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National Textile University

BSc. Textile Engineering

Introduction to Textile Processing

Course code: TP-2031

Course title: Introduction to Textile Processing

Semester: 4th

Section: (KN) E

Practical No: 04

Practical Title:

To dye 100% cotton fabric with Direct Dyes by exhaust method

Submitted by
Sohail Asghar 16-NTU-0159

Submitted to

Dr. Abdul Rehman Sb

Submission Date: 16/04/2018
The experiment was performed to study about the direct dyeing by exhaust method. 100% cotton
fabric was dyed with direct dye by exhaust method. The solution was prepared and fabric was
dipped in the solution and put the required temperature. The fabric was dyed in the blue colour.
The fabric was dyed by using the blue color direct dye, common salt solution. The sodium
chloride was added to increase the exhaustion.

Direct Dye is a class of dyestuffs that are applied directly to the substrate in a neutral or alkaline
bath. They produce full shades on cotton and linen without mordanting and can also be applied
to rayon, silk, and wool. Direct dyes give bright shades but exhibit poor wash fastness. Various
after treatments are used to improve the wash fastness of direct dyes, and such dyes are referred
to as “after treated direct colors.”Direct Dyes are molecules that adhere to the fabric molecules
without help from other chemicals. Direct dyes are defined as anionic dyes with substantivity for
cellulosic fibres, normally applied from an aqueous dye bath containing an electrolyte, either
sodium chloride (NaCl) or sodium sulfate (Na2SO4).
The dyeing process with direct dyes is very simple, direct dyeing is normally carried out in a
neutral or slight alkaline dye bath, at or near boiling point, but a separate after treatment such as
cationic dye fixing; to enhance wet fastness has been necessary for most direct dyeing. Direct
dyes are used on cotton, paper, leather, wool, silk and nylon. They are also used as pH indicators
and as biological stains.


1. To dye 100% cotton fabric with Direct Dyes by exhaust method

 100% Cotton fabric
 Oven
 Stirrer
 Sequestering Agent
 Wetting Agent
 Sodium Carbonate
 Direct Dye
 Liquor
 Electronic Balance
 Beaker
 Paper pieces (for dyestuff and salt)


The fabric was first weighed on the precision electronic balance. After weighing the fabric
sample, the liquor was measured in graduated beaker according to the given liquor to good
ratio and then it was taken in the beaker in which the dyeing solution was prepared. When the
particular amount of liquor was calculated, then the red color direct dye was weighed on the
precision electronic balance according to the weight of the fabric and after that the other
auxiliaries were weighed according to the amount of the liquor. The direct dye and the salt
were placed in the pieces of paper for their use during the process. The Sequestering and
wetting agents were added in the liquor and the beaker was placed in the oven at 60 0C
temperature for one minute. After one minute, the fabric was dipped in the solution for one
more minute and after it, the dye was poured in the solution after taking the fabric out of the
beaker. The dye was mixed in the solution with help of stirrer and then the fabric was loaded
in the beaker for dyeing. After 2-3 minutes, the half portion of the calculated salt was added
in the dyeing solution to increase exhaustion and the solution was left for 10 more minutes
with constant stirring and removal of the crease of fabric. When the ten minutes completed,
the temperature of the oven was raised to 950C and time given for this process was 30
minutes. When the temperature of the oven raised exactly to the 950C, the remaining portion
of the salt was poured in the dyeing solution. After completion of the time, the fabric was
pulled out of the beaker and washed with cold water and then with hot water of temperature
800C and again with cold water after hot washing.
Observations and calculations:


Amount of liquor:
The liquor in this experiment was taken according to the liquor to the good (fabric sample) ratio
of 50:1, means that for one gram of the weight of the fabric, 50mL of the liquor would be taken.

Direct Dye:

It was taken in a particular amount depending on the weight of the fabric on the ratio of 2%
o.w.f. It means that the weight of dye which is to be taken would be the 2% of the total weight of
the fabric sample.

Wetting Agent:

It was added on the ratio of 2g/L depending on the amount of the liquor.

Sequestering Agent:

The sequestering agent is the agent that removes the hardness present in the water that is used as
a solvent to prepare the dyeing solution. It was added in the ratio of 1g/L which means that if one
liter of liquor is present then the two grams of sequestering agent would be added in the liquor.

Sodium Carbonate:

Usually the direct dye molecules have negative charge and also the fabric molecules have the
negative charge, the salt reduces this negative-negative repulsion and increases the exhaustion.
So it was added on the ratio of 3g/l.

 Temperature = 950C – 1000C

 Time for dyeing process= 45 min
Weight of the Fabric sample = 3.80g
Liquor = 190mL
Shade depth = 0.076g
Amount of common salt= 6.65g
Amount of Sequestering agent = 0.19g
Wetting agent = 0.38g
Amount of water = 182.134ml

After doing the above procedure we got the blue coloured fabric.

Fabric after dyeing

The experiment was conducted, dyed the fabric by using the blue color direct dye, common salt
solution. The sodium chloride was added to increase the exhaustion. The fabric obtained after
dyeing had small parts which were not dyed properly which shows that the dye molecules were
repelled by the fabric molecules at those areas.