La ciencia se encarga de analizar e interpretar fenómenos complejos, sin embargo hacer esto no es tarea sencilla. Para ello uno debe tener bien en claro que se quiere saber, y de ahí, descubrir los principios que lo rigen

© All Rights Reserved

0 vistas

La ciencia se encarga de analizar e interpretar fenómenos complejos, sin embargo hacer esto no es tarea sencilla. Para ello uno debe tener bien en claro que se quiere saber, y de ahí, descubrir los principios que lo rigen

© All Rights Reserved

- La Vivencia en Vygotsky
- ¿Qué es la técnica CRISPR/Cas9?
- Memorias de un cuadrilátero
- La relación funcional entre pensamiento y emoción - Rivadeneira, Minici & Dahab
- Piaget y Vygotsky
- Efecto Doctor Fox en el lenguaje
- 10 sesgos cognitivos y como evitarlos
- Transhumanismo neuroética y persona humana
- Terapia de Solución de Problemas (Síntesis)
- Co-construcción de Un Individuo en Relación a Su Consumo de Drogas
- Estadística aplicada en Psicología y Ciencias de la salud, ed. 1 - Fabiola González Betanzos.pdf
- Chi Cuadrada
- Desensibilización Sistemática
- Diseño de Intervención en una Terapia Psicológica (Síntesis)
- Desarrollo-estadistico-Nomophobia
- ¿Conocimiento Fenoménico sin Conceptos Fenoménicos? Sobre la Teoría de los Punteros Mentales de Jesse Prinz
- 16. Problemas de Aprendizaje y Bajo Rendimiento Escolar. Intervención, prevención y desprofesionalización.docx
- 13. Problemas de Aprendizaje y Bajo Rendimiento Escolar. Definición y Causas - copia.docx
- Lorenzano Filosofia de La Ciencia
- Activación Conductual

Está en la página 1de 21

2182019 Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulus in vera site
+57 3197219866 NIT 10142273478 © edicion@nulliusinverhasite.com
QE
So|ngyq4e So] Sopoy 48,
INVERSE PROBLEMS, CAPITULO 1.
THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM
Conceptual problems
Conceptual problems or issues are knowledge gaps that
can be handled in a promising fashion. For instance, a
nullusinverbastte.comitexto-a-gumentatvoinverse-problams-captuo-\-the-conceptot--problemfbeld=WARZHLgIRKL2IFASAYAVE-OIBdQJ... 1/292182019
nullusinverbasite.com/texto-argumantativalinvarse-problams-capitule-1-the-concepl-of-2-problam/foclid=IWARZHLg Rk. 2IFASAY WE-OIBd9J.
Inverse problems. Caplio 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nullusin vba ste
big open problem in current biomedical research is to
find the causes and effective treatments of Alzheimer’s
disease - clearly an inverse problem, since working on it
takes reserchers from observable symptoms, such as
behavioral and cognitive deficits, to unobservable
cellular or molecular processes, such as protein
misfoldings and mutations.
A scientific approach to this problem is likely to rely on
recent studies of brain degeneration, and the efficiency
of the proposed treatment will be estimated on the
strength of experiments and statistical analyses.
Whoever solves this problem is sure to earn a Nobel
Prize. Incidentally, this prize is awarded for original
findings or theories, not for improved data or
computations, much less for debunking myths.
Furthermore, arguably all the Nobel Prizes in the “hard”
sciences have been awarded for solving big inverse
problems.
Scientific and technological investigators are often asked
to rate research projects submitted by colleagues. Such
ratings presuppose clear criteria on the worth of
research. And this is an inverse problem, since it goes
from the sketch of a conclusion to the hypotheses, data
and methods likely to be used in the course of the
investigation in question.
All too often, such valuations are hampered by the vulgar
conception of the scientific method according to which it
boils down to the sequence Observe - collect data - draw
conclusions. But this is a cartoon of the scientific
method, since every research problem consists in
handling some problem or cluster of problems. Further,
in any discipline observation is guided by ideas about
what traits are worth being observed - for example, the
concentrations of some neurotransmitters rather than
the color of an assistant’s lab coat. A more realistic
conception of scientific research is this:
21292182019
nullusinverbasite.com/texto-argumantativalinvarse-problams-capitule-1-the-concepl-of-2-problam/foclid=IWARZHLg Rk. 2IFASAY WE-OIBd9J.
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulusin vera site
Background — problem - conjecture — observation —
conclusion ~ evaluation.
Sometimes scientific theories initiate experimental
research projects. For example, gravitational waves were
first detected in 2016 because Einstein had conjectured
their existence one century earlier.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Problems arise and are stated and discussed in some
context or against some background knowledge rather
than in a vacuum. In other words, we begin every
inquiry in the midst of the body of knowledge where the
gap occurs and which supplies some of the very concepts
occurring in the problem statement. Thus, someone with
a physics background is able to state some physical
problems, but maybe not research problems in genetics
or even in the history of physics.
In daily life we are called to undertake practical tasks,
pieces of work that involve one’s whole being. In the
present work, by contrast, we shall be concerned only
with the idea of a conceptual problem detached from our
circumstances. Our subject will then be located on the
rarefied plane of abstractions, and thus far above the
noisy fray studied by the psychologists and sociologists
of knowledge.
Edmund Husserl’s (1931: 28) famous contention, that his
phenomenology is presuppositionless, is false because
merely stating a problem in any field presupposes some
of the related fields. For example, Husserl’s definition of
‘phenomenological reduction’ involves such tricky terms
as ‘nature’, ‘experience’, ‘consciousness’, and ‘pretend’,
every one of which evokes several fields.
31292182019
nullusinverbasitecom/texto-argumantativalinvarse-problams-capituo-1-the-concepl-of-a-problam/foclid=IWARZHLg kL 2IFASAYWE-OIBd9J.
Inverse problems. Capiluo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Null in verba st
True, we expound formal logic as the rootless discipline,
or the first science, but nobody deny that historically it
evolved in close contact with legal thinking and later
with mathematics. We pretend that logic is the science
that follows from nothing, just to emphasize that the
logical principles are conceptually self-sufficient,
even though we accept them because they work
in practical reasoning — a virtuous circle.
In other words, pure reason and real existence are the
foci of a virtuous circle, or rather ellipse, formed by two
arcs: the Cartesian or rationalist Cogito, ergo sum, and
the Aristotelian or empiricist Sum, ergo cogito. The full
ellipse symbolizes the ratioempiricist synthesis.
In sum, there are no radical or absolute beginnings:
every start happens in medias res. In particular, serious
work in any field is heteronomous or indebted to other
fields, whereas fraud, in particular pseudoscience, is
autonomous or self-sufficient. For example, alchemy
makes no use of chemistry, and computational
psychology is independent of cognitive neuroscience.
Beware of isolates other than the universe as a whole.
In the conceptually advanced fields, which by definition
contain formalized theories, some problems can be
stated and handled in mathematical terms. This feature
not only narrows vagueness, which facilitates rational
debate and enhances testability, but also makes it
possible to access the vast fund of mathematics.
Mathematization not only facilitates problem resolution:
it may also generate fresh problems, such as those of
finding formal similarities as well as invariances under
coordinate changes.
In sum, every non-trivial problem is a component of a
whole cluster of interdependent issues, among them the
philosophical presuppositions common to all scientific
inquiries, such as the philosophical assumptions of the
reality and knowability of the outside world. If these
41292182019
nullusinverbasitecom/texto-argumantativalinvarse-problams-capituo-1-the-concepl-of-a-problam/foclid=IWARZHLg kL 2IFASAYWE-OIBd9J.
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nutfus in verba ste
assumptions are removed, the gates to fiction are
opened.
1.2 LOGIC OF PROBLEMS
In all fields we find problems of many kinds, in
particular problems of knowing, planning, forecasting,
doing, valuing, and communicating. Regardless of the
kind or nature of a problem, the following aspects of it
may be distinguished: (a) the problem itself regarded as
an item on a par with data, commands, rules, and
emotional utterances (the epistemological aspect); (b) the
act of questioning (the psychological aspect), and (c) the
expression of the problem by a set of declarative,
interrogative or imperative sentences in some language
(the linguistic aspect).
Ideas of three kinds are involved in discussing any
problem: the background or antecedent, the generator,
and the solution in case it exists.
Consider the problem “Who is the boss here?” It
presupposes that there is a boss rather than a collegial
governing body; it is generated by the propositional
function “x is the boss;” and it induces a solution of the
form “c is the boss”, where c names a specific individual
or group. (Remember that a propositional function is a
formula containing at least one free variable, and which
becomes a proposition when its variables are assigned
definite values.)
Every problem arises and is posed against some
bakground constituted by the antecedent knowledge, in
particular the specific presuppositions of the problem.
The presuppositions are the statements that are
somehow involved but not questioned in the statement of
the problem or the inquiry prompted by it. Furthermore,
5292182019
nullusinverbasite.com/texto-argumantativalinvarse-problams-capitule-1-the-concepl-of-2-problam/foclid=IWARZHLg Rk. 2IFASAY WE-OIBd9J.
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulusin vera site
every problem may be regarded as generated by a
definite set of formulas. We call generator of a problem
the propositional function which yields the problem in
question upon application of the operator “?” one or
more times.
Finally, every problem induces a set of formulas - the
solution to the problem - which, when inserted into the
problem’s statement, convert the latter into a set of
statements with definite truth-values - true, false, or
half-true.
In other words, our initial problem is “Which is the x
such that x is the boss?,” or (?x)Bx for short. The
generator of this problem is Bx, and its main
presupposition is “Some x are Bs”, or (3x)Bx”, whereas
the solution’s form is Bc, where c names the inquirer.
From a logical point of view, then, we have the following
sequence: (1) presupposition (3x)Bx; (2) generator Bx;
problem (?x)Bx; (3) solution Bc.
At first sight a question such as “is p true?” does not fit
the preceding schema, for it is generated by p itself,
which is supposed to be a proposition, not a
propositional function. Yet clearly “?p” may be reworded
as “What is the truth-value of the function V at p?”. In
symbols, “(?v)V(p) =v”, where V maps propositions p into
their truth-values v. If the latter are just truth (or +1)
and falsity (or -1), V degenerates into the ordinary
valuation function — the original question will not have
been modified by the preceding restatement. But if V is
allowed to take further values within those bounds, as in
the case of the factual sciences, then clearly the new
formulation of the problem is more general than the
unsophisticated “Is p true?,” which presupposes that a
proposition can be just true or false. In any case, truth-
value questions presuppose some theory of truth or
other, and they are questions about the possible values
of a function.
6292182019
nullusinverbasite.com/texto-argumantativalinvarse-problams-capitule-1-the-concepl-of-2-problam/foclid=IWARZHLg Rk. 2IFASAY WE-OIBd9J.
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulus in vera site
1.3 Problem forms
The blanks occurring in the statement of a problem may
be individual variables or predicate variables. In the
question “Who discovered America?,” generated by the
propositional function “D(x,a), the unknown is the
individual variable x.
In contrast, a problem such as “What does c look like?”
directs us to search for the cluster P of properties,
perhaps so far unknown, that make up the manifest
properties of the individual c. We shall symbolize this
question form as “(?P)Pc.
The questions asking for the value(s) of one or more
individual values may be called individual values
problems, whereas the ones asking for the values of one
or more predicate values may be called functional
problems. We postulate that every elementary problem
is of either of these two kinds.
What about the problem form “Does the individual c
have the property represented by the predicate P,” in
which no variable is in sight? Actually the value is there
but hidden: It is the proposition “c has the property P.”
Indeed, the given problem is generated by the function
“The truth-value of the statement “c has the property P is
v”, and the solution to the problem consists in finding
the precise value of v. Therefore the explicit formulation
of the problem is: “What is the truth-value of the
proposition “c has the property BP”?
All the problems concerning universality and
particularity or someness can be regarded as questions
about the truth-values of the corresponding statements.
Thus, the question “Are there gravitons?” can be restated
as “Is it true that there are gravitons?” and, more
11292182019
nullusinverbasite.com/texto-argumantativalinvarse-problams-capitule-1-the-concepl-of-2-problam/foclid=IWARZHLg Rk. 2IFASAY WE-OIBd9J.
Inverse problems. Caplio 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nullusin vba ste
precisely, “What is the truth-value of the assertion that
there are gravitons?” (The reader may rightly suspect
that here we are skirting the question whether 3 should
be read as “there exists” or rather “some”. Such as ax
Likewise, “Is everything material changeable?” is
equivalent to “Is it true that ‘everything material is
changeable’ is true?”.
And what about “What is P,?” where ‘P’ denotes a
predicate constant such as “spin” or “vector potential”.
Here too a variable is missing and must be dug up in
order to complete the question. In fact, what is being
asked is “Which are the poperties P of A, or “(?P)(PA)”,
where ‘P’ stands for a cluster of predicates of order
higher than A. And this is a functional problem, the
answer to which is constituted by a set of statements
predicating definite properties of A - for instance, that A
is symmetric in one or more coordinates.
A moral we extract from the above cases, all of them
characterized by the seeming absence of certain vaiables,
is clear: Do not let yourself be misguided by ordinary
language, and always dig for the variable(s). Note also
that the question mark ?, which we are handling as a
primitive term, always bears on an unknown or variable.
Further, “?” does not bind the variable on which it acts:
merely asking a question does not answer it. Only the
answer, i.e. the solution, will be free from unbound
variables. The following Table 1.1 lists some
typical elementary problems. This table is meant
to be illustrative, not exhaustive.
Table 1.1 Elementary problem forms.
Problem kind Question Form
Solution form
21292182019
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulus in vera site
Individual
Which-problem Which is (or are) the x (?x)Ax
K=6d, 0.
such that Ax?
Where-problem At what place is (@x)[Ac B
Be=x] x=d
the c such that Ac?
Why-problem Which is the p such that
q because p? (2p)(p Pq) pe
Whether-problem What is the truth-
value of p? @v)IV@)=v) vea
Functional
How-problem: How does c, which is an A,
happen? (2P)[Ac b Pe]
What-problems Which are the
properties of c? (2P)Pe
Which are the properties
of the property A? (2P)PA
14 Formation rules
A single unknown occurs in each of the problem forms
listed in Table 1.2, but none in the answers. This
characerizes the well-defined, definite, or
determinate problems, in contrast with the ill-
defined, indefinite, or indeterminate ones. The
latter have indeterminate answers, that is,
nuliusinverbastte.comitexto-a-gumentatvoinverse-problams-captuo-\-the-conceptot-a-problemfbeld=WARZHLgIRKL2IFASAYAVE-OIBdQJ.... 9/292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvlinvarse-problems-capitulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem Mfoclid=WARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBdS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nullusin veba ste
solutions involving free variables. A determinate
question has a single answer with no unknowns,
but the answer may consist of a combination of
statements.
For example, the question om? - x =0) consists of two
members, namely the roots,0 and 1 of the equation. In
contrast, the problem (?x)(x- x + y =0) is indeterminate
because the variable y remains free even after fixing x.
But it can be rendered determinate either by assigning y
a definite value or by prefixing to it a quantifer or a
question mark bearing on the second variable. In fact, (?
x(x” - x + y = 0 is a determinate question with an
answer consisting of infinitely many ordered pairs .
In short, a determinate problem has a single answer with
no free variables, which can be either single-membered
as in the case of “What is the value of y = x for x:
0.001,? or many-membered, as in the case of “Which are
the social classes in the USA?” is the assignment
symbol, not to be confused with the identity symbol =.)
Definite answers can be gotten provided definite
questions are asked. For instance, the question “How
long is this rod?” will have a single answer on condition
that ‘this’ is an unambiguous name in the given context,
and that the reference frame, the length unit, the
temperature and the pressure are specified.
Likewise, “Where is c?” is not quite determinate,
for a name (in this case c) does not individualize
anything save in a context; we must specify the
cluster of properties A that individuate c, and ask
accordingly “Where is the c such that c is an A?,
or “Given that c is an A, where is c?”. Assuming
that position can be specified by an ordered n-
tuple of coordinate values, the form of the
question, once completed, would be “(?n)(An PBn).
In short, all of the variables occurring in the
statement of a problem should be displayed
101292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvlinvarse-problems-capitulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem Mfoclid=WARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBdS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nullusin veba ste
explicitly in order to ensure its determinteness,
unless the context makes it clear what the values
of such variables are.
The preceding informal remarks may be summarized in
the folowing
Definition 1.1 The statement of a problem is well formed
if and only if it satisfies the following formation rules
Rule 1.1 The generator contains as many
variables as unknowns.
Rule 1.2 AS many questions as varibles are
prefixed to the generator.
Rule 1.3 Every elementary well-formed
problem has either of the following
forms:
(x2)... x... CP..
od)
where x is the individual variable and P the predicate
variable in the generator.
Rule 1.4 Every non-elementary well-formed
problem is a combination of well-formed
elementary problems.
When the problem arises in a context dominated by
equations, an additional condition is usually added to
those that define a well-defined problem, namely that the
number of unknowns must not exceed that of conditions.
However, this requirement did not deter some ancient
Greek and Arabic mathematicians from working on
Diophantine equations, such as ax + by = c, which violate
the said condition.
1.5 Problems combinations
s1n92182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvlinvarse-problems-capitulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem Mfoclid=WARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBdS.
Inverse problems. Caplio 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nullusin vba ste
Let us elucidate the meaning of the expression ‘problems
combination’ occurring above. Call n(x) an elementary
individual problem, and n(P) an elementary functional
problem. The two problem forms can be subsumed under
a single one by abstracting from the variable type, i.e., by
introducing the concept v of variable tout court, as in m
(v) = (2v)Gv, where G(v) is the problem generator.
Let now (?v4)Gvyand (?vz)Gvz be two elementary
problems that we wish to combine, such as “Where
did that doctor study?” and “What is the specialty
of that doctor?” If we intend to solve either
problem, we write n(vy,v2) = n(vy)vel n(vg); and if
we plan to solve both problems at a stroke, we
write m(vz,vz) = n(vy) et n(vz). In the first case we
face a disjunctive problem, and in the second a
conjunctive one. The solution to a disjunctive
problem will be the disjunction of the solutions
of its components, i.e. s(a,b)= s(a)Us(b). If the
problem is conjunctive, its solution will be the
conjunction of the solutions to the component
problems just in case the variables v; and vz are
separable.
If the variables refer to two interacting parts of a whole,
no such separation or analysis will be possible. For
example, the degree of integration or inclusion of an
individual in her society is a function of intrinsic
properties such as sociability, and dyadic properties such
as the distance in status between two persons, as in
manager and employee, or officer and private.
Note that the possibility of analysis is an ontological as
well as an epistemological question. Hence the limited
scope of both individualism and analytical philosophy:
they hold only when the totalities they study are
conglomerates rather than systems or organized
totalities. In other words, interaction U non-separation
of variables,;whence the drastic limitation of
121292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvlinvarse-problems-capitulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem Mfoclid=WARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBdS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nullusin veba ste
analysis. However, this caution won’t deter the
individualists who still rule the social studies.
On the basis of the binary functors vel and et we can
analyze problems of an arbitrary complexity, though
subject to the above-mentioned limitation. For example,
a three-variables problem may be analyzed in one of the
following ways:
my velngvelm3, myet m2 et 13
my vel (mz et 13), m4 et (ny vel 13)
The preceding formulas can be rewritten as follows:
ny vel (nz et 13), (my vel ng) et (nyvel 3)
ny et (mgvel m3), (my et mg) vel (mq et 73)
Clearly, the functors vel and et obey the associative and
commutative laws.
So far the analogies between problems and statements
are apparent. They can be stretched further by
introducing the concept of negate of a problem,
expressed by a negative question. We do it through the
following
Definition 1.1 If G(v) is the generator of x(v),
then non-n(v) = (?v)[@ccwv)].
It is often advantageous to switch from the given
problem to its negate. For Instance, “Which chemical
elements are noble?” may be replaced by “Which
chemical elements enter into chemical
compounds?” With the concept of negate of a
problem and with the assistance of the above
formulas many problems can analyzed into the
conjunction (disjunction) of disjunctions
(conjunctions) of simpler problems.
131292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvolinvarse-problams-capltulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem foclid=IWARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBAS.
Inverse problems. Caplio 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nullusin vba ste
In addition to the compounds brought about by the
operations vel an et, we recognize the binary relations of
problem implication and equivalence. We stipulate that
m4 implies m2 just in case the generator of m1 implies the
generator of m2 ; and we say that two problems are
equivalent if their respective generators are equivalent.
In symbols,
Problem implication (m4 seq 2) U (GyPG2)
Problem equivalence (m1 aeq m2) U (Gy0G2)
The simplest case of problem equivalence is that where
vy = Vg. An example of problem implication is this: the
problem of finding the truth-value of a statement implies
the problem of finding whether the same proposition is
true. Here is a problem of problem equivalence: the task
of deducing the conditional A b C from the premise P is
equivalent to deriving the consequent C from the
enriched premise P&A. In fact, m(?v4)[V(P |-A) = vy] and
n(?v2)[V(P|-A) = vg]. Now, by the definition of
entailment, G1 is equivalent to the statement that P b (A
P C) is logically true (tautologous); and, by the law of
exportation, P b (A P C) is equivalent to P & (A P C).
Hence, saying that P b (A P C) is tautologous amounts to
asserting that P&A Bb C is tautologous. But the latter is
precisely Go. Q.E.D.
Finally, if Gz is deducible from Gj, that is, if G1 entails
Gp, we shall say that m(v) is stronger or harder than
n(vg). In short,
mz m2 O(Gy |-G2).
For example, the dynamical problems are stronger than
the corresponding kinematical ones since the generators
(hence also the solutions) of the latter are derivable from
the corresponding generators of the former. For example,
Newton’s laws of planetary orbits are Kepler’s laws.
Obviously, whereas in daily life we are justified in
41292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvolinvarse-problams-capltulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem foclid=IWARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBAS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulusin vera site
skirting the harder problems, in science one should
prefer to investigate the stronger questions, since these
will lead to the stronger solutions.
1.6 Decision problems
The partition of problems into individual and functional
applies only to elementary or atomic problems. Rule 1.4
allows for the statement of non-elementary of molecular
poblems, some of which may be individual with regard to
some variables and functional with regard to others.
Our classification of elementary problem forms cuts
across the alternative groupings proposed in the course
of history. The best known of these are Aristotle’s and
Pappus’s. Aristotle distinguished between what problems,
or questions of fact, and whether problems or dialectical
questions. However, from a formal point of view there is
no big difference between the problem of fact “What is
the distance between a and b?, and the dialectical
problem “Does a imply b.? In fact, both are individual
problems: the former asks what the value of the function
D at a couple is, and the latter what the value of the
function at a different couple is. The difference is not
logical but methodological, since the answer to each
problem calls a method of its own.
The ancient Greek mathematician Pappus of
Alexandria drew a distinction between problems
of construction, such as “Find the average of a set
of numbes”, and problems of proof, included in
whether problems. Two millennia later, George
Polya (1945) rechristened them problems to find
and problems to prove, and worked out this
distinction. Incidentally, no new ideas about the
concept of a problem seem to have arisen during
151292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvlinvarse-problems-capitulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem Mfoclid=WARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBdS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nullusin veba ste
the nearly 2,000 years that separate Georgy Polya
(1945) from Pappus (c. 340 P.E.).
What about decision questions, that is, problems the
answer to which is either a straight ‘yes’ or a straight
‘no’? These questions are special cases of individual
problems and particularly of those involving truth-
values, such as “Is p true?” and “Does the individual t
belong in the set T,?” which reduces to the former when
p takes the particular form “t iT”. Whether a given
problem belongs to this category is a methodological
problem, because only the means at hand and the goal in
view will help us answer the original question.
There is more to it. Consider the problem “How tall is
individual c?,” where c names a definite person. No
matter how sophisticated an altimeter may be chosen, in
principle the problem may be broken down into a finite
sequence of questions of the form “Does c’s crown
fall between the scratches n and n+1 of that
yardstick?” An improvement in accuracy will
enable us to ask more questions of this kind and
therefore to come closer to the supposedly
unique truth. But because every measurement
comes with a non-vanishing error, there will be a
finite number of decision questions to ask. This
finiteness is of course necessary for the
procedure to be effective, that is, performable in a
finite number of steps. A completely exact
solution would require infinitely many such unit
steps, and is thus humanly unattainable.
A desideratum of the laboratory scientist and the applied
mathematician is that, no matter a hard problem may be,
it can eventually be reduced to a finite sequence of yes-
or-no problems. However, every achievement of such a
methodological triumph hides an epistemological defeat:
a strong problem, such as identifying a particular
member of a nondenumerably infinite set, has been
161292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvlinvarse-problems-capitulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem Mfoclid=WARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBdS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulusin vera site
replaced by a finite set of weak problems, such as asking
to decide whether a given individual belongs to a given
set. There is no alternative: either we take the solution to
the weaker problem or we are left with the unsolved
stronger problem.
1.7 Semantic and pragmatic issues
Let us now turn to a semantic aspect of problems. The
rules 1.1 to 1.4 are necessary but not sufficient to secure
determinate answers, that is, solutions with a unique
(though not necessarily single-membered) answer. In
fact, a problem may be well formed but its background
may by defective or just vaguely indicated. For example,
the question “Is p true?,” though well-formed, may not
presuppose that p can have only two truth-values, which
is by no means obvious since p may be true in one system
but not in another. Likewise “What is the melting point
of sulphur?” has a single melting point regardless of its
crystalline structure — which is false. In other cases the
presupposition is deeply hidden. For example, “Why
something rather than nothing?” presupposes that God
asked Himself this question while he was asking Himself
whether or not to create the universe. Hence the answer
depends crucially on the questioner’s faith.
The defective formulation of a problem may hinder or
even prevent proper inquiry. This is the case with
Heidegger’s “What is being?,” or its equivalent “What is
it to be,?” which belongs in the same class as “What
moves motion?” The defective formulation of a problem -
that is, the raising of an ill-formed issue - may launch
research on a fruitless path. An example is the question
“What is the guarantee of truth?,” which has sparked
endless fruitless speculation since antiquity. We should
have learned that, although truth is attainable, it does
11292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvlinvarse-problems-capitulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem Mfoclid=WARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBdS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulusin vera site
not come with a truth warrant, if only because there is
no guarantee that such a warrant is possible.
Let us lay down the following conventions regarding the
background of problems, starting with the following
Definition 1.3 A problem is well-conceived (or
well-backed) = none of its presuppositions
is either manifestly false or undecided in
the same context.
We also need
Definition 1.4 A problem is well formulated = the
problem is both well-formulated and well-
conceived.
With these conventions in mind we
formulate our last prescription:
Rule 1.5 Every problem shall be well-
formulated.
A well-posed problem will be determinate or well-
defined: by displaying all the relevant items, it will
suggest what further searches may help solve it. Yet it
would be naive to suppose that merely abiding by Rules
1.1 to 1.5 will warrant our asking only well-formulated
questions, if only because it is seldom easy to unearth all
the presuppositions of a problem. Even in a formalized
theory only the presuppositions acknowledged by the
theorist will be listed. And except in trivial cases such a
list is likely to be incomplete, for some advances are
made by discovering that some formula is either needed
or dispensable. Consequently, a formula that has been
accepted as well formulated or meaningful may turn out,
upon closer examination, to be ill-conceived.
Rigor would seem to require an examination of the
presuppositions of every presupposition, and so on until
the ultimate presuppositions are reached - or not.
This is possible, at least in principle, in mathematics:
here there are plenty of self-contained theories, so we
can dig up until reaching a fundamental theory such as
181292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvlinvarse-problems-capitulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem Mfoclid=WARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBdS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulusin vera site
set theory or category theory. In contrast, in factual
science it is still unknown whether there are any basic
theories underneath quantum mechanics or quantum
electrodynamics. In factual matters the pattern may be a
net rather than a rooted tree, and in any case it will
always be premature to legislate in this respect.
Instead of looking for final theories we should secure the
right to proceed in each case as far as required. Stated
negatively: we should abstain from postulating ultimate
assumptions. Just recall the evglution of evolutionary
biology in the course of the 20 century: inclusion of
macroevolution, and the fusion with ecology first and
developmental biology later on. In sum, science has
foundations but these may be temporary.
Because presuppositions are not immutable, there are no
inherently well-conceived problems. For instance, an
operationalist should dismiss any questions about the
state of the interstellar space because the placement and
operation of measuring instruments destroys the original
void. The realist has no such scruples, and consequently
welcomes the data about space obtained by astronauts,
and even more so the data collected by unmanned space
probes.
Change the context or background, and the
meaningfulness of a question may change accordingly.
And, since the context may change, it would be foolish to
dismiss certain questions as inherently and therefore
everlastingly meaningless. It is wiser to adopt a humbler
attitude, and acknowledge either that the problem does
not interest us at the moment, or that it may be
interesting but premature, i.e., that the tools for handling
it are yet to be built.
This humbler attitude towards open problems does not
kill them, but defers their treatment until the proper
tools are available, The Pavlovians and behaviorists
would not have deserved the reproaches of the so-called
191292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvolinvarse-problams-capltulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem foclid=IWARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBAS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nullusin veba ste
humanistic psychologists if, instead of dismissing the
mental as “metaphysical”, they had stated that their
self-imposed limitation was not ontological but
methodological: that they started by studying
elementary facts such as memory, conditioning
and aversion because such basic problems had to
be solved before the higher functions, such as
imagination and delusion, could even be posed.
Bogus science and antiscience thrive not only on
ignorance and the deliberate attempt to supress
enlightenment, but also on the stubborn refusal,
by scientists, to even consider perfectly
legitimate though perhaps premature questions
such as that of the existence of free will.
Note also that well-formedness, though desirable, is not
enough to justify the
expense involved in a state of the art experiment or
expedition. People will try to find funding for such
operations only if they are strongly motivated to
work on the underlying problems. Besides, such
motivation will depend on the originality of the
problem, and the theoretical or practical utility
of its solution. This remarks prompts us to add
that, other things being equal, in science one
should always prefer to wrestle with the more
original and promising problems.
The justification of the originality clause is that the
result of one’s research should enrich the extant
knowledge instead of just confirming it. And the
promissority clause underlies the requirement that the
output of any scientific effort should be worth at least as
much as its input.
1.8 Problematics
201292182019
nullusinverbasit.com/texto-argumentatvolinvarse-problams-capltulc-1-the-concepl-ot-- problem foclid=IWARZHLgt Rk. 21FASAYAVE-QIBAS.
Inverse problems. Capitulo 1 THE CONCEPT OF A PROBLEM | Nulus in vera site
The problematics of a field is the set of ideas and
procedures that, far from being above criticism, raise
problems worth being investigated. The degree of
maturity of a discipline may be estimated by the state of
its problematics. A discipline with more problems than
achivements is immature, while one without problems is
either embryonic or already spent. For example,
accounting hardly raises any research problems,
while quantum physics keeps sparking off
interesting controversies. A practical spinoff of
the preceding is this: those who need a
voluminous c.v. to get or keep a job should work
on unproblematic subjects, while those who look
for intellectual stimulation should work on
problematic subjects.
(__we gusta 152) [compartc]
2 Comentarios
2n9

- La Vivencia en VygotskyCargado porFrancees Farmer
- ¿Qué es la técnica CRISPR/Cas9?Cargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Memorias de un cuadriláteroCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- La relación funcional entre pensamiento y emoción - Rivadeneira, Minici & DahabCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Piaget y VygotskyCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Efecto Doctor Fox en el lenguajeCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- 10 sesgos cognitivos y como evitarlosCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Transhumanismo neuroética y persona humanaCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Co-construcción de Un Individuo en Relación a Su Consumo de DrogasCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Terapia de Solución de Problemas (Síntesis)Cargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Estadística aplicada en Psicología y Ciencias de la salud, ed. 1 - Fabiola González Betanzos.pdfCargado porRohnal Rada
- Chi CuadradaCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Desensibilización SistemáticaCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Diseño de Intervención en una Terapia Psicológica (Síntesis)Cargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Desarrollo-estadistico-NomophobiaCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- ¿Conocimiento Fenoménico sin Conceptos Fenoménicos? Sobre la Teoría de los Punteros Mentales de Jesse PrinzCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- 16. Problemas de Aprendizaje y Bajo Rendimiento Escolar. Intervención, prevención y desprofesionalización.docxCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- 13. Problemas de Aprendizaje y Bajo Rendimiento Escolar. Definición y Causas - copia.docxCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Lorenzano Filosofia de La CienciaCargado porrpmjc
- Activación ConductualCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Técnicas de Modelado y Entrenamiento en Habilidades SocialesCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Técnicas de Autocontrol dentro de la Terapia Psicológica (Síntesis)Cargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- 6. Tecnicas Operantes.docxCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Deficiencias Sensoriales Visuales: Definición y CausasCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Siete Teorias de La Naturaleza Humana - Leslie StevensonCargado pormortymorte
- Memoria a Corto Plazo en Adultos Mayores Con y Sin Actividad Física o MentalCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga
- Análisis FuncionalCargado porEmiliano Zuñiga

## Mucho más que documentos.

Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales.

Cancele en cualquier momento.