a practical discussion on health and
wealth. There is no need to emphasize future consequences when people already see, eat and breathe pollution every day.” And because
runaway pollution in China means wasted lives, air, water, ecosystems and money — and wasted money means fewer
jobs and
more political instability — China’s leaders would never go a year (like we will) without energy legislation
mandating new ways to do more with less. It’s a three-for-one shot for them. By becoming more energy efficient per unit of G.D.P., China saves
money, takes the lead in the next great global industry and earns credit with the world for mitigating climate change. So while America’s
Republicans turned “climate change” into a four-letter word — J-O-K-E — China’s Communists also turned it into a four-letter word — J-O-B-S.
“China is changing from the factory of the world to the clean-tech laboratory of the world,” said Liu. “It has
the unique ability to pit low-cost capital with large-scale experiments to find models that work.” China has
designated and invested in pilot cities for electric vehicles, smart grids, LED lighting, rural biomass and low-carbon communities. “They’re able
to quickly throw spaghetti on the wall to see what clean-tech models stick, and then have the political will to scale them quickly across the
country,” Liu added. “This allows China to create jobs and learn quickly.”

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 216

Yes Chinese OTEC


China is winning the OTEC race
Seeking Alpha, 4-1-2014, “China leads in ocean energy technology, with help from Lockheed
Martin,” http://seekingalpha.com/news/1655083-china-leads-in-ocean-energy-technology-with-help-
from-lockheed-martin Accessed 5-5-2014
WSJ explores the race underway to unlock one of the world's biggest untapped sources of clean energy -
the ocean - and China, with 11K miles of coastline rich in energy potential and pollution that is getting
worse, is at the cutting edge in sea-energy technology development.¶ Underwater turbines (like wind
farms, but out of sight), dynamic tidal power walls and ocean thermal energy converters are among
young technologies that may come to harness marine power.¶ China is stepping up spending in the
sector, often working with foreign companies such as Lockheed Martin (LMT) testing equipment and
entering joint ventures in the country.

China is leading in the OTEC race


Simon Hall, reporter, 3-31-2014, “China's New Wager: Pulling Energy From the Ocean,” WSJ,
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303287804579446904069462752 Accessed 5-
5-2014
HONG KONG—A race is under way to unlock one of the world's biggest untapped sources of clean
energy—the ocean—with China emerging as an important testing ground.¶ That could heighten
competition with Western companies, especially if Chinese businesses begin using technologies
developed with joint-venture partners to expand rapidly.¶ The European Union so far has led efforts to
harness the sea to make electricity, for which there are three principal techniques: underwater turbines
that draw power from the ebb and flow of tides, surface-based floats that rely on wave motion and
systems that exploit differences in water temperature.¶ The world's first commercial, grid-connected
tidal-flow generator was installed in Northern Ireland in 2008. Germany's Siemens AG SIE.XE +0.60% , a
big investor in wave and tidal power, predicts that tidal currents alone could someday power 250 million
households world-wide. France's Alstom SA ALO.FR -0.93% also is developing the technology.¶ Related¶
Global Warming Impacts Widespread, U.N. Panel Says¶ But with 11,000 miles of coastline rich with
energy potential and pollution that is getting worse, China is seen by many experts as an ideal location
to pioneer and commercialize ocean-energy technologies.¶ China is stepping up spending in the sector,
and foreign companies including U.S.-based Lockheed Martin Corp. LMT -0.36% are testing equipment
and entering joint ventures in the country.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 217

Link – OTEC
China is winning the OTEC race – expanding US production causes patent fights which
destroy the industry
Ben Winkley, reporter, 4-1-2014, “Energy Journal: China Dips a Toe in the Ocean,” WSJ,
http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2014/04/01/energy-journal-china-dips-a-toe-in-the-ocean/ Accessed
5-5-2014
Underwater turbines (like wind farms, but out of sight), dynamic tidal-power walls and ocean thermal-
energy converters are the nascent technologies chosen to harness this power and Europe is leading the
efforts to do this.¶ Now, though, China is stepping up to the plate. The Wall Street Journal’s Simon Hall
explains how, with 11,000 miles of coastline rich in energy potential, and pollution that is getting worse,
China is seen as the ideal testing ground for some of this technology.¶ Many alternative-energy
executives are hopeful that China’s involvement will bring the day closer when marine power becomes a
significant part of world energy supply.¶ Others fear an intensification of competition between the
Peoples’ Republic and the West, resulting in a repeat of what happened in other “green” sectors where
disputes about patents have stymied growth and sector development.

Chinese and US OTEC are in competition – expanding US OTEC causes patent battles
Simon Hall, reporter, 3-31-2014, “China's New Wager: Pulling Energy From the Ocean,” WSJ,
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303287804579446904069462752 Accessed 5-
5-2014
Some experts predict cooperation between Western and Chinese marine-energy pioneers could turn
into heated competition as the market develops, repeating what happened in the wind and solar
sectors. A European Commission strategy paper in January warned of future competition from foreign
businesses for a market potentially valued at hundreds of billions of dollars and urged bloc governments
to back domestic projects.¶ "Without a doubt, we will see a rise in the number of disputes between
Chinese and foreign companies over renewables technology patents, including marine energy," says
Xiang Wang, a Beijing-based lawyer with Orrick, Herrington and Sutcliffe. The rapid growth in Chinese
companies' share of wind and solar equipment manufacturing prompted U.S. and EU antidumping and
antisubsidy measures in the past two years and has fueled patent disputes.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 218

Link – Offshore Wind


China is winning the offshore wind race but it can change
Tom Carlson, energy analyst, 2-6-2014, “STATE: Though Hardly an Olympic Event, Race for Offshore
Wind Heats Up,” Advanced Energy Economy, http://blog.aee.net/state-though-hardly-an-olympic-
event-race-for-offshore-wind-heats-up Accessed 5-5-2014
Last month, AEE and more than 60 companies and partner organizations delivered a letter to Congress
calling for the extension of critical tax credits, including the production tax credit (PTC) and the ITC as an
alternative to the PTC for utility-scale wind power (typically seen as more valuable for offshore wind
than for on-shore), which expired at the close of 2013. As noted in the letter, federal tax credits have
played a key role in priming the pump for innovative energy technologies, dating back to the 1926
percentage depletion allowance for oil and gas extraction. The PTC/ITC credits remain critical to the U.S.
getting into the offshore wind game, which is well developed in Europe and getting ramped up in China
as well.¶ According to DOE, U.S. offshore wind resources are four times the nation’s current total
generation capacity. Despite this potential, if offshore wind development was an international olympic
event, the United States would be nowhere near the medal stand. Collectively, European nations have
built out over 6,500 MW, while China, Japan, and South Korea also have offshore wind turbines
installed. Besides Maine, many states are looking to change this dynamic.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 219

Chinese Alternative Energy Good


Chinese development spills over to long run global development
Simon Hall, reporter, 3-31-2014, “China's New Wager: Pulling Energy From the Ocean,” WSJ,
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303287804579446904069462752 Accessed 5-
5-2014
Many alternative-energy executives are hopeful, however, that China's involvement will bring the day
closer when marine power becomes a significant part of world energy supply.¶ "Sea-wave technology is a
rising star in the renewable-energy sector," says S.D.E. Chief Executive Shmuel Ovadia. What is
happening in China "might inspire other countries and other entities to support wave-energy
technologies."

China is crucial for the expansion of renewable energy


Jason Bellini, wsj, and Robin Young, npr, 4-1-2014, “China Bets On Harnessing The Ocean For Clean
Energy,” http://kvpr.org/post/china-bets-harnessing-ocean-clean-energy Accessed 4-22-2014
China's rapid industrialization and its dependence on coal have created heavy smog and climate change-
producing emissions, so much so that the country's premier, Li Keqiang, declared war on pollution in a
major speech last month. Part of the battle: speeding up development of solar and wind energy and
spending a lot of money tapping into ocean power.¶ And that's picked the interest of Jason Bellini of the
Wall Street Journal. Jason, the EU and South Korea have been harnessing the sea for years. So what's
China trying to do here?¶ JASON BELLINI: What's China trying to do here? Well, you really hit the nail in
the head with the pollution factor here, because really, coal is still the cheapest way to produce
electricity for them, and they have plenty of it. But China is emerging as an important testing ground for
some of these new ocean technologies for producing energy. And if some of these experiments work
out, they could produce electricity more cheaply than offshore wind farms, which would be a really big
deal.

Chinese alternative energies spillover to the global economy


Jason Bellini, wsj, and Robin Young, npr, 4-1-2014, “China Bets On Harnessing The Ocean For Clean
Energy,” http://kvpr.org/post/china-bets-harnessing-ocean-clean-energy Accessed 4-22-2014
BELLINI: Well, really, the biggest downside of it all is that it's so speculative, and it hasn't been brought
to scale. And so it's hard enough that any of this is really going to work, and whether it will be affordable
long term. But China's got the money to give this stuff a try. You know, one of the projects they've got
under study right now, again, is that tidal power wall. And one of the disadvantages is that it could hurt
the wildlife.¶ You know, you're really - you know, the 20-mile wall, you can really tamper with things.
They're trying to, you know, mitigate that by creating blades that would allow fish and eels and other
sea life to go through. But there could be unintended consequences when you're building something so
large through nature. But the upside of that is that if it works, it could produce as much electricity as 2
1/2 large nuclear reactors. Expensive, but that would be pretty exciting.¶ YOUNG: Well, and one would
think that that would ripple through the global economy.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 220

Energy Key to China Econ


Chinese investment in clean energy is key to their growth
NIB, Nordic Investment Bank, 2009, “China stimulates the economy through green investments,”
http://www.nib.int/news_publications/cases_and_feature_stories/188/china_stimulates_the_economy
_through_green_investments Accessed 5-5-2014
China stimulates the economy through green investments¶ China is the biggest single loan client for the
Nordic Investment Bank outside the member countries. In an interview with NIB Newsletter, Ms Sun
Xiaoxia, Director General of the Ministry of Finance in China, explains how sustainable development has
become a common goal for her country and how NIB loans can contribute to this development.¶ Ms. Sun
Xiaoxia, Director General of the Ministry of Finance in China¶ Photo: MoF of China ¶ Sun Xiaoxia¶ China
has experienced rapid economic growth during recent years. What is the national strategy to make this
growth sustainable from an environmental point of view?¶ In fact, as early as in 1983, the Chinese
government made environmental protection an important national policy. It is a common understanding
among government officials and people that only environment-friendly development can stay
sustainable. This is why China was among the first group of countries who developed Agenda 21 after
the 1992 UN Environment and Development Conference. Economic growth, social development and
environmental protection remain the three pillars of Chinese sustainable development.¶ Against the
backdrop of the international financial crisis, the Chinese government is taking environmental
protection and promoting green development as an opportunity to transform business-as-usual ways of
economic development. In the 4 trillion Chinese yuan stimulus package, 2.1 trillion yuan has been
invested in energy efficiency, ecological conservation and environmental protection. Environmental
protection has been a positive driver for economic growth and employment. Green development has
thus become a common goal in China.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 221

Chinese Growth Good – US Economy


China’s key to the US economy
US News & World Report, 6-12-2005, citing Richard Stanley, CEO of Citigroup China, “The Rise of a
New Power,” http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/050620/20china_3.htm, Accessed 5-5-
2014
The lopsided U.S. trade deficit with China and the "offshoring" of manufacturing work there have
focused attention on lost jobs and the fading fortunes of industries such as textiles, decimated by cheap
Chinese imports. But America's interdependence with China has benefits, too. Cheap goods keep U.S.
inflation and interest rates low. And the growth of China's service sector--likely to be heavily fueled by
American companies--will bring a well-heeled new consumer to the global market, with less threat to
American jobs. "China will be a second driver of economic growth in the world after the United States,"
says Richard Stanley, CEO of Citigroup China. Stanley claims the 2001-2002 U.S. recession would have
been worse if not for Chinese demand for goods from America and elsewhere.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 222

Chinese Growth Good – War


Chinese economic collapse causes global economic decline and global war
Walter Russell Mead, Henry A. Kissinger Senior Fellow in U.S. Foreign Policy at the Council on Foreign
Relations, 2-4-2009, “Only Makes You Stronger: Why the recession bolstered America,”
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:f4weFT4x5L8J:www.freerepublic.com/focus/
news/2169866/posts+http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2169866/posts&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk
&gl=us&client=firefox-a Accessed 5-5-2014
The greatest danger both to U.S.-China relations and to American power itself is probably not that China will rise too far, too fast; it is
that the current crisis might end China's growth miracle. In the worst-case scenario, the turmoil in the international economy
will plunge China into a major economic downturn. The Chinese financial system will implode as loans to both state and private
enterprises go bad. Millions or even tens of millions of Chinese will be unemployed in a country without an effective social safety net.
The collapse of asset bubbles in the stock and property markets will wipe out the savings of a generation of the Chinese middle class. The
political consequences could include dangerous unrest--and a bitter climate of anti-foreign feeling that
blames others for China's woes. (Think of Weimar Germany, when both Nazi and communist politicians
blamed the West for Germany's economic travails.) Worse, instability could lead to a vicious cycle, as nervous investors
moved their money out of the country, further slowing growth and, in turn, fomenting ever-greater bitterness.

Economic collapse causes authoritarian transition


Walter Russell Mead, Henry A. Kissinger Senior Fellow in U.S. Foreign Policy at the Council on Foreign
Relations, 2-4-2009, “Only Makes You Stronger: Why the recession bolstered America,”
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:f4weFT4x5L8J:www.freerepublic.com/focus/
news/2169866/posts+http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2169866/posts&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk
&gl=us&client=firefox-a Accessed 5-5-2014
Bad economic times can breed wars. Europe was a pretty peaceful place in 1928, but the Depression poisoned German
public opinion and helped bring Adolf Hitler to power. If the current crisis turns into a depression, what rough beasts
might start slouching toward Moscow, Karachi, Beijing, or New Delhi to be born?

Growth is key to limit Chinese social unrest which causes CCP lashout against the US
Susan Shirk, director of the University of California system-wide Institute on Global Conflict, 2007,
“China: Fragile Superpower,” 69. Accessed 5-5-2014
As China’s leaders well know, the greatest political risk lying ahead of them is the possibility of an
economic crash that throws millions of workers out of their jobs or sends millions of depositors to
withdraw their savings from the shaky banking system. A massive environmental or public health
disaster could also trigger regime collapse, especially if people’s lives are endangered by a media cover-
up imposed by Party authorities. Nationwide rebellion becomes a real possibility when large numbers of
people are upset about the same issue at the same time. Another dangerous scenario is a domestic or
international crisis in which the CCP leaders feel compelled to lash out against Japan, Taiwan, or the
United States because from their point of view not lashing out might endanger Party rule.”

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 223

Chinese Growth Good – War


Chinese economic collapses causes nuclear war
Tom Plate, Comm Prof @ UCLA, 6-30-2003, “Why Not Invade China?” Asia Pacific Media Network,
http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/TomPlate2003/06302003.htm Accessed 5-5-2014
But imagine a China disintegrating -- on its own, without neo-con or CIA prompting, much less outright
military invasion -- because the economy (against all predictions) suddenly collapses. That would knock
Asia into chaos. Refugees by the gazillions would head for Indonesia and other poorly border-patrolled
places, which don't want them and can't handle them; some in Japan might lick their chops for World
War II Redux and look to annex a slice of China. That would send small but successful Singapore and
Malaysia -- once Japanese colonies -- into absolute nervous breakdowns. India might make a grab for
Tibet, and while it does, Pakistan for Kashmir. Say hello to World War III Asia-style! That's why wise
policy encourages Chinese stability, security and economic growth -- the very direction the White House
now seems to prefer.

Social unrest has pushed China to the brink and eroded economic resiliency –
economic decline would give way to conflict and anarchic takeover
Gerald Warner, economic collapse could be the downfall of china’s rulers, 12-28-2008,
http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/12700/Gerald-Warner-Economic-collapse-could.4825834.jp
Accessed 5-5-2014
Recent figures show Chinese industrial firms' profits standing at 2.41 trillion yuan, a 4.9% increase on the year, but this compares with a 36.7%
rise over the same period in 2007. TheChinese economy is slowing down inexorably and no matter how many hundreds of
billions of dollars it holds in US bonds, that will
not prevent massive unemployment and social unrest. The complacent
orthodoxy a year ago was that China could ride out a recession even over two years because of the size
of its internal market. That, however, confuses demographics with markets. Entire provinces are dirt-poor:
their populations do not have the disposable income to compensate for the loss of exports. The
extremes of wealth are extravagant. This is a communist country in which wealth is concentrated in the
hands of a small minority, while the poor remain not only impoverished but, increasingly, uprooted. The
flow of hundreds of millions into cities from the countryside, often evicted by corrupt property
developers in concert with party officials, is a ticking time-bomb. Even over the past decade, regarded as a
time of plenty, China was in a state of undeclared anarchy. In 1994 there were 8,700 "mass incidents" (ie riots
involving thousands of people); by 2005 there were 87,000 riots, since when the government has stopped publishing the data. In
2003 alone, three million people were involved in riots. This in a one-party state that prides itself – or formerly did – on enforcing strict Leninist
social control. The grievances have ranged from the compulsory birth control policy to unemployment, from rural evictions to official
corruption. Communist Party headquarters and police stations have been burned down at will. Theregime has lost control of the
rural areas. Any serious economic setback could bring down the entire house of cards, with urban riots
as well as rural. In default of a multi-party system, people riot as the only form of protest available to
them: in China, rioting is a substitute for elections. The regime no longer has the authority to repress its
people, but it refuses to surrender its monopoly of power. That is a fatal situation. Thanks to modern technology,
the people of China know what has happened to communist parties elsewhere in the world. If the economy falters seriously, the
party will be overthrown and the absence of an alternative government will convulse this massive nation
in enduring anarchy.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 224

Chinese Growth Good – War


Chinese economic collapse causes ethnic tensions, democratic backsliding, and a
cross-strait war
Dan Lewis, Research Director of the Economic Research Council, 4-19-2007, “The nightmare of a
Chinese economic collapse,” World Finance, http://www.economicpolicycentre.com/wp-
content/uploads/2010/10/The-nightmare-of-a-Chinese-economic-collapse.pdf, Accessed 5-5-2014
A reduction in demand for imported Chinese goods would quickly entail a decline in China’s economic
growth rate. That is alarming. It has been calculated that to keep China’s society stable – ie to manage
the transition from a rural to an urban society without devastating unemployment - the minimum
growth rate is 7.2 percent. Anything less than that and unemployment will rise and the massive shift in
population from the country to the cities becomes unsustainable. This is when real discontent with
communist party rule becomes vocal and hard to ignore. It doesn’t end there. That will at best bring a
global recession. The crucial point is that communist authoritarian states have at least had some success
in keeping a lid on ethnic tensions – so far. But when multi-ethnic communist countries fall apart from
economic stress and the implosion of central power, history suggests that they don’t become successful
democracies overnight. Far from it. There’s a very real chance that China might go the way of Yugoslavia
or the Soviet Union – chaos, civil unrest and internecine war. In the very worst case scenario, a Chinese
government might seek to maintain national cohesion by going to war with Taiwan – whom America is
pledged to defend.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 225

Chinese Growth Good – Taiwan


CCP will use nationalism to placate masses leads to Taiwan strike
Malou Innocent, Foreign Policy Analyst at the Cato Institute specializing in U.S. foreign policy toward
Pakistan and China, 2.27.2009,
http://www.realclearworld.com/articles/2009/02/china_peace_partner_or_warmong.html Accessed 5-
5-2014
For more than 30 years, free and open markets have propelled China's labor-driven growth and lifted
more than 200 million of its citizens out of rural poverty. But America's recent economic downturn has
hit China hard. Exports from its booming trade sector dropped 17.5 percent in January from a year ago.
In the past several months, an estimated 20 million rural Chinese migrant workers have lost their jobs.
China's rising unemployment could lead to increased social unrest, and challenge the authority of the
ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Throughout 30 years of liberal reform, the CCP has justified its
authoritarian grip through the promise of economic advancement. If it can't maintain the steady growth
it's promised, experts fear the country's leaders might bolster their legitimacy by other means, such as
exploiting Chinese nationalism and directing popular discontent toward outside targets. Given the
severity of the financial crisis, China will be entering a stressful and possibly turbulent period. America
must be careful not to adopt policies that risk making the history of great power conflict come to
fruition.

Taiwan conflict causes nuclear war. –text modified


Chalmers Johnson, author of Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire, 5/14/2001,
The
Nation, Pg. 20 Accessed 5-5-2014
China is another matter. No sane figure in the Pentagon wants a war with China, and all serious US
militarists know that China’s minuscule nuclear capacity is not offensive but a deterrent against the
overwhelming US power arrayed against it (twenty archaic Chinese warheads versus more than 7,000
US warheads). Taiwan, whose status constitutes the still incomplete last act of the Chinese civil war,
remains the most dangerous place on earth. Much as the 1914 assassination of the Austrian crown
prince in Sarajevo led to a war that no wanted, a misstep in Taiwan by any side could bring the United
States and China into a conflict that neither wants. Such a war would bankrupt the United States, deeply
divide Japan and probably end in a Chinese victory, given that China is the world’s most populous
country and would be defending itself against a foreign aggressor. More seriously, it could easily
escalate into a nuclear [war]holocaust. However, given the nationalistic challenge to China’s sovereignty
of any Taiwanese attempt to declare its independence formally, forward-deployed US forces on China’s
borders have virtually no deterrent effect.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 226

Chinese Growth Good – Sino-Russian War


Successful Chinese growth key to check Russian border war – escalates to nuclear
winter
Alexander Sharavin, 10-3-2001, Defense and Security Accessed 5-5-2014
Chinese propaganda has constantly been showing us skyscrapers in free trade zones in southeastern
China. It should not be forgotten, however, that some 250 to 300 million people live there, i.e. at most a
quarter of China’s population. A billion Chinese people are still living in misery. For them, even the
living standards of a backwater Russian town remain inaccessibly high. They have absolutely nothing to
lose. There is every prerequisite for “the final throw to the north.” The strength of the Chinese People’s
Liberation Army (CPLA) has been growing quicker than the Chinese economy. A decade ago the CPLA
was equipped with inferior copies of Russian arms from later 1950s to the early 1960s. However,
through its own efforts Russia has nearly managed to liquidate its most significant technological
advantage. Thanks to our zeal, from antique MiG-21 fighters of the earliest modifications and S-75 air
defense missile systems the Chinese antiaircraft defense forces have adopted Su-27 fighters and S-300
air defense missile systems. China’s air defense forces have received Tor systems instead of anti-aircraft
guns which could have been used during World War II. The shock air force of our “eastern brethren”
will in the near future replace antique Tu-16 and Il-28 airplanes with Su-30 fighters, which are not yet
available to the Russian Armed Forces! Russia may face the “wonderful” prospect of combating the
Chinese army, which, if full mobilization is called, is comparable in size with Russia’s entire population,
which also has nuclear weapons (even tactical weapons become strategic if states have common
borders) and would be absolutely insensitive to losses (even a loss of a few million of the servicemen
would be acceptable to China). Such a war would be more horrible than the World War II. It would
require from our state maximal tension, universal mobilization and complete accumulation of the army
military hardware, up to the last tank or a plane, in a single direction (we would have to forget such
“trifles” like Talebs and Basaev, but this does not guarantee success either). Massive nuclear strikes on
basic military forces and cities of China would finally be the only way out, what would exhaust Russia’s
armament completely. We have not got another set of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-
based missiles, whereas the general forces would be extremely exhausted in the border combats. In the
long run, even if the aggression would be stopped after the majority of the Chinese are killed, our
country would be absolutely unprotected against the “Chechen” and the “Balkan” variants both, and
even against the first frost of a possible nuclear winter.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 227

Chinese Growth Good – Sino-Indian War


Chinese recession sparks first strike against India
OneIndia News, 7-13-09, “China will strike India by 2012: Defence Expert”.
http://news.oneindia.in/2009/07/13/indo-china-war-by-2012-indian-defence-expert.html Accessed 5-5-
2014
A very interesting theory developed by a defense expert states that China will attack India by 2012. And that this will be an
attempt to divert the country's citizens' attention from the 'unprecedented' internal turmoil and
financial issues that is growing into a threatening situation for the Communists. "China will launch an
attack on India before 2012. There are multiple reasons for a desperate Beijing to teach India the final
lesson, thereby ensuring Chinese supremacy in Asia in this century," claims Bharat Verma, Editor of the Indian Defence
Review. Apart from the financial troubles such as unemployment, flight of capital worth billions of dollars,
depletion of its foreign exchange reserves and growing internal dissent brought in by recession; the
increasing 'irrelevance of Pakistan' that operates against India has the Communists nervous. "Above all, it is
worried over the growing alliance of India with the US and the West, because the alliance has the potential to create a technologically superior
counterpoise," Verma says. And according to him, China will choose to wage a war against 'pacifist India to achieve
multiple strategic objectives' by 2012.

Chinese economic slowdown causes global economic collapse


Michael Thorneman is a Bain & Co partner in Shanghai. Johnson Chng is a partner in Beijing. Andrew
Schwedel is a partner in New York, 2010, “Uncertain times for business in China and world,” Shanghai
Daily, http://www.shanghaidaily.com/article/?id=447053&type=Opinion#ixzz0xb9BTuPY Accessed 5-5-
2014
AS we finally emerge from the depths of the Great Recession, a lot of attention naturally focuses on
trying to handicap the speed and strength of the coming rebound. Some forecast a quick snap-back
driven by years of pent-up demand. Others see a slower, more grudging recovery defined by deep
unemployment and persistent credit issues. For anyone running a business, however, the more
important point is that no matter how fast the turnaround comes, success is unlikely to get easier. The
plates have shifted beneath the global economy in ways that will increase competitive pressure and
squeeze even the most recession-hardened business models. The winners coming out of this seismic
event will likely be those agile enough to spot the fault lines quickly and adjust their strategies
accordingly. China is a prime example. Businesses everywhere should closely track signs that the
country's strong growth may be cooling. Weak growth in Europe, coupled with the continent's debt
problems, uncertainty in the US, and the diminishing competitiveness of Chinese exports all are taking
their toll. Any slowing of the Chinese economy would have worldwide implications.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 228

AT: China is Resilient


China is no longer resilient – economic stagnation is sufficient to cause regime
collapse.
Minxin Pei, adjunct senior associate in the Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment, “Will the Chinese
Communist Party Survive the Crisis?” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Foreign Affair, 3-12-
2009, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/?fa=view&id=22847 Accessed 5-5-2014
Until recently, most leading China watchers thought the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had become remarkably resilient.
Through learning and adaptation, it seemed, the world's largest and most powerful one-party regime had become politically nimble and skillful
enough to overcome difficulties that would have overwhelmed lesser autocratic rulers. For two decades, the party has compiled an impressive
list of achievements: at home it has kept the economy growing at a gravity-defying double-digit rate, while abroad it has pursued a pragmatic
foreign policy, avoiding confrontation with the United States and methodically gaining prestige and influence. Because of the global
economic crisis, however, Beijing is in trouble. The problems are numerous: China's exports are plummeting, tens of millions of
migrant laborers have lost their jobs, millions of college graduates cannot find employment, industrial overcapacity is threatening deflation, and
the once red-hot real estate sector has nose-dived. The country's faltering growth is posing the hardest test yet to the
CCP's resilience. To be sure, the Chinese economy has fared less badly than many others. The country's insulated banking sector remains
largely unscathed. Indeed, the government's fiscal balance sheet is strong enough to fund a $580 billion stimulus package (although only about
a quarter represents genuinely new fiscal spending). China's colossal $1.9 trillion in foreign exchange reserves provide a comfortable insurance
policy against global financial turmoil, and the country should be able to avoid an outright recession. But a
reduced annual growth
rate -- now down to about seven percent from over 11 percent a couple of years ago -- will bring enough trouble. Every year, the
Chinese labor market grows by more than ten million workers, the bulk of whom are leaving the countryside for urban areas in search of
employment. Each percentage point of GDP growth translates into roughly one million new jobs a year, which means that China needs GDP to
rise at least ten percent every year in order to absorb the influx of laborers. With no end to the global crisis in sight, many are wondering how
long China's economic doldrums will last and what the political impact of stagnation will be. The conventional wisdom is that low growth will
erode the party's political legitimacy and fuel social unrest as jobless migrants and college graduates vent their frustrations through riots and
protests. Although this forecast is not necessarily wrong, it is incomplete. Strong
economic performance has been the single
most important source of legitimacy for the CCP, so prolonged economic stagnation carries the danger of
disenchanting a growing middle class that was lulled into political apathy by the prosperity of the post-Tiananmen years.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 229

Chinese S&T Good – Warming


Chinese alternative energy is key to solve warming
Stephen Merrill et al, phd in political science from Yale and Executive Director of the National
Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, 2010 “The Dragon and the elephant”,
Chapter 5 research and commercialization infrastructure, National Research Council, Committee on the
Research on the Competitiveness and Workforce Needs of U.S. Industry,” 40-42. Accessed 5-5-2014
Reducing energy intensity by this amount in China and India will require a variety of innovations but is feasible, Ahuja
said. Over the psat several decades, for instance, the average energy intensity of all countries around the world has been declining by 1.25
percent per year. In India, energy intensity has declined by about half over the past 30 years. Trevor Houser, a director at China Strategic
Advisory, discussed Chinese energy use and Chinese energy R&D (Figure 11). He noted that in 1980 the entire Chinese energy sector was
controlled by the government: without any profit motive at work, investment was based purely on government plans. Since then much of the
energy sector has been turned over to private corporations, resulting in large gains in efficiency. China’s energy intensity today is only one-third
of what it was in 1978. On the other hand, the private operators of energy companies have no incentives to limit emissions. The demand for
energy in China is increasing at a phenomenal rate, Houser noted. Currently China has about 680 gigawatts of installed generating capacity,
much of it added very recently. About 100 gigawatts was brought on line two years ago and another 100 gigawatts last year. It is projected that
by 2020, China will have installed another 1000 to 1300 gigawatts of capacity. To put that in perspective, the total current generating capacity
of the United States is now about 900 gigawatts. “When you have the power demand growing that fast, it creates
challenges for innovation because you are trying to throw whatever you have on the grid as quickly as
possible,” Houser observed. Large-scale blackouts in 2004 and 2005 pushed China to add power as quickly as possible, with very little
investment in R&D and reliance instead on the technology most familiar to Chinese energy companies—pulverized coal. The Chinese power
industry has become very adept at building coal-fired power plants in a period of shortage, taking about six months from state to finish. Last
year, coal accounted for 90 of the 100 gigawatts added by Chinese power producers, with hydro and wind accounting for the remainder. The
future will look very similar, Houser said, although Chinese companies are trying to diversify their power generating capacity somewhat. For
example, China will add about 40 gigawatts of nuclear power over the next 15 to 20 years, making the country the largest nuclear power
market in the world; but nuclear power will account for only 3 to 4 percent of the total installed capacity in 2020. Initially, the nuclear
technology will be supplied by Westinghouse, which will build several nuclear plants and then transfer the technology to local companies that
will build the next thirty plants. Hydroelectric power is the major hope for meeting China’s goal of supplying 15 percent of its energy demand
with renewable sources by 2020, Houser said. The plan is to have 240 gigagwatts of hydro power by then, but that is the equivalent of building
a new Three Gorges Dam every two years, which may not be politically feasible. Natural gas will be used to a certain extent in power
generation, but it is needed for other purposes, such as feedstock in chemical plants and for household uses. Thus coal will continue to be
the source of a large majority of the country’s power for the foreseeable future. Because China will account for so
much of the world’s new power generation capacity over the next couple of decades, according to Houser, the innovation choices
made in China will be crucial not just for that country but also for the rest of the world. He suggested that it is
crucially important to get the incentives for cleaner technologies right in China because the country’s huge
market and position as a global manufacturing base for energy technology. If china builds a large amount of capacity
with wind power, for example, world prices for that technology will drop significantly. But the same is true of dirtier technologies such as
pulverized coal. Costs will go down, encouraging increased worldwide use.

Extinction. [Gender Paraphrased]


Bill Henderson, Environmental Scientist. 8-16-2006. Counter Currents, “Runaway Global Warming
Denial.” http://www.countercurrents.org/cc-henderson190806.htm Accessed 5-5-2014
The scientific debate about human induced global warming is over but policy makers - let alone the
happily shopping general public - still seem to not understand the scope of the impending tragedy.
Global warming isn't just warmer temperatures, heat waves, melting ice and threatened polar bears.
Scientific understanding increasingly points to runaway global warming leading to human extinction. If
impossibly Draconian security measures are not immediately put in place to keep further emissions of
greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere we are looking at the death of billions, the end of civilization as
we know it and in all probability the end of [hu]man's several million year old existence, along with the
extinction of most flora and fauna beloved to man in the world we share.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 230

Yes China Growth + Innovation


Chinese innovation and growth is high – returnees ensure
Stephen Merrill et al, phd in political science from Yale and Executive Director of the National
Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, 2010 “The Dragon and the elephant”,
Chapter 5 research and commercialization infrastructure, National Research Council, Committee on the
Research on the Competitiveness and Workforce Needs of U.S. Industry,” 40-42. Accessed 5-5-2014
Besides capital, Ratchford added, successful innovation also requires highly skilled technologists and
managers. In this regard, both China and India are increasingly well-endowed with hundreds of
thousands of well-trained people employed in R&D. China may lead India to some degree in R&D human
capital, but both countries unquestionably have access to scientists and engineers trained at some of
the best universities in the world and thus have resources for productive, internationally competitive
research and development.

Chinese economic growth stable now


People’s Daily 10-14-2010, “China's GDP to grow 9.9% in 2010: CASS,”
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90778/90862/7165928.html Accessed 5-5-2014
The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), a leading Chinese government think-tank, released a
report Tuesday on the country's economic situation and forecast the country's 2010 GDP would expand
by 9.9 percent year-on-year. The report also revealed consumption in 2010 is on growing trend, but
fixed-assets investments and export volume have declined. The growth setback for fixed-assets
investments predicted by CASS at 19.5 percent (13.8 percent lower than 2009) is to blame on a series of
macroeconomic policies since April targeted at the soaring housing prices, which posed significant
pressure on the property development sector. As to the decline in exports, factors like a financial crisis-
struck US economy, due to it being a large China-made importer and the yuan's appreciation were the
lead-ups to China's exports' deficit in the fourth quarter. The report also predicted that under a stable
macroeconomic policy, economic growth in 2011 is expected to reach about 11 percent.

Aging crisis won't collapse the Chinese economy.


Richard Jackson, senior fellow and director of the Global Aging Initiative, 4-20-2010, “The Aging of
China,” http://csis.org/publication/aging-china-0 Accessed 5-5-2014
Q4: Will the aging of its population halt China’s economic rise? A4: The aging of China’s population is a
dangerous speed bump, but it need not result in a crash. In any case, the period of peak danger lies over
the horizon in the 2020s. By then, China will already have overtaken the United States as the world’s
largest economy. In fact, our latest projections show that the transition will happen in 2017—much
earlier than previously expected due to the differential impact of the economic crisis on GDP growth in
China and the United States.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 231

No China War
China’s rise is peaceful
Barry Desker, Staff writer for the Straits Times, 6-25-2008, “Why war is unlikely in Asia,”
http://www.asiaone.com/News/the%2BStraits%2BTimes/Story/A1Story20080625-72716.html Accessed
5-5-2014
But the rise of China does not automatically mean that conflict is likely. First, a more assertive China does not mean a more
aggressive China. Beijing appears content to press its claims peacefully (if forcefully) through existing avenues
and institutions. Second, when we examine the Chinese military buildup, we find that there may be less there than some might have us
believe. The Chinese war machine is not quite as threatening - although still worrisome - as some fear. Instead of Washington's
perspectives shaping Asia-Pacific affairs coercively, the rise of China is likely to see a new paradigm in international affairs. The nascent 'Beijing
Consensus', for want of a better term, would consist of the following attributes: The leadership role of the authoritarian state, a technocratic
approach to governance, an emphasis on social rights and obligations over individual rights, a reassertion of the principles of national
sovereignty and non-interference, support for freer markets and stronger regional and international institutions. The argument that there is an
emerging 'Beijing Consensus' is not premised on the rise of the 'East' and decline of the 'West', as sometimes seemed to be the sub-text of the
earlier 1990s 'Asian values' debate. But like the previous debate, this new debate will reflect alternative philosophical traditions. At issue is the
appropriate balance between the rights of the individual and those of the state. This debate will highlight the values China and other states in
the region share. By contrast, one conventional American view is that Sino-American competition will result in 'intense security competition
with considerable potential for war' in which most of China's neighbours 'will join with the United States to contain China's power'. Asia's
shared values are likely to reduce the risk of such conflict and result in regional pressure for an
accommodation of and engagement with China, rather than a confrontation with it. In its interactions with the region, China
itself is beginning to be interested in issues of proper governance, the development of domestic institutions and the
strengthening of regional institutions. Nor is Chinese policy unchanging, even on the issue of sovereignty. For example, there has
been an evolution in Chinese thinking on the question of freedom of passage through the straits of Malacca and Singapore. China supported
the claims of the littoral states to sovereign control over the straits when the Law of the Sea Convention was concluded in 1982. But its
increasing dependence on imported oil shipped through the straits has led to a shift in favour of burden-sharing, the recognition of the rights of
user states and the need for cooperation between littoral states and user states. China has also revised its earlier advocacy of strict non-
intervention and non-interference. Its support for global initiatives such as peacekeeping and nuclear non-proliferation - as well as its
restrained use of its veto in the UN Security Council and its active role in the World Trade Organisation - indicates it is aware that responsible
participation in global institutions can shape perceptions of a rising China. Beijing has also greatly lowered the
tone and rhetoric
of its strategic competition with the US. This is significant as most South-east Asian states prefer not to have to choose between
the US and China, and have adopted 'hedging' strategies in their relationships with the two powers. The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is
certainly in the midst of the most ambitious upgrading of its combat capabilities since the early 1960s. Its current defence doctrine is centred
on the ability to fight 'Limited Local Wars'. The emphasis is on pre-emption, surprise and shock value, given that the earliest stages of conflict
may be crucial to the outcome of a war. Thus the PLA has pursued the acquisition of weapons for asymmetric warfare. It mimics the US military
in terms of the ambition and scope of its transformational efforts - and therefore challenges the US military at its own game. Nevertheless,
China is still at least two decades behind the US in terms of its defence capabilities. It is certainly acquiring new and better equipment, but its
current military buildup is indicative of an evolutionary, steady-state and sustaining - rather than disruptive or revolutionary
- innovation and change.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 232

Fishing Industry DA
THESIS: The commercial fishing industry is keeping afloat now and working to meet sustainability
reforms. They know there will be a short-term hit in profits with new regulations, so revenue in the
interim is essential to meet reforms. The alternative forces overfishing and undermines an essential
component of the U.S. Economy.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 233

1NC Fishing Industry Shell 1/2

A. The fishing industry is beginning to recover with new revenues


Kyle Stucker, Staff Writer, May 04, 2014, “U.S. fisheries are in recovery,” Seacoast Online,
http://www.seacoastonline.com/articles/ 20140504-NEWS-405040352, Accessed 5/4/2014
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration released two reports this week that show
positive signs for the national fishing industry, although local fishermen say New Hampshire should reel
in its optimism about the findings. The reports, "Status of U.S. Fisheries 2013" and "Fisheries Economics
of the United States 2012," indicate two fish stocks were rebuilt to target levels last year and that
national commercial and recreational saltwater fishing generated more than $199 billion in sales in
2012, a gain of 7 percent over the previous year.

B. Revenues are key. Current regulations mean short-term losses are inevitable
David Brodwin, cofounder and board member of American Sustainable Business Council, March 21,
2014, “Buying Into Sustainability, Hook, Line and Sinker,” U.S. News,
http://www.usnews.com/opinion/economic-intelligence/2014/03/21/how-to-make-fishing-sustainable,
Accessed 5/19/2014
But enforcement is not the only problem, and perhaps not even the biggest. The real problem is
financing. In order for fishers to switch from destructive fishing to sustainable fishing they need to run
losses for a few years to allow stocks to recover. Worse, while accepting harsh catch limits they must
invest in new equipment to catch mostly the right kind and size of fish. Borrowing can be challenging
because many fishers are heavily leveraged, and they present poor credit risks.

C. The fishing industry is key to the economy on multiple levels


Eileen Sobeck, Assistant Administrator for NOAA Fisheries, 2014, Status of Stocks 2013: Annual
Report to Congress on the Status of U.S. Fisheries, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/fisheries_eco/status_of_fisheries/archive/
2013/status_of_stocks_2013_web.pdf, Accessed 5/7/2014
Sustainable management of our fish stocks is critically important to the nation’s economy. Commercial
fishing supports fishermen and fishing communities and provides Americans with a local source of
healthy food. Recreational fishing is an important social activity for individuals and families, and is a
critical economic contributor to local communities and regional economies. Combined, U.S. commercial
and recreational saltwater fishing generated more than $199 billion in sales and supported 1.7 million
jobs in 2012. Subsistence fishing provides an essential, culturally significant food source for many
people.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 234

1NC Fishing Industry Shell 2/2


D. Major economic downturn leads to war
Walter Russell Mead, Henry A. Kissinger Senior Fellow in U.S. Foreign Policy at the Council on Foreign
Relations, February 4, 2009, “Only Makes You Stronger: Why the recession bolstered America,” The
New Republic, http://www.cfr.org/world/only-makes-you-stronger-why-recession-bolstered-
america/p18340, Accessed 5/20/2014
None of which means that we can just sit back and enjoy the recession. History may suggest that
financial crises actually help capitalist great powers maintain their leads--but it has other, less reassuring
messages as well. If financial crises have been a normal part of life during the 300-year rise of the liberal
capitalist system under the Anglophone powers, so has war. The wars of the League of Augsburg and the
Spanish Succession; the Seven Years War; the American Revolution; the Napoleonic Wars; the two
World Wars; the cold war: The list of wars is almost as long as the list of financial crises. Bad economic times
can breed wars. Europe was a pretty peaceful place in 1928, but the Depression poisoned German public opinion
and helped bring Adolf Hitler to power. If the current crisis turns into a depression, what rough beasts might start
slouching toward Moscow, Karachi, Beijing, or New Delhi to be born? The U nited States may not, yet, decline,
but, if we can't get the world economy back on track, we may still have to fight .

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 235

Uniqueness

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 236

Commercial Fisheries Are Rebounding


The commercial fishing industry is rebounding now
ScienceDaily, Staff Writer, April 29, 2014, "Strong economic gains from fishing, continued
improvement in fish stocks, report shows," Science Daily,
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140429125741.htm, Accessed 5/7/2014
U.S. commercial and recreational saltwater fishing generated more than $199 billion in sales in 2012, a
gain of seven percent over the previous year, with the economic impact of fishing jobs increasing three
percent from 2011 to 2012, according to a new NOAA Fisheries economics report. Further, two more
fish stocks were rebuilt to target levels in 2013, bringing the number of rebuilt U.S. marine fish stocks to
34 since 2000, according to another NOAA Fisheries report also released today. Taken together, the two
reports, Fisheries Economics of the United States 2012 and the Status of U.S. Fisheries 2013, show
positive trends in the steady rebuilding of the country's federally managed fisheries off our coasts, and
the important role fisheries contribute to the United State economy.

Fisheries are rebounding and this is already helping the fishing industry
Brad Plumer, Senior Editor, May 8, 2014, “How the US stopped its fisheries from collapsing,” Vox,
http://www.vox.com/2014/5/8/ 5669120/how-the-us-stopped-its-fisheries-from-collapsing, Accessed
5/20/2014
This rebound has been a boon to the fishing industry: US commercial fishermen caught 9.6 billion
pounds of seafood in 2012, the second highest total in more than a decade (2011 was the highest year).
The rebound in US fisheries was also noted last year in a separate study by the Natural Resources
Defense Council, which studied 44 key fish stocks that had been seriously depleted and found that about
64 percent showed significant signs of recovery.

The fishing industry is booming with millions of new jobs and billions of growth
ScienceDaily, Staff Writer, April 29, 2014, "Strong economic gains from fishing, continued
improvement in fish stocks, report shows," Science Daily,
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140429125741.htm, Accessed 5/7/2014
According to the economics report, commercial and recreational fishing supported approximately 1.7
million jobs in 2012, the most recent year for which data are available, a gain over 2011's 1.6 million.
The commercial fishing industry -- harvesters, processors and dealers, and wholesalers and retailers --
generated $141 billion in sales, $39 billion in income, and supported 1.3 million jobs in 2012 in fishing
and across the broader economy. Recreational fishing generated $58 billion in sales, $19 billion in
income, and supported 381,000 jobs in 2012 in fishing and across the broader economy. The annual
economics report also breaks down the sales, income and job figures for each coastal state. The five
states that generated the most commercial fishing jobs in 2012 were California, Massachusetts, Florida,
Washington and Alaska. The five states that generated the most recreational fishing jobs were Florida,
North Carolina, Louisiana, Texas and New Jersey.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 237

Commercial Fisheries Are Rebounding


The fishing industry is gaining strength now
(NOAA) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, April 29, 2014, “Two new NOAA reports
show strong economic gains from fishing, continued improvement in fish stocks,”
http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2014/20140429_statusofstocks.html, Accessed 5/19/2014
According to the economics report, commercial and recreational fishing supported approximately 1.7
million jobs in 2012, the most recent year for which data are available, a gain over 2011’s 1.6 million.
The commercial fishing industry — harvesters, processors and dealers, and wholesalers and retailers —
generated $141 billion in sales, $39 billion in income, and supported 1.3 million jobs in 2012 in fishing
and across the broader economy.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 238

Economic Growth Increasing Now


The current slump is weather related and short term. We are set for a solid rebound
CBS News, Staff Writer, May 16, 2014, “U.S. economy firms, but investors remain wary,”
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/u-s-economy-firms-but-investors-remain-wary/, Accessed 5/26/2014
Many economists suspect the U.S. economy shrank in the first three months of the year, but attribute
that to harsh winter weather. They are confident of a big expansion in the current quarter. Forecasting
firm Macroeconomic Advisers expects GDP of 3.8 percent for the period. A raft of recent reports
suggests they might be right. Employers added 288,000 jobs in April, the most in 2 ½ years. Americans
have stepped up their spending. Forecasters think the strong labor market and a recent uptick in wages
will bolster consumer sentiment in the months to come. "Consumer spending will increase at a
moderate pace, thanks to increasing confidence, modest income growth, pent-up demand, better
access to credit, and greater household wealth from rising stock prices and home values," economists
with PNC Financial Services Group predicted in a note to clients.

The economy is improving on multiple levels


David Frank, Research Analyst for Seeking Alpha, May 26, 2014, “Why The U.S. Economy Is
Recovering,” http://seekingalpha.com/article/2237623-why-the-u-s-economy-is-recovering, Accessed
5/264/2014
The U.S. economy is improving despite a brief stall from a harsh winter which saw sub artic
temperatures and storms paralyze much of the country. We are seeing modestly higher inflation and an
improving job market which is helping sentiment. However, this improvement could be bad for the rest
of the world. Data, last week, showed that consumer prices in the U.S. for April recorded their biggest
increase in nearly 10 months. We are noticing something different in the rest of the world - Japan, which
has been falling, and low prices as well in the Eurozone. The U.S. stock markets also continue to
outperform their global peers as growth climbs back up.

Labor market and consumer spending will strengthen the economy


Alain Sherter, Staff Writer, May 19, 2014, “Why the long face? It's the economy, stupid,” Money
Watch, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/why-the-long-face-its-the-economy-stupid/, Accessed
5/264/2014
Prospects in the U.S. look brighter. Although millions of Americans remain jobless, with the long-term
unemployed in particular continuing to struggle, the labor market has started to expand in earnest.
Consumer spending is expected to grow over the rest of the year, with demand for things like cars and
health care services especially strong, according to analysts at Goldman Sachs (GS).

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 239

Economic Growth Increasing Now


U.S. economic growth trades off with China
David Frank, Research Analyst for Seeking Alpha, May 26, 2014, “Why The U.S. Economy Is
Recovering,” http://seekingalpha.com/article/2237623-why-the-u-s-economy-is-recovering, Accessed
5/264/2014
The U.S. economy should only begin to accelerate further as we head into the summer months. While
this is good news for the Federal Reserve and the U.S. economy in general, it could also pose some risks
to the rest of the world. As the world's largest economy improves, it will become less of a factor behind
global growth. Consumer spending is not likely to be robust and demand is likely to be for domestic
goods rather than imports. This will hurt exporting nations, like China and Japan. These economies,
particularly the emerging market economies, are reliant on the U.S. and will make them vulnerable
going forward.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 240

Links

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 241

Links – Aquaculture
Aquaculture won’t solve overfishing and displaces commercial fishers
Slow Food, Staff Writer, 2013, “Aquaculture,”
http://www.slowfood.com/slowfish/pagine/eng/pagina.lasso?-id_pg=44, Accessed 5/20/2014
Aquaculture is fastest-growing area of food production in the world. Often suggested as the future of
the fish industry, in its current state it is NOT a solution to overfishing. While in certain places some
forms of aquaculture can provide an important food source, they must be developed in a responsible
way. The rapid growth of intensive aquaculture for species with high commercial value intended for
export, such as salmon and shrimp, has already caused dreadful environmental damage and the
displacement of many local farmers and fishers whose livelihoods have been destroyed.

Increasing aquaculture production undermines biodiversity and hurts local fishers


The World Wildlife Federation, Staff Writer, 2014, “Marine Problems: Aquaculture,”
http://wwf.panda.org/ about_our_earth/blue_planet/problems/aquaculture/, Accessed 5/19/2014
Aquaculture is a huge industry, and the world's fastest growing food sector. It's worth a massive US$56
billion globally and provides one-third of the fish people consume. When done properly, some forms of
aquaculture can indeed help take pressure off wild fisheries and provide needed income to coastal
communities. However, as production rises, so too can aquaculture's impacts on the environment and
wild marine species, through: competition for space; pollution; escaped farmed fish; parasites and
disease, the use of wild-caught fish for fish feed, the use of wild-caught fish for farming, conflict with
predators, such as seabirds, seals, and starfish. The severity of these impacts depends upon the species
being farmed. Oyster and clam farms, for example, have fewer impacts than shrimp and salmon farms,
which in turn have fewer impacts than tuna farms. However, the detrimental impacts can be huge, and
have even proven disastrous in some parts of the world. Impacts on local marine biodiversity can in turn
cause problems for local communities that rely on marine resources for their livelihoods.

Aquaculture uses more commercial fish for food that they produce
Slow Food, Staff Writer, 2013, “Aquaculture,”
http://www.slowfood.com/slowfish/pagine/eng/pagina.lasso?-id_pg=44, Accessed 5/20/2014
In many fish farms, enormous quantities of forage fish, fishmeal and fish oil are used to feed the farmed
fish. Aquaculture often involves fattening up carnivorous fish such as many species of salmon and tuna.
Clearly the operation makes sense from a commercial point of view, as the farmed fish command much
higher prices than the fish used to feed them, even when these forage fish (sardines, mackerel and
herring, for example) can also be eaten by humans. But in the end the quantity of fish used for feed is
greater than the quantity produced, and the pressure on wild fish stocks remains high. Given these
issues, aquaculture cannot be seen as an alternative to fishing, particularly in developing countries,
where very few people can afford products such as smoked salmon.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 242

Links – Marine Reserves / Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)


Marine reserves hurt the fishing industry, even if the plan increases fish stocks
Ragnar Arnason, Department of Economics, University of Iceland, 2001, "Marine Reserves: Is There
An Economic Justification?," Economics of Marine Protected Areas, Fisheries Centre Research Reports,
University of British Columbia, p. 27
Independent of the fisheries management system in place, marine reserves increase biomass and,
depending on their size, may or may not increase harvest and fishing effort. The introduction of marine
reserves in the competitive fishery is more likely to reduce rather than increase the flow of net benefits
from the fishery. Taking into account the inevitable costs of implementing and enforcing marine reserve
restrictions, this probability is further increased. Thus, in spite of a certain increase in stock biomass and
a possible increase in harvest volume and employment (increased fishing effort), introducing marine
reserves in the competitive fishery seems rather unattractive as a general proposition.

Marine protected areas significantly undermine commercial fishing yields


Science Daily, Staff Writer, July 24, 2012, “Marine protected areas: what is their impact on fishing?,”
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD),
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120724104300.htm, Accessed 5/20/2014
In contrast, outside the perimeter, in the zones open to fishermen, the fish biomass is increasing slightly.
The researchers' models have demonstrated a migratory phenomenon that represents 20% of the
biomass in marine reserves. In Bamboung, this effect can be observed up to 2.5km from the edge of the
protected area, and is seen in the growing numbers of catfish and rays caught. The influence of the
reserve is even more noticeable in Banc d'Arguin, where it is estimated that commercial fishing catches
are 25% higher on the edges of the protected perimeter. The improvement thus becomes even more
significant as the size of the protected zone increases. However, it falls in relation to distance from the
protected area perimeter. From an economic point of view, marine protected areas thus have a
significant impact in terms of fishing activities and yields. But the study has also shown that for
fishermen, the gains experienced outside the area only compensates in volume for the loss of activity
within, although with a higher market value due to the increase in the number of rarer species.

Marine protected areas fail to boost adjacent commercial fisheries


Katie Valentine, Staff Writer, February 7, 2014, “Most Marine Protected Areas Don’t Successfully
Protect Marine Life, Study Says,” Think Progress,
http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/02/07/3260781/marine-protected-areas-working/, Accessed
5/20/2014
Most marine protected areas aren’t doing their jobs to project fish and other aquatic life, according to
new research from the University of Tasmania. The study, published this week in Nature, found that 59
percent of the marine protected areas (MPAs) looked at by researchers were “not ecologically
distinguishable from fished sites.” MPAs are set up to protect marine life and habitat but operate under
vastly different rules and regulations from region to region — some even allow seabed mining, and most
allow some level of fishing. The study looked at five markers that determine the success of an MPA: how
much fishing is allowed in the MPA, how well enforced that fishing rule is, the age and size of the MPA,
and whether the MPA is an isolated environment or surrounded by habitat that was desirable to aquatic
life but isn’t in the protected zone.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 243

Links – Marine Spatial Planning (MSP)


MSP doesn’t maintain the fishing industry. It allows “no-take” and “no development”
zones that prevent fishing
Jay Walmsley, Senior Environmental Analyst, Golder Associated Ltd Wednesday, June 26, 2013,
“Marine spatial planning draws attention,” Offshore Engineer,
http://www.oedigital.com/component/k2/item/3338-marine-spatial-planning-draws-attention,
Accessed 5/23/2014
A first step in marine spatial planning is identifying the area of ocean that will be managed and mapping
existing ocean uses, such as marine conservation areas, shipping, oil and gas, renewable energy,
tourism, and fishing. Following that, goals and objectives need to be developed for the area, based on
input from ocean users and other stakeholders, including conservation authorities. This provides the
foundation for developing future-use plans. Often these are based on priorities such as conservation of
sensitive or representative marine ecosystems, or maintenance of shipping lanes, or development of
renewable energy resources, while maintaining the fishing industry. A final step may or may not include
zoning the ocean for particular uses in particular areas. A good example of this is establishing regulated
marine protected areas with “no-take zones” for fishing or “no development zones” for other industries.
A step-by-step approach to marine spatial planning can be found in the guidebook developed by Fanny
Douvere and Charles Ehler of UNESCO, Marine Spatial Planning: A Step-By-Step Approach Toward
Ecosystem-Based Management.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 244

Links – Offshore Wind


Wind farms drive up costs for fishers and denies prime fishing ground
Manuela Truebano, Ph.D., Lecturer in Marine Biology at the Plymouth Marine Institute, Plymouth
University, et al., June 19, 2013, “Marine Renewables, Biodiversity and Fisheries,” Plymouth Marine
Institute at Plymouth University, http://www.foe.co.uk/sites/ default/files/downloads/marine_
renewables_biodiver.pdf, Accessed 5/12/2014
Prior to area closures fishers will have made decisions on spatial locations of operation on the basis of
past catch rates. Therefore it can be assumed that in the case of a wind farm development, boats
successfully utilising that ground at particular seasons will be forced to search for new less familiar
grounds, potentially incorporating greater fuel costs and less predictable catches during that period if
MRE farms are located within prime fishing areas. Hiddink et al modelled the effect of redistribution of
beam trawl effort on benthic communities following assumed area closures in the North Sea using this
assumption that fishers select grounds based on their knowledge of past catches.

Commercial fishers are trying to meet sustainability goals but wind farms would
seriously undermine the industry
Christopher Walsh, Staff Writer, May 15, 2014 “Fishermen Want Say on Wind Farm,” East Hampton
Star, http://easthamptonstar.com/ Government/2014515/Fishermen-Want-Say-Wind-Farm, Accessed
5/20/2014
Bonnie Brady, executive director of the Long Island Commercial Fishing Association, believes that
construction methodologies, and offshore wind farms themselves, pose a significant threat to fish
habitats, spawning, and migratory patterns. Citing studies by the United States Interior Department’s
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the experiences of the commercial fishing industry in Europe,
where more than 2,000 wind turbines are in operation, she is urging a greater role for fishing interests in
the decision-making process. “We’re trying to sustainably grow the fishing economy,” said Ms. Brady,
who lives in Montauk. “You don’t destroy something in the name of green energy. To destroy a
sustainable industry in the name of sustainability is insane.”

Even if wind farms boost fish stocks, fishers still suffer


Manuela Truebano, Ph.D., Lecturer in Marine Biology at the Plymouth Marine Institute, Plymouth
University, et al., June 19, 2013, “Marine Renewables, Biodiversity and Fisheries,” Plymouth Marine
Institute at Plymouth University, http://www.foe.co.uk/sites/ default/files/downloads/marine_
renewables_biodiver.pdf, Accessed 5/12/2014
Offshore wind farm development is currently centred in Europe where a number and variety of fishing
fleets exist. While wind farms presence as de facto marine protected areas may enhance local fish
stocks, the loss of available ground has been identified as a significant impact on inshore and offshore
fishing fleets. Loss of fishing ground will unavoidably lead some redistribution of fishing effort.
Consideration of effort displacement, and the knock on effects on area closures, is increasingly being
called for when considering the overall ecological impacts of area closures on a wider region.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 245

Links – Offshore Wind


Offshore wind projects significantly interfere with commercial fishing in multiple ways
Ted Griset, Staff Writer, July 1, 2012, “Can offshore wind and commercial fishing co-exist,” Earth
Techling, http://earthtechling.com/ 2012/07/can-offshore-wind-energy-and-fishing-coexist/, Accessed
5/20/2014
Others worry that offshore wind projects will harm fish populations and the human dependent on
them. Whether and how each wind tower is mounted on the sea bed may impact groundfish; the noise
and acoustic pressure created by pile-driving can affect fish and marine mammals. Even deepwater
floating offshore wind platforms will likely be moored to the sea floor in some manner. Sea bed habitat
may also be impacted by the installation of the submarine cables needed to connect each generator to
electrical substations, as well as by the cables needed to transmit that power ashore. These cables may
limit fishermen’s ability to trawl the bottom in the affected area, and their electromagnetic fields could
affect marine species. An offshore wind project may also impact fisheries through increased marine
traffic, from heavy construction vessels to ships needed to service the project. At the same time,
fishermen may be excluded from the areas within or near a project; depending on their design and
applicable regulations, offshore wind projects may require setback areas or safety zones. Tall towers
may also limit the usefulness of radar, critical to safe navigation in foggy waters. These concerns have
led some fishermen and trade associations to oppose offshore wind development. Some may be
resolved through science, whether by documenting projects’ effects on fish populations or by designing
project elements to minimize those impacts. Others fall more squarely in the realm of policy.

Offshore wind takes money out of the pockets of fishers


Mark Harrington, Staff Writer, April 8, 2014, “Fishing, energy interests spar over possible LI wind farm
lease,” Newsday, http://www.newsday.com/long-island/fishing-energy-interests-spar-over-possible-
long-island-wind-farm-lease-1.7644239, Accessed 5/20/2014
Tensions between ocean fishing interests and offshore-wind-energy planners were evident at a meeting
in Montauk Tuesday as federal regulators set the stage for leasing hundreds of miles of the Atlantic for
wind farms. Regulators at the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management got an occasional earful from
local fishermen and -women who worry the plans could damage or close off large swaths of fishing
grounds. "Any adverse impacts these windmills have are going to come out of fishermen's pockets," said
Dan Farnham, a Montauk tile fisherman, adding that potential effects are largely unknown.

Widespread wind development undermines the fishing industry


Michele Hallowell, Guest columnist for Commercial Fisheries News, May 2013, “Ocean wind farms:
Challenges on horizon,” http://www.seakeeper.org/?page_id=1298, Accessed 5/20/2014
The intersection of ocean wind energy development and commercial fishing is about to become very
real for US fishermen. In federal waters alone, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has
created 11 wind energy areas (WEAs) along the East Coast to date and more are anticipated. BOEM will
issue leases for the outer continental shelf in these WEAs to ocean wind energy developers for up to 23
different wind farm projects. These are in addition to the five active leases BOEM already issued
between 2005 and 2012, as well as other areas developers are eyeing. These numbers also do not
account for wind energy development occurring in state waters. The sheer expansiveness of ocean wind
development means it will affect almost all commercial fishermen. For perspective, the Massachusetts
WEA and Rhode Island/Massachusetts WEA, which neighbor one another and form a contiguous area,
cover 1,591 square miles of the ocean. The entire state of Rhode Island covers only 1,214 square miles.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 246

Links - Regulations
Regulations are too stringent now
Brad Plumer, Senior Editor, May 8, 2014, “How the US stopped its fisheries from collapsing,” Vox,
http://www.vox.com/2014/5/8/ 5669120/how-the-us-stopped-its-fisheries-from-collapsing, Accessed
5/20/2014
Indeed, the current system is far from perfect — and there's a lot of debate about how to improve it.
For instance, Atkinson says, there's not always great scientific information about many of the fish
species in the Southeast and Gulf of Mexico. That makes setting catch limits more difficult. What's more,
this area is dominated by recreational fishing, which is a lot harder to regulate than areas like the Pacific
where fishing is dominated by a smaller number of commercial ships. On the flip side, some fishing
groups have argued that the rules are too stringent — particularly the requirement that overfished
stocks be rebuilt in just 10 years. A National Academy of Sciences report last fall agreed that this limit
was somewhat arbitrary — although it concluded that the regulations overall had helped rebuild US
fisheries.

The costs of failed regulations and management outweigh revenues


Carl Safina, founding president of the Blue Ocean Institute, Summer 2009, “A Future for U.S.
Fisheries,” Issues in Science & Technology, http://issues.org/25-4/safina-4/, Accessed 5/19/2014
For the fishing industry in the United States, and for the fishery resources on which the industry
depends, there is good news and bad news. Bad news still predominates, as many commercial fishers
and their communities have suffered severe financial distress and many fish stocks have declined
considerably in numbers. Poor management by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), which
regulates the fishing industry, and some poor choices by many fishers have contributed to the problems.
But there are some bright spots, small and scattered, that suggest that improvements are possible.
Starting with the bad news, the federal government’s fisheries management remains primitive,
simplistic, and, in important cases, ineffectual, despite a fund of knowledge and conceptual tools that
could be applied. In many regions—New England and the Pacific Northwest, among others—failed
management costs more than the receipts from fisheries. This does not suggest that management
should be given up as a lost cause, leaving the industry in a free-for-all, although this strategy might, in
fact, be cheaper and not much less effective.

Regulations defy common sense and hurt fisheries


Jonathan Elias, News anchor and award-winning journalist, November 25, 2013, “Fishing Industry At
Risk Of Disappearing In New England,” WBZ-TV News, http://boston.cbslocal.com/2013/11/25/fishing-
industry-at-risk-of-disappearing-in-new-england/, Accessed 5/19/2014
The industry that built New England is at risk of disappearing. Fishing has always been a mainstay, but
things have drastically changed. Environmentalists say global warming has depleted fish stocks.
Fishermen argue there are fish, and regulations that defy common sense. “It’s killing me,” says Joe
Orlando. “I come down to the dock every day and look at my boat rusting away.” Joe Orlando has fished
off Gloucester his whole life. A couple years ago WBZ-TV was at sea with him and his son. At that time
he said federal regulators were hurting business. Now he says they’re ending it. All because federal
scientists say there is no cod left in these waters. “It’s not about fish, we just want to know why they are
doing this to us,” Orlando says. “We have no trouble catching fish. Something is wrong some place.” One
fisherman told WBZ-TV that everybody has their boat up for sale. Another said, “A lot of the regulation I
see serves no purpose other than to put me and my fellow fishermen out of business.”

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 247

Links - Regulations
Fisheries management is a failure
IPSO, International Programme on the State of The Ocean, October 3, 2013, “Greater, Faster, Closer,
Latest review of science reveals ocean in critical state from cumulative impacts,”
http://www.stateoftheocean.org/pdfs/IPSO-PR-2013-FINAL.pdf, Accessed 5/1/2014
Continued overfishing is serving to further undermine the resilience of ocean systems, and contrary to
some claims, despite some improvements largely in developed regions, fisheries management is still
failing to halt the decline of key species and damage to the ecosystems on which marine life depends. In
2012 the UN FAO determined that 70% of world fish populations are unsustainably exploited, of which
30% have biomass collapsed to less than 10% of unfished levels. A recent global assessment of
compliance with Article 7 (fishery management) of the 1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible
Fisheries, awarded 60% of countries a “fail” grade, and saw no country identified as being overall
“good”.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 248

Links – Tidal / Wave Energy


Tidal energy closes off areas to fishing
Nausherwan Ahmed Aamir, Staff Writer, February 16, 2014, “In search of energy solutions,” The
Nation, http://www.nation.com.pk/ business/16-Feb-2014/in-search-of-energy-solutions, Accessed
5/3/2014
Tidal energy is also non-polluting and does not contribute to global warming. It is beneficial because
unlike most of the other sources of energy, tides are reliable. Also, since the turbines used for power
generation are submerged underwater, it does not cause visual pollution. However, it can only be used
in certain areas with the favorable conditions. Ironically, the turbines can be damaged by very strong
tides. Marine life is also disturbed. Altogether, the usage of the sea for other economic activities is
limited due to the installation of turbines.

Wave energy is unproven and trades off with commercial fishing


Alan Walker, Ph.D. and Policy Advisor at The Royal Academy of Engineering, September 2011, “The
Future of Marine Renewables,” Engineering the Future,
https://www.raeng.org.uk/societygov/policy/responses/pdf/EtF_ECC_marine_renweables_response.pdf
, Accessed 4/28/2014
Wave energy is at an early stage of development. There are challenging technical and logistical problems
to be solved and, at this stage of development, it is not clear that these can be overcome at an
acceptable price. Wave energy converters are, by necessity, massive structures at the sea surface where
they would impact commercial and recreational use of the sea and would be subject to the full force of
storms.

New wave energy projects will displace commercial fishers


The Daily Astorian, Staff Writer, November 19, 2007, “Wave energy projects crash into ocean
fishing turf,” http://www.dailyastorian.com/news/wave-energy-projects-crash-into-ocean-fishing-
turf/article_bf264c44-6d49-5007-b229-f6b078f17b78.html?mode=story, Accessed 5/20/2014
Nine different wave energy studies are targeting space in the state's territorial waters, many of them on
sandy ocean bottoms that overlap with productive fishing grounds. Even though most of the proposals
are aimed at the central and southern Oregon coast, North Coast fishermen say they're not too thrilled
about the new players rolling in with the waves - especially when coupled with the state's plans to rope
off ocean waters for marine reserves. North Coast commercial fishers often travel down the coast to
find their catch. They say the wave parks would not only cost them money in lost grounds, but it would
also block central transit routes and crowd North Coast waters with displaced fishermen.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 249

Links – UNCLOS (Law of the Sea Treaty)


LOST subjects U.S. fishers to international regulation
Thomas W. Jacobson, Visiting Fellow for the Center for Sovereignty & Security, a Division of Freedom
Alliance, and President of the International Diplomacy & Public Policy Center, LLC., October 17, 2011,
“Ratifying UN Law of the Sea Treaty Would Harm U.S. Sovereignty, Part
II,”http://www.idppcenter.com/UNLOSTreaty-RatifyingHarmsUSA-Sovereignty-Part2.pdf, Accessed
5/20/2014
LOST subjects fishing rights within a nation’s “exclusive economic zone” to the oversight of “competent
international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global” [Part V, Art. 61]. Also, if nationals
(commercial fishermen) do “not have the capacity to harvest the entire allowable catch,” the nation
must give foreigners “access to the surplus of the allowable catch” [Art. 62]. Regarding fishing in
international waters, the treaty requires Party Nations to (a) create a multi-national management
system to monitor and conserve the “living resources” (fish and marine mammals) therein, (b)
determine “the allowable catch,” and (c) share “catch and fishing effort statistics” with international
organizations [Part VII, Arts. 116-120].

UNCLOS undermines sustainable fishing outside EEZs


Crow White, Department of Biological Sciences, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
and Christopher Costello, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of
California, Santa Barbara, March 25, 2014, “Close the High Seas to Fishing? PLoS Biol 12(3): e1001826,
http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001826, Accessed
5/23/2014
The past 60 years have been a tumultuous period for the world's marine fisheries. In the early 1950s few
stocks had been exploited heavily; but without explicit governance, large industrial fisheries took hold
and systematically overexploited many stocks. In 1994 the United Nations Convention on the Law of the
Sea (UNCLOS) implemented Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) adjacent to all coastal nations (Figure 1).
These property rights extend 200 nm (~42% of the ocean) and allow countries to exclude foreign fleets
and exclusively manage fisheries within their jurisdictions. Indeed, for countries with science-based
fisheries management policies, many local stocks and fisheries contained in their EEZs are rebuilding.
But for many pelagic, migratory stocks such as tuna, billfish, and shark, the size of the EEZs has been
insufficient to incentivize sustainable fishing behavior. Fish that traverse multiple EEZs and the high seas
([HS], ~58% of ocean) are overexploited relative to those contained in a single EEZ.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 250

Links – UNCLOS (Law of the Sea Treaty)


Rejecting LOST is essential to maintain commercial fishing revenues
Thomas W. Jacobson, Visiting Fellow for the Center for Sovereignty & Security, a Division of Freedom
Alliance, and President of the International Diplomacy & Public Policy Center, LLC., October 17, 2011,
“Ratifying UN Law of the Sea Treaty Would Harm U.S. Sovereignty, Part
II,”http://www.idppcenter.com/UNLOSTreaty-RatifyingHarmsUSA-Sovereignty-Part2.pdf, Accessed
5/20/2014
If the USA does not ratify LOST, Americans will continue to enjoy unhindered use of our continental shelf
and the high seas for exploration, research, fishing, drilling, and mining. National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ships can keep traversing and conducting research on international
waters. American fishermen can continue fishing in territorial, continental shelf, and the high seas
without international restrictions or oversight, or having to reveal where they catch fish. American oil
and mining companies will be free to drill and extract resources, subject only to USA royalty taxes.
American mining companies may exploit resources of the deep seabed through the Deep Seabed Hard
Mineral Resources Act.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 251

Internal Link Extension

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 252

Displacement Hurts Fishers and Income


Displacing commercial fishers brings significant economic costs and increases
overfishing
Robert Brock, MD., Marine Biologist at the National MPA Center, 2011, National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
MPA Science Brief: What Does the Science Say?, “Do ‘No-Take’ Marine Reserves Benefit Adjacent
Fisheries?,”
http://marineprotectedareas.noaa.gov/pdf/helpful-
resources/do_no_take_reserves_benefit_adjacent_fisheries.pdf, Accessed 5/20/2014
Eliminating fishing from an area often causes fishermen to move to different areas, thus potentially
concentrating fishing in smaller areas and adding to the stressors at those sites. Could this lead to
unintended ecological consequences such as overfishing and habitat destruction in the adjacent fished
area? The displacement of fishermen may also produce social anxiety, such as removing people from
their “favorite fishing holes.” Having to go to another area to fish may come with considerable economic
costs as well, such as having to travel to fishing grounds that are further away (e.g., cost of fuel and
time) and perhaps having to fish in areas that are less productive. Coastal communities located next to
the no fishing area may be negatively impacted, socially and economically, as well.

Fishers are willing to conform to sustainable fishing, but cutting revenues prevents
Shaye Weaver, Staff Writer, November 26, 2013, “Center For Sustainable Fisheries Is Pushing For
Reform,” The East Hampton Press, http://www.27east.com/news/article.cfm/General-Interest-
EH/43458/Center-For-Sustainable-Fisheries-Is-Pushing-For-Reform, Accessed 5/21/2014
Mr. Lang noted that most fishermen would be willing to utilize tracking devices to monitor their catches
in order to provide information of what’s going on in the ocean. “Fishermen are really the
conservationists of the sea,” Mr. Lang said. “They really are interested in the environment and perceive
changes far sooner than any entity that you could have.” Bonnie Brady, the executive director of the
Long Island Commercial Fishing Association and a member on the Center for Sustainable Fisheries Board
of Directors, said the Magnuson-Stevens Act has to be fair or fisheries will continue to fish less and hurt
more financially. “We’ve been given the brunt of these regulations, to carry it all on our backs,” she said.
“The center’s goal to work on the science and rewrite the Magnuson-Stevens Act is going to actually be
effective.”

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 253

Displacement Hurts Fishers and Income


Fishers want to fish sustainably. That’s key to food security
Andreas Merkl, President and CEO of Ocean Conservancy, May 22, 2013, “The Fish We Need to Feed 9
Billion People,” Blue Ocean Conservancy, http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/05/22/the-fish-we-
need-to-feed-9-billion-people/, Accessed 5/22/2014
Sustainable fishing means keeping enough fish in the water to reproduce and ensure a bountiful catch in
the future. It’s a balancing act, but sustainable fisheries are in everyone’s best interest – from fishermen
to distributors to gear manufacturers to retailers to consumers. If you’re a fisherman and you want to
pass on your traditions to the next generation, or you want to be able to make good money 10 years
from now, the most profitable way to fish is sustainably. Unfortunately, overfishing due to poor fisheries
management remains a global problem that threatens ecosystem health and human survival. For
example, without enough forage fish—small fish like anchovies, sardines, and squid—the larger
predators, like tuna, that feed on them will start to disappear as well. That matters because we are
facing a future with 9 billion people on the planet, and with that future comes huge concerns for food
security.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 254

Impacts

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 255

Fishing is Key to the Economy


Rebuilding fisheries is essential to the economy
Eileen Sobeck, Assistant Administrator for NOAA Fisheries, 2014, Status of Stocks 2013: Annual
Report to Congress on the Status of U.S. Fisheries, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/fisheries_eco/status_of_fisheries/archive/
2013/status_of_stocks_2013_web.pdf, Accessed 5/7/2014
U.S. fisheries play an enormous role in the nation’s economy. When stocks are rebuilt, they provide
more economic opportunities for commercial, recreational, and subsistence fishing. Rebuilt stocks also
contribute to a healthy ecosystem. To continue our progress in ending overfishing and rebuilding stocks,
we must ensure solid, science-based determinations of stock status and better linkages to biological,
socioeconomic, and ecosystem conditions. It is also increasingly important that we better understand
ecosystem and habitat factors, as resilient ecosystems and habitat form the foundation for robust
fisheries and fishing jobs. NOAA is investing in efforts to better understand the effects of climate change
on fisheries, reduce bycatch, and focus habitat conservation resources where they can have the greatest
impact.

A strong fishing industry is essential to the lives of billions


Chris Gibson, Director of the UOW Global Challenges Program, Et al, March 10, 2014, “Why our
precious oceans are under threat,” Global Challenges,
http://uowblogs.com/globalchallenges/2014/03/10/the-threats-facing-our-precious-oceans/, Accessed
5/1/2014
The oceans are critical to the global environment and human survival in numerous ways – they are vital
to the global nutrient cycling, represent a key repository and supporter of biological diversity on a world
scale and play a fundamental role in driving the global atmospheric system. Coastal and marine
environments support and sustain key habitats and living resources, notably fisheries and aquaculture.
These resources continue to provide a critical source of food for hundreds of millions of people. The
fishing industry supports the livelihoods of an estimated 540 million people worldwide and fisheries
supply more than 15 percent of the animal protein consumed by 4.2 billion people globally. Moreover,
the oceans are an increasing source of energy resources and underpin the global economy through sea
borne trade.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 256

Economic Decline is Disastrous


Economic collapse causes global nuclear war
Cesare Merlini, nonresident senior fellow at the Center on the United States and Europe and The
Brookings Institute, April 2011, “A Post-Secular World?,” Survival, Volume 53, Issue 2, pp. 117 – 130.
Two neatly opposed scenarios for the future of the world order illustrate the range of possibilities, albeit
at the risk of oversimplification. The first scenario entails the premature crumbling of the post-
Westphalian system. One or more of the acute tensions apparent today evolves into an open and
traditional conflict between states, perhaps even involving the use of nuclear weapons. The crisis might
be triggered by a collapse of the global economic and financial system, the vulnerability of which we
have just experienced, and the prospect of a second Great Depression, with consequences for peace and
democracy similar to those of the first. Whatever the trigger, the unlimited exercise of national
sovereignty, exclusive self-interest and rejection of outside interference would likely be amplified,
emptying, perhaps entirely, the half-full glass of multilateralism, including the UN and the European
Union. Many of the more likely conflicts, such as between Israel and Iran or India and Pakistan, have
potential religious dimensions. Short of war, tensions such as those related to immigration might
become unbearable. Familiar issues of creed and identity could be exacerbated. One way or another,
the secular rational approach would be sidestepped by a return to theocratic absolutes, competing or
converging with secular absolutes such as unbridled nationalism.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 257

Economic Growth Is Good


Growth prevents conflict
Ernie Reghr, Senior Fellow in Arctic Security at The Simons Foundation, February 4, 2013, “Intrastate
Conflict: Data, Trends and Drivers,” International Relations and Security
Networkhttp://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Articles/Special-Feature/Detail/?lng=en&id=
158597&tabid=1453496807&contextid774= 158597&contextid775=158627, Accessed 5/20/2014
“The most robustly significant predictor of [armed] conflict risk and its duration is some indicator of
economic prosperity. At a higher income people have more to lose from the destructiveness of conflict;
and higher per-capita income implies a better functioning social contract, institutions and state
capacity.” This correlation between underdevelopment and armed conflict is confirmed in a 2008 paper
by Thania Paffenholz which notes that “since 1990, more than 50% of all conflict-prone countries have
been low income states…. Two thirds of all armed conflicts take place in African countries with the
highest poverty rates. Econometric research found a correlation between the poverty rate and
likelihood of armed violence….[T]he lower the GDP per capita in a country, the higher the likelihood of
armed conflict.” Of course, it is important to point out that this is not a claim that there is a direct causal
connection between poverty and armed conflict. To repeat, the causes of conflict are complex and
context specific, nevertheless, says Paffenholz, there is a clear correlation between a low and declining
per capita income and a country’s vulnerability to conflict. It is also true, on the other hand, that there
are low income countries that experience precipitous economic decline, like Zambia in the 1980s and
1990s, without suffering the kind of turmoil that has visited economically more successful countries like
Kenya and Cote d’Ivoire. Referring to both Zambia and Nigeria, Pafenholz says these are cases in which
“the social compact” has proven to be resilient. Both have formal and informal mechanisms that are
able to address grievances in ways that allowed them to be aired and resolved or managed without
recourse to violence.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 258

Ocean Climate Change DA


The disad explained:
The environment will be a big deal on this year’s topic. This file is designed to give
flexibility to your approach of debating environmental issues in relation to the ocean.
Generating a link to exploration in the abstract sense is difficult as most exploration
affs will not read energy exploration but scientific exploration plan texts. However,
teams that read energy exploration link in several ways: through increased access to
fossil fuel production (oil & natural gas), through the increased usage of fossil fuels,
and through increased ship activity in the oceans to transport the extracted material
as well as build the extraction facilities. Mostly all affs will link to the “noise pollution”
arguments since they will use sonar to either map the ocean floor for science for to
look for energy. Controlling the impact framing in relation to magnitude (“tipping
point”) over time frame is important as it is difficult to generate an immediate impact
to the disad. If the oceans control global climate and global climate controls
agriculture and the economy it will also complicate our ability to prevent major
conflicts over resources from arising. This means the disad can access climate change,
food, economic, and hegemony based impacts.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 259

1NC Shell-UQ
Uniqueness: Global ocean health is down but not on the brink of collapse—haven’t
reached tipping points yet
The World Bank, report released by the world bank on ocean health, April 25, 2014,
“Summit Commits to Concrete Actions to Turn Around Ocean Health and Secure Food Security for
Millions of People”, Accessed April 3, 2014, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-
release/2014/04/25/summit-commits-to-concrete-actions-to-turn-around-ocean-health-and-secure-
food-security-for-millions-of-people

A Summit that brought together more than 600 ocean stakeholders, including 80 ministers from across the world, ocean
science
experts, business leaders, philanthropy and heads of international organizations – committed to a set of concrete actions
responding to the urgency for restoring productive, resilient oceans that drive broad-based blue growth and deliver
food security. The Global Oceans Action Summit for Blue Growth and Food Security – a joint initiative of the Government of the Netherlands,
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank – found unprecedented convergence around the urgent
steps needed to tackle the key threats to the world’s oceans: climate change, overfishing, habitat loss and pollution. Actions focused specifically
on improving governance, enhancing sustainable financing, building partnerships for action and sharing knowledge on successful solution
implementation. The Summit called for: - A stand-alone Sustainable Development Goal on oceans as part of the post-2015 Development
Framework - Much stronger recognition of the escalating impacts from climate change on oceans and ensuring ocean health is incorporated
into the international processes and events heading towards the 2015 UNFCCC conference of parties in Paris - Eliminating harmful fisheries
subsidies that contribute to overfishing and overcapacity and instead incentivizing approaches that improve conservation, build sustainable
fisheries and end illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing - Strengthening the mandate of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations and
their financing and accelerating ratification of agreed mechanisms for improved fisheries practices, better conservation and less pollution,
including the Port State Measures Agreement - Investing in small and medium scale fisheries and local communities as vital stewards for blue
growth and support to sustainable supply chains - Building on existing partnerships like the Global Partnership for Oceans, the Global Island
Partnership and 50in10 to build global momentum and scale up successes - Sharing of knowledge, experiences and solutions through
information and communications technology that can enforce and monitor in real time and connect communities globally The Chair of the
Summit, H.E. Sharon Dijksma, Minister for Agriculture of the Netherlands said: “This week the world community has shown courage and
boldness in The Hague to move ahead and take action on ocean health and food security. What’s needed now is decisive action from the
international community to put solutions into practice.” Árni M. Mathiesen – Assistant Director-General of the FAO said: “This Summit has put
an accent on action and the route to navigate on oceans, fisheries management and aquaculture is much clearer than before.” World Bank
representative Valerie Hickey said: “This
Summit has presented the way forward for a new type of growth – blue
growth which is sustainable, equitable and takes the value of the ocean’s ecosystem services into account. Together, we can
restore ocean health at the speed and scale necessary to drive broad-based blue growth, secure food
security and turn down the heat on climate change. We have the set of actions needed – let’s move on them
now.”

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 260

1NC Shell- Development Link


Link: Development of Earth’s oceans causes a laundry list of environmental crisis
Genevieve Anderson, Marine Scientist out of Santa Barbara City College, 2003,
“Human's Impact on the Oceans,” http://www.marinebio.net/marinescience/06future/olhum.htm,
Accessed April 17, 2014

Oil spills in the ocean usually happen when an ocean oil rig springs a leak or when an ocean going tanker
(carrying oil) wrecks. Several large oil spills have resulted from these two means (the Santa Barbara spill in 1969, and the Exxon Valdez
spill in Alaska in 1989. Oil dumped down storm drains that lead to the ocean also may be a source but most areas now have signs to help
prevent this. War can also create oil spills as it did in 1991 when the Gulf War resulted in millions of gallons of oil being released into the
Persian Gulf. Oil spills initially may kill large numbers of marine life however, most of the benthic invertebrates are capable of rather speedy
recoveries (6 months to 5 years depending on the area and spill) because they have tremendous numbers of planktonic larvae that are drifting
in the ocean water and relatively fast growth rates to adult size. The hardest hit during most oil spills are the marine birds
- few recover even if they are cleaned, fed until they molt (getting a new set of feathers) and released. Chemicals released into the ocean cause
a myriad of problems. Pesticides, coming from runoff of agricultural land into the ocean damages marine organisms. When DDT was being used
(as an insect spray on crops), this chemical ended up in the food chain and caused sea birds, like the brown pelican, to lay eggs with soft shells.
This resulted in the brown pelican eggs almost all breaking before the baby could develop and the near extinction of this species. In this case
DDT was eliminated in most countries and the brown pelican population eventually recovered in most areas. Another sad example happened in
the 1950s when mercury was released into the ocean in Minamata, Japan. The mercury got in the food chain and over a hundred Japanese
living in the area became poisoned by eating the shellfish - resulting in birth defects, insanity, and death. These are just a few examples of the
problems with chemicals released into the ocean.< Thermal pollution is a byproduct of the ocean's use as a cooling agent - the cool ocean water
taken in is released at a higher temperature. Although the temperature of release is usually controlled by laws, and is not such a threat as the
other forms of pollution mentioned here, one could imagine what it would be like if more and more plants began using ocean water as a
Noise pollution
coolant. This change in temperature, due to humans in this case, would change the makeup of the species in these areas.
is one of the more recent threats to marine life. Several studies have shown that the noise produced by boats
interferes with many species of marine life. The number of large tankers now cruising the oceans creates a significant level of
noise that may make it difficult for whales to communicate. The other source of noise pollution comes from the testing of
loud noises in the oceans (mostly by the military) which have been linked to the deaths of dolphins (a type of small whale) due to massive
internal hemorrhaging. Habitat destruction occurs directly when man 'develops' marine areas by filling them in with
sediment to create more usable acreage. Most of the
natural estuaries in California have been 'developed .' In
Ecuador many mangrove (a tree that lives by the ocean and is the base for a mangrove community) communities have been
converted into ponds for shrimp mariculture. The list goes on and on - leaving the marine creatures
without a suitable habitat in which to live. Pollution can also create habitat destruction by making the area
unfit.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 261

1NC Shell- Exploration Link


Link: Exploration of Earth’s oceans requires major amounts of ships and water
vehicles
NOAA-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Non-government
environmental research organization, July 19-21, 2013, “Ocean Exploration 2020 A
National Forum,” http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/oceanexploration2020/oe2020_report.pdf, Accessed
April 17, 2014

In 2020, a greater number of ships, submersibles, and other platforms are dedicated to ocean exploration.
Ocean exploration priorities will frequently dictate the types of platforms needed for a national program of ocean exploration. Since mission
priorities change, the mix of platforms needs to include a wide variety of capabilities as well as provide
flexibility and nimbleness. The great majority of Ocean Exploration 2020 participants felt that the current suite of available
platforms is not sufficient to sustain an evolving national program. There was a strong consensus that a more diverse
and dynamic mix of platforms is needed that includes: • Dedicated ships of exploration • Ships of opportunity • A
variety of submersibles—AUVs, ROVs, and HOVs—with a range of depth capabilities that include full
ocean depth • Small, inexpensive ROVs that put ocean exploration in the hands of citizen scientists • Instrumented marine animals •
Stationary observing networks and sensors The value of having one or more dedicated federal ships of
ocean exploration was endorsed. In addition to platforms that move through the water in three dimensions, there was strong support
for seafloor observatories that document changes in the fourth dimension—time. A fully mature national program of ocean
exploration must have both components. In addition to greater investments in ships, better coordination among
ships of exploration and other exploration assets is essential to ensure a maximum science payoff per dollar invested.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 262

1NC Shell- Impact


Impact: The oceans control earth’s climate- destroying the ocean’s delicate
balance shuts down the conveyer belt ensuring environmental collapse and
extinction
Mel Goodwin, PhD, The Harmony Project for the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, 2009, “LEADER’S GUIDE FOR CLASSROOM EXPLORERS”,
Accessed April 25, 2014,
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos/edu/leadersguide/media/09whydoweexplore.pdf

Global climate is strongly influenced by interactions between Earth’s atmosphere and ocean, but these
interactions are complex and poorly understood. While the deep-ocean might seem far removed from the
atmosphere, one of the most significant climatic influences results from the “deep-ocean thermohaline
circulation” (See the Diving Deeper section on page 18 for more information about the THC). The causes and effects of the THC are not fully
known, but we do know that it affects almost all of the world’s ocean and plays an important role in
transporting dissolved oxygen and nutrients. For these reasons, the deep-ocean THC is often called the “global
conveyor belt.” We also know that the part of the THC that is the Gulf Stream is at least partially responsible for the
fact that countries in northwestern Europe (Britain and Scandinavia) are about 9°C warmer than other locations at
similar latitudes. Recent changes in the Arctic climate have led to growing concerns about the possible effects of
these changes on the deep-ocean THC. Dense water sinking in the North Atlantic Ocean is one of the
principal forces that drives the circulation of the global conveyor belt. Since warmer temperatures and
increased freshwater inflow from melting ice cause seawater density to decrease, these changes could
also weaken the global conveyor belt. Trends toward a warmer climate are having impacts in the tropics as well. A major
concern is the impact of higher temperatures on coral reefs. In the Caribbean, surveys of 302 sites between 1998 and
2000 show widespread recent mortality among shallow- (≤ 5m depth) and deep-water (> 5m depth) corals (Kramer, 2003).
Many scientists believe that the widespread decline of coral reefs is the result of accumulating stresses, one of which is
increased water temperature. There are many other potential impacts of changing climate, ranging from the possible
extinction of species such as the polar bear to year-round access to sea routes through the Arctic. Ocean exploration can provide some of
the essential knowledge about ocean-atmosphere interactions that is needed to understand, predict, and respond to these impacts.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 263

***UQ Ext.***

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 264

UQ- Tipping Point


The oceans are heading for an environmental “tipping point” we can’t come back from
once crossed
Ocean Tipping Points, interdisciplinary organization working to improve ocean
ecosystem health, March 8, 2014,“Oceanic Tipping Points”, Accessed May 5, 2014,
http://oceantippingpoints.org/sites/default/files/uploads/TippingPointsOverview.pdf

A growing problem An increasing number of examples of tipping points in ecosystems around the world are raising
concern among scientists and policymakers. In the oceans, diverse ecosystems ranging from reefs to estuaries to
pelagic sys- tems have undergone sudden, dramatic shifts. Changes in ocean climate, the abundance of key species,
nutrients and other factors drive these shifts, with resulting effects on ocean food webs, habitats, and ecosystem functions that have direct
impacts on people’s livelihoods and well-being. Ocean tipping points may be cause for partic- ular concern because
they are hard to anticipate and can be very difficult, if not impossible, to reverse. Tipping points change
the rules For managers of marine ecosystems, an understanding of tipping points is critical because they
change the rules of the game. The new ecosystem state may function quite differently from the previous one, respond differently to
management interventions, and provide different levels and types of benefits to people. Although there have been many critical
advances in the science of ecosystem tipping points in recent years, managers still lack prac- tical tools
and information to help them anticipate and respond to ecosystem shifts. Tipping Points on Land In the native
longleaf pine forests of the US Southeast, the tipping point involves fire. Without frequent enough wildfire, fast-growing shortleaf pine invades,
and the forest shifts rapidly into one that no longer functions in the same way – one that can’t, for example, provide essential habitat for the
endangered red-cockaded wood- peckers that live only there. Tipping
Points in the Ocean In the Baltic Sea, a series of
threats pushed the system over a tipping point in the 1980s, from which it has yet to recover. Overfishing of
top predators and fifty years of nutrient pollution combined with climate change to shift the Baltic from a productive and highly valuable, cod-
dom- inated ecosystem to one dominated instead by inedible jellyfish.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 265

UQ- Tipping Point


Oceans are on the tipping point now—small actions like the plan could push us over
the brink
Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Blue Ribbon Panel Chair, Director at the Global Change Institute,
University of Queensland, April 24, 2014, “Ocean Action: A Different Kind of Tipping Point”,
Accessed May 5, 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ove-hoeghguldberg/ocean-action-a-different-
kind-of-tipping-point_b_5191058.html

Recently you may have noticed the


ever-increasing number of international conferences, talks, meetings and
reports on the ocean and its declining health. Just in the last two years, we have had two excellent World Ocean Summits
hosted byThe Economist, which brought together a rich audience of politicians, business leaders, NGOs and experts to focus on the evidence,
challenges and solutions to the changes being observed in our oceans. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has also just
released its fifth assessment report, which, for the first time, includes several chapters focusing on the ocean as a key region. The
IPCC and
other global groups have hosted meetings on everything from ocean acidification and weather patterns to
fisheries and biodiversity. A lot of meeting, travel and talk. One cynical perspective might be that all this talk and
travel is generating carbon dioxide rather than driving tangible progress. Nothing is changing, and the ocean is still
degrading before our eyes. Standing back, however, you can see this activity as a response to a series of looming
biophysical tipping points that could lead to changes we will have to live with for tens of thousands of
years. You only have to look at the issue of ocean warming and acidification to see what is at stake. These biophysical tipping
points could be disastrous, but I am optimistic that we are at the verge of another tipping point, one
where the global community commits to take action now. Tip one way and we face irreversible change
in the ocean's ability to produce food and jobs and protect our planet. That message is writ large across our blue
planet, in "ink" that could be permanent for natural and human systems. Tip the other way, however, and the situation
could be very different. Instead of declining, we could see the emergence of "healing" oceans that produce more, not less, sustainable
food for Earth's growing population. The recent IPCC Working Group III Report, with findings on climate change's impact on crop productivity,
adds a huge amount of urgency to act now and restore ocean health.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 266

UQ- Tipping Point


New models suggest ocean ecosystems are fragile and on the brink
University of Bergen, a European university, February 20, 2014 “Climate change: Unstable
Atlantic deep ocean circulation may hasten 'tipping point'”, Accessed May 5, 2014,
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/02/140220141625.htm

A new study looking at past climate change, asks if these changes in the future will be spasmodic and
abrupt rather than a more gradual increase in the temperature. Today, deep waters formed in the northern North
Atlantic fill approximately half of the deep ocean globally. In the process, this impacts the circum-Atlantic climate and
regional sea level, and it soak up much of the excess atmospheric carbon dioxide from industrialisation --
helping moderate the effects of global warming. Changes in this circulation mode are considered a
potential tipping point in future climate change that could have widespread and long-lasting impacts
including on regional sea level, the intensity and pacing of Sahel droughts, and the pattern and rate of ocean acidification and CO2
sequestration. Until now, this pattern of circulation has been considered relatively stable during warm climate
states such as those projected for the end of the century. A new study led by researchers from the Bjerknes Centre of Climate Research at the
University of Bergen (UiB) and Uni Research in Norway, suggests that Atlantic deep water formation may be much more
fragile than previously realised. The researchers Eirik Vinje Galaasen (UiB), Ulysses Ninnemann (UiB), Nil Irvali (Uni Research), and
Helga (Kikki) Kleiven (UiB) and their colleagues from Rutgers University, USA (Professor Yair Rosenthal), Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et
de l'Environnement, France (Research Scientist Catherine Kissel) and the University of Cambridge, UK (Professor David Hodell) used the shells of
tiny single-celled, bottom-dwelling foraminifera found in marine sediment in the North Atlantic Ocean to reconstruct the surface ocean
conditions and concomitant deep ocean circulation of about 125,000 years ago. This is the last interglacial period, when the North Atlantic was
warmer, fresher and sea level was higher than it is today and looked a lot like what climate models predict it will look by the end of this century.
"At that time, there were a series of sudden and large reductions in the influence of these North Atlantic waters in the deep ocean. These deep
water reductions occurred repeatedly, each lasting for some centuries before bouncing back. The unstable circulation operated as if it was near
a threshold and flickered back and forth across it," says Eirik Vinje Galaasen, a PhD student and now researcher at UiB's Department of Earth
Science, who is the lead author of the paper published in the journal Science. "These
types of changes hadn't been noticed
before because they are so short-lived. Geologists hadn't focused on century scale ocean changes because they are difficult to
detect," adds Professor Ulysses Ninnemann, from UiB's Department of Earth Science and Galaasen's PhD adviser. "Our study demonstrates that
deep water formation can be disrupted by the freshening of the regional surface water, which might
happen due to enhanced precipitation and glacier melting under future climate change scenarios," says
Yair Rosenthal, a co-author on the paper. The international team studied traces of deep ocean properties imprinted in the sediments on the
seafloor. Coring into the seafloor mud they could look back in time to reconstruct changes in the abyssal ocean at a location South of Greenland
that is sensitive to North Atlantic Deep Water. The mud at this location builds up 10-15 times as fast as normal, recording much shorter changes
than at other sites. Although
the changes are short from a geological perspective, a few centuries of reduced
deep water could be a big deal for societies that would have to grapple with things like draughts and sea
level changes that could accompany them.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 267

UQ- Structural
There’s structural UQ for the disad- most of earth’s oceans haven’t been
explored yet
NOAA-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Non-government
environmental research organization, July 19-21, 2013, “Ocean Exploration 2020 A
National Forum,” http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/oceanexploration2020/oe2020_report.pdf, Accessed
April 17, 2014

When you mention the word “Exploration” most people think of Captain James Cook, Vasco de Gama, Sir Francis Drake, Marco Polo, Ferdinand
Magellan, and Christopher Columbus; all of whom died long ago. But when it comes to “Ocean Exploration”, the greatest ocean
explorers of all time are more than likely still in middle school since that generation of future explorers will explore more of Earth than all
previous generations combined. The reasons are simple. 72% of the world lies hidden beneath the sea and most of it
lies in a world of eternal darkness and is unexplored . In fact, we have better maps of the far side of the moon than half of
the United States of America. Daunting as this task may seem, new advances in undersea exploration technologies and
now greatly accelerating our rate of exploration. The unexplored regions of our oceans not only contain important
keys to unlocking the history of planet Earth, they also contain vast mineral resources, new fisheries, and important places
beneath the sea that need to be set aside as marine sanctuaries. The oceans also contain more lost chapters of human history than all of the
museums of the world combined.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 268

UQ- International Efforts Now


Massive steps being taken now across the planet to curb environmental destruction of
the oceans
Global Oceans Action Summit, international oceanic environmental health summit,
April 25, 2014, “ANNOUNCEMENT GLOBAL OCEANS ACTION SUMMIT FOR FOOD SECURITY AND BLUE
GROWTH 22 to 25 APRIL, 2014 THE HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS”, Accessed May 5, 2014,
http://www.globaloceansactionsummit.com/

The Hague - We will need to take unorthodox steps to tackle overfishing, climate change and pollution of
the oceans. Governments, business leaders and NGOs from 80 countries commit themselves to firm agreements. In addition, 10
partnerships were announced. We have the solutions for sustainable fisheries and blue growth in our own hands
and now it is a matter of putting this into action on a global scale, and this action starts today. This is the
final conclusion of the Global Oceans Action Summit after a week of high level roundtable discussions in The Hague. From courage to action
Dutch Minister for Agriculture and chair of the summit, H.E. Sharon Dijksma, said about the result: 'This week the world didn’t just
show courage; it showed especially that’s it’s ready for action to tackle overfishing, climate change and
pollution. That is exactly what the world needs right now, as only then will fish and healthy oceans still be able to provide for hundreds of
millions of people after 2030.' Results from the Summit: The only way to end the war of attrition at sea is to stop overfishing and to eliminate
overcapacity From now on, subsidies should be used for sustainable fisheries only; Illegal fisheries must be banned, and we need regional
agreements with businesses to achieve this; Accelerating ratification of agreed mechanisms for improved fisheries practices to make the
fisheries sector more sustainable, and tackling pollution; A
stronger recognition of the impact of climate change on the
oceans is crucial; The oceans must be a special focus in the United Nations Sustainability Objectives. Cross-boundary partnerships At
the summit more than 10 new commitments for public-private partnerships were entered into, leading
to action in many places around the world. Today the following partnerships will be announced: Mauritius, the Seychelles and
the labelling non-profit organisation Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) will start working at certification of fish species and sustainable
fisheries in the Indian Ocean; Conservation International will further develop the Ocean Health Index with partners; Rockefeller Foundation and
the Netherlands pledging funding support of 250,000 euros to WorldFish and FAO to produce a Roadmap for the Future of Fish. Together with
the Netherlands, the WNF will start working on a study into the effectiveness of international ‘Marine protected areas’. The Netherlands had
already announced it is going to work together with Indonesia to prevent fish wastage, and with Grenada to protect the coral. There
are
also partnerships to better exchange the available data and to promote the recovery of fish populations.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 269

UQ- International Efforts Now


Massive steps being taken to stabilize ocean health and sustainability
Dr. Sylvia A. Earle, National Geographic Society Explorer-in-Residence, November 1,
2013, “Indispensable Ocean: Aligning Ocean Health and Human Well-Being”, Accessed May 4, 2014,
http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2013/11/01/indispensable-ocean-aligning-ocean-health-
and-human-well-being/

So, I was cautiously optimistic when potential partners met in Washington, DC in April, 2012 followed in June at the Rio+20 Summit with
the formal launch of the GPO, now a growing alliance of more than 140
countries, international organizations, civil society
groups and private sector interests committed to alleviating poverty while addressing threats to the
health, productivity and resilience of the ocean. It is mobilizing finance and solutions at an
unprecedented scale, focusing on problems including overfishing, habitat destruction, and pollution that
affect communities, countries and global prosperity. Early in 2013, I was asked to be part of a panel of 21 ocean-minded
individuals with distinctly diverse backgrounds from 16 countries. This Blue Ribbon Panel was charged with guiding investments by the GPO—
and others—that would take into account ecological, economic and community sustainability. I participated in most of the intense electronic
exchanges and meetings in Asia, Africa, and the US where leaders in government, science, industry, conservation and social justice analyzed,
scrutinized, sometimes agonized and finally rationalized weighty subjects, skillfully kept on point though the superhuman patience and
diplomatic skill of the Chairman, Australian scientist Dr. Ove Hoegh-Guldberg and the supporting staff from the US Academy of Sciences and the
World Bank. The resulting report, Indispensable Ocean: Aligning Ocean Health and Human Well-Being, has just been released. It is a small
document crammed with big ideas, a useful distillation of serious deliberations aimed at finding solutions of concern to all, emphasizing the
power of public-private partnerships. There is guidance here, whether
your primary focus is on sustaining profitable
extraction of wildlife from the sea, looking to the ocean as a source of oil, gas or minerals, or seeking
support for protection of the ocean’s biodiversity and fundamental life-support functions. It is
encouraging to see the World Bank making a serious effort to invest in maintaining the blue part of the
planetary portfolio that not only underpins human health, wealth and security, but keeps us alive as
well.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 270

UQ- Whale Populations on Brink


Whale populations are down now—every whale death matters
Michael Bastasch, writer for The Daily Caller, April 11, 2014, “Global warming? Blue whales
crushed to death by heavy Arctic sea ice”, Accessed May 4, 2014,
http://dailycaller.com/2014/04/11/global-warming-blue-whales-crushed-to-death-by-heavy-arctic-sea-
ice/

Climate scientists may worry that global


warming is melting the Arctic, but tell that to the blue whales that were
crushed to death by heavy North Pole ice. Global News reports that several endangered blue whales were found dead in ice
pack off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada “probably crushed to death by ice.” One researcher with Department of Fisheries and Oceans
(DFO) “spotted nine dead whales while flying over the ice, about 40 nautical miles west of Cape Anguille.” The blue whales were about
“the length of two school buses”, or about 66 feet long, according to the DFO. Blue whale deaths along the Newfoundland coast aren’t all that
rare, says the DFO, as there have been more than 50 recorded entrapments since the 1800s. “But the blue whale entrapment events have all
happened in this part of the southwest coast of Newfoundland,” the DFO’s Dr. Jack Lawson told Global News. “We’ve taken to calling it the
whale trap.” “Because of the geography of the area, he said, strong easterly winds can push ice from the Strait of Belle Isle out away from shore
and into the open water,” Global News says. “That opens up a channel whales can swim into to feed. Blue whales are known to feed in the area
around this time of year, feasting on the first spring bloom of shrimp.” Lawson said that if a westerly wind comes along “it’ll actually move the
ice close into the shore and crush them, which is what we think happened to these nine whales.” The
whale deaths are a huge
blow to the northwest Atlantic blue whale population — of which there are only about 250, so these
deaths make up about 4 percent of the population. This year has been particularly hard for them since
the sea ice has been much heavier.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 271

***Link Ext.***

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 272

Exploration- Sonar
Ocean exploration uses high powered sonar to penetrate deep into the ocean
Mel Goodwin, PhD, The Harmony Project for the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, 2009, “LEADER’S GUIDE FOR CLASSROOM EXPLORERS”,
Accessed April 25, 2014,
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos/edu/leadersguide/media/09whydoweexplore.pdf

On August 13, 2008, the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer was commissioned as “America’s Ship for Ocean Exploration;” the only
U.S. ship whose sole assignment is to systematically explore our largely unknown ocean for the purposes of
discovery and the advancement of knowledge. The ship was originally one of the Navy’s T-AGOS (Tactical Auxiliary General Ocean
Surveillance) class vessels, and as the former USNS Capable, was used to gather underwater acoustical data. To fulfill its mission, the
Okeanos Explorer has specialized capabilities for finding new and unusual features in unexplored parts of
Earth’s ocean, and for gathering key information that will support more detailed investigations by subsequent expeditions. These
capabilities include: • Reconnaissance within a search area to locate unusual features or anomalies; • Underwater
robots (remotely operated vehicles, or ROVs) that can investigate anomalies as deep as 6,000 meters; • Underwater mapping using
multibeam sonar, capable of producing high-resolution maps of the seafloor to depths of 6,000 meters; and • Advanced broadband
satellite communication.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 273

Exploration- Sonar Kills Species


Oil & gas exploration uses invasive sonar which kills ocean life
Matthew Huelsenbeck, marine scientist at Oceana, February 28, 2014, “Don't let
Washington hurt the whales: Column”, Accessed May 4, 2014
http://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2014/02/28/ocean-wildlife-science-marine-life-
column/5843781/

For many animals, the ocean is a world of sound, not sight. Animals like whales and dolphins depend on their
sensitive hearing in order to find food, navigate and survive in a murky and often dark environment. But
humans are filling the ocean with sound, disrupting the lives of marine animals. The problem is only getting worse.
An environmental review expected soon from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) could allow seismic testing for
offshore oil and gas in a huge area of ocean from Delaware to Florida. During this process, seismic airguns would be towed
behind ships, while repeatedly blasting the ocean with intense sound for days to weeks at a time.
Imagine a sound so loud it needs to penetrate through the ocean, miles beneath the Earth's crust and
then bounce back to the surface of the water with information about buried oil and gas . That is what seismic
airgun testing does, creating one of the loudest man-made sounds in the ocean. They are loud enough to kill small animals like fish eggs and
larvae at close ranges, and their acoustic footprint is enormous. Traces of
the sound can cross entire ocean basins,
disrupting the behavior of large animals like whales and dolphins as far as 100 miles away. The science on how
sound impacts marine life is far from settled. The National Marine Fisheries Service is currently developing new guidelines to better estimate
how marine mammals can experience auditory injuries or disturbances to vital behaviors from man-made sound. These guidelines have been
15 years in the making, and they are deemed a "Highly Influential Scientific Assessment" by the Office of Management and Budget. But BOEM is
going rogue. They are looking to rush forward with their environmental review without using this new science because of an arbitrary political
timeline. This is a big mistake. If the final review lacks these new guidelines, it will misrepresent the comprehensive impacts of the proposed
seismic airgun testing, especially in terms of cumulative behavioral impacts like repeated disruptions to
mating, feeding, breathing, communicating and navigating. This includes threats to the nursery of the critically
endangered North Atlantic right whale, the rarest of the large whales. Because only 500 of these individuals remain, it is essential to accurately
estimate and then avoid harm to them as well as to other vulnerable marine life. There is no rush to finish this environmental review or permit
seismic airgun testing, since offshore drilling lease sales in the Atlantic are not available until at least 2017. Therefore, BOEM should require
that the best science be incorporated before any decision about seismic airgun testing is ever made. Accurately predicting impacts to marine
life is important because, in some circumstances, sound
disturbances to marine mammals can turn deadly when
whales or dolphins are scared into dangerously shallow areas and become stranded. For example, in 2008, a
mass mortality event occurred after a geophysical contractor working for ExxonMobil Exploration and Production (Northern Madagascar)
Limited used loud sonar devices , at the same intensity but different frequency as seismic airguns, to map
the seafloor for good spots to drill. More than 75 melon-headed whales were scared by the wall of sound and became trapped in
a shallow lagoon where they later died from exposure, dehydration and starvation. The oil and gas industry describes seismic
testing as " exploration, " and their friends on Capitol Hill call it "the science of discovery." But there is little left to explore
or discover with seismic airguns. We already have better options. We should be exploring quieter
technologies, which are already in development and would be less harmful to marine life.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 274

Exploration- Oil (Offshore Drilling)


Exploring the ocean inevitably leads to discovering and extracting new oil reserves
Emily Atkin, journalist and reporter for Climate Progress, January 17, 2014 , “Oil
Companies Will Soon Use Drones To Find Deep-Sea Fossil Fuels”, Accessed April 26, 2014
http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/01/17/3178211/drones-oil-deep-sea-scotland/

When thinking about the possible abilities of unmanned flying drones, the first thing that comes to mind is probably not benefits for the
fossil fuel industry. But in Scotland, that’s exactly what’s happening. According to a report in BBC news, researchers at the University of
Aberdeen have developed drones that can scan rock formations underneath the ocean — in some cases, in the deep
sea. The drones will be able to locate the reserves , then estimate how much they can produce by comparing them to
models of fuel-producing rock formations that occur above sea levels, University of Aberdeen geoscientist John Howell said. The data
collected by the drone is then used to make virtual maps of deep-sea rock formations that Howell says are accurate
within less than a few millimeters. “The advantage of the drone is that it allows us to collect large volumes of data from otherwise
inaccessible cliff sections in remote and often dangerous places,” Howell said. More than 20 oil companies have
financed the research so far, the BBC reported, with each drone expected to cost more than $16,000 each. They are expected to be in full use
by 2014. This is not the first time, however, that drones have been eyed by the energy industry. The Federal Aviation
Administration in July issued an approval that paved the way for a “major energy company” to fly unmanned drones in U.S. airspace. In August,
the company was revealed to be ConocoPhillips, one of the largest oil and gas exploration and production companies
worldwide. Those drones were said to be used to survey ice floes and migrating whales while the company mounts oil exploration
efforts. ConocoPhillips said it also expects to use the drones for emergency response, oil spill monitoring, and wildlife surveillance. Other
drones have been tested or talked about for use in pipeline and wellhead inspections in remote areas.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 275

Exploration- Natural Gas


The plan increases access to natural gas which is problematic for three reason 1)
extraction process is harmful to the environment, 2) burning natural has accelerates
warming, and 3) incentivizes “flaring”
Karl Henkel [Business reporter at The Detroit News ¶ Business Reporter at The Vindicator Printing
company ¶ Editor-in-Chief at The South End] ¶ Natural gas industry in a crash (and burn)¶ April 18,
2012¶ http://www.vindy.com/news/2012/apr/18/crash-and-burn/

But today, natural-gas prices are below $2 per 1,000 cubic feet for the first time in a decade.¶ Gone is the prospect of
gas-only exploration. The operating gas-rig count nationwide was 624 last week, the lowest weekly figure in a decade, according to Houston oil-
and gas-services company Baker Hughes.¶ Gone, too, is
the gaping profit margin.¶ Energy analysts estimate that $5 per 1,000
cubic feet is the profitability point for most drillers; any price less than that, coupled with a deficient way of
transporting or storing, makes for an unfavorable business model.¶ “There are no hard-and-fast rules on that,” said Dan
Whitten, spokesman for Americas Natural Gas Alliance. “What you’re seeing is some companies are making those decisions, and I think some of
that is areas where there are only dry gas potential.Ӧ Low natural-gas prices have changed the strategy for drillers in
various ways.¶ First, companies such as Oklahoma City-based Chesapeake Energy Corp., a large mineral-rights holder in Ohio, has decided to
back out of natural-gas plays such as the Barnett Shale in Texas and the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania.¶ The company’s rig count in the
Barnett, which was 43 in 2008, is just six this year.¶ Meanwhile, the company hopes to have 40 rigs in the Utica Shale by 2015.¶ But drillers
must also consider what they want to do with natural gas from current wells.¶ Storage is the most obvious option,
but because of the aforementioned mild weather, there’s a surplus of natural gas, and underground storage space is now at a premium. ¶
Drillers can “dial back” natural-gas production at well heads, but not nearly to the extent that it could alleviate the gas surplus.¶ That
brings in another option: flaring , the process in which gas is elevated and burned.¶ The process has been used for
operations reasons for years, but never to the extent it is used today.¶ In North Dakota’s oil-rich Bakken Shale, it is estimated that as much as
one-third of all produced natural gas is flared. ¶ Natural gas normally accompanies oil in the production and extraction
process, which means that even if drillers target oil- and wet-gas-heavy shale plays, natural-gas production still will occur.¶ That is the case in
the Utica Shale, where the most heavily oil-producing well in Ohio also produced 1.5 million MCF of natural gas, albeit in just about six months’
time.¶ Chesapeake says it is prepared for Utica Shale exploration and low natural-gas prices.¶ “The purpose of flaring is to safely consume any
produced gas before it has reached sufficient conditions to enter a sales pipeline,” said Pete Kenworthy, Chesapeake spokesman. “After the
well is connected to the pipeline, if market circumstances warrant, we can wait to turn the well online. In similar conditions, we can also cut
back on production.Ӧ Environmentalists have criticized natural-gas flaring as an even worse hazard than
the actual extraction process , which is done by fracking, or blasting a mix of water, chemicals and sand thousands of feet below
the ground to open shale rock formations.¶ “It seems we should slow down the drilling until natural-gas prices rise so
that it becomes a smart business model,” said Vanessa Pesec, president of the Network for Oil and Gas Accountability.¶
“[Flaring] contributes to organic compounds in the air that will affect everyone’s health and
greenhouse gases ,” she added.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 276

Exploration/ Production (Oil/Gas)- Noise Pollution


Ocean oil extraction causes mass noise pollution
Michael Stocker, Executive Director of Ocean Conservation Research, Accessed April 26,
2014, “Seafloor fossil fuel processing”, Accessed April 26, 2014, http://ocr.org/portfolio/seafloor-fossil-
fuel-processing/

As fossil fuel exploration and production moves into ever deeper waters, developing technologies are
moving much of the processing down to the sea floor. Hydrocarbon deposits are not simple pools of oil or pockets
of gas; rather they are typically an untidy mix of oil, gas, brine, and solids. These need to be separated, the useful product
extracted and the waste products dealt with in some manner. Deposits are also often under enormous pressures. The
wellhead pressure of the BP-Horizon disaster was in excess of 13,000 psi (and why stopping the flow was difficult).
Handling multi-phase materials (solids, liquids, and gasses) at enormous pressures is not a formula for
“quiet.” Equipment placed on the seafloor to handle the tasks of separation, reinjection, and flow
control all produce some attendant noises. While none of these processes have yet been characterized or measured,
seafloor equipment is being deployed that are akin to setting up small cities on the seabed. If these were in
an airborne environment the noises would be attenuated within a reasonable distance. That they are in the sea means that
whatever noises they generate will be heard at far greater distances.

We’re a small non-profit. Please don’t share this file with those who have not paid including via
dropbox, google drive, the web, printed copies, email, etc. Visit us at www.wcdebate.com
West Coast Publishing Ocean 2014 NEGATIVE Page 277

Ships- Gotta Build More


These are not enough existing ships, the plan requires building mores ships and
water vehicles for exploration
MechE, The Ocean Engineering and Technology , MIT based technology and environment
organization, Accessed April 17, 2014, “Ocean Science & Engineering,” April 17, 2014,
http://meche.mit.edu/research/ocean/, Accessed April 17, 2014

Ocean Engineering and Technology, which merged with MechE in 2005, is focused on four research areas: acoustics, hydrodynamics, structures
and structural dynamics, and design and marine robotics. Expanding those categories - and mindful of the fact that ocean processes and marine
systems are almost universally complex and therefore require interdisciplinary efforts - the ocean engineering program at MIT, like an octopus,
has eight research "tentacles": Exploringthe ocean environment - We know more about the back side of the moon than about the
lowest depths of the oceans. Exploring the ocean environment requires the development of networks of
unmanned underwater vehicles and of specialized sensors for gathering data on ocean chemistry and
biology. Ocean acoustics and sonar systems - Acoustical methods are the primary means for sensing the oceans, as well as for antisubmarine
and mine detection for national defense. Sonar technology enables long-distance observations in the ocean and requires deep knowledge of
both acoustics and signal processing. Hydrodynamics and free-surface waves - Ships must be able to run in both calm seas
and hurricane-force conditions. Since marine transportation s