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Outcomes Date

1. Explain Pascal’s Principle of pressure.

2. Use the pressure-depth equation to solve Period

problems.

3. Explain Archimede’s Principle.

4. Solve buoyant force problems.

5. Determine whether or not an object of known

density will sink or float.

6. Use equations of continuity, flow rate, and

energy conservation to solve problems.

r n#

The figure shows an object of mass 0.4 kg that is suspended from a scale and

submerged in a liquid. If the reading on the scale is 3 N, then the buoyant

force that the fluid exerts on the object is most nearly

B 1. (A)1.3 N (B)1.0 N (C)0.75 N (D)0.33 N

(E)0.25 N

with liquid of density p. The area A of the flat bottom is the

same for each beaker. Which of the following ranks the

beakers according to the net downward force exerted by the

liquid on the flat bottom, from greatest to least force?

E 2. (A) I, III, II, IV

(B) I, IV, III, II

(C) II, III, IV, I

(D) IV, III, I, II

(E) None of the above; the force on each is the

same.

A T-shaped tube with a constriction is inserted in a vessel containing

a liquid, as shown above. What happens if air is blown through the

tube from the left, as shown by the arrow in the diagram?

(A) The liquid level in the tube rises to a level above the surface of

the liquid surrounding the tube.

A 3.

(B) The liquid level in the tube falls below the level of the

surrounding liquid.

(C) The liquid level in the tube remains where it is.

(D) The air bubbles out at the bottom of the tube.

(E) Any of the above depending on how hard the air flows

A spring scale calibrated in kilograms is used to determine the density of a rock

specimen. The reading on the spring scale is 0.45 kg when the specimen is suspended

in air and 0.36 kg when the specimen is fully submerged in water. If the density of

water is 1000 kg/m3, the density of the rock specimen is

E 4. (A) 2.0 x 102 kg/m3

(B) 8.0 x 102 kg/m3

(C) 1.25 x 103 kg/m3

(D) 4.0 x 103 kg/m3

(E) 5.0 x 103 kg/m3

B 5. Gauge pressure at a certain depth

below the surface of a fluid is equal to

(A) the pressure at the surface of the

fluid

(B) the difference between the absolute

pressure and the pressure at the

surface of the fluid

(C) the sum of the absolute pressure and

the pressure at the surface of the fluid

(D) the absolute pressure

(E) the density of the fluid

The pressure at the surface of the ocean is 1 atm (1 x 105 Pa). At what approximate

depth in the ocean water (ρ = 1025 kg/m3) would the absolute pressure be 2 atm?

(A) 1 m

C 6. (B) 5 m

(C) 10 m

(D) 100 m

(E) 1000 m

Questions 7-8: A ball weighing 6 N in air and having a volume of 5 x 10-4 m3 is fully

immersed in a beaker of water and rests on the bottom. The combined weight of the

beaker and water without the ball is 10 N.

E 7. (A) 1 N

(B) 2 N

(C) 3 N

(D) 4 N

(E) 5 N

If the beaker, water, and the ball in the water are placed on a Newton scale, the scale

will read

(A) 16 N

(B) 15 N

A 8.

(C) 11 N

(D) 10 N

(E) 6 N

A

A

2 A

1

3

v

v

v 3

1

2

A 9. Questions 9-10: The three sections of the pipe shown above have areas A1, A2, and A3.

The speeds of the fluid passing through each section of the pipe are v1, v2, and v3,

respectively. The areas are related by A2 = 4A1 = 8A3. Assume the fluid flows

horizontally.

Which of the following is true of the speeds of the fluid in each section in the pipe?

(A) v3 = 2v1

(B) v3 = 4v2

(C) v2 = ½ v1

(D) v2 = 16v1

(E) v3 = 64v2

Which of the following is true of the pressures in each section of the pipe?

(A) p1 > p2 > p3

(B) p2 > p1 > p3

B 10.

(C) p3 > p2 > p1

(D) p2 > p3 > p1

(E) p1 > p3 > p2

D 11.

The large container above is filled with water. Three small spouts near the bottom of the

container are of equal size and are initially corked. If the corks are removed from the

spouts, which of the following best represents the path of the water stream from each

spout?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

V=2m/s

v2=6m/s

A glass pipe containing two vertical tubes of equal size is filled with water so that the

level of the water is the same in the two pipes. Air (ρ = 1.3 kg/m3) is blown across the

end of the left tube with a speed of 2 m/s and air is blown across the right tube with a

speed of 6 m/s.

Which of the following statements is true of the water in the pipe as the air is blown

across the vertical tubes?

(A) The water level in each pipe does

not change.

(B) The water level on the left rises and

the water level on the right is lowered.

(C) The water level on the left is lowered

and the water level on the right rises.

(D) The water level on both sides rises.

(E) The water level on both sides is

lowered.

The magnitude of the difference in pressure between the two ends of the pipe is most

nearly

(A) 40 Pa

D 13. (B) 32 Pa

(C) 24 Pa

(D) 21 Pa

(E) 16 Pa

Free Response Practice

I. In the laboratory, you are given a cylindrical beaker containing a fluid and you are asked to determine

the density ρ of the fluid. You are to use a spring of negligible mass and unknown spring constant k

attached to a stand. An irregularly shaped object of known mass m and density D >> ρ) hangs from the

spring. You may also choose from among the following items to complete the task.

• A metric ruler

• A stopwatch

• String

(a) Explain how you could experimentally determine the spring constant k.

SEE LESSON

(b) The spring-object system is now arranged so that the object (but none of the spring) is immersed in the

unknown fluid, as shown above. Describe any changes that are observed in the spring-object system and

explain why they occur.

(c) Explain how you could experimentally determine the density of the fluid.

(d) Show explicitly, using equations, how you will use your measurements to calculate the fluid density ρ.

Start by identifying any symbols you use in your equations.

II. A diver descends from a salvage ship to the ocean floor at a depth of 35 m below the surface. The

density of ocean water is 1.025 x 103 kg/m3.

(a) Calculate the gauge pressure on the diver on the ocean floor.

P=Rho g h=1.025x103 x 10 x 35 = 358,700 Pa

(b) Calculate the absolute pressure on the diver on the ocean floor.

P ab = P g + P atm = 358,700 + 101,000 = 459,700 Pa

The diver finds a rectangular aluminum plate having dimensions 1.0 m x 2.0 m x 0.03 m. A

hoisting cable is

lowered from the ship and the diver connects it to the plate. The density of aluminum is 2.7

x 103 kg/m3. Ignore the effects of viscosity.

(c) Calculate the tension in the cable if it lifts the plate upward at a slow, constant velocity.

W=mg m=rhoxV V= lwh w=rholwhg=16,200N ; Fb= rhoVg= (1.025x103) (10) (0.6) = 6150N

T= w-Fb = 16,200-6150= 10050N

(d) Will the tension in the hoisting cable increase, decrease, or remain the same if the plate

accelerates upward at 0.05 m/s2?

___x____increase _______decrease ______remain the same

Explain your reasoning. When an object accelerates a Fnet of greater than

Zero is applied.

III.

While exploring a sunken ocean liner, the principal researcher found the absolute pressure on the robot

observation submarine at the level of the ship to be about 413 atmospheres (1 atm=101,000Pascals) . The

density of seawater

is 1025 kg/m 3 .

Pg=Pab-Patm= 4,162,000 Pa

(b) Calculate the depth D of the sunken ocean liner.

P=rho g h h= P/ rho g = 4060m

(c) Calculate the magnitude F of the force due to the water on a viewing port of the submarine at this

depth if the viewing port has a surface area of 0.0100 m2 .

P=F/A F=P A (4,162,000)(0.01)= 41620N

Suppose that the ocean liner came to rest at the surface of the ocean before it started to sink. Due

to the resistance of the seawater, the sinking ocean liner then reached a terminal velocity of 10.0 m/s after

falling for 30.0 s.

(d) Determine the magnitude a of the average acceleration of the ocean liner during this period of

time.

(e) Assuming the acceleration was constant, calculate the distance d below the surface at which the ocean

liner reached this terminal velocity.

X=1/2 a t2 = 1/2 (0.33)(30)2= 148.5

(f) Calculate the time t it took the ocean liner to sink from the surface to the bottom of the ocean.

X=v0t t= (4060-150)/10=391 t=30+391=421

IV. A large rectangular raft (density 650 kg/m3) is floating on a lake. The surface area of the top of the raft

is 8.2 m2

and its volume is 1.80 m3. The density of the lake water is 1000 kg/m3.

(a) Calculate the height h of the portion of the raft that is above the surrounding water.

(1) mraft=rho V (650)(1.8)=1170kg (2) mH2O = 1170kg (3) rho = m/V V=m/rho

V=1170/1000=1.17m3

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the buoyant force on the raft and state its direction.

Fb=wH2O = mg = (1170)(10)=11.700N

(c) If the average mass of a person is 75 kg, calculate the maximum number of people that can be on

the raft without the top of the raft sinking below the surface of the water. (Assume that the people

are evenly distributed on the raft.) hraft=1.8/8.2=0.22m

entire raft submerged: Fb=rho V g = (1000) (1.8) (10) = 18,000N 18,000N-11,700N= 6300N

6300N/750N= 8 people

V.

y1

b

c

a

y2

h

Note: Figure not drawn to scale.

d

A cylindrical-shaped pipe can carry water from a very large elevated container on the left to a lower

container on the right. The area of the wider portion of the pipe containing the point b has a cross-

sectional area Ab = 7.80 x 10-3 m2 , and the narrower section of the pipe containing both points c and d has

a cross-sectional area of Ac = 3.14 x 10-4 m2. Point C is at a height of y2 = 2 m above point d. A water

valve closes the elevated container at point a, and thus there is initially only water in the upper container,

and none in the pipe. The rectangular block in the lower container above has dimensions 10 cm x 3 cm x 3

cm and mass 0.075 kg, and it rests on the bottom of the lower container before any water enters the lower

container.

(a) If the pressure at the surface of the water is 1 atm, what is the absolute pressure at point a which is

at a depth of y1 = 2 meters below the surface of the water in the tank?

The valve at point a is opened to create an opening equal to the area of the pipe containing the point b so

that water flows from the elevated container through the pipe, and into the lower container.

(b) Consider the pressure at points b and c. At which of these points is the pressure the least? Justify

your answer.

Abvb = Acvc Smaller area creates greater velocity, which then creates lower pressure .

Pc less than Pb

(c) If the speed of the water at point b is vb = 6 m/s, what is the speed of the water at point c?

Abvb = Acvc (7.8x10-3)(6) = 3.14x10-4 vc

(d) Determine vd, the speed at which the water initially enters the lower container.

Same speed since same area

(e) As the water level rises in the lower container, the block eventually begins to float. What is the

height h of the water level at the instant the block is lifted off the bottom of the container, that is,

the block just begins to float?

Fb=mg rho g VH20 = mg V=lwh rho g (lwh) = mg h=m/(rho l w)

0.075/(1000)(0.03)(0.03) = 0.083m

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