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Educàlia Editorial

INGLÉS
Cristina Rodríguez Díaz
María Asuero Vázquez
SUPUESTOS PRÁCTICOS
PRIMARIA

Supuestos prácticos de INGLÉS PRIMARIA


Cristina Rodríguez y María Asuero

Educàlia editorial
Edificio CREA · Avda. de les Jacarandes nº 2 - loft 327
46100 Burjassot - Valencia
Tels. 960 624 309 - 963 768 542 - 610 900 111
email: educaliaeditorial@e-ducalia.com
www.e-ducalia.com

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Supuestos prácticos

INGLÉS PRIMARIA
Cristina Rodríguez Díaz
María Asuero Vázquez

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Segunda edición, 2019
Autoras: Cristina Rodríguez Díaz y María Asuero Vázquez
Maquetación: Jessica Sánchez Gavilán
Edita: Educàlia Editorial
Imprime: Grupo Digital 82, S.L.
ISBN: 978-84-943204-8-4
Depósito legal: V-262-2015
Printed in Spain/Impreso en España.

Todos los derechos reservados. No está permitida la reimpresión de ninguna parte de este libro, ni de imágenes ni
de texto, ni tampoco su reproducción, ni utilización, en cualquier forma o por cualquier medio, bien sea electrónico,
mecánico o de otro modo, tanto conocida como los que puedan inventarse, incluyendo el fotocopiado o grabación,
ni está permitido almacenarlo en un sistema de información y recuperación, sin el permiso anticipado y por escrito
del editor.
Alguna de las imágenes que incluye este libro son reproducciones que se han realizado acogiéndose al derecho de
cita que aparece en el artículo 32 de la Ley 22/1987, del 11 de noviembre, de la Propiedad intelectual. Educàlia
Editorial agradece a todas las instituciones, tanto públicas como privadas, citadas en estas páginas, su colaboración
y pide disculpas por la posible omisión involuntaria de algunas de ellas.

Educàlia Editorial
Avda. de las Jacarandas 2 loft 327 46100 Burjassot-València
Tel. 960 624 309 - 963 768 542 - 610 900 111
Email: educaliaeditorial@e-ducalia.com
www.e-ducalia.com

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INDEX
1. Short questions.............................................................................................................................................. 5
2. How to develop a case study?.................................................................................................................... 16
3. How to develop a case study?.................................................................................................................... 32
4. How would you introduce environmental problems in the English classroom?...................................... 43
5. Explain the use of puppets to teach English............................................................................................... 45
6. Can you explain the theory of the multiple intelligences? How can it be applied to the
English lesson?.............................................................................................................................................. 47
7. Give an example of a children’s song and how you would teach it........................................................ 49
8. Are English textbooks useful?...................................................................................................................... 51
9. Do you think English teachers should use L1 in their lessons?................................................................... 53
10. Explain how you can involve parents in your English lessons.................................................................. 55
11. How do you make resources with the students?........................................................................................ 57
12. How would you decorate the English classroom to maximize learning?................................................ 59
13. How would you help your students to develop study techniques?........................................................... 61
14. How would you include non-sexist values in infant education?............................................................... 63
15. How would you organise a parent-teacher meeting?............................................................................... 65
16. How would you teach English to a child with Asperger syndrome?........................................................ 67
17. How would you teach the verb to be?........................................................................................................ 69
18. If you were the only teacher of a unitary school, how would you organise space and time
when teaching English?................................................................................................................................ 71
19. Organise a session to promote reading in English with students of fifth grade of primary
education. Suggest topics, objectives, activities, resources and methodologies you will
use to achieve that aim................................................................................................................................. 73
20. Organise an outing with your English language learners......................................................................... 75
21. What is an IEP?............................................................................................................................................. 77
22. Design activities to work on pronunciation for fifth grade students.......................................................... 80
23. How would you include entrepreneurship in primary education and in the English
classroom?.................................................................................................................................................... 82

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SUPUESTOS PRÁCTICOS INGLÉS PRIMARIA

1. SHORT QUESTIONS
The first thing we have to do is to select the questions we are going to develop.
Taking into account that we have few times to develop the questions, we cannot lose time selecting them, so
we should take five minutes to read the questions slowly and we should choose that questions whose answer
we have clearly structured in our brain.
To answer to the questions we will follow the following layout:
1. Introduction.
2. What are they asking about?
Specific content: Definition, student development, author, classification, etc.
3. Conclusion.
4. Legislation.
I am going to develop some questions as examples.

1.1. WHAT ARE THE KEY COMPETENCES? NUMBER THEM.


According to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2001) and the Organic Law
for improvement of Quality in Education 8/2013 of 9th of December, we find seven Key Competences,
which have to be developed across the whole course and in every lesson plan.
1. Communication and linguistic competence.
5
2. Mathematical competence and Science and technology competence.
3. Digital competence.
4. Learning to learn competence.
5. Social and civic competences.
6. Sense of initiative and autonomy competences.
7. Cultural awareness and expression competence.
The contribution of the English area to the development of the basic competences is that the study of a foreign
language helps to the development of the communication and linguistic competence in a direct way as
it does the first or mother tongue.
The foreign language learning gets an extra value if it includes a reflection over itself, so that every student
identifies how he or she learns the best. That is why in the plans designed we can find in the self-assessment
that is a specific space of reflection on each one is learning and in this way this area contributes to the learn-
ing to learn competence.
This reflection favours the sense of initiative and autonomy competences since it prepares the students to
improve individually in the knowledge and usage of a language.
The previously mentioned competences are nowadays related to the digital competence. Information tech-
nologies and communication offer the possibility to communicate ‘in real time’ with whoever around the
world and a quick access to a great amount of data increasing day by day. The knowledge of a foreign
language brings the opportunity to access to that universe of information and communication.

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Therefore, according to the previous point, we can say that the Foreign Language Area helps to the devel-
opment of the social and civic competences. Learning a Foreign Language implies knowing the different
speaking communities of that language. That learning must be treated in the class in order to get an interest for
discovering other cultures and get on with other English speaking or learners favouring the respect and integra-
tion.
The English area contributes to the development of the Cultural awareness and expression competence
through the introduction of texts and literary models adapted to the proper level.
For the theoretical development of this case study, I have taken into account the following legal documents:
• ‘Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching and Assessment’ (CFE,
2001), Council of Europe and the Language Policy Division.
• The Organic Law for improvement of Quality in Education 8/2013 of 9th of December.
• The Royal Decree 126/2014 of February 28th, which establish the curriculum in Primary Education.

1.2. WHICH ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS ON THE FIRST COURSE


OF PRIMARY EDUCATION?
The students in first course of primary education are full of vitality and learn while they play, they move and
do activities they love, as their motivation to learn a foreign language comes from the interest of the task and
not the future usefulness of these teachings. Generally, students are open and uninhibited and dare easily in
an activity even when their ability to maintain the attention on a single task is considerably limited. Students at
this age need a relaxed and friendly atmosphere in the classroom to develop their self-esteem. Thus, at least
initially, they need that the activity is very structured in order to feel safe to work and communicate, and it is
very important their relationship with the teacher in the classroom.
6
The foreign language should be taught in a natural and proper way according to the pupil’s maturation pro-
cess. It is important the linguistic immersion in it since the beginning of its study, as most of the opportunities
for learning occur only in the school environment. This makes necessary to include contents that incorporate
non-academic contexts.

1.3 WHICH ARE THE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES?


Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified seven distinct intelligences. This theory has emerged from recent
cognitive research and ‘documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore
learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways,’ according to Gardner (1991). According to
this theory, ‘we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial
representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding
of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these
intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked
and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains.’
Gardner says that these differences ‘challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn
the same materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student learning.
Indeed, as currently constituted, our educational system is heavily biased toward linguistic modes of instruc-
tion and assessment and, to a somewhat lesser degree, toward logical-quantitative modes as well.’ Gardner
argues that ‘a contrasting set of assumptions is more likely to be educationally effective. Students learn in
ways that are identifiably distinctive. The broad spectrum of students - and perhaps the society as a whole
- would be better served if disciplines could be presented in a numbers of ways and learning could be as-
sessed through a variety of means.’ The learning styles are as follows:
Visual-Spatial. Think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their envi-

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3.2. WHICH CRITERIA WOULD YOU FOLLOW IN ORDER TO CHOOSE AN


ENGLISH TEXTBOOK FOR THE FOURTH GRADE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION?
HOW WOULD YOU COMPLEMENT THAT TEXTBOOK WITH OTHER ADDITIONAL
MATERIAL, INCLUDING AUTHENTIC MATERIAL?
This case study presented is directly related with topic 23 of Foreign Language Education: Criteria for select-
ing and using curricular materials for the English class (t.23).
According to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages 2001, the main aim of the Eng-
lish Language Teaching is to acquire the communicative competence in a language (EFL) through the skills
of listening, reading speaking and writing. So, this case study is related with the legal documents: Common
European Framework for Languages and the concretion of Spanish law of education (LOMCE).
Course book materials are commercially available packages, which typically consist of a student’s book,
a teacher’s book, and a series of the following components: a workbook or activity book, tests, additional
reading material, CDs for listening and pronunciation, DVDs, and additional grammar practice materials.
The course book package is offered as a complete course that should not be in need of supplementation.
Course books are what Prabhu would describe as fully specified materials.
Course book materials are realisations of methods seen as theoretical constructs, but they are also determi-
nants of methods if seen as pedagogic action.
According to Bazo and Peñate, two of the most well-known authors of English Primary curricular materials
for Spanish students, there have been an impact on the elaboration of curricular materials for the EFL class
due to the evolution of the foreign language area towards a more communicative approach. Following this
line, teachers should consider the following criteria when selecting appropriate materials:
38 The students’ learning experiences. It is very important to know well the group of students you are teaching.
For instance, if English has been taught from kindergarten, then it is assumed that listening skills have been
introduced, too.
Their abilities. You can use bottom-up processing view or top-down interpretation view according their abili-
ties. Bottom-up is a process of decoding from the smallest meaningful units to complete text (individual words,
sentences, phrases and text). Meanwhile top-down view is a process that the listener actively constructs (the
listener uses prior knowledge of the context and later take place to make sense of what they hear)
Their interests. We should select materials that motivate and engage the students.
Their learning styles. According to Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory, each student learns in a different way.
Therefore, we should adapt our listening materials for everyone. We can use listening recording materials, in which
there is only one speaker who is using standard English pronunciation. In addition, we can give the students
scripted texts, or we can give some prior knowledge about what the speaker will say before they listen.
Curriculum goals and objectives implications. Teachers need to take into account that curricular materials
should be aligned with the current Educational legal framework: The Organic Law for improvement of Qual-
ity in Education 8/2013 of 9th of December and the Royal Decree 126/2014 of February 28th, which estab-
lish the curriculum in Primary Education. Under the umbrella of the European philosophy of using language
for communication purposes (CEFR).
Course or grade level. Considering this case study is addressed to older students and according to Piaget’s
Theory of Cognitive Development, children from ages seven to eleven begin to think logically but are very
concrete in their thinking. Also, students have acquired the most formal aspect of the language and they
begin to build some grammatical rules, which help them understand its mechanics. Consequently, listening
materials must be accessible to students.
Use of current and authentic material. It is also important to take advantages of recent and authentic materi-
als such as newscasts, television programs, articles, or materials for short-term projects.

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True authentic materials are unedited and remain unsimplified in any way. They require the teacher to act as
a filter. However, the teacher using authentic materials has other responsibilities. He must also learn how to
identify authentic items, or determine their ‘applicability and adaptability’ for classroom use.
The teacher is a culture guide. In fact, language may often take a back seat to culture with authentic ma-
terials, resulting in a hybrid ‘EFL in the content area of culture’ but as Krashen points out ‘comprehensible
subject-matter teaching is language teaching’.
An unexpected role that the teacher, using materials, sometimes has to fulfil is that of sympathetic, non-judge-
mental listener.
Once an applicable and adaptable item has been identified, the presentation of the item can be a chal-
lenge. The following guidelines describe the components necessary for using authentic materials successfully.
• ‘Learner-centred’ is the Mantra.
• Identify an Objective.
• Concept and context.
• Make it comprehensible. The teacher is the interpreter between the authentic material and the learner.
Authentic materials become a way of life for some EFL teachers. These teachers have found that authentic
materials are a logical and efficient way to combine their learners’ needs for language input, culture study,
and information or how to access and participate in their local community.
Let us briefly examine how authentic materials might be incorporated into an English language teaching
curriculum or course of study.
Authentic materials are easily available from a number of sources for most of the world: books, magazines,
newspapers, TV & radio &videos, internet, CDs and course books.
A successful adaptation of authentic materials includes: 39

• Converting them into workshop activities.


• Adjusting the length of the materials.
• Simplifying or explaining key language elements.
• Converting authentic materials into a variety of exercise types.
Learners benefit from listening materials spoken at ‘normal’ conversational speed vs. English language learn-
er directed listening materials, which have been ‘altered’ or ‘slowed’ to enable ‘improved comprehension’.
Authentic language videos, CDs, newspapers and radio programs can provide invaluable insight of Eng-
lish-speaking countries for language teachers and learners in other parts of the world. A benefit of recorded
material is the ability to be able to repeat it as many times as necessary in order to increase the level of
listening comprehension.

SAMPLE CRITERIA FOR SELECTING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS


Applicability:

• The material gives the learner new information to help herself or her family.
• The material enables the learner to take advantage of an existing community service or amenity.
• The material reflects a reality that is economically feasible for the learner.
• The material respects the immigration status of the learner.
Adaptability:

• The authentic material contains non-complex vocabulary.


• The authentic item features: pictures, diagrams, tables, etc.

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• The material uses bullets, titling, subtitles or other clear separation of text.
• The material allows some learner interaction.
In conclusion, teaching materials should ensure a possible fit between the individual needs of students and
the objectives of the course and the teacher.
It is the responsibility of the teacher to explore his own way of using or adapting the course book.
When used effectively, authentic materials help being the real world into the classroom and significantly
enliven the EFL class. Exposing the students to cultural features generates a deeper understanding of and
interest in the topic.
For the theoretical development of this case study I have taken into account the following legal documents
and bibliography:
• ‘Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching and Assessment’ (CFE,
2001), Council of Europe and the Language Policy Division.
• The Organic Law for improvement of Quality in Education 8/2013 of 9th of December.
• The Royal Decree 126/2014 of February 28th, which establish the curriculum in Primary Education.
• CUNNINGSWORTH, A. (1995). Choosing your Course Book. Heinemann.
• CUNNINGSWORTH, A. (1984) Evaluating and selecting EFL teaching materials. Heinemann.

40

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