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CASOS DE FACTORIZACION (1,2,3,4,5)

Presentado al Docente:
William Naranjo Gutiérrez

Universidad Uniminuto
Fundamentos de la matemática NRC 43471
Ibagué, Mayo 2019
Introducción

En este documento encontrara ejercicios resueltos de casos de factorización con su debido


procedimiento dependiendo de cada caso.
Caso I

𝟐. 𝑏 + 𝑏 2 = 𝑏(1 + 𝑏)
𝟒. 3𝑎2 − 𝑎2 = 𝑎2 (3 − 1)
6. 5m2 + 15m3 = 5m2 (1+ m)
8. x2 y +x2 z = x2 ( y+z )
10. 8m2 – 12mn = 4m (2m – 3n )
12. 15e3d2+ 60 c2d3 = 15(e3d2+4c4d3)
14. abc+abc2 = abc (1+c)
16. a3+a2+a = a (a2+a+1)
= 3𝑎2 − 𝑎2 = 2𝑎2
𝟏𝟖. 15𝑦 3 + 20𝑦 2 − 5𝑦 = 5𝑦(3𝑦 2 + 4𝑦 − 1)
𝟐𝟎. 2𝑎2 𝑥 + 2𝑎𝑥 2 − 3𝑎𝑥 = 𝑎(2𝑎𝑥 + 2𝑥 2 − 3𝑥)

Caso II
2. a2+ab+ax+bx = (a2+ab)+ (ax+bx)
= a(a+b) + x(a+b)
=(a+b)(a+x)
4. a2x2-3bx2+a2y2-3by2 = (a2x2-3bx2) + (a2y2-3by2)
= x2(a2-3b) + y2 (a2 – 3b)
= ( x2+ y2)( a2 – 3b)
𝟔. 𝑥 2 − 𝑎2 + 𝑥 − 𝑎2 𝑥 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑥 − 𝑎2 𝑥 − 𝑎2
= (𝑥 2 + 𝑥)(−𝑎2 𝑥 − 𝑎2 )
= 𝑥(𝑥 + 1) − 𝑎2 (𝑥 + 1)
= (𝑥 − 𝑎2 )(𝑥 + 1)
𝟖. 𝑥 + 𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑦 2 − 𝑦 2 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑥 − 𝑥𝑦 2 − 𝑦 2
= (𝑥 2 + 𝑥)(−𝑥𝑦 2 − 𝑦 2 )
= 𝑥(𝑥 + 1) − 𝑦 2 (𝑥 + 1)
= (𝑥 − 𝑦 2 )(𝑥 + 1)
𝟏𝟎. 3𝑎 − 𝑏 2 + 2𝑏 2 𝑥 − 6𝑎𝑥 = −𝑏 2 + 2𝑏 2 𝑥 + 3𝑎 − 6𝑎𝑥
= (−𝑏 2 + 2𝑏 2 𝑥)(+3𝑎 − 6𝑎𝑥)
= −𝑏 2 (1 + 2𝑥) − 3𝑎(1 + 2𝑥)
= (−𝑏 2 − 3𝑎)(1 − 2𝑥)
𝟏𝟐. 6𝑎𝑥 + 3𝑎 + 1 + 2𝑥 = 6𝑎𝑥 + 3𝑎 +2𝑥 + 1
= 3𝑎(2𝑥 + 1) + 1(2𝑥 + 1)
= (3𝑎 + 1)(2𝑥 + 1)
𝟏𝟒. 2𝑎2 𝑥 − 5𝑎2 𝑦 + 15𝑏𝑦 − 6𝑏𝑥 = (2𝑎2 − 6𝑏𝑥)(−5𝑎2 + 15𝑏𝑦)
= 2𝑥(𝑎2 − 𝑏 2 ) − 5𝑦(𝑎2 − 𝑏)
= (2𝑥 − 5𝑦)(𝑎2 − 𝑏)
𝟏𝟔. 6𝑚 − 9𝑛 + 21𝑛𝑥 + 14𝑚𝑥 = 6𝑚 − 14𝑚𝑥 − 9𝑛 + 21𝑛𝑥
= (6𝑚 − 9𝑛)(−14𝑚𝑥 + 21𝑛𝑥)
= 3(2𝑚 − 3𝑛) − 7𝑥(2𝑚 − 3𝑛)
= (3 − 7𝑥)(2𝑚 − 3𝑛)
18. 1 + a + 3ab + 3b
= (1 + a) + (3ab + 3b)
= 1( 1 + a) + 3b( a + 1)
= (1+ a) (1 + 3b)
= ( a + 1) ( 3b + 1)
20. 20 ax – 5bx -2by + 8 ay
= (20ax – 5by) – ( 2by + 8ay)
= 5x (4a -b) – 2y (b + 4a)
= 5x (4a – b) + 2y (4a – b)
=(5x + 2y) ( 4a– b)

Caso III
𝟐. 𝑎2 + 2𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏 2
= (𝑎 + 𝑏)2 =. 𝑎2 + 2𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏 2
4. 𝑦 4 + 1 + 2𝑦 = 𝑦 4 + 2𝑦 + 1
(𝑦 2 + 1) = 𝑦 4 + 2𝑦 + 1
6. 9 - 6x+x2
= ( 3 – x )2
= (3)2 -2(3)(x)+(x)2
= 9 - 6x+x2
8. 1+ 49a2-14a2
= 1 - 14 a2 + 49a2
= (1-7a)2
= (1)2 -2(1)(7a)+(7a)2
= 1 - 14 a2 + 49a2
10. 1 – 2a3 + a6
= ( 1- a3 )2
= (1)2 -2(1)(a3)+(a3)2
= 1 – 2a3 + a6
12. a6 – 2a3 b3+b6
= (a3 – b3)2
= (a3)2 -2(a3)(b3)+(b3)2
= a6 – 2a3 b3+b6
14. 9 b2 -30 a2 b + 25 a4
= (3b – 5a2 )2
= (3b)2 -2(3b) (5a2) + (5a2)2
= 9 b2 -30 a2 b + 25 a4 = (3b – 5a2 )
16. 1+ a10 – 2a5
= 1– 2a5 + a10
= (1 – a5)2
= (1)2 -2 (1) (a5) + (a5)2
= 1– 2a5 + a10
𝟏𝟖. 100𝑥10 − 60𝑎4 𝑥 5 𝑦 6 + 9𝑎8 𝑦12
(10𝑥 5 + 3𝑎4 𝑦 6 )2 = (10𝑥 5 )2 + 2(10𝑥 5 )(3𝑎4 𝑦 6 ) + (3𝑎4 𝑦 6 )2
= 100𝑥10 − 60𝑎4 𝑥 5 𝑦 6 + 9𝑎8 𝑦 12
𝟐𝟎. 𝑎2 − 24𝑎𝑚2 𝑥 2 + 144𝑚4 𝑥 4
= (𝑎 − 12𝑚2 𝑥 2 )2 = (𝑎)2 − 2(𝑎)(12𝑚2 𝑥 2 ) + (12𝑚2 𝑥 2 )2
= 𝑎2 − 24𝑎𝑚2 𝑥 2 + 144𝑚4 𝑥 4

Caso IV
2. a – 1 = (a +1) (a – 1)
4. 9 – b2 = ( 3 + b ) (3 – b
6. 16 – n2
= 4 − 𝑛 = (4 − 𝑛)2 = (4 + 𝑛)(4 − 𝑛)
𝟖. 1 − 𝑦 2
= 1 − 𝑦 = (1 − 𝑦)2 = (1 + 𝑦)(1 − 𝑦)
𝟏𝟎. 25 − 36𝑥 4
= 5 − 6𝑥 2 = ( 5 + 6𝑥 2 )(5 − 6𝑥 2 )
12. 4𝑥 2 – 81𝑦 4

= 2𝑥 9𝑦 2 = (2𝑥 − 9𝑦 2 ) = ( 2𝑥 + 9𝑦 2 )(2𝑥 − 9𝑦 2 )
𝟏𝟒. 100 − 𝑥 2 𝑦 6
10 𝑥𝑦 3 = (10 − 𝑥𝑦 3 )2 = (10 + 𝑥𝑦 3 )(10 − 𝑥𝑦 3 )

𝟏𝟔. 25𝑥 2 𝑦 4 − 121


𝑦2 11 = (5𝑥𝑦 2 − 11)2 = (5𝑥𝑦 2 + 11)(5𝑥𝑦 2 − 11)
18. a2 m4 n6 – 144 = (a m4 n3 + 12) (a m4 n3 - 12)
20. 256 a12 – 289 b4 m10 = (16a6 + 17m5 ) ( 16a6 - 17m5 )
Caso V
𝟐. 𝑚4 + 𝑚2 𝑛2 + 𝑛4

𝑚2 𝑛4
= (𝑚2 + 𝑛2 )2 = 𝑚4 + 2𝑚2 𝑛2 + 𝑛4
𝑚 4 + 𝑚 2 𝑛2 + 𝑛4
+𝑚2 𝑛2 − 𝑚 2 𝑛2
_______________________
𝑚4 + 2𝑚2 𝑛2 + 𝑛4 − 𝑚2 𝑛2
= (𝑚2 + 𝑛2 )2 − 𝑚𝑛
= (𝑚2 𝑛2 + 𝑚𝑛)(𝑚2 𝑛2 − 𝑚𝑛)

𝟒. 𝑎4 + 2𝑎2 + 9

𝑎2 3
= (𝑎2 + 3)2 = 𝑎4 + 6𝑎2 + 9
𝑎4 + 2𝑎2 + 9
+4𝑎2 − 4𝑎2
___________________________
𝑎4 + 6𝑎2 + 9 − 4𝑎2
= (𝑎2 + 3)2 − 2𝑎
= (𝑎2 + 3 + 2𝑎)(𝑎2 + 3 − 2𝑎)
𝟔. 𝑥 4 − 6𝑥 2 + 1

𝑥2 1
(𝑥 2 − 1)2 = 𝑥 4 − 2𝑥 2 + 1
𝑥 4 − 6𝑥 2 + 1
+4𝑥 2 − 4𝑥 2
_________________________
𝑥 4 − 2𝑥 2 + 1 − 4𝑥 2
= (𝑥 2 − 1)2 − 4𝑥 2
(𝑥 2 − 1 + 2𝑥)(𝑥 2 − 1 + 2𝑥)

𝟖. 4𝑥 4 − 29𝑥 2 + 25
2𝑥 2 5
(2𝑥 2 − 5)2 = 4𝑥 4 − 20𝑥 2 + 25
4𝑥 4 − 29𝑥 2 + 25
+9𝑥 2 − 9𝑥 2
_______________________________
4𝑥 4 − 20𝑥 2 + 25 − 9𝑥 2
(2𝑥 2 − 5)2 − 3𝑥
(2𝑥 2 − 5 + 3𝑥)(2𝑥 2 − 5 − 3𝑥)

𝟏𝟎. 16𝑚4 − 25𝑚2 𝑛2 + 9𝑛4


4𝑚2 3𝑛2
= (4𝑚2 − 3𝑛2 )2 = 16𝑚4 − 24𝑚2 𝑛2 + 9𝑛4
16𝑚4 − 25𝑚2 𝑛2 + 9𝑛4
+𝑚2 𝑛2 − 𝑚 2 𝑛2
_______________________________________
16𝑚4 − 24𝑚2 𝑛2 + 9𝑛4 − 𝑚2 𝑛2
(4𝑚2 − 3𝑛2 )2 − 𝑚𝑛
(4𝑚2 − 3𝑛2 + 𝑚𝑛)(4𝑚2 − 3𝑛2 − 𝑚𝑛)

12. 36x4 - 109 x2 y2 +49 y4 = ( 6x2 - 7 y2 )2


= (6x2)2 - 2(6x2)(7y2)+ (7y2)2
= 36x4 - 84 x2 y2 +49 y4
= 36x4 - 109 x2 y2 +49 y4
= + 25 x2 y2 -25x2 y2
______________________________________________

(36x4 - 84 x2 y2 +49 y4) -25x2 y2


= (6x2 - 7 y2 )2 -25x2 y2
= (6x2 - 7 y2 + 5x y) (6x2 - 7 y2 - 5x y)
= (6x2 + 5x y- 7 y2) (6x2 - 5x y- 7 y2)

14. c4 – 45 c2 +100 = (c2 - 10)2


= (c2)2 - 2(c2)(10)+ (10)2
= c4 – 20c2 + 100
= c4 – 45 c2 +100
= + 25 c2 -25c2
______________________________________________

(c4 – 20c2 + 100) -25c2


= (c2 - 10)2 -25c2
= (c2 – 10 +5c) (c2 – 10 -5c)
= (5c + c2 - 10) (-5c + c2 - 10)

16. 49 + 76 n2 +64 n4 = ( 7 + 8 n2 )2
= (7)2 + 2(7) (8n2) + (8n2)2
= 49 + 108 n2 +64 n4
= 49 + 76 n2 +64 n4
= + 32 n2 -32n2
______________________________________________

(49 + 108 n2 +64 n4) -32n2


= (7 + 8 n2 )2 -32n2
= (7 + 8 n2 +16n) (7 + 8 n2 -16n)

18. 49x8 + 76 x4 y4 +100 y8 = ( 7x4 + 10 y4 )2


= (7x4)2 + 2(7x4)(10y4)+ (10y4)2
= 49x8 + 140 x4 y4 +100 y8
= 49x8 + 76 x4 y4 +100 y8
= + 64 x4 y4 -64x4 y4
______________________________________________

(49x8 + 140 x4 y4 +100 y8) -64x4 y4


= (7x4 + 10 y4 )2 -64x4 y4
= (7x4 + 10 y4 + 8x2 y2) (7x4 + 10 y4 - 8x2 y2)
= (7x4 + 8x2 y2 + 10 y4) (7x4 - 8x2 y2+ 10 y4)

20. 121x4 - 133 x2 y4 +36 y8 = (11x2 - 6 y4 )2


= (11x2)2 - 2(11x2) (6y4) + (6y4)2
= 121x4 - 132 x2 y4 +36 y8
= 121x4 - 133 x2 y4 +36 y8
= + x2 y4 - x2 y4

______________________________________________

(121x4 - 132 x2 y4 +36 y8) - x2 y4


= (11x2 - 6 y4 )2 - x2 y4
= (11x2 - 6 y4+ x y2) (11x2 - 6 y4- x y2)
= (11x2 + x y2- 6 y4) (11x2 - x y2- 6 y4)
Conclusiones

Después de resolver los ejercicios nos dimos cuenta la importancia de identificar previamente cada
caso de factorización, además que si no se identifica podríamos resolverlos de una forma
inadecuada.
Bibliografía

Baldor, Aurelio. 1997. Álgebra. Pag-148-150-151-152