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ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS

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MANUAL AUTOFORMATIVO

UNIDAD DIDÁCTICA
ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS

Author:
Manuel Hinojosa Torres

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Docente:

Lic. Manuel Hinojosa Torres

Instituto de Educación Superior Tecnológica “Continental”


Material publicado con fines de estudio (Compilatorio)
Edición y Revisión: Pedro Ricardo Fernandez Coca
Composición y supervisión: Luis Pineda Coronel
Diseño de Portada: Ángel Aliaga Huere
Primera edición
Huancayo, 2017

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ÍNDICE

Introduction 7
Presentación de la Unidad Didáctica 9
Criterio I 10
READING OF CRITERIAL I 11
THEME 1: Los pronombres personales en inglés y en español para comprender
sus equivalencias. 12
1. We can use to be to talk about who we are and where we are from. 12
2. Add “not” to form the negative 13
3. We can ask questions using question words. 13
4. We can give short answers to yes/no questions. 13
THEME 2: Antes de empezar la lección veamos el siguiente video 15
1. Questions 15
2. Make the Yes/No questions and give short answers. 16
3. Spelling of verb + -ing 16
THEME 3: Primero veamos el siguiente video 17
THEME 4: 18
THEME 5: 19
1. Put in am is or are 19
2. Put in am/is/are/do/don’t/does/doesn’t 19
Fuentes de Información del criterio I 20
Glosario del Criterio I 21
Criterio II 22
THEME 6: Past Simple Affirmative 26
1. Past simple Affirmative 26
2. Past Simple Negative 27
3. Past Simple Questions 27
THEME 7: Past Simple Question. 28
1. We use did or didn’t to give short answers to yes/no questions. 28
THEME 8: Use of was & were 29
THEME 9: Going to 31
1. The verb to be + going to expresses future plans and intentions. 31
2. We make questions like this: 31
THEME 10: WILL 33
Fuentes de Información del criterio II 35
Glosario del Criterio II 36
Criterio III 37
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READING DEL CRITERIO III 38
THEME 11: ADJECTIVES 40
TEMA 12: 41
1. Comparative adjectives compare two or more things. 41
2. We form comparative and superlative adjectives like this: 41
TEMA 13: Irregular Adjectives 42
1. We can make a comparison stronger using much and a lot. 42
THEME 14: Review about adjectives 43
THEME 15: Grammar Review 44
1. Exercises about present simple and continuous 44
2. Exercises about past simple, future and adjectives 45
Fuentes de Información del criterio III 48
Glosario del Criterio III 49

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Introduction

La Unidad Didáctica de English for Business pertenece al plan curricular de la Carrera


Profesional Técnica de Administración de Empresas, el cual se desarrolla dentro de la
modalidad Semipresencial “Título para emprendedores”, el presente es un Manual
Autoformativo material idóneo dentro de su formación Técnico Superior.
La Unidad Didáctica “English for Business” está orientada a la formación técnico
profesional, es de naturaleza teórico-práctica, se orienta a aplicar el vocabulario y las
reglas gramaticales elementales del idioma Inglés aprendidas en el curso de Inglés
técnico. El curso permite lograr una competencia comunicativa en diferentes
situaciones de negocios, así como ampliar los conocimientos sobre el mundo
empresarial internacional, a través de la interpretación y comprensión de lecturas
especializadas.
De esta manera se desarrollará elementos de la Capacidad Terminal de la Unidad
didáctica, debidamente organizados y sistematizados tomando en cuenta los
principios pedagógicos y el sistema modular actual brindado por el Ministerio de
Educación, por ello en primer lugar se presenta la teoría acompañados de ejemplos,
de igual modo se muestran actividades para el aula virtual, autoevaluación y
finalmente la metacognición de su aprendizaje.
Para el estudio del manual se sugiere la siguiente secuencia en cada Elemento de la
Capacidad Terminal:
Realizar el estudio de los contenidos, el cual será de carácter analítico y
reflexivo.
Realizar subrayados, resúmenes usando esquemas que ayuden a asimilar la
información que permitan el repaso de los temas.
Desarrollar las actividades de autoevaluación y metacognición por cada tema.
Desarrollar las actividades programadas para cada semana en el aula virtual,
con la asesoría del Docente y el Tutor.
Por tanto Ud. requiere de un conocimiento directo, práctico de la unidad didáctica
de English for Business que permita aplicar y emprender nuevos retos, tomando
casos prácticos de su entorno y logrando conocimientos de English for Business a
través de una aplicación objetiva, la motivación y nuevas metodologías para
desarrollar y consolidar su desarrollo técnico profesional.
El autor

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PROPÓSITO DEL MANUAL

Al finalizar el presente manual, los estudiantes serán


capaces de explicar y poner en práctica lo aprendido;
por medio de productos académicos orientados al
contexto profesional competitivo, con el fin de fortalecer
sus competencias y logren la capacidad terminal de
English for Business, de esa manera apoyar la
construcción de los conocimientos y del aprendizaje.

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Presentación de
la Unidad Didáctica

CAPACIDAD TERMINAL

Expresar y comprender información comercial verbal y escrita en idioma Inglés.

MATRIZ DE APRENDIZAJE:

Primer Elemento de la Segundo Elemento de Tercer Elemento de la


Capacidad la Capacidad Capacidad
Usar el tiempo presente Usar el tiempo futuro en sus Usar los adjetivos
(simple y continuo) y formas afirmativas, comparativos y
pasado en sus formas negativas e interrogativas. superlativos.
afirmativas, negativas e
interrogativas.
Criterio de Criterio de Criterio de
Evaluación I: Evaluación II: Evaluación III:
Transferencia de lo Demuestra el uso correcto Desarrollo de actividades
aprendido (verb to be. del tiempo futuro en sus relacionadas con las lecturas
Present simple, continuous tres formas (affirmatives, utilizando la estructura
and past simple in negatives and gramática de los adjetivos.
affirmative, negative and interrogatives) a través de
interrogative forms). ejercicios desarrollados en
equipo. Tema 11 – Tema 15
Tema 1 – Tema 5
Tema 6 – Tema 10

TIEMPO MINIMO DE ESTUDIO:

Criterio I: Criterio II: Criterio III:


12 horas 12 horas 12 horas

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Criterio I

Criterio de Evaluación I:

Transferencia de lo aprendido (verb to be. Present simple,


continuous and past simple in affirmative, negative and
interrogative forms).

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READING OF CRITERIAL I

“INTERNET CASH AND SECURITY”

by Sally Hawksmore

Is your money safe on the Internet?

Internet shops, banks and software companies are trying to find more ways to make
you buy when you log on. Now they are offering electronic cash, and e-cash. What
are they?

Credit cards and cheques, when used for Internet transactions, are sometimes called
electronic cash. But real electronic cash – currency that has no representation in the
real world – is a new development and is not yet widespread. How does it work?

You set up an account with a bank and then, when you buy something online, you
authorise the transfer of your money from the account to the store. With this method,
you don’t have to use a credit card.

Pure e-cash is different to ‘electronic cash’ because you use it just like cash in the
real world. You withdraw e-cash from a bank account to your computer, and it is
then yours to spend when and how you want. When you use it, the vendor does not
need your credit card or bank details. When the vendor receives your e-cash, they
can put it in their own bank account, or spend it themselves.

Security is a growing worry for those buying over the internet. Will your personal
details be safe? Or will dishonest hackers steal your electronic information, and use
it to spend thousands of pounds, dollars or yen at your expense?

It isn’t just the buyers who need to be cautious. An online music shop in London,
UK, sent a rare and very expensive electric guitar to a Japanese buyer, only to realise
too late that the buyer's credit card was stolen.

Many companies are working on ways to make internet transactions safer, and now
Microsoft and IBM have announced with Visa and Mastercard a standard they call
‘Secure Electronic Transaction’. SET is meant to guarantee secure credit card
transactions over the internet.

Some people wonder whether the same attention should be given to real world
transactions. ‘You happily hand over your credit card to a shopkeeper for him to take
an imprint of it,’ says Trevor Parker, a security analyst, ‘which seems very risky. And
giving credit card details over the internet is probably safer than reading them out
over the phone.’

Source: New English Digest

Internet Cash And Security:

http://www.cuentoseningles.com.ar/articles/business/internetcashsecur
ity.html

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THEME 1
COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS
Indicadores de evaluación:

Utiliza los pronombres y el verbo to – be en el tiempo presente continuo y simple.

THEME 1: Los pronombres personales en inglés y en español para comprender


sus equivalencias.

IYo YouTú, usted

HeÉl SheElla

ItEso(a)Objetos WeNosotros, nosotras

You Ustedes TheyEllos, ellas

1. We can use to be to talk about who we are and where we are from.

I’m Joseph. I’m from England.

I ‘m I am=I’m

He He is=He’s

She ‘s She is=She’s

It It is=It’s
American

We We are=We’re

You ‘re You are=You’re

They They
are=They’re

Examples:

We’re French.

I’m from Perú.

They’re Australian.

The next link is about a video of Pronouns

Video about Pronouns

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2. Add “not” to form the negative

I ‘m not I am not=I’m not

He He is not=He isn’t

She isn’t She is not=She isn’t

It English It is not=It isn’t

We We are not=We aren’t

You aren’t You are not=You aren’t

They They are not=They aren’t

Examples:

They aren’t students.

I’m not from Argentina. I’m from Perú.

He isn’t married. He’s single.

3. We can ask questions using question words.

What’s your name? Maria Lopez What’s=What is


What’s his first name? Peter
Where’s she from? Brazil Where’s=Where is
Where are you from? I’m from Lima
He’s Paul
Who’s he? Who’s=Who is
Who’s David? He’s my brother
How are you? I’m fine, thanks.
How are they? They’re fine.
How old is he? He’s 22.
How old are you? I’m 19.

4. We can give short answers to yes/no questions.

he Yes, he is

Is she Old? No, she isn’t

it Yes, it is

you? Yes, I am. /No, I’m not

Are they? American? Yes, we are. /No, we aren’t.

Yes, they are./No, they aren’t

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Examples:

Is he friendly? No, he isn’t

Are they students? Yes, they are.

Is it sunny? Yes, it is.

Are you Italian? No, I’m not. /No we aren’t

Exercises

Write the correct pronoun in each blank space.

He is reading a book. (Willy)

_______is White. (the board)

_______are on the wall. (the posters)

_______is running. (the dog)

Are_______watching TV? (your mother and you)

_______are in the garden. (the flowers)

_______is riding his bike. (Tom)

_______are dirty. (Jose’s shoes)

_______is dancing. (Carla)

_______is Lima. (Peter and Joseph)

Video to review the class

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THEME 2
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Indicadores de evaluación:

Utiliza los pronombres y el verbo to – be en el tiempo presente continuo y simple.

THEME 2: Antes de empezar la lección veamos el siguiente video


Present Continuous Video

The Present Continuous describes an activity that is happening now.

We form the Present Continuous using to be + -ing.

I Am

‘m not

He / She / It Is
reading a book.
isn’t

We / You / They Are

aren’t

Exercises:

Write the sentences.

I/not/cook/now _______________________________

We/walk/to school _______________________________

My brother/eat/lunch _______________________________

You/not/listen _______________________________

1. Questions

Am I

What Is he/she/it drinking?

Are we/you/they

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Make the questions

What/you/say? __________________________________

Where/she/work? __________________________________

Why/they/cry? __________________________________

Why/I/do? __________________________________

2. Make the Yes/No questions and give short answers.

Is he buying a pencil? Yes, he is.

Are they going home? No, they aren’t.

Make the questions

Donna/learn/Russian? (X) __________________________________

They/read this book? (√) __________________________________

You/buy that DVD? (X) __________________________________

3. Spelling of verb + -ing

To make the -ing form, most verbs add -ing.

Eateating

If the infinitive ends in -e, drop the -e and add -ing.

Dancedancing

When a one-syllable verb has one vowel and ends in a consonant, double the
consonant and add -ing.

Putputting

Give the -ing form for each verb.

1 shineshining

2 sitsitting

3 taketaking

4 watchwatching

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THEME 3
PRESENT SIMPLE
Indicadores de evaluación:

Utiliza los pronombres y el verbo to – be en el tiempo presente continuo y simple.

THEME 3: Primero veamos el siguiente video


Present simple video

We use the present simple tense to express habits that we have in our daily life.

The present simple has two forms.

I/we/you/they work
In London.
He/she /it works

In the negative form we use don’t or doesn’t

I/you/we/they don’t
work In London
He/she/it doesn’t

EXERCISES

Make the sentences

a. he/watch TV (√) He watches TV

b. they/go to the gym (X) _________________________________

c. I like/maths (X) _________________________________

d. we/walk to school (X) _________________________________

e. she/play cards (√) _________________________________

f. My brother/have a new car (√) _________________________________

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THEME 4
PRESENT SIMPLE QUESTIONS
Indicadores de evaluación:

Utiliza los pronombres y el verbo to – be en el tiempo presente continuo y simple.

THEME 4:
We use do or does to make questions.

do I/you/we/they
Where work?
does He/she/it

EXERCISES

Make the questions.

where/they/live? Where do they live?

what/you/eat for breakfast? _______________________________

when/they/finish work? _______________________________

what/she/do on Mondays? _______________________________

Yes/No questions can have short answers.

Yes, I do / No, I don’t


you
Do like Watching TV? Yes, we do. / No, we don’t

they Yes, they do. / No, they don’t

Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t


Does He/she cook On Sunday?
Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t

EXERCISES

Make the questions

she/watch a lot of TV? Does she watch a lot of TV?

they/often cook? ________________________

you/usually study hard? ________________________

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THEME 5
REVIEW
Indicadores de evaluación:

Utiliza los pronombres y el verbo to – be en el tiempo presente continuo y simple.

THEME 5:
This item is to remember the lessons you have seen before.

1. Put in am is or are

1. The weather_____very nice today.


2. I_____not tired.
3. This case_____very heavy.
4. These cases_____very heavy.
5. The dog_____asleep.
6. Look! There_____Carol.
7. I_____hot. Can you open the window please?
8. This castle_____one thousand years old.
9. My brother and I_____good tennis players.
10. Ann_____at home but her children_____at school.
11. I_____a student. My sister_____an architect.

2. Put in am/is/are/do/don’t/does/doesn’t

1. Excuse me, _____you speak English?


2. Have a cigarette. No thank you, I_____smoke.
3. Why _____you laughing at me?
4. What_____she do? She’s a dentist.
5. I_____want to go out. It_____raining.
6. Where_____you come from? From Canada.
7. How much_____it cost to send a letter to Canada?
8. I can’t talk to you at the moment. I_____working.
9. George_____a good tennis player but he_____play very often.

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Fuentes de Información
del criterio I

1. REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRAFICAS:

Murphy, Raymond. (1995). Essential Grammar in Use. Great Britain: Cambridge


University Press.
Murphy, Raymond. (1998). Essential Grammar in Use Second Edition . Great
Britain: Cambridge University Press.
Pierre Morel, Jean Pierre Gruere, Leticia Leduc, Glen Gardner. (2006). Guia
de Conversación – Inglés Fácil. México: Larousse.

2. ELECTRONIC REFERENCES

Sally Hawksmore. (2017). Article Business. 2017, Sitio web:


http://www.cuentoseningles.com.ar/articles/business/internetcashsecurity.html
Oxford University. (2017). Grammar Exercises. 2017, Test Builder. Sitio web:
https://elt.oup.com/student/headway/elementary4/testbuilder?cc=pe&selLanguage=en&m
ode=hub

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Glosario del
Criterio I

Reading glossary

log on: start a computer (entras en sesión, ingresas a una computadora)

widespread: widely accepted (extendido, popular)

set up: open up, establish (abres, estableces)

withdraw: remove funds from a bank account (retiras)

the vendor: someone who exchanges goods or services for money (el vendedor, la
vendedora)

growing worry: increasing concern (preocupación en aumento)

cautious: showing precaution (cuidadosos, precavidos)

safer: free from danger (más seguras)

SET: Secure Electronic Transaction (Transacción Electrónica Segura)

hand over: give (le entregas, le das)

risky: insecure (arriesgado, inseguro)

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Criterio II

Criterio de Evaluación II:

Demuestra el uso correcto del tiempo futuro en sus tres formas


(affirmatives, negatives and interrogatives) a través de
ejercicios desarrollados en equipo.

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MARKETING IN INTERNET (I)

Orly Borges Personal Collection

How to be a
Top-10 on the
Internet

If you register your pages in the search engines without some prior advise, your page
may end up lost behind all your competitors. It happened to me, when registering my
first page with the search engines.

There are many things you can do with your web page to index good in the search
engines. You will find the most important information in this page, all easy and simple.

Search engines have different methods to decide where your page should go, either
on top, or the bottom. In order to improve their sites, and avoid spammers (people
who cheat when submitting their pages to be placed ahead of you), they take many
consideration to rate your page. The big problem is that they all have different
standards.

Many search engines will use a ROBOT to examine the SOURCE of your page (source
is the html program used to build your web page). The robot will come to your page
and read the title, meta tags, notes in the graphics areas, the links on your page, and
the text in the web page. The robot is looking for a repetition of words, so it will place
your web page where it belongs, depending on the words they find in your page.

Let's start with META TAGS

The META TAGS are a hidden note that you can find in the SOURCE of any web page.
You can see the SOURCE in your browser, by going to the top, press VIEW, and then
SOURCE or DOCUMENT SOURCE. They are usually between the tags of "/title" and
"/head". The most important meta tags are:

"META NAME="Keywords"..." and "META NAME="Description"..."

Not all pages have META TAGS, I think they should.

Now, in the "keywords" area, you have to find the keywords that "YOUR CUSTOMERS
WOULD USE WHEN LOOKING FOR YOU" in a search engine. It's very important to find
out what keywords they would use, they are not always the same as the ones YOU
would use. I suggest picking maybe 4 or 5 keywords. If you pick too many keywords,
your meta tags are spreading out too much and won't be efficient.

DO NOT use the most popular keywords: Real estate, web page, computers, etc.
The competition may be too much. Try to find something different, new or unusual
about your page and business, and go with it. Also, use phrases, usually people will

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type 2 or 3 words when using the search engines, think what your customers would
type. Thesaurus may help you find some more words.

Last year AltaVista would let you repeat the same keyword up to 7 times in the "META
NAME="Keywords" area, but that would be consider spamming in others. This year
AltaVista accepts 3 REPETITIONS for each keyword, so do not put any more.

Let's say you sell Cars & Parts. Then in the " Meta Keyword" area you write:
"Autoparts" 3 times and "auto" 3 times, this can be considered a repetition of the
word "Auto" 6 times. Then you are out.

All the keywords should be in PLURAL. Some say you have to put comas in between,
others say you shouldn't. Well, I'm not really sure who is right. Only a few search
engines will read and use the "META NAME="Keywords", but since AltaVista, Infoseek
and the arrogant people working at Hotbot do, it is important to have them.

"META NAME="Description", this is what usually (not always), will show as the
description of your page in the search engine. This is what your customers will see
first, and in a few seconds, decide if it's worthy to visit you.

So, do a short description that will attract your customers to your page. Also, some
search engines will accept 15, or 25 words; and then cut you off. My advice is to
have a short description maybe of 10 or 12 words, "Period", then, next sentence a
second description of 10 more words. So if you get cut off, the first half will be enough
to create curiosity to your customers, and lure them in. You have to put some
keywords here also, without sounding boring and repetitive.

The TITLE

This will show in the top left area of your browser. This is even more important than
the META TAGS. The title of your page has to have the main keywords that your
customers will use in the search engines.

Many webmasters repeat their keywords so much, that their titles are more than a
dozen words long.

Now, let's say you sell Auto Parts wholesale. Your title could be:

 Auto Parts Wholesalers, parts for trucks, motorcycles, used cars parts, rebuilt
used & new parts all models cars.

That is 17 words, and plenty of keywords. Now let's say your competition have this
title in their page:

 Auto parts wholesalers.

The first title is good if you only have one page, and I wouldn't write more than 9
words (keywords). So if someone is looking for used parts, or used truck parts, there
is a chance you may be in the first 2 or 3 pages of the list.

Now, if someone is searching for "auto parts wholesale", the second title would come
up much better, since it only has 3 words, and is exactly what the search is. Your title
is not as spread out as the long one. This is good if you have several pages, so each
will have a specific name, i.e. "wholesalers auto / cars parts", "used trucks parts,
wholesalers", "used cars parts, wholesalers", "motorcycles used parts wholesalers".

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There, instead of having one page, you have four pages; each will be an entrance to
your site. I have about 70 pages at the moment, in a few months I will get up to 100.
Some of them come up number one in search engines like AltaVista.

The same as the "META NAME="Description", your title also has to tell your visitors
what your web page is all about. A few search engines, like WebCrawler, only shows
your web page title on the screen, and that title has to persuade your visitors to come
to see your page

Source: Importers-Exporters Website

Source: ORLY, Borges. (2015).

articles/business/marketingininternet1.html

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THEME 6
PAST SIMPLE TENSE
Indicadores de evaluación:

Demuestra el uso correcto del tiempo pasado y futuro en sus tres formas
(affirmatives, negatives and interrogatives) a través de ejercicios desarrollados en
equipo.

THEME 6: Past Simple Affirmative

The Past Simple expresses a past action that is finished.

I worked in Berlin in 2016.

The verbs in this time are classified in: Regular verbs and Irregular verbs.

WorkWorked gowent

Playplayed havehad

Staystayed eatate

Smokesmoked drinkdrank

Stopstopped seesaw

Crycried buybought

1. Past simple Affirmative

He/she/it visited New York last year.

We/you/they

 The form of the Past Simple is the same in all persons.

EXERCISES:

a. They/watch TV yesterday. They watched TV yesterday.

b. I/start/my job on Monday. ________________________

c. We/enjoy/the party two days ago. ________________________

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2. Past Simple Negative

To form the negative we use didn’t + infinitive (without to) in all persons.

I didn’t like the film. (didn’t = did not)

He/she/it didn’t watch TV.

We/you/they

EXERCISES

Change the sentences to the negative form.

a. I studied on Sunday. I didn’t study on Sunday.

b. We moved into the flat. _______________________________

c. Sue talked to her teacher. _______________________________

d. They earned a lot of money. _______________________________

3. Past Simple Questions

To form a question we use did + subject + infinitive (without to) in all persons.

Did + Subject + infinitive

I
When
did He/she/it arrive?
Where
We/they/it

EXERCISES

a. where/she/live? Where did she live?

b. when/they/start work? ___________________________________

c. when/you/leave? ___________________________________

d. what/your parents/think? ___________________________________

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THEME 7
PAST SIMPLE QUESTIONS
Indicadores de evaluación:

Demuestra el uso correcto del tiempo pasado y futuro en sus tres formas
(affirmatives, negatives and interrogatives) a través de ejercicios desarrollados en
equipo.

THEME 7: Past Simple Question.

1. We use did or didn’t to give short answers to yes/no questions.

No, I didn’t. / Yes, I did.


I
watch No, you didn’t. / Yes, I did
Did You/he/she/it The DVD?
borrow No, he didn’t. / Yes, he did
We/they
No, we didn’t. / Yes, we did

EXERCISES

Make the questions and the short answers.

a. You/study/hard? (√) Did you study hard? Yes, I did

b. They/learn/Italian? (X) _________________ ________

c. Your dad/work/On Sundays (X) _________________ ________

d. Sophie/buy/a new car? (√) _________________ ________

REVIEW

Put the verb in the correct form of the past (affirmative, negative or
questions)

1. We____________(wait) a long time for the bus but it_____________(not come).

2. I____________(play) basketball yesterday but I____________(not win).

3. That’s a nice shirt. Where ____________(you/buy)it?

4. She____________(see) me but she____________(not speak) to me.

5. ____________(it/rain) yesterday? No, it was a nice day.

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THEME 8
WAS & WERE
Indicadores de evaluación:

Demuestra el uso correcto del tiempo pasado y futuro en sus tres formas
(affirmatives, negatives and interrogatives) a través de ejercicios desarrollados en
equipo.

THEME 8: Use of was & were

Am/is (present)was (past)

I’m tired. (now) I was tired. (past)

Is she at home? (now) Was she at home yesterday? (past)

The weather is nice today. The weather was nice yesterday.

Are (present) were (past)

You are late. (now) You were late yesterday.

They aren’t here. (now) They weren’t here last Sunday.

Affirmative Negative Questions

I Was I Was not Was I?

He He Wasn’t He?

She She She?

It It It?

We Were We Were not Were We?

You You Weren’t You?

They They They?

EXERCISES

Write was/wasn’t/were/weren’t

a. We didn’t like our hotel room. It________very small and it________very clean.

b. Kate got married when she__________26 years old.

c. I phoned you yesterday but__________at home. Where__________you?

29
d. George__________at work because he__________ill. He’s better now.

e. The shops__________open yesterday because it__________a public holiday.

f. __________you at home at 9.30? No, I__________. I__________at work.

30
THEME 9
FUTURE: GOING TO & WILL
Indicadores de evaluación:

Demuestra el uso correcto del tiempo pasado y futuro en sus tres formas
(affirmatives, negatives and interrogatives) a través de ejercicios desarrollados en
equipo.

THEME 9: Going to

1. The verb to be + going to expresses future plans and intentions.

I’m going to live in France next year.

We also use going to when we can see now that something is sure to happen in the
future.

Look at the blue sky. It’s going to be hot. (=prediction)

EXERCISES

a. I/watch TV (√) I’m going to watch TV.

b. he/stay in Cyprus (X) _______________________________

c. it/rain (X) _______________________________

d. we/cook dinner (√) _______________________________

e. you/take the bus (√) _______________________________

f. they/leave (X) _______________________________

2. We make questions like this:

am I

What is He/she/it going to say?

are We/you/they

31
EXERCISES

1 when/you/see Brian? When are you going to see Brian?

2 what/they/do _________________________________

3 why/he/leave so early? _________________________________

4 where/Jenny/stay? _________________________________

32
THEME 10
FUTURE: GOING TO & WILL
Indicadores de evaluación:

Demuestra el uso correcto del tiempo pasado y futuro en sus tres formas
(affirmatives, negatives and interrogatives) a través de ejercicios desarrollados en
equipo.

THEME 10: WILL

We use WILL to express ideas in future which are not arrangements.

I will open the door.

Peter won’t answer the phone. (will not = won’t)

Will you go out? Yes I will

Positive & negative

I
play
You Will = ‘ll

We go

They
open
He (Will not)

She Won’t close

It

Questions

I
play?
You

We go?

Will They
open?
He

She close?

It

33
EXERCISES: Write the opposite form

a. I’ll open the door. I won’t open the door.

b. She’ll forget. __________________________________

c. It’ll happen. __________________________________

d. You won’t find. __________________________________

34
Fuentes de Información
del criterio II

3. REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRAFICAS:

Murphy, Raymond. (1995). Essential Grammar in Use. Great Britain: Cambridge


University Press.
Murphy, Raymond. (1998). Essential Grammar in Use Second Edition . Great
Britain: Cambridge University Press.
Pierre Morel, Jean Pierre Gruere, Leticia Leduc, Glen Gardner. (2006). Guia
de Conversación – Inglés Fácil. México: Larousse.

4. REFERENCIAS ELECTRONICAS:

Orly Borges (Personal Collection). (2017). Article Business. 2017, Sitio web:
http://www.cuentoseningles.com.ar/articles/business/marketing ininternet.html
Oxford University. (2017). Grammar Exercises. 2017, Test Builder. Sitio web:
https://elt.oup.com/student/headway/elementary4/testbuilder?cc=pe&selLanguage=en&m
ode=hub

35
Glosario del
Criterio II

keywords: significant words used in indexing or cataloging (palabras clave) spreading


out: expanding (extendiéndose)

real state: property consisting of houses and land (propiedades) search engines: robots,
searching machines (motores de búsqueda)

thesaurus: a book of synonyms; a synonyms finder (buscador de sinónimos)

the arrogant people: the chesty, self-important persons (los arrogantes que) if it's
worthy to visit you: if your website deserves to be visited (si vale la pena visitarte)

cut you off: (in this context) remove your words by cutting them (eliminar palabras clave
en exceso)

period: punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a sentence to indicate a full stop (y
punto final)

lure them in: provoke your visitors to visit your website (entusiasmarlos a ingresar)

boring: tedious (tedioso, aburridor)

wholesale: the selling of goods to merchants in large quantities (venta mayorista, al por
mayor)

36
Criterio III

Criterio de Evaluación III:

Desarrolla actividades relacionadas con las lecturas utilizando


la estructura gramática de los adjetivos.

37
STARTING BUSINESS
READING DEL CRITERIO III

VOA - Voice of America

The different ways of


doing business

Businesses are structured in different ways to meet different needs. The simplest form
of business is called an individual proprietorship. The proprietor owns all of the
property of the business and is responsible for everything.

This means that the proprietor gets to keep all of the profits of the business, but also
must pay any debts. The law recognizes no difference between the owner and the
business.

Another kind of business is the partnership. Two or more people go into business
together. An agreement is usually needed to decide how much of the partnership each
person controls. There are limited liability partnerships. These have full partners and
limited partners. Limited partners may not share as much in the profits, but they also
do not have as many responsibilities.

Doctors, lawyers and accountants often form partnerships to share the profits and
risks of doing business. A husband and wife can form a business partnership.

Partnerships can end at any time. But the partnerships and individual proprietorships
exist only as long as the owners are alive.

The most complex kind of business organization is the corporation. Corporations are
designed to have an unlimited lifetime.

Corporations can sell stock as a way to raise money. Stock represents shares of
ownership in a company. Investors who buy stock can trade their shares or keep them
as long as the company is in business. A company might use some of its earnings to
pay dividends as a reward to shareholders. Or it might reinvest the money into the
business.

If shares lose value, investors can lose all of the money they paid for their stock. But
shareholders are not responsible for the debts of the corporation. A corporation is
recognized as an entity -- its own legal being, separate from its owners.

A board of directors controls corporate policies. The directors appoint top company
officers. The directors might or might not hold shares in the corporation.

38
Corporations can have a few major shareholders. Or ownership can be spread among
the general public. But not all corporations are traditional businesses that sell stock.
There are nonprofit groups that are also organized as corporations

Source: VOA Voice of America. (2016).


http://www.cuentoseningles.com.ar/articles/business/startbusiness.html

39
THEME 11
ADJECTIVES
Indicadores de evaluación:

Desarrolla actividades relacionadas con las lecturas utilizando la estructura gramática


de los adjetivos.

THEME 11: ADJECTIVES


We use the adjectives to describe nouns.

adjective

My father bought an expensive car.

noun

 Adjectives do not have plural

Susi has a new house.

Susi has new houses.

EXERCISES

A. Complete with an adjective and a noun in each sentence.

Foreign- black - clouds – long – holiday – interesting – dangerous – job- old


photograph – person - languages – fresh – serious – air – sharp – knife -
problem – expensive – hotels

1. Jack doesn’t speak any___________________________.

2. Look at those____________________in the sky! It’s going to rain.

3. She works very hard and she’s very tired. She needs a_____________________.

4. I enjoy talking to her. She’s an___________________________.

5. Fire – fighting is a________________________.

6. Can you open the window? We need some_______________________.

7. This is an______________________of Tom- he looks very different now.

8. I’ve got a_____________________. I hope you can help me.

9. I need a____________________to cut these onions.

10. They’ve got a lot of money – they always stay at_______________________.

40
THEME 12
COMPARATIVES & SUPERLATIVES
Indicadores de evaluación:

Desarrolla actividades relacionadas con las lecturas utilizando la estructura gramática


de los adjetivos.

TEMA 12:

1. Comparative adjectives compare two or more things.

Boston is smaller than Tokyo.

Superlative adjectives describe the greatest degree of something.

Paris is the most beautiful city.

2. We form comparative and superlative adjectives like this:

FORM ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

One syllable adjectives


Add: er / est Cheap Cheaper The cheapest

One syllable adjectives


which end in one vowel
+ one consonant → Thin thinner The thinnest
double the consonant

Adjectives ending in

-y happy happier The happiest

→ add -er/the -est.

Two or more syllable


The most
adjectives → add exciting More exciting
exciting
more/the most.

Some two-syllable
quiet quieter The quietest
adjectives use -er/-est.

41
THEME 13
COMPARATIVE & SUPERLATIVE
Indicadores de evaluación:

Desarrolla actividades relacionadas con las lecturas utilizando la estructura gramática


de los adjetivos.

TEMA 13: Irregular Adjectives

Some adjectives have irregular comparative and superlative forms.

ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


GOOD Better The best
BAD Worse The worst
FAR further The furthest

1. We can make a comparison stronger using much and a lot.

New York is much more exciting than Manchester.

The book is a lot better than the film.

Use than for comparisons between two things.

EXERCISES

Complete the comparative and superlative of each adjective.

COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

New ________________ ________________

Old ________________ ________________

Cheap ________________ ________________

Important ________________ ________________

Hot ________________ ________________

Interesting ________________ ________________

Happy ________________ ________________

Sad ________________ ________________

42
THEME 14
REVIEW
Indicadores de evaluación:

Desarrolla actividades relacionadas con las lecturas utilizando la estructura gramática


de los adjetivos.

THEME 14: Review about adjectives

A. Make the sentences using the comparative form of the adjective.

1. Jean/be/old/Carla Jean is older than Carla.

2. London/be/expensive/Riga __________________________

3. Madrid/be/warm/Oslo __________________________

4. my cat/be/quiet/my dog __________________________

B. Make the sentences using the superlative form of the adjective.

1. Maureen/be/short/student Maureen is the shortest student.

2. it/be/beautiful/place __________________________

3. he/be/good/student/this year __________________________

4. it/be/delicious/pudding __________________________

43
THEME 15
GRAMMAR REVIEW
Indicadores de evaluación:

Desarrolla actividades relacionadas con las lecturas utilizando la estructura gramática


de los adjetivos.

THEME 15: Grammar Review

Revisión de toda la gramática aprendida a través de ejercicios propuestos.

1. Exercises about present simple and continuous

1. Jack ............... at work because he’s 12. “What are you doing Emma?”
at the hospital. “I..............reading a book”

2. ................ you in the garden? No, I 13. I .................see Peter since he went
…..…… to the USA.

3. My sister....................like coffee she 14. “How often................you eat in a


prefers a cup of tea. restaurant?” “Sometimes”

4. I................ want to go out because it’s 15. “Where ….... your father going?” “To
raining. work”

5. My cat .................... (have / has) 16. ...............you like dancing? Yes,


green eyes. ...............

6. Ten + three =.......................... 17. …....... John and Mary always go to the
cinema on Sundays?
7. Every month my mother..................
(goes/go /going) to Lima. No, ......................................

8. Yesterday I bought a new jacket. 18. A. “What.................your brother do?”


.............you like it?
B. He…................in a bank since 2000
9. “...................................” “I’m fine
thank you. And you?” 19. My mother’s husband is
my...................
10. “Where.............my books?”
“.....................on the table.” 20. ............your
brother................English?
11. Sometimes my
friends..................soccer on weekends. Yes, he.....................

44
2. Exercises about past simple, future and adjectives

1. My sister ....................long hair but 10. Those pizzas……..good yesterday!


she has short hair now.
A. is B. are
A. had B. have
C. were D. was
C. is D. has
11. I ……. volleyball last Saturday
2 ............ your brothers at Institute morning.
yesterday?
A. play B. played
A. Are B. was
C. do D. plays
C. were D. Have
12. ...................... a book yesterday?
3. “.............................” “She was my
A. bought you B. Did you
mother.”
bought
A. What's his name? B. Who was she?
C. Did you buy D. Do you
C. Who was that boy? D. How is buy
she?
13. You’re not tall. Your brother is ……...
4. Where ………. you this morning? I was
A. tall than you B. taller than
at home
him
A. was B. were
C. taller than you D. taller
C. wasn’t D. do than me

5. My friend John ……… at home. He 14. My mom.............. because she was


……. at work. tired.
A. were – weren’t B. was – was A. didn’t cooked B. didn’t
cook
C. were – were D. wasn’t –
was C. doesn’t cook D. don’t
cook
6. The children ............... at home
yesterday. 15. If you drink much coffee.
You............ sleep.
A. was B. weren’t
A. are B. will
C. were D. always go
C. won’t D. going to
7. I’m...........play basketball tomorrow.
I have to sleep early 16. I was hungry so I............. in a
restaurant a big lunch.
A.will B. going to
A. eat B. eats
C. won’t D. ‘m going
C. ate D. eating
8. “Your cell phone is ringing”. “Oh I
......... answer it!” 17. The clouds are black, I think
it’s.................to rain.
A. going to B. will
A.will B. going
C. going D. am going to
C. is going D. won’t
9. …..the restaurant good last weekend?.
18. When the door opened, we
A. was B. wasn’t
............... an old man.
C. were D. is
A. was B. saw
C. listen D. find
45
19. We................. to the cinema last 28. That was a very fast race and
night. we……….it on TV!
A. are B. went A. watch B. watching
C. was D. go C. watched D. watches

20. Mary is 21 and Peter’s 38. 29. Today was............ than yesterday.
A. She’s older than him A. warmer B. warmest
B. He’s older than him. C. warm D. more warm
C. She’s much younger than him
30. A 49 inches LCD television costs S/.
D. She’s a bit younger than him. 4200.00. How much dollars we have to
pay in dollars? If each dollar is S/. 2.85.
21. If a dollar costs S/. 2.85 soles. How
A. $ 1473.68 B. $ 11970.00
much is $35.5 dollars?
C. $ 1472.68 D. $ 11971.00t
A. S/. 101.175 soles B. S/. 101.185
soles
31. At midnight, he stopped .............
C. S/. 101.165 soles D. S/. 101.000 the internet and went to bed.
soles
A. surfing B. for using
22. What does the weather forecast say? C. to try on D. from having fun
Is ......... be sunny tomorrow? on
A. it say it B. it going to
32. She………a toothache yesterday.
C. that will D. the weather will
A. have B. has
23. Australia is .................. from C. had D. having
Europe than the USA.
33. Can you see those woods? I
A. as far B. not much shorter
remember ...... there when I was little.
C. as distant as D. farther
A. to play B. of playing
24. I don’t know what to do. I’m so…… C. playing D. have played
A. boring B. interested
34. The lights went out while
C. interesting D. bored she..................dinner.
A. got the B. had
25. “................... do you see your
grandparents?” “Once a week.” C. ate D. was having
A. How many B. What time
35. Some people had to stand in the bus
C. How often D. Where because there ................... seats for
everybody.
26. My sister doesn’t like ...............
A. weren't any B. can't be a
new uniform.
lot of
A. her B. his
C. weren't enough D. hadn't many
C. our D. my
36. What time did you………….this
27. The police want to know ............. morning?
people who saw the accident.
A. got up B. gets up
A. who are the B. are there
C. get up D. getting up
any
C. did they have some D. if
there are any
46
37. My brother is three 39. Help me! Please come…..
centimeters…….than you
A. quick B. quiet
A. taller B. tallest
C. quickly D. quietly
C. tall D. told
40. I like these books because they are
38. What is the…….mountain in the ……..
world?
A. bored B. interested
A. higher B. highest
C. interesting D. boring
C. high D. hike

47
Fuentes de Información
del criterio III

5. REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRAFICAS:

Murphy, Raymond. (1995). Essential Grammar in Use. Great Britain: Cambridge


University Press.
Murphy, Raymond. (1998). Essential Grammar in Use Second Edition . Great
Britain: Cambridge University Press.
Pierre Morel, Jean Pierre Gruere, Leticia Leduc, Glen Gardner. (2006). Guia
de Conversación – Inglés Fácil. México: Larousse.

6. REFERENCIAS ELECTRONICAS:

VOA – Voice of America. (2017). Article Business. 2017, Sitio web:


http://www.cuentoseningles.com.ar/articles/business/internetcashsecurity.html
Oxford University. (2017). Grammar Exercises. 2017, Test Builder. Sitio web:
https://elt.oup.com/student/headway/elementary4/testbuilder?cc=pe&selLanguage=en&m
ode=hub

48
Glosario del
Criterio III

to meet: para satisfacer

profits: ganancias, beneficios

partnership: sociedad

agreement: acuerdo de asociación

limited liability: de responsabilidad limitada

risks: riesgos

as long as: mientras que

alive: vivos, con vida

lifetime: duración

stock: acciones, capital accionario

investors: (los) inversores

trade: negociar

dividends: dividendos

lose value: se desvalorizan, pierden valor

debts: deudas

entity: ente, entidad

board of directors: comité de directores, junta directiva

appoint: nombran

ownership: la propiedad

nonprofit: sin fines de lucro

49
50

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