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nn nneareaepnnone 7 | A COURSE IN RADIO FUNDAMENTAIS Study Assignments, Experiments and Examination Questions BASED ON Tae Rapio AmaTEeur’s HaxpBook By GEORGE GRAMMER Technical Director, ARRL. and Technical Editor, OST PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN RADIO RE WEST HARTFORD, CON. 1946 LEAGUE, INC. CUT, U.S.A, Bprbnrrtnmanaasarbaaha bahar han. k PA WLP Daa Pod iL DVL HL ak ay aya bi wn navi viii Adee ee cel eet ged ek pagel cet get dull este ete etek apukt rterentmtebinmoinnomsonnnany snes amniaisnsinamaaiy i i i « CONTENTS «} he Introdu 5 PARE ONE: Electricity and Magnetism 7 Pant Two Ohm's Law for D.C. and A.C. 15 PART THREE Resonant Circuits 27 PART FOUR Vacuum-Tube Fundamentals 39 PARU FIVE Radio-Frequency Power Generation 52 PART SIX Modulation 62 PARY SEVEN Receivers 75 PAR? EIGHT Antennas OL Answers 99 Course Outline 2 102 Introduction Tie content of @ course of study in a {echnieal subject must be determined bythe ob- jectives to be realized, The radio amsteur of Deacetime has always been noted for his ability to secure reslt, in the way of effective commie nication, far beyond what Tight retsonubly bo ‘expected from the equipmaont he we, This peace teal “Eno ow” aw not, howere, vars been Accompanied by an equivalent understanding of underlying principles. In a tine when technical Knowledgo is an invaluable areet both ta, the individual aud the nation i e only natural that those who already have some skill {a the art of ‘radio eommuniention should wish to eupplenset that shill with & foundation of theoretical know le edge — realizing that a good technician becomes better one by knowing the “why” as well as the “how.” Our abjective in preparing this course, therefore, was to eccent, for the araateus, those priniplee moct frequently applicd in actual aio commiuieation, ‘This volume isa study guide, examination book. and laboratory manual, The basic text is The Radio. Amatew's Handbook, Chapters Two to ‘Ten, inclusive, in the 1942 and subsequent edi- tions. Hither the standard edition or the special dition for war training purposes may be used ‘equally wellsin both editions the identical seston, ‘numbers are used for the samo subject atte, Tn the eourse, the Handbook material ia divided into thirty-six study assignments; each assignment should represent approximately @ week's work, fon the assumption that six to eight hon willbe ‘available. Cortain assignments may eal for more ‘me and others for lass; those which ave no e= ‘companying experiments obviously ean be ot plted mote rapidly than thove whieh have arene iderablo amount of experimental work, ‘With feach assignment there is series of questions designed to bring out the important points in the text, Problems of w nuqwerical nature are inlet wherever posible, with answers given a¢ the end the book; in few eases where more than toi ine methods are required, the complete solution, is given. Also accompanying each sasignment, when feasiblo, are one or more experiments of & rstuce which, we boliove, will not only iusteate the principles being studied but willin many eases throw additional light on the subject under oon contained in the Hndboot is frequently contained in the descriptions of the experinenta, AAs a home-sturly course, thia materiel was pre- pared principally for radio wnatadrs who hawe ale ready had some practical experience in Inilding and operating radio apparatus, This experience probably essential for the construction of the ‘various pieces of equipment uced. In view of ich prestraininga number of elementary experiments, fue as the constriction of simple oeillatars ad receivers, have not bean included in the series, The desirability of such experiments for clases hich have had no previous radio experience pointed out at appropriate points inthe text, Experiments and Apparatus ‘An important part of any technical course of stauiy is experimental work. Outlining a suitable Series of experiments for the home worker is ale vwayaa problem of ennsderabledilculty, because the cost of the equipment necesarily must be eept lo a ranimaura, To that mast be added the fact that very litle laboratory apparatus of any kind is presently availabla, even when cost ie uo consideration. Insofar aa possble, thesefore, the spparatus used in tho experiments deserbed herein uses component which eau be found in the ‘average amateur station or whieh ean be slaged from dicearded brondeast receivers While this inevitably puts some limitation on the seope of the experimental work, it is not. question of choice but of necesity, a nesesity which fre- quently now ‘faces those ondueting Torta courses at wal a those stdying at home ‘Tho experimonte outlined sll have actually Den performed with the equipment. recom ‘mendel, with the results given in the deseription of each experiment. ‘hee deserptions are for the most part fully detailed, with emphasie on tho store whe tend to eave departures foun the theoretically idea! conditions anh asa conse ‘quence, frequently confi the student who i working without the benoit of perwonal inst tinn, Te will be appacent to anyone familie with the subjoct that many ob iowiy desirable experi= ‘ments have liad to be omitted beewsse of une ‘avoidable limitations of equipment, Our purpose hore s Wo do as much as posible with as Title as posible; in formal courses, where more elaborate Iaboratory apparstus may be avaiable, th devise ing of suitable experiments utilizing i can safely be left to the individual instructor. ‘The coustruction of the various pieose of ex- perimental gear is described as the eed for it arises inthe course. Simple breadboantstyle ‘construction is used Uhrongho, sine itis eo= hoinieal and convenient, but mote elaborate and durable construction may be desirable for eqip- ment which is to have a great deal of use, In ‘addition to these units i will be necessary to have atleast ono ruuti-pnrpene test instrament of the voll-obnm-milliammeter type. All of the expect iments have been planned on the basis of wing only one suck instrument, lit the work. will be facilitated considerably if voltmeters and mile lisnometers of various ages are availabe so that readings of several quantities ean taken sm taneously. Another necessary adjunct is com- unieations-type receiver, of any make or model ‘0 Jong ax itis provided with the frequency elie bration whieh is usually w feature of thew seta A number of mivellanoous sinall parte Eval fondonsers and resistors, chiefly also will be needed. Thoy are specified with eaeh expesinent ‘as required, Tome Study lone usually are inclined to ‘than circumstances warrant, 1, to slight ‘Those study move more rapid ‘There is frequently tendency those points about whieh the stident already feels Himself firiy well informod. This a mistake to do either; the only sure way is to omit nothing and Lo pay as mich attontion to seemingly sisple ‘material ns though the work were being done in formal clas, It is recommended that the set of questions ‘accompanying each avignmnent. be treated. a though it mene a classroom examination, a that the snswers be uitien just as though the paper were going to be marked by an instructor. Alter ansrering all questions as completely as possible, the answers should be eompared with the Hand. ook text for errors asl omeions, Thisis the only practicable way to check what has been learned, and the whole process promotes the clear think ig which is 0 eteental when there is no instrue. tor at lind to eriticize and correct. Reducing statement to writing spotlight thowe points bout which there is uncertainty, and fore the aden to forrnilaa his ideas in tel a way that oubt about what is meant is reduced to min sum. To say“ kuow the answer but. ean't ex: pes it" is simply confession thatthe ansver i ‘ot known, Continual seleriticism isan essential Ingredient of snecesful home study, ‘Observations taken inthe eourse af the experi ‘montal work should be recorded in a. notebook kept especially for the purpose. The laboratory notebook should be kept as carefully and neatly 8s would bo required in a regular clas and the ‘servations should bo a5 complete and detailed 8 possible. I¢ wil be help, to, to inlade with the data a waitten explanation of the phenomena, observed and the reals rarured, including ea. sons why (when necessary) there is a diference between experiment and theory. Such written notes are invaluable as a means of fixing the prin ple al prnetieefrmiy-in mit, Should thes vot matter under study suggest furtier expert ‘montal pasties within the seope ofthe equips iment, the exploration of such posites eannot help but be beneficial if the work is eared out in ‘A methodieal way’ and an temp is made to pro: Vie a logical interpretation of the rests, This posible to learn, and learn thoroughly, at home by adopting ae preserving the attitude of serioumese toward the work which i deserve Part One ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM ‘The tundamental facts of electricity and ‘magnetism form the foundation upon which the whole structure of electrical eotaminication rests ‘The comneetion between such things as frictional dloctrcity anda ratio cireuit may frequently seem somewhat obscure, but. the eoneepts of ‘cargo and field are basic in both, ‘Many of the essential ideas ean be demon= strated by experiments using apparatus con structed from odds and ends of metal and wood, ‘There is no better way to grasp the principles involved ‘than to perform sich experiments, simple though they are. ASSIGNMENT 1 Study Handbook Seotions 2-2 and 2-3, Perform Exp. Nos I, 2and 3, Questions 2) Whatis meant by the electrostatic fold, and how ie ita strength decribed? 2) Defi eapacity. 3) From See. 2-8 and the remerks under B= periments 2nd 8, in what way would you expest the following factors to affect the capacity of & condenser? Give the reason in each eave: 8) area of plates; 1) separation between plates; ¢) dieleteio material between pites; 4) number of plates, when the condenser contint of ast of interleaved plates with llvernate ones cormected together 4) What ie meant by the resstanen of eam ductor? '5). What athe nature ofthe fore slecteostatic charges if 8) both are positiv ) one is pasitive and one is negatives ©) both are negative 6) What isthe meaning of potential difference? 17) Name five conductors and five insulators, 8) What is the fundamental particle of elee- weieity? ') What is the nature of paitive and negative slectrie charges? 10) Name the units for each of the following, siving a suitable definition in ear case 2) ediference of potential; b) quantity of elctecty; ©) capacity; 4) electromotive fore, 11) Explain fa) how an insulated conductor can be charged by contact with « charged body (b) how sueh a conductor can be charged by Induction, 12) Ts capacity necesarly sociated only with condenser? ASSIGNMENT 2 Study Handbook Section 2-4 Quentions 1) What is meant by an electric current? 2) How does conduction take place in metalat 3) Deseribe briefly the fundamental diference between the two general types of butteies a8 ‘xamplifed by the dry cell and the lead storage battery, One type is called @ primary battery oe cal snd the other a secondary battery or vel, Which torm do you believe should be applied to which type? 4) Whet ie meant by ionization? 5) Name four typ of eleotrial conduction. 8) Tow can current flow be established ina 7) Wht is the convent rection of eurront flow? 8) Tn metal the ow of current is proportional to the applied electromotive fore. fe this same proportionality true of eurrent lowing in ms? Would you expect it to be tren a vate, when the eurrent ie formed of electrons ented by hot cathode? 1) What is the unit of eloctric eurrent? ASSIGNMENT 3 Stuy Handhook Section 2-5 and perform Exp. Noe. 4, 5 and 6. mn with respect to die Questions 1) Deseribe selfnduction, 2 he lar af aves ating beter rg tetio poles are similar to those govern Iotwornleetrortatealy-sharget bodies Whaty then, will be the nature of the foree between: 's) 8 north ple and south poles 3) two north poles; 6) tio south poles Fig t 8) Caleuate, from the diameter of eack el and the length of wire, the approximate number fof tums on each winding of the eleetrommgnt ted in Exp. 4, Using fit one battery and ten the to in serie, measure the eorrespomding r= rents through Coil I alone, Coil? alone, and Calls and 2 conncetod in series as described inthe ox- periment. Calenate the ampere tras for each of the ax eases, Which of the sx should show the strongest magnetie effet? Chock exjerimentally. '4) Using the equipment of Exp. 4, connect the toro coils in scree as deseribad in the experiment fan apply the 3 volts from the battery. Obwerve the maguetizing effect by the sttraction for 4 piece of soft ison, Diceonnect the two ents and onnoet the to “starting” ends of the windings tgether, applying the battery to the other tro ends, How does the mageetizng elect now ent. pare with the original strength? Dxplain why there ie a difference, '3) Under what conditions ean a voltage be in duced in @ conductor? 8) Ts inductance necessarily associated only sith sree wound i a eal? 7) How is the intensity of o maguotie feld Aleseribed? '8) Name the various units of inductance, and Leseribe thee relationship. 9) What is moont by the term permeability? 10) What factors determine the inductance of coil? 1) What is the dieetion of low of an induced current compared to the dieetion of flow of the ‘erent causing the iealtion? Ai Course in 12) Whew the eurrenttheongh a ex it beoken, Js the induced voltage larger or staller than the Voltage induced when the eurrent is started? Why? 18) Tow is an unmagnotized pices of icon at tracted by a magnet? 14) Upon win factors does the strength ofthe ‘magnetio field sat up about an electromagnet peo Electrostatic Induction Apparatus: This expercaent requires only very simple equipment: a few bits of metal fil, a Titi thread (preferably ail, which i better ine sulator than cotton), a cliloid comb, and a pce of fell on whiel to fub the comb to work up an Cleetrcal charge by friction. Many matarials ean be eubstttet fr the cellloid and felt; hard rub ber (a fountain pen or comb) or glass rods will do very well in place of the celluloid, for instance, and wool loth in place of the felt Tt ie convenient to have a simple mounting for the suspeaded pieces of foi, as shown in Fig. 1 (The same mounting ean be use forthe subse. ‘quent experiment.) A wooden hase about 308 nches will be adequate-"The support is «piece of 1'X'l wood faatened to the base at an angie of bout 0 degrees. A stand-f insulator is mounted horizontally at the top of the support, and the thea holding the fol pores are held tinder the top sere of the insulator. The nsdlstion should be ns good as posible, sineo even alittle leakage will greatly affect the way in whieh the apparattx "espns in the experiment. The insulator should boo kept clean and dry, aa should also the threads ‘and the wooden support. In humid weather it nay’ be almoet impossible to build up esufiient charge or lo netain it for any length of time, ‘The foil picees should be about 24 14 inch Jn size, and should be quite thin. The lighter the ‘weight the better, o aluminum fil fe to be pre {erved to tin o lead foil, Although thin aluminum foil i still to be found on some kinds of eandy probably the best saree is an od tubular paper by-pass condenser (a blown-out unit will provide plenty of fol). Cut two piccee to size, smooth {hen out, punch a hole with a needle at one end, and tie on length of thread, A soven-ineh length J about right, When mounting the fil pices, :mako sure that both hang at the eame height. Procedure: Only oue fol pvge is required for tho first stap in the experiment. The other may be hug over the wooden support to keep it out of the way. Rub the comb brisly on the felt and bring it near the eurpended fol, AB-the comb is brought nearer the fol will be altrcted and wi ‘anpfuneh the comb edge on, ILiL i allowed ta ch {toxch the comb ot $a approach near enough fora pack to jump, i wil immediately be repelled by RADIO FUNDAMENTALS the comb, and ill eontinue tobe replied 30 Jong “The explanetion for this is follows: When the Irom the latter and thus_becomer-negatively “charged When brought tear the foil so that the latter isin the eloetzaetaie fed ofthe comb, free lectrons on the fol are repllod by the field and ‘ollecton the ensl of the foil fasthest fun -the fom, Theil turns edge on eeause the foroes ‘ating tend to keop the eolletinn of elestrons a= far from the comb a5 posible, The movement of “lectrous on foi sway from the comb ese the far side of the fil to be netvely charged ‘nd siuce the foil is insulated and no nev elec ‘ons oan sntor i here sa deficiency of el tions on the edge nearest the gob, Thus the near is positively charged, and since this charge ia SER rie ie ae oo ten “us aden is attracted tothe comb, The positively ‘changed end, being nearest the comb, is in a Stronger part ofthe comb'sfeld than the far edge, Inence the force of attraction is gceater than the te ‘ ‘toward the eum, ‘When the fl tous hn comb or somes neat ‘eaought for-a park. harge on the con is imparted tothe fl, That is, soma of the execas electrons on the cam fom in the foil so thatthe latter then has an excess of electrons. fine bath eouab anil fil now have the sane kind ‘of charge The charges on both will gradually Yale fff with time, or they may be discharged inten tionally by touching them with » grounded con ductor or semi-eondhictor. A touch with the fier 4s usualy sufficient, snes tho human body i large ‘euough to accommodate the exeess electrons on the charged objects, and hus enough conduetivity to allow the charge to be dissipated instantly, ‘Besides the contact methor of ebarging the foil just deseribed, a charge fand generally sionger fn) may alka be imparted to the foil puscly bY induction. Touch the-ncharyt fail with the and the hand, Use th to bold the fol that it “connot move when the charges eombis-benuehh, Cnearit: Under these conditions the repelled cess ‘ona wll ow dow ‘rons wil ow down the wire o the busy leaving, tivo ehurgo on the foil. Now take. away the “Sl and as icy as pone (ot ar te wie is removed) move the comb away fro the fol so that the Tatler cannot touch it. Removing the a ‘charge, and siner the foil it then charged oppa- ‘ely ta the comb, thanx atenct ench-othee. “Should they touch, the foil will again be charged. by contact and repulsion will oocur, ‘Thus chang br t z sus upon th sae eukage ox Use eo, and Sedans s god melt bead ‘umber of elesttona-can faint the fl. When Shating by induction the field sony the a. ‘lechron_mavement on the comb isnot sen ial, Heneo 7 stronger charge by induction than by contact these evndidins, particularly when the area of the conductor tobe eargad ix appreciable ‘ompared to that ofthe comb (or other insulator) ‘which has the original care. Now let both pieoes of foil hang fry and boing the eharged comb in the wisnity. Observe the sequence of happenings. Bxplain. ‘Give both pieoes of fol the same Kind of charge so they repel cach other. Write an explanation for ‘what is observed to happen, EXPERIMENT 2 Capacity Apparatus: The equipment snd setup for this experiment are shown in Fig. 2. The stand used in Exp. 1 supports & 5- of finch lengeh of Sill copper ize (No. 12 of 14) to the lower cud of ‘which has been soldered a sal piece of very fine bare wire (No. 38 if available) rounded in th form of a hook. ‘Two tangular pieoes of thi aluminum fil about 36 ach om aside hang on the Hhook. ‘The holes throught whieh the hook passes fam be punched through the foil with a needle, ‘and should be as ele a8 posible to one apex of the triangle. The two “eaves” should be free to move on the hook without interfering with mach other. This forms a simple eletroneape, of nstrae rent for measuring the intensity of charge ‘Ona bivek of wood about 4 x Binches mount a flat metal plate 244 X 314 inches, using two stand-off intutors a8 supports, "This pate suust be well insulated from the wooden base, Attach a Tength of wire to the plate. Procedure: First thargo the elostroseope as strongly as possible by induction, using the proce- dure outlined in Exp. 1. The best charge can be ‘obtained by holding tho charged comb lose to ‘anal lengthwise with the wire support so that the ‘wireisin the strongest posible eld. On removing ‘the grounding wire nnd comb, the two leaves should spring apart. Since the tops of the leaves fare not free to move very far, the leaves wil take the position of an ioverted Vs with a good ebarge the angle of the V should be sbout 90 degrees, ‘Now take the wire from the insulated plate and, Ibandling it with an inmilated od (the comb will ferve), touch Ikon the wire suppose for the leaves: The leaves wil drop toward each other, bat will not completely lose their charge. Now re- rove the wire and the leaves wil not chauge ‘heir postion. ‘The wire from the plate may be ‘twuched on the eleetroscope agin bu the position of the leaves will not chunge, With the wire off discharge the electroscope with the Gnger, then touch the wire from the plate to the wine support gain. The leaves will once mote repel each sther bbutto alesse extent tan in either of the previo tro eases, Tn the fist casos certain quantity of electricity is placed on the clectroseope, the intensity or potential being indintod by the extent to whieh the leaves repel each other. On connecting the plate to the electroseope some of the cage tows Into tho plate, distributing Heel over the surface of the plate te well se over the surfave of the tloctroscope. Although the total quantity of elec icity involved remains the sain, the intensity ‘oF potential i lowered, as indiested by lesser roe pulion between the electroseope leaves, becatse itis now spread over a larger area, The quantity of electricity distributes itself a0 that the mole system has the same potential (or voltage), +0 that reconnecting the plate wire after once re- moving it causes no further redistribution of charge} both the eleetroscope and the plate are then at the same potential and hence current will ‘ot flow from either one to the other, With the wire temaved and the electroseope ischarged, the plate ie left_with its acquired charge. On connecting the wire once more, some of the eleoricity on the plate fows back into the electroscope, recharging it — but this time at a Tower potential beeause there is less eletrieity rvailable than formerly, that part which was A Course in Arained off the electron scope by discharging it how having disap- peared, The conchision to be drawn from this exper tent thattheeyetem with tho. larger" sur: face — hy the electro seope and plate eon wected togather aa tsmpared tthe ele frowenpe. alone — will have a lower potential, fora given quantity of electtcity, than that wvith the ‘smaller su Tice ie, the eloctro- scope alone "The ratio otquantity to potential scaled the expt af the systoun tat 9 one where Cis capacity, @ ‘quantity ond poten tial Ta penetical unite Cisexpresesin frais, @ in eoulombs, and in volts A given quantity of elstricty on a high capacity conductor will give a smaller potential {an these quantity on a low-capacily eondut= tar. Orif two conductor of dierent capacities are charge to the same potential, the one with the highsr capacity wil take the lager quantity of elactrity. Under these conditions the quantity ofthe charge, or amount of electricity stored, wil bo uiretly proportional to the capacity of the conductor. ‘Asa vatiation, the insulated metal plate alone say be cling arid then connected to the ele troscope. The leaves wil spring apart the extent ofthe repulsion being an indication of the potea tial ofthe pate EXPERIMENT 3 Condensers Apparatus: The same equipment is needed as in Bxp. 2, withthe addition of 2 X 3 inch metal plate mounted fit on one end of a pese of wood 2 Inches wide and 8 or 8 inches long. Add a wooden shim if necessary, so that when the sesond plate slid under the fst, ax shows i Fig. the two plates willbe separated ly about 34 teh, Attach 8 length of wire to the plate. Provide a pees of lean glass shout 2 > inches in sae, Ordinary ‘windov glare i mtisfactory. Procedure: Connect the insulated xed metal plate to the electroseope and charge the system by Induction. Connect the ‘wire from the mobic RADIO FUNDAMENTALS plate to ground. (In many cases an actual ground ‘will not be necessary becauee there will be suf ‘ent leakage through the woud to give the sare effect.) Slide the movable plate under the fixed plate, being cureful to get no metal-to-metal cou fect, which will discharge the system. ‘The lec- trostope leaves will drop toward cach other. aise the movable plate until i is as close as pos: sible to the fixed plate, taking care not to touch tho latter and discharge it. The eloeer the two are to-ench other, the mare the cleetrmeone leave will drop. Finally, take away the movable plate ‘and the leaves will move apart to their original position, ‘The fact that the clectrossope leaves indicate a lower potential whew the inovable plate is in- serted shows that the espacity ofthe syste hus been increased (= Q/C) since none of the stored clectiety ean have eseaped froin the sy tam. Since the eatse of the lowered potential is the presence of the second plate near the first, the ‘prorplate arrangement. evidently has larger cae pacity than one plate alone, Such a combination Trealled a condenser, The further decrease in potential which results when the separation be- ‘ween the Leo pistes is eerewsed shores that the ity of the condensorinerensos asthe plates ‘Seiichi cine Larther The denree th poe tential is the result-of tho Tuet that the seed _plate becomes charged by induction, aud suse the charge is oppate tn polity to that an the fixed plate, the cleetromtatie field fromthe indueod ‘hargo loners the potential at the fixed nate, The ‘effort is more warhead when the two plates ae tote together Ieeaine the fields became-maee ‘early equal in intensity tnder these conditions ‘When the movable plat is taken out, the poten- tial ofthe xed plate returns to its original vale, since the opposing fi is no longer preset. The lectroseope leaves therefore setura to theit frginal positions ‘Now charge tho fixed plate and eloctroscope ‘ones more anc insur the movable plate Slide the piece of glass betwen the ro plates, Phe electro cope leaves will drop still more 11 its cunscit_ with air_dielestrio. all dimensions, emaicing the samo, iellod the spec inductee fenpacity of the dilestrie or, move frequently (in the prsctieal system of Units), the dilodric const EXPERIMENT 4 Electromagnetism Apparatus: his experiment requires the ap- pratt shown in Fig 3. A homemade electromag dot having two sending: is needed, arrange with ‘removable vore, ‘Tho cone should be soft iron, sylindrical and abn 34 inches long. A suitable fon ean be tale fom x Seiaeh diameter bolt having an unthreaded section of the required Ny ‘off the head and threaded pore tion, Procure or make a eardboaed tube of the fame lengths the wore ad having an inside ‘diameter sch that the core wil St in i fanly nly, but loose enough s0 that the core ean feualy be sid in aad out, Cut oat yore of Chin ‘wood of masonite and dill them to ft over the eds a mountings, a shown in ig. 3, Then wind fn about 100 feet of No, 28 enamel wire, loav- ing ends for terminaly, cover the winding with tape or paper, and put on a second winding of bout 200 fect of wire of the same sie, Wind both, ‘iin the samme direction (hse same divestion fof rotation in winding; the layers can travel buck fac forth along the coil) and Inbel the terminals so that the “start” and “finish” ends re readily identifiable, ‘The wite should be wound taely evenly, but perfret layers are not at all estential, ‘Considarsble time an effort can be saved by ti ing and drill for the wining, monting the dil in a veo and running & bolt of appropriate + sine through the cardboard the and into. the ‘elk #0 that the tube will Gun when the dell haaulle is turned, A small poo of wood with Four machine rerew terminals moninted on it makes & suitable bate for the col ‘Current ean be furnished by a pait of ordinary ‘dry cols connected in series. The eurrent-measur- ‘when the gli partially replaces the air between the plates, indicating that the potential is lowered more ‘with glase han it ia with air. The presence of the glass therefore has nereased the capacity of the con denser, Evidently there isles drop Inelectrostati ekdsteength thong lass than through air, since the -Eapacty canbe increased only by Towering the potential, id inserting the glas ins the same effect ax mors ‘ne-the plates loser towel her- when, he medium between them is Simoly per malta Us {ne andthe ratio of the-condensur ‘apucety with» given dilectie bo Pins inginstrument ean be 80-500 miliammeter or a icrange test eet of the general type shown in photograph. A permanent magnet, either bat ‘or horseshoe, should be provided. Procedure: Connect one wire from the battery to the suuler ool (Coil No, 1) nd insert the iron core inthe eo, Hold one end of the permanent Iagnet, rar the core, close enough to fel the ‘ugnetie pull but not lose enough to make core pioes move. Now touch the other batery Wire to the ronining terminal of the rol. The Permanent magret wil be either attracted or te- polled, depending upon the polarity. Repeat, holing’'the other end of the magnet near the core, Ifthe magnet was repelied inthe first place, it will now be attracted, and view versa. Using either end of the magnet, note whether attenction fr repulsion takes place when current, flows through the coi, Now present the same end ofthe smngnet tothe other end of the core. The nppoite effet will take place st opposite ends of the core ‘ith the same rmuznet pole. Note that when the ‘eurent is ext of these effects ditappenr ad that either cul of the core will be attracted equally ‘wel by either eu of the magnet, the sume effects ean be vbserved by gong through the same procecire with a permanest bar magnet substituted for the coil and softiron ‘ore it isevident thatthe current Mosting thigh the coil males the coil and core equivalent to a bar magnet. That is the current has caused & imaguetie field to beset np, Some ofthe properties of electromagnetism eat he demonstrated by eon tinuing the expmriment as follows: Connect ona dry ell, the emailer coil (Coil No 1) and the test set in cries, electing the proper current seale on the latter to read the current the circuit (the 500-ma, seale, oF nearest to that value, will bo suitable). Taser the fou ore in the oil Note the current and bring piece of soft iron (the remainder of the bolt will do) near the core, When the izon is bronght close f wl be at tracted tothe eore, Opn the eizeuit and the iron is no longer attracted. (If any atersetion til ‘exists, the bolt probabiy is steel instead af soft ‘ron and has retined tome of the magnetisa i~ parted to it when attracted to the core, This property is called magnetie retentvity, and since it tends to obscure the principles involved in these experiments, soft iron, which has Tittle or no retentivity, isto be prefered.) Now uso the two calls in eeves, which should double the current, proximately, and repeat, The attraction wil ba noticeably stronger, Connect tiie ‘two coils in series, running a rine from the “nish” terminal of Coil to the ‘of Coil 2, and connect the dey ‘tories with the emai ter ‘inal, Again bring the iron near the care and note the attraction. Compare this attraction With that which oeeurs wheu Col 1 alone ie used ‘with asingle dry col, A Course in "The iron is attracted for reasons siealar to those given to explain the attrnction ofan elee- ‘tically’ charged body for one without. charge (Exp. 1) In the moleular theory af “ina pigee of iron showing no magnetism, are a ‘imed to be in random positions ‘whole thei individual feds ro far as Tima ecco one neck ene ‘of ion is bronght near a magnet, the moleeilae tend to align thomselves so that they ie parallel “ste lines of forse Tthnfli-sSnom-an_7 pole, the S pois of the molectlee wil tury tenn the magnet and the N-iwes-ancay [rm i unlike poles attract and like poles pel. Hence ‘the iron becomes a magnet isl, with its pole {inthis example) facing the Np soar of the eld, ‘The two mugrete therefore attract each -othes, and if the field is sigong-enough and-at svll be pull ‘The sume mechanism ex- plant how the iron core. becomes magnetized ‘under tho nuene.of the magnetic fl satap by the enerent flowing. thraueh. the enil. (The coil iteolf il att ‘curout through it large enough. With the ap- paratus desenbed the Geld without the core ie th ‘ewes an tel ayaa atthe ia psa f fon abe atte bat eee “Ulver be cary alzrvel tatty ola be mot l ‘Th foc of tration naturaly greater the suongt te Tel, howe gaa se ee ‘tou hens fon ete cod pr tho experiment by increasing the battery voltage spate ‘the number of tums is shown by connecting. the Inna Athol he een tough theo nse wih 3 vl apied eg ta than te eurent trough Gt wits dt fisdy cal tiestuntonWnoverticesaeoger fren he ‘ain't freer map ftps deat geal SetTab meine ec ‘ld strength wl br proportion te the suet Jsragvan umber of ume and ponptna t fore gi i ‘ums forgiven eurmat This dual proportional: ity ean be combined in the single expresion anpereturns, or product of amperes through the ol times number of turns in it. The nmber of ing for EXPERIMENT 5 Electromagnetic Induction Apparates: Same ain Bp. 4, withthe excep tion that the permanent magnet is not needed, Set the soalo of tho tost eet to us the instrument as 8 milliammeter having @ mexinuumn deflection ‘f 1 milligmpero (or the nearest ange to 1 ts. provided on the particular test set rire), Procedure: With the vore ont of the magnet assembly, connect the muliammacter across the terminals of the larger eoll (No, 2). Connect ane ‘of the battery to one terminal of the smaller coil (No, 1). Connect a wire to the ofher se of {he battory and touch ia free end to the rena ng terminal of Coll 1, When the eontect is made the milliaznmeter needle will sow e sinall irstan taneous defection but will quickly return to the zoo position. Now remove tho wire Irom the ter- ‘inal and the noedle wll deflect in the opposite ireetion, agin returning quickly to zero. Tho deflections probebly will be quite simall — less ‘than O4 miliampere. Repeat the experimen with only one dry eal intend of two, when it be found that the deflections ar of the ame tye, but smaller. Note the direction of the defleetio on mating contact and if it not the serve as the normal direction of needle movement, reverse the tmeler terminals, ‘Now insert the iron core and close the eireuit rough Coil 1, The defletion should be of the order of 0.5 milliarapere. While the circuit till, cloed, reverse the meter terminals: Now ope the circuit and the nevdle will deflect agsin, this time inthe sun direction snee the meter has been re versed. The purpose of reversing the terminals i to avoid a large deficetion inthe diretion oppo site to normal; although this probaly will dono harm to the instrument, the need doesnot travel ‘ery far before hitting the stop aud fequently sill bounce in the opposite dieetion (hat is the wor imal dirertion of motion) giving the impression that the deflection isin the samo direction both on oring and opening the eireuit, That this fa not ‘the ease is eatily demonstrated by reversing the meter terminals while current is still flowing through Coll 1, ‘The observed phenomena can be explained 26 falome: On dosing the dita gnats ld 3h Wil ai el ‘Sine “She cure indicat hy te misma, arent eaa ow only wen there ina wllage pres ‘Sisforeit indy Hiserien teat hee duced in Call2, eventhough there an dest con “ngian-betieen this ail and he batony. When te Sold bonnes steady the mili RADIO FUNDAMENTALS 13 the cireit, the induced voltage must have one polarity when the field is inerensing in intensity, fan the opposite polity when the field is da cress Changing the battery voltage, and hence the Amount of eurrentthrongh Coil, showed thatthe induced voitage depends upou the strength of the. Ignetie fod, sineo the feld it stronger with kreater current, other things being equal. Tn the. dst park ofthe experiment-the eure. emained nine by inserting the ion core, Henes the core ‘ust lve greatly ineroused tho intensity of the field or, stated another way, many aore lines of {for the sue magnetamative fore (epresented by the current ovingin thei). Theratioof the ‘umnberof Fines of ms ipinaghen natal yeeisae ee bor snl mognetifnc fre beng the mon called the permeobilty of tao material, The experi= Sfent denonetes ato has ay tiny tha pevtneslity of air EXPERIMENT 6 Brectromagnetic Induction —(Cont.) Apparatus: Same equip in Exp. 5: Procedure: Repeat Pxp. 5 with tho iron core in the evil Noto the direction of enrront. ow Jn GoilL. (Use the oonventional rection; that i, sssume that the current fe from the postive terminal ofthe hettary through the el and bck to the rogative terminal) Choe the ebrentt and note the uietion of eutrent tow through Coll 2 Remember that the meter indicates normally (pointer detection to the right) wh it, henee current wrially flows from terainal throagh the meter. On opening the eireut the current through Coll 2 reverses, ag howa ly Exp. What is the relationship between direction of current ow i Coll Lal tt in Coil closing the circuit? Trace tho current through the el both having been wound in the same direction, Whats the reationship between the tr currents ‘on opening the ete? On losing the eee the induced eurent towed in the opposite direction to the current in Coil U wile the latter current ‘was increasing from zero to its steady value. On ‘opening the czeuit the eurront in Coil 2 reversed its dizeotion, the eurrent in Coil L now being de- creased from ite maxi value to aero, Thi di retin of to of teindiced cme isch ate -opnose the change in current which caused it, IF creases, the induced current will oppose Uae de- tng, "Thoic same oferta take place in Coil 1-akane, 14 Dut eannot beshown conveniently with simple ap paratus. However, size both enilarein the ame magnetic field i i easy to see that the sane of= feots wou be exhibited in both. sireuit @ curent will be induced in Cuil Lich Hows inthe opposite direction to th : rent ard exists-only-util-the tattery curren ‘easier fe steady Salus. The sceompanving te “duced voltage is maaimunn atthe instant of clos ing the eiruit and ie practically equa = “posite in polarity to the batery voltage Teeanot fexeeed the battery voltage, of course, since higher indueed than applied voltage would mean that electrical energy was boing supplied from the sl to the battery, which is obviously impossible, ‘Tho amplitude of the induced voltage is greatest Zones ich is ‘latencies esos eb i ae ‘Onopening thesireuita vlisgeof apesite pola ity ia induced in the eo, and the current accom Daayiug the invest vitae fos nthe sam dicstion as the baile euro’, Vinder these oon sitions the-nolacity of the indies allage-and fhatof the hattory arn. thesame_sn that the back fonger is presen, Ifthe cecil is broken quickly “the magnetic eld wildisappear very ravdlsand since the amplitude of the induced voltage ie freases with the rapidity of change inthe Tange oti fel, the induted voltage mat be very high Sefoniieis or liesns of tro the beet ‘voltage, The energy inthe fe likenise will have Jo beslissnnted very rapidly, nd istsedlyp in ‘he mpark which accompaniss the bicakius ofthe cfzeuit The monerty of storing eutny ina mane. Detie field on clos ‘Ghar the srait bopenal B siot ieee Stace Tora given current the Reld i stronger — that i, the more energy is stored — with a larger ‘number of turus, as showa in Exp. 4, and also with a core of high permeability, a sown by Esp, th inductance eater the eter the 2 die edn wid ef Set [Peat ke the sae Hel, the valage ine “duced in i wil be proportional to the voltage i ‘ced in Coll 1, to the ratio of its tums to the ‘uns in Coil 1, snd to the proportion ofthe total field set up by Cuil t which baths the turns of Gail 2, Tn the present case the cule are quite close together, henve are practically inthe same Bld, Sitco Coli? hts appronimatey tice the number Cums of Cai the soltages indeed in Coil? 1, These relationships ean be showa ia a qualita- ve way by the "finger test,” even though macas- ‘urement i impossible with this equipment. Dis connect the milliammeter pee two fingers of one hhrel across the terminals nf Coil 2, and elose the buttery citeait through Cail 1. Sine the induoed ‘voltage on "make" i quite smal, the fingers feel no shock, On opening the circuit, however, there {ill bea distinc although quite bn shock, Showing that the induced voltage on" bresk” i ‘Quite high, Repeat with the fingers across the ter als of Coll 1; again nothing will be fel o ‘make,” but small shock will cour on break Since part ofthe energy is dissipated in the spark, ‘may’ ba necessary to moisten the fingers to feel ny’ elfectat all n this eeoond eave. A better indi= ‘ation ean be secured by holding one finger on the {eeminal at which theswitehing done and keep- ing the bottary wire in contact with the same finger while closing and opening the cieuit. The nduced voltage on “break” ie obviously much larger than th battery vitiage, whieh ean give no shock itt, bt snot as lage au i Cail 2, whic has a greater numberof turns, P. ‘art Two Onw’s LAW For D.C. AND A.C. ‘Ts socond part of the course deals ‘aainly with the relationships between current and voltage sthich are included uuder the ete ral heading of Ohm's Law for both diveet nd alternating. eurrenta, The experimental work largely consists in the measurement of typical simple circuits and the comparison of the Meae- lurements with calculations, The experimenter, f histo get the most from his experimental work, should ‘appreciate. the reasons why observed Measurements sometimes lifer considerably from those ealeulated for ideal conditions, A coi, for example, has pot only inductance but re- stanco a Welland the presence ofthe resistance ‘may make the obiorved measurements difer considerably from the values ealeulated on the assumption that only induclance x presents And froqueatly the power consumed in the measuring devico may be of the sume order of magnitude as that in the eireuit being mensured. Resulle wil be affected by inaccuracies in calibration of measuring instuments, and also by Taek of pression in reading the instruments. This latter “human factor" ean be minimized by take ing not one resting but whole series of them for tho given set of operating conditions, then averag- ing the ret of readings to nd a ""mean” which probably willbe nearer the proper value than any fone reading alone. For example, the voltage fcross a cireuit element may be read five dilfer- ‘ent times, with the following reaulte: No. 124.5 valts No2—23 Nog 25.1 No—2e4 Nob 28 Unless some extenuating conditions make # poe- sible to aay without doubt that one or more of these readings is definitely wrong, the average ofthe five —in this example, 246 volts ~ should bo used as the true reading ASSIGNMENT 4 Study Handbook Section 2-6. Perform Bape Tl, ineusive, Questions 1) Write Obm’s Law in the three forms toaolve {for BI, end B when the ather two quantities are known. 2) Define milliampare, mieroampere. 8) A resistance of 30,000 oluus is connected in parallel with one of 25,000 obms. What is the reaultant resistance? “4) An inductance of 10 hontys is connected in series with ono of 15 henrys. What ia the total inductance if the felds of the two inductances do not internet? '3) What i the total inductance if the two in- duclances of Question 4 are connected in parallel? 1) Define time constant, 7) How does a voltmeter differ from a miliam- meter? '8) Write the formulas for power disipated in ade cireuit when any two of the tree quaatities, ‘oltage, current and resistance, are known. 9) What is the unit of power? 10) Cotapage obi and megohm, 11) Three resistances, 5, 1 and 22 obms, are connected in parallel What ie the resulting resst- fance? Tf 6 volte i applied to the combination, What is the total current, the eurtent. throvgh each resistor, and the power disipnted in each? 12) How may a single 0-1 miliammeter be used to measure several ranges of currents and voltages? 13) If & current of 350 microamperes flows ‘through circuit with an applied voltage of 40, ‘hat isthe resistance of the ciruit? 14) What is the time constant of a circuit contistng of a condenser having @ capacity of ‘Fuld. and a resistance of 190,000 ohms? 15) TE two Bald. condensers are connected in ses, what is the resting capacity? 16) In the follosting een, find the current through each resistor aad the voltage across eon 17) Ade. supply of 250 vols is available, and it is desired to: provide voltages of 75 aud 125 16 A Course in volts with respoct to one terminal af the supply bby means of a voltage divider. The exrent drain atthe taps wil be negligible. What unist be the resistance of each seston of the voltage divider ifthe current through the divider isto be liaited 010 milliamperes? 18) A load taking 6 milliamperes is connected across the 75-voltsetion ofthe vollagesivider of Question 17, and a load taking § milliamperes Across the 125-volt section, What will be the fetual value ofthe voltage at eal tp with these Toads? 18) If the curent rough the voltage divider of Question 17s permitted tol 25 ailhampores, calculate the resistance of each scotion. Hf the Toads epecifed in Question 18 are spplicd, wht willbe the actual vottago at each tap tinder Toad? Is the drop in tap voltage with load as grest in ‘this caso as with the 10sniliampere divider? 20) Calculate the power lost the two voltage dividers of Questions 17-19, with snd without ‘the load ezeaita connected 21) If ‘three resistors, 10,000, 40,000 end 12,000 ohins, re available, how ean’ they be connected to give a total revstanea of 241,000, ohms? 22) If the power consumed in a $0,000-chm resistor is 2 watts, what ix the applied voltage? What is the current through the resistor? 28) What are the voltages between the negse ‘and the tap points inthe fllowing e008 oor 24) What is the unit of electrical energy? 25) What factors determine the resistance of @ conductor? ASSIGNMENT & Study Handbook Section 2-7, Questions 1) Define frequency, cycle, alternation 2) What ie hartaonie? 8) What are the teationships between «elo, Kilocycle and meueyele? 4) What is moant by phase? 5) What is meant by the yeak value of an ae, wave sa eb astiv aus What ie ratio ‘to the peak value ina sine wave? 1) What range of frequencies is considered to bb in the audiosroquency spectrum? 8) What is tho phase relationship between eur rout ad voltage in an inductance? 9) What is meant by the term "sine wave"? 10) Whats the average value ofan ae. wave? What is its relationship to the peak value of « 11) White the expression for angular velocity. 12) Ts the eurcent through a capacity leading or lagging the applied. voltage? By how many . 413) What isthe phase rel and voltage ina resistance? 1) A frequoney of 15 mogncycles corresponds tohhow muny eyeles pee sceond? 15) Convert 1060 ke, to megacyeles; cycles, ASSIGNMENT 6 Study Handbook Section 2-8! Perform Exp 12-14, inousive, ionchip of current Questions 1) What is the reactance of « 250eafd, eon Gener at 1 Me? CBS Me? 2) Write Oi's Taw for alternating current flowing through 1 resistance, 3) Find the impedance of a cireuit consisting of 2 afd. condenser in series with a resistance of 80 olin ata frequency of 00 eyeles, 4) What is the impedaneo ut 60 oycles of a Ieald condenser in series with a 12000hm 3) What willbe the currents through the two rouits of Questions 8 and 4 the applied voltage fs 115? In each case, what i8 the voltage neross the resistor and the voltage ners the condenser? What isthe power factor of each circuit? 6) Pinu the reactance of any inductance of 15 liontys at 120 eyeles, Wht willbe the eapacity ‘of a eondensor having the suane reactance at the ume Frequency? 7) An inductanre of 44 tenry and a eapacity ‘f 0.05 fd. are eoneeted in series. What isthe total reactaneo of the eieuit at a frequency of 1000 eyeles? 8) Ifa 200-ohm resistor is connected in series with the inductance and eapacty of Question 7, list isthe impedaace of the eireut? What cure ent il ow if 10 wots is appli to the circuit? What will the enrest be if the condenser is short= éveuited? Jf the inductance ie shortcncuited? 1 the resistor is short-cirenited? Clout the voltage aero the indetane, capacity and ne stance in eth ease, and also dvd the: power factor in ench eas '9) Ts power dimipated in a pure reactance? 10) China de. ilianumeter ba used for meas: ving alternating current? 11) What is sueant by the distributed enpacity of cot 12) Whats the distinotion between theimped ance in an a. erent and the restau fn ade ‘Sevuit? 13) Tf the same current foxes chro au ine dyctanee ated a rapseity in series, what is the Hiince relationship betseen the voltages aerors thean? What wil bo the voltage measured acres the two fn nies? 14) Ti the same wllage fe appt to an induct- ance and enpaity in paralle),what isthe phise Felatiossip betwen the currents Bowing thresh them? Whne wil le the eureent mexaured in the femmon fead hetwsen the source of voltage aid ‘the parallel eon) ination? 18). What ave the reartances of the ehoke coil and fsed condensers used in Exp. 12 and 13? {r= 30 henrys, C= O.1, 025 aud 1 all, f= G0 eyes.) 16) Whats the reactanes of 0.0L eo desert 30 eyeles? Tit fa ia series with a 0.5 tmegohim resistor aeross a vollaye of 15 at the fame feqpieney, what is the voltage across the resistor? What Yullage will apprar asus the re- Fistor the frequency Es L000 cyeles? T7) ASehoinry eke and U00.chm resistor ace connected in series nerors 115 vote, 60 cycles What is the power factor ofthe ezeut? 18) Tn ereuit taining resistaiee ad rect ance, ow ties of the power supplied is disi- pated in the resistance ‘nd how mu, in tho 1) Write the forms for inductive and ae racitive reactance, What unite faust be Used in These formas? 20) Tf you know uly the applied voltage and the eurrontfosing is ao ae eet, iit posible to determine the iaperanee? The poser Sartor? ‘The reastauce and reuctance present RADIO FUNDAMENTALS 17 ASSIGNMENT 7 Study Handbook Section 2-0 Questions 1) Ifthe primary ofa flament transformer do- signed for 115-volt operation has 330 turns, bow ‘many tire soul be wound om We seonulary to tive a terminal voltage of 8.37 2) Assuming that the secondary load on the transformer of Question Tis to operate at unity power factor and that transformer losses are nal! enough to be neglested, what size. wire should he used for the neoondary if the seaundary is to deliver 5 emp. allowing 1000 circular mils per ampere? What cze wire on the primary? '3) TI the transformer of Question 1 is lao to dave a high-voltage secondary to give 350 volts tench side of a center tap (or 700 volte overall, how nacy” turns will be needed on this winding? ‘2 Deserve the operating principles of the transformer '3) The secondary load on a transformer having f Setorlprimary-to-seeondary turn ratio ie 500 Cibmas” What is the impedanee Ieokng into the primary from the eour of power? 6) How does an sutotransformer difer from an ordinary transformer? 7) What ore the relationships between turn uti, voltage ratio, current ratio and impedance Tatic in a trnatormer? ') Lf the impedance looking into transformer primary i 5000 vbine when the sowondary Tod 18-7500 obs, what is the primary-to-secondary turn ratio? ') transformer i delivering a eurent of 10 amperes into a resistance load ats voltage of 10. Tithe transformer ellciney is 85 per cont, what eke hi supp een in Fe The one Sle 3 fi te vties tue o t Bee seinen Eieomers (Gland te flr che a hea the fecdlor nbs fhe wane san tne Répgeon i fee withthe swe biedet eos ey oe These Erecting a thew Seta te ai \ the porbelm pesto tbe lene ttl il svg tha de summon ta dh gr sie ofthe Hing, Whe thin ces, revere the plag 20 sped to the sounded ae of the lige ifthe da supe, thar feimeat ining wed beene the sup- ply wil wu for ia ates eapeieate involving vacua abe 18 power ie taken from the line? Ifthe pre mary voltage is 115, what is the primary current, assuming @ power factor of 1? 10) A teansformer hes a primary-to- secondary turn ratio of 8 to 1. What will De the impedance Ivoking into the primary when ‘the secondary load is existance of 6000 ohms? When the secondary load is 4000 ohms? 12,000 ohms? 200 ohms? 10 ohms? 11) A spenker output transformer is designed to couple a Solin voice eal to a pentode output tbe which requires load of 7000 ohms. What tum ratio is required? If the power delivered to tho weio collin wala, what isthe voltage across ‘the voice coil, the current through it, and the voltage applied to the primary? 12) Can transformers property be specified in terms of primary impedance” when the second? ary lod is not speeificd? 18) Tf the sceondary load on a traneformer hax ‘power farir of 30 per eont, what percentage of the rated powerhanding eapability of th trans omer un be realized? Which is more descriptive the actual capability of the transformer, a “voltsampere"” oF "watt" rating? 4) On dismantling the five-volt. secondary winding of s transformer it i found thatthe trinding has 10 turns. It is desired to pt on 3 Urinding delivering 7.5 volts, how many tors should the winling have? Ifthe ald seconlary was tated at 8-ampors, what current ean be taken From the new winding without overloading the primary? 15) An autotransformer designed for 115-volt ecu has 8 2504 wialing, How many ti ould there bo betwoon one end and a tap whieh is to deliver 80 volt EXPERIMENT 7 Ohm's Law, Voltage Drops Apparatus: A source of dic. voltage variable from toro to about 100 vols is needed for this ex: periment. ‘The circuit shown in Fig, 2 is con ‘enient, since ib provides for continuous adjust iment of the voltage to any value within the range Itisa “transformerless” supply sko adaptable subsequent exper Procedure: The initial adjustment ofthe taps ‘on the power supply output resistor or “bleede," consisting of Hp, fy and 2 in series, Mustrates the prineiple of Ohtn's Lew. Before inaking the permanent conneetion between Ly and the top end of fy, insert the miliarameter between these ‘to points, using the 100-ma. seal (or the wearest wit provided by the instnment used), close Ss and measure the current. Take readings with Be fet ab ero and at maximum, Remove the mil ‘ammeter and make the permanent. connection between Ly and Ms. Now rend the output voltage (across the whole bleeder) at the two settings of << ieee es SSS. tele ‘Geri vith long shank for Lamp — 10eatt lamp. " [a With the constants given readings will be typical: Fig.2, the follow Pere so fm 96 volte 1 xi Rote Feral the voltmeter between the common lead rand point 1, measure the voleage with Re at zoro and maxisuuin, Note the masienua voltage, turn Rto zero and set the frst sider on Ry (point 2) to give the same voltage. Then tura Ry to max- mura, note tho now voltage, turn Ry lo aero and set the second slider (point 3) to thie voltage. With Rat zro, sot the frst slier ony (point 9 to shout 45 volts and the sooond sider (point 6) to about 75 volte. When this i done w typicel tabulation of voltage re ‘The voltages appearing across the iuividual resistances ‘constitute voltage drops between, points of the complote bleedor cieuit, and the um of these voltage drops must equal the total Yoltago applied to the Dicer, since the total ceurreat flows through cach resistor. Thus with Zt fat maximum the drop across it ie 9 volta; the Grop across Re (between points 1 and 4) is 24 volts, and the drop across 1% (points 4 and 7) is G4'volts, The sum of these theee voltages i 97, ‘which is the applied voltage. With Ry at zero, the voltage aeroc ft i 25, and aros= Is, 70, totalling 05, These values can be checked by measurement between the appropriate points, ‘The Bleeder reslatances ate very small ctspared to the volt= ‘meter resistance, s0 that the current. flowing __ RADIO FUNDAMENTALS ‘through the latter {5 small compared to the current through the bleeder and no appreciable terror ie intvndiced by the fact that the voltmeter ‘vent docs not flow through all of the bleed. By Ohm's Law E 1 tnd the values ofthe resistancos oan be eleulated from the observed rrrente aid voltages, Im the ‘ae ofthe total bixaler with Ry nt 20 95 volts | 09 tnd with Ry at masimum Re Re = 1056 otis "The current must be expressed in amperes when ‘eign ohins and Bin volts, hence the milliam- ete readings of the metar must be converted to amperss. ‘Determine the values of the theee resistors separately by the same metivd, using the voltage ‘drops seross each for E in the formula, and the values of current eorexponiing to Rat aero tnd Re at maximum, Thus two sets of voltages find currents are available for checking each to- SSetor, aun if the mneasurements ace eoupletely faeurate the vie of resistance found should be Identical, The chances are that the two values 0 found wil ot be identiol, indicating errora fn readings aucl/or the intraroent ise. If the differences are more than » few potcent, repent the meastreneuts of both current and voltage, taking a series of ubvervations and finding aver- figes, Compare the rill of this method with the rents obtained by the original measurements, Hy a sinilar proces, detormine the resistance betaveen each pir of taps on the voltage divider. Cheek the sum of thew resistances against the total resistance ofthe divider. EXPERIMENT Ohm's Lase, Series-Parallel Resistances Apparatus: Saxe a9 for Exp. 7, with the add jon of three 10-watt resistors, 1000, 2000, and 5000 ohms. ‘The valncs need not be exactly as pocied, but shoul! be of that onder, Procedure: Connvet the resistors a8 thowa in ig. and apply the fll voltage from the power sampply. Meaeure the currents ad voltages” as indiegted. A typical sct of data would be as foe lowes B= 85 volte By = 35 volte BE, = 50 vats 1 ri 1) = 250m. By 98 mm tt ‘The sum of By and Fy should equal B, and the um of Fy and fe should equal /. Within the Hants of error thie is the ease. ‘The equivalent revistance of the 300ahm and 2o00-shin resistors in parallel can be found by ‘Ohm's Law B __s0 volts Bo Toss amp ‘Toe restance ps 1000 oh oF 26 on, the equivalent resistance of the whole erent, Checking by Ohm's Law: 1430 ohms, ‘By ning 0.0848 amp. forthe eurrent, the resst~ lance found wonld be norer 210 olumns, Alterna tively, the radctance of the “IOW-ohm” resistor could be checked by substituting the voltage fetose if and the curent thagh it in Ohm's Laws aE Be oe one BAS ma, ‘which value ade vo 196 gives total resistance (f 2150 olins, The menstved valves ean be eon fidered satisfactory, but the observations proba bly could i improved by taking a seties of thein ful averaging the results. Ty the formu Tor combining resistancos in parallel the resultant rostance of the combina Gon of RO and S00 olime stul be 1 ae t- 2000 * 50m which isin very good agreement with the reeults ‘btained by measurement. = 1420 ohne Fins Rearrange the cireuit so that the 1000- and oncom Fesistors are in parallel and the 5000. ‘ohm resistor i in series. Measure the applied ollage and caleulute the currents and voltages hich should result. Phe step-by-step ealeulation should be eared through as follows 1) Find the ‘equivalent resistance ofthe two parallel resistors; (2) add the equivalent resistance so found to the feries resstanen (5000 ohina) to Rid the total resistance; (3) knowing the applied voltage and the total resistance, use Olas Law to find the ferent flowing: (4) using the eurent so found, teternine the voltage drop acres: the 5000-oha 20 tesietor and across the 2000- and 1000 re- Sstors in parallel; (5) using the voltage drop fcross the! parallel resistors and their known values of fesistance, determine the current ‘hough each resistor hy Ohm's Law. Check the caleated values by measurement. Repeat with the 20Qohm resistor in series and the 3000- an 1000.ohin resistors in prac | scons Esazeon eee ce @) Piet (8) EXPERIMENT 9 Ohm's Law, Voltage Regulation. Apparatus: Sane a8 for Exp. 8, with the addi ton ofthe following fixed resistor: 25,000 ahins, watt; 80,000 obs, 1 watt Procedure: Connect the 25,000- and 50,000- lun resistors in sevies as shown in Fi 4A ans, nsing the appropriate tap on the powersuppi Dleeder, adjust the applied voltage to some vale just slightly Test tian the Tllstale value on tmedinim range of the voitincter. Far example, if the icstrument has a 30-vit scale convenient value will be 25 vote, Then by Ohm's Last Ue current will be 1B. Piva 7 F50 ohne = 0.00098 amp oF 0:38 ‘The voltage drop Hs across the 50,000-obm se ‘stor will be B= BI = 0.000833 x 50,000 = 10.67 volts tnd the drop 2s aero the 25,000-im resistor H = RI = O.0K388 X 25,000 = 8.83 vols, Measure the current, using the lowest current range which docs not tend the pointer off eee tnd then measure the voltage across each re sistor. A typical set of readings for the ease given ‘would be a follow 1 = 030 ma, By 2 U2 volts Ele Sb volts ‘The current reading is approximately the thee retical value and the diseropancy fs ewily- ao ‘eounted for by minor inaccuracies in the instru ‘ment, in the rated values of the resistors, and in taking the resdings, However, the sum of the voltages aeruss te individual resistors i only 16.7 volts, while the neta applied voltage i 25, ‘Thediforeneo is wo great to be caused by nora A Course in ‘The exrlanation ie to be found in the fact that with resistancce of this omer of valve the eurtent Fowsing through the voltmetce qinstitates aa appreriable part uf the total eatrent Bowing ‘hruugh the resistor in cori ith tho meter, Most test instruments have a resistance of 1000, ‘ohms pet volt oa the valtage sarge, which inthe feu of the SO-volt sele used in ubtaining the above data means thst the resistance of the voltmeter i 91,000 ohms, When the meter is conmeeted to measure 2, the 80,000-ohm vor. rotor isin parle with 60,000 ohms so that the rent nove it 4 series parallel arangemetty a8 shown in Tig 2 The seaultant esntanee of the ‘ovo in pagal is 2-—— a io * ia ‘his rent reitance iin sro: with 25,000 he nai the total rcltance #0250 ohne Shing fr the cuvent B_ Bruit re rata "0 amp. oF 0872 ‘The voltage drop acrins the moeter snd 5,000 hm resistor in pavallel is therefore E = RI = 18,150 x O.WSTE = 107 vote ‘This checks within the timit of enor with the Yala’ obtained hy measirement, 112. volte More gecurate relts cout be nevured by de= termining the value nf each r ‘Caleulate the ereuit conditions wlio the volt ‘moter is connected to measre Fa, using the Imethod just given. Repeal the experiment usin diffrent vottaxe seales un the instrument, sljst= ing the applied voltage to an appropriate value teach time, andl compare the dala sith he origina nin, in teem of pevemstage sevistion from the true values. Culelate the siveuit nitions for coach get of data iy the uation aleve — 2PT| A Figs EXPERIMENT 10 '« Lane, F/I Kelationshipa Onn Apparatus: Same equipment used in Exp 7,8end 0. Procedure: Sot Rein the yower supvily at maximum and measure the output yorlages at the vasious taps, Comneet the S0Qbolm resistor 40 RADIO FUNDAMENTALS _ the power-supply output termiusle and take readings of current and voltage at each tap on the bleeder. In taking voltage readings, be sure the resistor circuit i loeed eo thatthe actual voltage tunder load is measured. Pig. 5 shows the method. If two instruments are available simultaneous readings ean be taken, but equally good results fan be soeured with ony one isteunent by sitt- ing from current to voltage ranges. Take similar sets of roadings with the 2000- and. 1000-chm resistors, and alo with the 10-watt lamp. A. typieal set of data ie given wt dhe bottom of the page. The currents aro in milliamperes. ‘Pot the data en obtained on erossscetion paper, as shoven in Fg. 6. It is convenient to use Falfinch blocks for 20-volt and 10-niliznipere intervals, Draw a smooth Bne through each et of points. Not all tho poiuts wil ie esactly on the Hing 20 drawn, beeduce of slight inaccuracies in measurement, 49 ib is necessary to “average” ‘out the results. Tt a single measurornent is pros, the point obtained from it willie well onb of ine ‘with the other points, showing instantly dhe Something is rong. Such a point shld be re= ‘heckod by measurement Tr the case of the three resistors, it e obvious ght live ean be drawn throng the tn such a resistor the ratio between current and ‘voltage is fixed, within the limit of the range of ‘voltages applied. Such w eruit is elled “linens” Treatise the plotted curve is a straight line, ‘The spe othe lin, or the ratio between the nuinber ‘of units covered by the curvein the vertical dio tion tothe ssmber of units move i Ue uorizon tal direction, i constant when the line test, andl is equal to the resistance. TC it expe in this ease in volts por ampere. For example, i the faterval between 0 and 10. miliamperes, the ‘carve forthe 5000-obn resistor moves throng 0 volte vertially, eo that tho elope of thie curve is 50 volts O07 amp. ‘This oan be etated ae 6000 volts per ampere oF a5 5 volts per milliampere, and will be recognived as simply another way of expressing Ohm's Law, since = B/T,The mote clowly the line vista the lower is the resistance, as illusttated by the Hines for 2000 ane 1000 fn "The curve for the lamp is not a straight line, 21 which means that its resistance ia not constant but changes with etivnt. Such m ere ie ealled notelivear,” and Ofen's Law easnot be applied as simply asia the case ofthe linea: sesistors, The Increasing amount of power lost in the filament 18 the currents inereaeed raise the temperature Of the filament, and this tie in temperature ‘cusses the resistance of the filmient to He Y fl Fat ‘This effect ix presenti all metalic conductors, ‘but in the ease of the ordinary resistors is £00 small to le noticed over the enrrent range covered by this experiment, ‘The limp, however, is ine tended to work with its lament incandescent, Thence ti eiange fron rooin temperate to ful ‘operating temperature may be several thousand dlegrees. The resistance at any curcent will be iven by Olin’ Lass, knowing the voltage arom {the lamp, but that stme resistance value cannot De used for any other eustent Other types of circuits may be nomlinese for diferent reasons, Tho vari tube isa friar ‘example, ass also the gus-eunduetion tube exer plified by the neon lamp. In general, Ohm's Law ‘ean bo applied directly only to metallic circuits, and then only when temperature effects are taken into account or are smal enotgh to neglect ‘The sot of curves in Fig” G lao shows the effect of internal reristance of the power supply. The furmeat flowing in this resistance eauses a voltage Atop in the same way as in the external ciel, ‘with the reult that the voltage setally applied to the external eirouit depends upon the eurrent owing. The larger the current the greater Une intemal voltage rop, hence the lower the voltage 22 (generally called the “eruinal voltage") avail able for the load, By convecting the series 0 plotted pints which show the wloge al « given {ap at nolo acl with various fad resistances, sown bythe dashed nes in Pig 6, 4 "regular tion’ carve i obtained, With thin power Supply there curvesire practically straight lines, indicat that the internal resistance is constant over he range of cirents considered. This wil not tlways be true of retifer-type power supplies, Sinoe the internal voltage drop will depend upon te characterities of the retier tube and the filter. Homever, since the eit in this ease azo ftraight ie posable to determine the eflective eral resistance at each tap by taking the lope af the regulation carve st that tap. Por example, Sn the highest tap the voltage changes fom 984 no outpit current ty 65 at current of 100 Inillamperes, approximately. "The intel re- rtance ie then 198. 63 Rep a = 850 ols, ‘The approximate valine for other taps are indie ented in the graph From this svies of eurvesit posible to predict the terminal voltage at any {ap for any ealue of external (or load) resistance, simply by drving a line, from the origin of the raphy, having the proper slope to represent the foad tesistance. ‘The point where this line ine femocts the regulation curve gives the tertninal voltage at that tap. EXPERIMENT Time Constant Apparatus: For this experiment a de. source of abont 100 volts (the power supply of ix. 2) fnd a 0-1 miliammeter are needed. ‘The nearest ange to 1 millimpere on the test instrument wil be adequate, Several filter condensers ant Lwntt resistors are necessary. Suygested valuct are 1 tld. (paper), 8 and 16 pd. electoolytic) with at least 10D-volt ratings; suitable resistor value are 1,05, 0.25 and 01 mogohia. An inexpensive bakeliioinsulated push-button will be conver tent, (These buttons ean be obtainod at fivnande tenreent stores} ot ot ta Piet Procedure: Connect the apparatus as shown in Fig 7. Toe time constant of wieh neiceit isthe product of the capacity in microfarads and the Fesistance in megolims, and represents the time in seconds required for the eurent from the eon Aienser to drop to 37 per eent ofits initial vane ‘when deharging. To check time itis necessary 10 A Course in determine onesecon interval, for which par: pose any sort of device which makes a tie oF ther audible indiation once each second oan be ‘owe, seh as clock or metronotoe, The SMe, Standard frequency transmissions from WWY also provide one-second time ticks. Tn setting 1p the apparatus be earful to keep the reat well Jngulated, since leakage becomes importan ‘the resistance is high 100 7 ae zs $ : 5 T 3 : 8 ee 1 sI oss 2 28 a ae rea Using the afd. condenser and Emegohm re- slstor, close the circuit with the push-button and note the current, which should he approximately 0. mulliatapere. Release the push-button oa the Instant of m time tik and cost the time in seo ‘onde required forthe cutrent to droy 1037 percent of its value with the push-button closed. ‘The ‘Gime eannot be mearired with a high degree of accuracy, but it should be obvious that with the fonstants given a time of shout one second is required forthe instrusneut pointer to drop to the 7 per cont mark. Repeat with the 8 and 10a condensers, Then substitute lower values of re- Sistore and follow tho samo procedure in cach ‘ease, Tabillate the times required for each set of vals. "The way in which the current docronsos with Lime is shown in the graph of Fig, 8, "The horizon- tal Values i this graph aro plotted in terms of ‘time in seconds and the tmse constant of the cit- uit, the numbers repreenting the factor by which the time constant should be multiplied to obtain the actual time in seconds. If the time ‘onstunt is 3 sooouds (a ufd, condenser and 0.5- ‘megohm resistor, fr instance), the value 2 on the becisea would represent 2X5, oF 6 seconds ‘Thereforc at the end of 6 seconds the current from such a combination should have decreased to 1 pet cout of ite itil value. By ehoosng integeal time intervals the accuracy of time measurement increased and the appropriate percentage ram eurtent read from the geaph. Asan example of experimental use of the raph, __RADIO FUNDAMENTALS ‘nuppose that the I6-ufd, condenser and 0.1 tmagohm rerstor are ote in the cient of Fig 7, On eosing the push-button the current shold be Vailliampore with 100 volts applied. Open the ‘mash-button nd take a roading at the end of exactly five seconds. Say the current. at. this natant is found to be 0.1 tllnmpere. Since this is 10 per cent of the maninusn curren, the quan: tity 1/01 is found from the graph to be 28. Sines ‘The actnal capacity of the emndenser at this voltage is therefore higher thug the rated value of 16 afd ‘by qsimilar method, check the capacity values of the eondensors available, Alternating Current — Reactance and ‘Resletance Apparatus: "This esjoriment ean be per formed with the 115-volt line at a. source of vollage; provision for conection to the line i made in the power supply of Fig. 2. A multe range high-reistance av wilmeter is needed, "This type is provided ia the usual multi-purpose Ast instrument auch ax war recommended for this series of exporiments. (The mov type of ac. voltmeter used for tube filament cie- cuits and for ordinary ae. measurements ls {00 Tow resistance to he tse.) Since no a, scales aro provided on moct test instruments, this and the following experiment are based on voltage measurements wlone, but if an ac mile Tiammeter ie available it i helpful to measure ceuront aa well ag voltage. In addition to the tnelor there should also be provided papor con densers of O.1-, 0.25- and Ifa, capacity, and a filter ehoke ofthe “30-heary” variety, this being the value of inductance silent direct current flowing through the winding. ‘The 1000+, 240 ‘and 1000-ohm lO-watt resistors used in. the previous experiments will be netded, with the Addition of 10,000-ohmn L-watt resistor. 5 1 rus 23 Procedure: Conect the 1000-ahim resistor in series with the inductance me shown i Fig, 2A. ‘Measure the voltage across the resistor and that across the induetanee. Repeat with the other ee sstors substituted. A typical tabulation of reade ings will be as follows Vatge Aevens ——Valiage Aro ottaase Reluance cine ‘The Tine voltage was 122 when these data were taken AY - In no ease docs the sun uf the voltages weroee the cesistor and Inductance equal tho tin voltage. ‘Thisis because the voltage ntaas the resistor ei phase with the eurrent, while the voltage aezss the inductance is 90 degrees out of phase with the current. Hance the rans, voltages (which are indicated by the instrument) eaimot be added direetly, but the phase dlference must be taken to account, Because of the Wdagree phiare diferonce the voltages are, 20 to speak, at right tangles to each other and must be combined by the la rlatig tho sides ofa triangle, This rla- tionship is shown in Fig. 10-A, whre Be repee- tents the voltage across the resistance, Hi, the Yyoltage aerors tho inductance, sn H the total or applied vollage, all drawn to seale, Sineo the Tenjgth of the hypothenuse of s right triangle is equal to the square rot ofthe sum of the squares of the Tengtbs of the other two sides, the total voltage is given by B= VEGTEE Solving thia equation for E with the observed voltages substituted gives the following results: eo ce i 10.00 ha ia with an actual applied voltage of 122. The di. crepaney is caused ebiefy by. the fact that the choke hns resistance as well as inductane, go that the voltage across tis not exactly 4 degrees cut ‘of phase with the voltage across the resistor. Wor the present purpose this factor ean be neglected and the assuraption mas thatthe effects of loss inthe choke are negligible, ‘Take a set of such data, using the highest voltmeter scale which will permit reasonably ae curate reading (to Keep doven the voltmeter eu Fent) and ealeulate the total voltage as deserted shove, ‘Since in a resistor the current isin phase with the voltage, line representing the current ean be drawn on top ofthe line By tepresenting the e- tistance voltage. The voltage Ey i 00 degrocs out ‘of phase with the eurrent and ia drawn upward from the current fie to indiate Una i leas the current by 90 dogreas (whichis the same as saying that the current lags the vllage by 90 degree). ‘The angle A then represents the phase angle betiveen the applied voltaxe and the current in the cireuit, The phase angles for the obserestion® bove are 808, 72.5, 00.8 and 52.0 dagreos, 1 spectively. Consteuet such triangles to seal, using the observed data, and determine the phase tngle between the esleulated total voltage snd current either by measurement witha protractor ‘oF by the we of table of trigonometric functions, ‘Using the efreuit of Pig. $B, take readings of voltage scrose the resistance’ and condenser, Using the sevies of resistors with eneh of the three fapacity values. In the case of the O.1pfd. con- lificult to get accurate resistor ‘voltae readings when the resistanee i less thant 5000 tlm beesuse ofthe small voltage drop, 20 ‘the 2000- anid 1000-oha resistors may be omitbed in this case, Tabulate the data and compute the ‘applied voltage frum the readings. In a condenser the erent leads the voltage by 90 degrees, 80 ‘that the ame triangular relationship between re sistance voltage, condenser voltage and total Voltages applies, ad the same formula may be used for computing the total voltage, In this ease, however, the triangle is drawn as in Pig. 10-5. with the condonser voltage extending downward from the resistance voltage to indleate that the voltage lugs belind the current, whieh isin phase with the resistance voltage. The angle A is the phase angle between the applied voltage nnd the current when the voltages are drawn to seal [Dravr the Uiangles and measure oF compute the phase angle for each of tho pais of realings ‘The village dope are eaured by the resistance Jn the easoof the resistor, by the reactance in the cease of the inchictanoe or eapaeity, oid by the impedance, which is the combination of recist- ance and reactance, in the case of the complete sireuit. ‘That is, Bq =IR Bx 10 Bont ‘Since the eurzent isthe sain in all elements fn 8 series circuit the voltages in such a eireut willbe proportional to R, X and Z. Hence the triangles of Fig 10 show the Felatiouship between restance, A Course in Feactance and impeddanos in series circuits when Z is eubstituted for B, X for By, or Be and for Bp, in the drawings, Inductive reactance i indiested by & vertial line drawn upward from the boriontal reistance lin and eapnetive react ance by a vertial line dai downward, to in ‘ale the pliase relationships. Thus the impedance bf aseries circuit also ean be solved by the triargle formula, ot Z-VEFR From the triangles previously constructed from voltage measurementa, compute the renct- tance and impedance in each care by taking the length of the resistance voltage fine equal to the resistance in oma and measring the resetance ‘and impedauce to the same scale. This also can be done without measurement by taking the ratio of the voltages and multiplying by the resistance sed, or exploit 2000 obs the cet the data above give 118 volta actos the Feaclance and 30 ylls aera the resistor, widh the computed totel voltage being 120. ‘Then BS x 000 = 1 300 obms for By Fe x 000 = tn "Ke and x 2000 = 129 2900 = 12,000 ohms for 2 Bx ee ‘computed may vary by. several per cont inthe diferent cases because of measurement inaecuraces, but should be ap- ‘proximately the same regardless ofthe resistance ‘sed. EXPERIMENT 13 Alternating Current ~ Series Cireuits Con- taining Resistance, Inductance und Capacity Apparatus: The same equipment is required for this experinont as for Exp. 12 7 ; t Procedure: Conmest the choke coil, 0.L-l condenser id the 1000-olum resistor in eerie ae shown in Fig, 1-4, Read the voltages across the resistance, capscity, induetanee, and across the fondonser and indvetance in series, Substitute ‘he 2000, 5600 and 10,0000hm resistances one ft atime in place ofthe 1000chun unit and azain take voltage readings, Repeat the seme procedure with the 0.25-ud. condenser replacing the 0.1 unit, aud foally repent again with the 1d, capacity. "The fellowing tabulation wil be typical ofthe observed dats, when the Inductance is approxi tmataly 80 henrys and tho froquoney 00 eyes: ata ee 7 uo Boo ak ak a at 7 ‘ mH te Whew e025 t wooo “The line voltage was 122 when the above date were taken ‘Since the voltage across an inductance loads the current by 90 degrees and thet across a endenser Jags the current by 90 degrees, the voltages across fan inductance and capacity in series (whee huth ‘tery the seme current) have phase diference of 180 degrees. In other words, one voltage Zeaches itepositive maximum at thesame instant that the other reaches its negative maximum, At every part of the eycle the polarity of one is opposite to the polarity of the other, Hence the total voltaze ‘across the induetanee and capacity in serie is the diference between the voltages appearing across feschone, Sino the same current fw through all in a series eirult, the same relationships bold Fig. 10) theresistance represented by a horizon talline the inductive reetance by a vertical line drawn upward to the same seale of obmsy and tho capacitive reactance by « vertical line drawn Adownvrard. Tho net reactance iu the crete the diference between the inductive and capacitive eactarices, and is shown as Xz—Xe on th diagram. The impadance is found by using the resistance and net renotance in the tiangle rela tonship. If Xe had boca lager tha Xz the not resetance would be drawn downward, cince the Keline would be longer than the Xz Hine and the ‘iforence would be in ts favor, Tn such eave the phase angle, A, would be lending since the im ppedance line would be below the resistance line (Gemembering that tho lines can indicate voltoge 1s wells resistance, reactance or impedance and that the current always is in phase with the voltage in a vesstance). Tn the aso ilustratod in RADIO FUNDAMENTALS ig. 12 the phase angle is lang. Lead or lag is ‘lvays taken with the voltage as a reference un less otherwise specified, so that a lagring phase ‘gle mous that the currents lngeing behind the voltage, and s leading phase angle means that ‘the curtent is leading the voltage. Pigtt When the induetive and eapctive reactances arcequil the net reactance itera and the impel ‘ance is simply equal to the resistance, When this concition exists in a series cireult the cireut it fad to be resonant, and the current i the sane ‘would be if only the resistanoo were present. ‘This current, nevortelss, flows throvgh the in- dustance and capacity, and because of the r= farlanees of these elements voltages of consider ble amplitude ean be developed aeroes them, In the above data the cizeuit is approximately reso- rant when the 0.25fd. condenser i used, and ‘With the lowest value of resistance the voltage across either C or L is several times the line valt- ‘age. Ifthe choke coll had no resistance oF other Tose, the voltage across CF, wou be nero at reso. ‘nonce, In the setul data the vullaye is not zero, snd ita value is a measure of the elective resist: ‘nos ofthe choke. The tarm effective” inated to indicate that tho resistance operating is not just the dhe, resistance of the winding, but Inchides power losses in the icon. Tn this special case the ‘oltage across CL and the voltage aeroas RE both represent resistance voltages hence these voltages fein phage and should add arithmetically to give the applied voltage. That thieia co ean be checked by adding the voltagos foreach ease, whom it will be found that the sum is approximately equal to the applied voltage. Caleulate the applied voltage from the ob- served data when € 0.1 fd and when C= 1.0 df, using th triangular relationship as shown in ‘Fig! 12. Using the resistance asa reference, cal Jato the impedances, or find them graphical from seale drawings of the voltages (the method was deseribed in Exp. 12). Neglect choke resist ‘ance and assumo thatthe ealeulated applied volt- ‘ge is correct. The effective resistanee of the eon- denser is very low and may be negleeted without appreciable error, 26 EXPERIMENT 14 Alternating Current — Inductance and ‘Capacity in Parallel Apparatus: ‘Phe same equipment as for Bxps, 12 and 13. : Procedure: Arrange the circuit as shown in Fig. 1B. Using the 1000-ohun resistor at, take ‘voltage readings across 2 and across the parallel inductance and capacity, using sueresively the 0.1, 025- and Lal, condensers, Substitute the 200, £000 and 10,000-ohmm resistances and rex peat the procedure in each ease. Following is a typical et of data taken with the line voltage at 125 voles: required peceereets oe er 2 108 a Since Land Cate connected together in pat allel, only eno voltage ean appear across ther ‘Tho current in D. may aiffer considerably fromm that in C, however since these eurrents will de- pend upon the voltage and the reactance of the particular element considered, That i gloating the effet of rsistanes nnd lees the Induetante, ‘These two currents combine to form ‘the current which flows through Mand the sourer of voltage, or line" current, ln the condense, ‘tho current leads the voltage by 0 dogrons andi the inductance the current lags the voltage by 90 ogrees, Therefore the line current ia the difer ‘enee between the tvo branch euprents jus atin the series ense (Exp, 13) the total voltage was the difference between the seperate voltages across fondenter and induetance. In other words, the fimpodanco of the parallel circuit (Z— 1/2) is higher than the reactance of either branch alone sinee th total curva lesa than the eurrent in either branch, Should Ze and 7 have the sane ‘value the line current ‘under ideal conditions ‘would be zero, indicating that the impedance of the parallel eirevit ie inknite, In ‘practice this fe impossible, since the actual phase relationship be- ‘ween current and voltage in the two branches is not exactly 90 degrocs because ofthe internal re- stance present, particulaely in tho inductive Iran, Hence eosplete cancellation of currents, fven when the reactances are cada, dove not feu, sinee such enneellation would require & phase diference of exactly 190 dogrecs between the tro current, The elect ofthe internal esat- ‘ance on lin eurzent is relatively small ifthe re Actanees of the two branches differ considera (and ifthe resistance itself is small compared 1 ‘the renctanee) but becomes mare and more p= nouneed when the two reactanee approach equal- ity Le, when the circuit is near resonance ‘With only an ac. voltmeter availale, tis not possible to measure the various eurents in such a firouit. The voltage measurements do, however, give a elue to tho way in which the impedance of ‘he parallel eeu changes when thecondener = aactanceis changed. The lowest voltage drop erase the series resistor is obtained when the capacity (0.25 ald.) whieh was nearest Lo series resonance (Pep. 18) used, showing that the line current is low and hence the impedance of the condenser ‘and inductance is high. This is just the onpenite ofthe eave when the inductance and capacity are in series, since in the series cient (Lip 13) the current is highest when the reactances are equal With other values of capacity the resistance vol ‘age inerenses, which indicates a inerease in line turrent and lene: lswor impedance in the paral Intec, Part Free RESONANT CIRCUITS Ts eeuromunsa experiments on resonant cdecuits, it ie ueeesnty to have a souree of radio- Frequency voltage. For this purpoce a combina ton erystal and eefcotrolid oillator is used ‘This in turn nuust have a source of power for Ue heater and plate of the tubo, The unite shown in the photogeapisdiflor only ina few detail from Similar equipment to be found in practically every amateur station, and if an oselltor and power supply already are available thee is nat Ing to prevent their baingadaptel to the purpose ‘Ordinary voltmeters and miliamsmeters eam nat he uted for radio-frequency measurement, it hecomes novessary to devise an instrument wvhied will be suitable” A vacuumetube valeme= ter, nseful for rf voltage tmessinenents, 8 ree tively simple to build, Ono whicl is adequate for the purposes of those experiments ean be con Steeted fron few resistors and condensers, i ‘ution to a stall roeiving trode. Power forthe voltmeter ean Le lake from the osilator supply. Oscillator ‘The oscillator shonin the photograph, Fi 1 is conventional poutode eiruit when erystal is teed, and ie converted to a'TNT by plugging in a ideal and grid condenser in place af the erytal ‘The plate tuned circuit of the cecilator is paral- let fed which in evantagrous in that no dc voltage appears on either the ceil or condenser, ‘The plate coil specified in Fig. % should be bout the right sive for most of the experimental tvork, but in oue or two eases shumt capacity of Teale’ may reduce the tuning range to the point where a slightly smaller coil would be desirable, Fig, 1—Oweilatr for encrating wf. suasiregnte om wesoqagt Sree. Tt may be aged oh TRT peli oo shat etter ta the rene ternal step Te ermine onthe sp the loner ehchand corer are Smeted to te nde ‘lube plate ta SreusYocotber tester eta {be tat ourpae It is therefore suggested that the coll be tapped sbout § turns from one ond and provision made for shorting out the 5 turns when required ‘Alternatively, a separute coll having 28. turns spaced to make the length 134 inches may be Used. A. pair of output terminals is connected ‘directly serosa the tank for setups which rere ‘fairly high r. voltage. Provision also is made for link output, Fig. 2—Oucilatr exci Gre 100 rat variable Gea CeO paper, eh ods otd mts, Ge Spc, mice ROT megs wate Tate 1 wound 09 finch diametce form. 1a —48 tore Ra, 0 enameled lone mec—3Smbrf eboke, 28 Fig.8—Pomer oc = t lectelytie, 450 0 oon 10 wats. ohn wiremausd pos: To Replacement or timlar tranee ormur to deliver 350 to 400 TROLS fro er at 100 ESN amen wing ‘Sole toes 88s For erystal control, any erystal in the 8.546 Me. bans ean be tied. For tinedcirenit fe quency control, the “untuned” grid coil, which hha a grid blocking condenser incorporated in the coil form, replaces the erystal. The number of turns on this col should be adjustod so that the ‘osillator output voltage is substantially uniform Gvithout load) over as much of the 3.54-Me, Sod am posible, Other wine sizes may be ase provided this requirement isnt, Power Supply ‘The power supply, Figs. 8 and 4, uses an or- inary replacement transformer with an 80 rectifier and condenser input filter. Any supply ‘which delivers rbot 250 to 00 volta nt 75 to 100 nilliamperes wil do. The voltage divider inor- porate inthis supply enables continnons aust ment of the oitput voltage from zero to the ‘maximum voltage of which the apply is capable. ‘The outnut filler condenser ie connected to the ‘output. terminals rather than to. the voltnge tdvider so that the condenser cun ac ata by-pass When the supply is used for audio work, A similar Aivider ean be sulde! to any existing supply, of course, A'regulated tap, using VIR nd Ai Course in ativering 150 volts under loads varying fom zero to about 20 miliasaperes, is included, A ‘witeh is provided in the netifee output so that the de. voltage can be shit of when mijustiments fe made, while Keeping Blamonts hot. VT. Volumeter ‘The vacuusn-tube voltmeter neod not be ace: rately calibrated, since absolute values of voltage need not be known. Howover, it is exential to Know relative voltage valu, and a preliminary voltage eslibration therefore is necemany. Te i. desirable to have a voltineler with a eae as nearly linear as possible, and also oe which he high “input iunpedance since the accuracy af reusirement of voltages in resonant sireits wil be impaired if the voltmeter takes appresiaile energy. For these reasons a fedback:-type troe ‘ollineter is used. Scleetion of the proper ratios ‘sistor ata the voltuge range; in the present ease fpproximate ranges of 10, 30 aavl 100 volte nee provided when the platecireuit millimeter = 2 full-seale range of Luullianipere. The universal test instrument ean be used for measuring the plate current ‘The cteait of the vt, voltmeter is shown 1» ig. 6. Te i simply a tube bissed nearly to eatnf oo that the postiee eyele of an ae. voltage applied to {Ge inpt eeeait will eee the plate current to inerease. Under ideal con. Aitions the inereaso in plate current will he proportional ta the applied voltage, and in practice this linear Felationship ig very nearly achieved Some initial xed bias is applied to tho gr by means of the valtage d- vider eoasiating of Ry in series with Fa; stein the cathode eireit and the drop across it biases the geid nogatively. Additonal bins is pro- vided by the eathede resistors’ Rs, Ryand Ry The lower the resistance sed hore the grater the sensitivity oe det {ete eto the terminal stp. Toe varia a Sounted ou a'metal bracket o te ght oat. iting of pet cee Flows Fiala nd G XE athe: Vata ‘that i, the higher the plate exr- rent reading fora given voltage ap- plied to the geid. The higher the resistance, the greater the input voltage mange which ean be halle; he Hnensity als is improved wth high wmi-taner “Tuo voltinter sont bye vairated against a de, sou. The tranolornertos supply desenibed Pare 2 i quitestslh or ths pps Cone net its nets ott at termina fo the grand eminalof the et eater Sopa al Ue pe tive tetsinel te the grids, then wary te out Dat wattage neve table muse ud take Fre of the vedi tor tie pie carte mie vty he test ist manent {anenste tl eatent yal sola iy mien ie bark sl lor onthe plate of he oltinete tube (lien ie shes be wrest OL lie tuetee) to the digmt terminate of the Wty volte totor (hit sul hs sce. voltmeter ‘of appropriate range). When engl data have alana 7 1 watt (seat eal, Paha saan, 1S (i Te. Sia sm 9 Sat oa mas T wate Leen taken, plot eurves shoning plate eurrent sgainst gril vollage fo all theo values of cathode Feistanee. A typical chart is shown in Fig. 7 ‘The calibration & Hnear on tho two higher ranges except neat the low nd cf the scale where there isa small dejrtire from 1 straight Tine ‘The value of the hias resis Re may require ome modification for tubes of slightly difereat harscteistion. Tis resistance sborald be high enough to bring the jane rarent alist, bat ot fulle, to reo wien no voltage ie applied to the input terminate, Shosld tho plate eaztent be zero at fist tral, Ry should be relies! in resistance the plate milliaamcter sows x sa ation — tween zero anda few hundredths of ‘tailiampere Changing the plate voltage has the effect of shifting the curve up or dowa on the grap, butt the inerese — uot the actual value in current RADIO FUNDAMENTALS 29 Fig §—Varuum-tuhe voltmcter for of. meaautex ment Than tre rangi 0 and 108 a tay are a theft poner anor terme ‘ccna te crit The tes enthade Whi naling ef measurements he I a condense Aironmectel ee ee Bee rae re IR oa Fig, 7—Typial de, ealibeation curves for the vacuintabe vultaetr of Figs. 30 rf, wave, Cy in 8 similar by-pass for audio fre ‘quencies acrow the eathode eiruit, Whether oF ot the instrument reads pale voltage ia not Important in the prevent application, sine rela tive voltages are of eet interest. Tn making rf ‘measurements it will be sufficient to assign the Ieasired voltagea value equal to the de, voltage thich gives the same plate current reading. Cy ian ef by-pass on the hestereiruit, Circuit Board ein convenient although not wholly necessary, to have a "circuit bourd” arranged somewhat a8 town in Fig. 8. Variable condensers can be fastened eoidly to it, as ean alan one coi The other eal it let free for varying soupling when both are use Tn the unit shosen in the photo- iroph, the evile ure wound on ordinary mailing {bes and are auatsted on small pieces of Pres ‘wood oF thin wood (no the free coil will sit still, fand- not topple over) by miniature stand-of! Insulators, The eariaile condensers should have a ‘maxima capacity of 250 wuld, or more to give fmple experimental range; od rowdeast con ‘Genaers will do quite nicely, Tle small condenser ff the Left is for capacity coupling when needed ‘Ahalf-donen ore to Sanh let of fexible wire with alligator eps af each end will be eon venient for changing eireuite. There is no perma rent wiring om the cirenit board shown a con- Calibrated Receiver Relatively few tests ean be made on rf. cir- cuite withost measurement of frequency. It is A Course in sssamed that every amatour will have a receiver ‘vith So-meter bandspread and that he has cali- brated or ean calibrate i to rearonable novuraey. Calibration methods are deceribed in the Hand- ook. Once a half-doren oF 20 calibration points fre obtained @ smooth curve can be. drawn through them Wo give azeurate-enough indications fr experimental purposes, Te wil be sufiient to read to 10-ko inervale ASSIGNMENT & Study Handiouk Section 2-10, Perform Exp. 16, Questions 1) What is “skin efert"?™ 2) LF a current of one ampere tows through a serca-econast circuit having a resistance of 10, ‘ois snd inductive and eapaeitive resctances of ‘50i) ohms each, what ithe applied voltage? What ‘oltage appears across the terminals of the in- Auctsnce? Acrore the terminate of the endenser? '3) Whea isan ordinary radio ereuit resonant? 4) Deseibe the operating ehuractrisice of a serieeresonant creuit; of a parallebresonent '5) Define the quantity @ 8) An inductaicoot 10 maicrohenrysis used a parallekresonant circuit tuned to 7 megaeyel [the coil hae a resistance of 3.5 ohms at this fe. ‘queney, what is tho Qf tho circuit? Lossos inthe fondenser may be neglected. What isthe parallel resonant impodance of the creult? 7) A. vesstance of 5000 ohms in eomnected cross the eiveuit of Question 6. What is the nev valueof cireuit Q? Whatiathe equi lent resistance introduced in seren ‘with the coil hy the shunt resistor? '8) How may the Q of an unloaded citeuit (one in whieh all the energy ‘supplied to the ezeuit is consumed in tho ereuit [tse be inerensed? If the cine fs parallel-resonart ad is shunted by a fixed valuo of resist fee, how may the erenit-@ be b= sreased® ‘In the cieuit of Questions 6 and 7, what values should the i ‘lustaie and eapacity have, to give ‘circuit Qof 25 when the circuit is loaded by theshunt 000-ohm rsist- 10) Plot a curveshowing the val- uot of iaduclanee required to tune ‘ge 8—A cient hoard wach ag thi ie convenient for na he aning condensers are ‘hr or hier eapacity il be ate ler af Binge oxtede dite mall condenser atthe left num capacity fom 3510 ‘Sturnacachy tape weer 9 ag, with isouthat Stee be wie Ses 18 'Th Isr pling parpone an ay ine a 50 eat 10.2.5 megacycles with ny value af ing op capacity between 80 and 250 yl ahd. "T1) Neglecting enlresistance, plot ">a curve showing the variation in @ of the cieut in Quastion 10 as the L/C ratio ie varied, when 0 resist- ‘ance of 10,000 obms is connected y 1 ‘ RADIO FUNDAMENTALS 31 across the circuit, Plot in terms of the capacity use, Plot a similar curve for a resistance of +5000 ohms. 12) Whats the resonant frequency of a circuit consisting of a coil of 30 microhenrys anda capac ity of 60 pufd.? 18) A resonant circuit is formed by @ 50-mufd. condenser and a coil of 10 microbenrys, The latter has a resistance of 2 ohms at resonance. a) What is the resonant frequeney of the oir- cuit? b) What is the Q of the circuit? ©) What is the pnrallel-resonant. impedance of the circuit? 4) If one vott at the resonant frequeney is ap- plied in series with the circuit, what voltage will appear across either the coil or con- denser? If 250 volts at the resonant frequency is ap- plied in paratlel with the cireuit, what is the equivalent scries voltage, corresponding to the series voltage in (d), acting in the cir uit? What then is the current eireulating in the parallel-resonant circuit? What is the Tine eurront, (see Exp. 14)? What is the ratio of cireulating current to line eurrent, and what circuit quantity does it equal? ) A resistance of 8000 ohma is connected ‘across the parallel-resonant circuit, Find the new value of cireutit impedance. (Use the or- dinary formula for resistances in parallel, since the impedance of the tuned circuit alone is a resistance at the resonant fro- ‘queney.) If the impedance of the tuned cit- cenit alone were neglected in determining the new itnpedance, would the error be appreci- able? What would be the per cent error eaused by neglecting the impedance of the tuned circuit alone if the inductance and capacity had the same values but the coil resistanco was 40 ohms? Tf 250 volts at the resonant frequency is ap- plied across the cireuit with the 8000-ohm in shunt (assuring the original coil resistance of 2 ohms) what is the eizeulating, ‘current in the circuit? What is the line cur= rent? What is the new value of eireuit Q? 14) A resonant circuit to operate at 14,200 kiloeyeles isto be loaded so that the effective juar- allel impedance will be 4000 ohms, Assuming that ‘the coil resistance will bo noglisible (that i, nearly all the energy will be dissipated in the load, not, in the coil itself) what inductance and capacity should be used to give a Q of 157 18) If a voltage of lower frequeney than the parallel-resonant frequency of a circuit is applied, what type of reactance does the circuit exhibit Which branch of the circuit carries the greater current, the inductance or capacity? What are the conditions when the applied frequeney is higher than the resonant frequency? Compare with a series circuit. e) 8) 16) What is the piezoclectrie effect? 17), What is meant by the term “loaded ci- cuit” 18) ‘Two coils, one having an inductance of 15 microhenrys and a resistance of § ohms, and the other an inductance of 9 microhenrys and a resist- ance of 3 obins, are available for use in a cireuit to operate at 7500 ke. Which will give the greater selectivity? 19) If the Q of a coil having an inductance of 100 microhentys is found to be 125 at a frequency. of 2000 ke., what is the effective rf. resistance of the coil 20) What capacity is necessary to thme the coil of Question 19 to 2000 ke., and what will be the parallel impedanee of the cixeuit? ASSIGNMENT 9 Study Handbook Section 2-11, Perform Exps. 16-20, inclusive, Questions 1) Name six ways in which radio-frequency energy may be transferred from one resonant. circuit to another. 2) What is meant by “eritieal coupling”? 3) What happens to the effective series re- sistance of the primary eiveuit when the eouplh to the secondary cireuit is increased? What is the effect of increasing coupling on the parallel im- pedance of the primary circuit? On the overall selectivity of the two circuits 4) What is mutual inductance? 5) On increasing the coupling between two eir- cuits it is found that the primary is thrown of tune. What is the cause? 6) Define coefficient of coupling, 7) A €00-ohm load is connceted to a resonant cireuit which in turn is coupled to the tunied plate circuit of a transmitter operating at 7100 ke. If the secondary circuit must have a Q of 10 to ob- tain sufficient energy transfer, what values of in duetance and capacity must bo used (assuming negligible losses in the coil itself) in the secondary. circuit if the inductance, eapacity and load are connected in series? Would these values be prac ticable at this frequency? If the secondary eirenit is parallel-resonant and is shunted by the 600- ohm load, what, valies of inductanes and eax acity should be uso to obtain the required Q? Suppose a condenser of only half this eapacity was available; what could be done to obtain sufficient coupling? 8) Assuming that a variable eondenser having maximum capacity of 300 wpfd. and a minimum capacity of 30 ypfd. is available to tune the sec- ondary or load eireuit, indicate which of the eir- cuits, A, B, or C in the diagram (page $2) should be used to couple to the primary (at 7100 ke.) if the secondary civeuit must have a @ of 10 for adequate energy transfer, when the load resist- ance has the following values: 10, 20, 70, 150, 600, 2000, 5000 ohms. Find the value of eapacity Which should be used in cach ease, and also the value of inductance necessary to tune to reso~ nance in each ease, 9) What is low-pase filter? How may such filter be constructed? 10) What are the distinguishing characteristics of a high-pass Biter? 11) What is the purprse of shielding? What type of shield eliminates or reduces electrostatie coupling? 12) What materials are satisfactory for mag- notie shielding at audio frequencies? At radio fre~ quencies? 13) What happens to the inductance of a coil when itis enclosed in a shield? What is the effect ‘on the Q of the eoil? What determines the magni- tude of these effects? " 14) What is a band-pass filer? Describe « simple form of band-pass filter. 15) Deseribe the principle of operation of the bridge eireuit. . 16) How would you arrange two coils to obtain the highest possibie mutual inductance? ASSIGNMENT 10 Study Handbook Sections 2-12 and 2-13. Questions 1) What is meant by the term “standing 2) What is the wavelength in meters corre- sponding to a frequency of 3500 kiloeyetes? What is the wavelength in fect?” 3) What is the shortest length of wire in free space which will bo resonant at a given frequency? 4) Describe the construction of a concentric Tine. 5) How is the eurrent distributed along a wire half wavelength long at the frequeney ut which it is excited? What is the eurent distribution if the wire is one wavelength long? 6) Describe the itaycdance churacteristies of 2 folded quarter-wavelongth line. 7) Why can a concentric line be built to bave higher Q than a tuned eizeuit whieb operates at the same frequeney? '8) What is radiation resistance? 9) What beat frequencies are produced when currents having frequencies of 2000 kiloeyeles and 2450 kilocyelos are mixed in a eireuit suitable for ‘the production of beats? What beats are produced © potential? AA Course in if the two frequencies to be mixed are 3000 kilocy'cles and 1500 eyeles? 7150. kiloeyeles and 7149. kilo- eycles? 10) What is meant by ground 11) Whon are by-pass conde 12) What requireinent. must a by-pass con denser meet to function properly? 13) What is the purpose « what requirements rust it micet the characteristies of the used? 14) A by-pass condenzor is to be used to shunt rf. current at a frequency of H.15 megneyeles around a cireuit having an impedance of 6000 ohms. What value of eapacity would be suitable? 15) A. 500-olim resistor is to he effectively by- passed for 100-cyele alternating current. What ‘value of capacity is required? 16) Direct current is to be fed to a radio-fre- queney eirenit. which has an iinpodanee of 2500 ‘ohms at 3600 kiloeyeles. What induetance show ‘the choke eail have? (In actual prietice, the ir pedaneo of the ehoke evil would be affected by the distribinted enpscity of the coil, but this not be considered ia the prabien. 17) A lo-heury inductance i= being used as a choke coil throngh which slirect current is bein fed to an ac. circuit which has aa impedance of 4000 chs at 500 eyeles, Is thi value of indut ‘ance adequate? Would it be adequate if the Frequency were 60 cyclest yoke coil, and th reapeet to. whieh it is EXPERIMENT 15, Resonant Cirenits Apparatus: ‘The oscillator, power supply, vacutum-tube volimoter, test instrument, eireuit board and the calibrated recciver are needed for this experiment, together with two Lwatt resist ‘ors, 50,000 and’ 100,000 ohmns. Use the full out put voltage of the supply (250 to 300 volts) on the ‘oscillator, which is operated with the coll in the rid cireuit to give variable frequency Procedure: Connect vondenser aud coi! on the cireuit board in piaralte!, anul ronneot the in- put terminals of the v.t. vollncter across the Parallel cirewit, Set the scillatur frequency to about 8700 kilocyeles as determined by the rex ceiver calibration (keep the gain: low so that the signal is weak enogh ti give a good zero-beat indication and bring the oscillitor and tuned circuit near enorigh to each otier to get a good v.t voltmeter indiestion when tho circuit is tuned throngh resonanee, A reading of nearly full scale {on either the 30- or 100-volt scale) should be ob- tained when the cirenit ix resonant at the oscilla tor frequency. Once the relative positions of oseil- lator and eizeuit to give such a reading have been, determined, do not move either unit, Should one __RADIO FUNDAMENTALS othe other be aecidentelly moved, recheck to obe ‘sin the same masmim cealing we resonate lnoee going shen ‘ingall the turnin the sl et the conde to rosonance. Then vary the esilstorIegucesy in seps of alot 20 hry taking wings on he ‘ivan, each tine. until the frequen ie ul tlenty fer frm wausnre to bring the Wem, Fendi doves tothe hw rl the ee, Ds touch the Lave eu n the meantie, Take ‘radi on bth the low= ard highs feat, thls of rest. “Than comnect the 10000 ‘hn tor sets the ied nit and repeat the rnsureneute vor th came fequeney range Vinal follow the same peoredare with the 50.00 restr ato the cl When the {a comple cnr the peri vx Ings to wos by meaus ofthe syn. eliraton ‘eve sal then plat eurve sng te voltage fers the cru gat Freseney, Typical roults of such menuremente are shown in Fx. 8 ‘Le voltage i highest ato ‘sane, devptius ul with freqeney on eth slo ia rato determive by the lowes in i era "These les ne highest with the lamer tale of patalel resin ace the resonance eure sf the lode cuit become progres vey led ‘harp a the louling ie inerael alll se scene): Shee eng or oat isnot charged during theron the voltage ld in Gh sina renal unehange, but the tolags rise at resonance dsetece with loading tien ng tha the @ ofthe eels decease, Using smaller numberof ams om tee, = ‘eat tr experizint, plot tho data, acon {he curves to thowe cUtin wih the sk 9 ‘eke useries fh data wi diferent vals of inductone. Whea the inductauee change, ing te yeti ofthe nay 2 the sive taxi value of yoltag at rex, saaee without lad, or elas conve the ner ‘wadings tothe orga we by malts ingen ‘ave by tho rato ofthe orginal maha a 358 fo the new malar wlage, If some lresistanceTowntt unis axe avai ‘We (3049 20 ohms theexperiment ena be rare 33 by taking seudings similar to those aeseribed above; but with the fow-raitance white core rete in vests with the ail and con ees ‘eu of in pantie. Inst eas eoneet the ‘vtwwan, ueeee the condenses When pote hve readage ca be evinjred t0 Ue curves talon sith the aval estos in ich ese 1 sll be obsarved thatthe higher vals of fers resistance give curves comparable tse ‘btsined with te lower Val of paral reat fnew If tho lowes fn the cui elf are mall fompared to the lose In he sonnected resistor {s reationship between paral resistance and ‘uivaentsoric adttano an be oun rom he feral ge & whore 2 it the resistance sotullyeonnected In parallel wo Jt che euivlen series recta, Convery the impetanen of te eres ean bs found ‘shen the srite ratance Ry hnow' Caleulite the values from the experimental at busied EXPRWIMENT 10 Induetively-Coupled Circuita Apparatus: Same for Esp, 15, with thes Ait of 2,000 1,00. Lovnt alts Procedures Set vp the slant for esl ‘operation, but remave se plate ol id eomect. fice coll on the viet beard dn its pen, tg ean he te tag tn the power supply for about balfvokage (be. ton dean, Bi 4). Connect the fied el fn the cree tar i parallel ith the nowt vacible omdenser, using all the tare onthe iL Conmeat the 4. wltmeterserue his rs it The general awrangetert schon in Fi. 1. ‘This experiment inovesvarving the eouping ‘ete the two el eis convniont to ake 4 seale to inate the dagen of coupling. Phe fimplst way to do thief to rule ine oa Inman to serve nse suide for the movable els hat its axis alvays wl cvnehe with that ofthe Axed oi, and thes mark off haltinh tervals long the uid Tine, ars spaeing wil sin be he chara pei spacing between the bl) tose on the far, an neat Rave no reference tho netual spoeation botnet the tun, =r lg ae ‘his method of mesaring coupting ie purely unitary, but wil save the purpose satisfac ‘iy. At the very etme spade, quarter inch, intervas onthe guide ine wil be deseabl 34 At the ott, oot tho oxls at the maximum pile separation on the cout board, The i Hicut 5 ince inthe aeragement shown i Hie No loading cessor is wed In the fst ran, se about 28 tare of the movable coil for te ceystaleetlatr plate tan or vhatver number ‘of tune brings the setting for eeilatian ae or hove half capacity on he oul tale eon dene, Tone dows a bit from the sting. of the late oodenser wie giver ami output te thatthe celstor cperaton wl nt be sta ‘vith Jang: Move th coil Daf neh ot ne foward the fac mil, taking rensings at enh fe terval I tho reads aw rapid vaste with ‘Serdng, raluce the interval to quarter Inch Wt the etal regan, The secondary cenit should be saisted for masini volta (re ‘vnce) with the rset coupling heen the to fails and then Tet alone while the coupling is ‘tered. Fett ‘The same procedure shouldbe fothmed with porllel een lds of 108,000, 20,000, 25,088) {hd 10,000 obs: Alter aun i enmplete: mice {he number of trne cm the secondary sil nd repeat. Do this fr ae mane taps a8 1 pase ‘uth he uring expat available. Make eran {hat the "ound" endof earl crit israel, tothe faring aids ofthe ila to mitimise ee Pret coupling, sud by changing tps keep the setive taro in the Tacng eu, Convert the dat, ‘nto wotage readings and then pb on ems: ton paper. type et of carve ane is show in Fig. 11, Thc serie curves ns ton ‘8th 20 turve i theseoutary vil with he carey tion ofthe bed curve, which was taken with $8 turn, “This experanent states the eft uf the Q ‘of the secondary ezeuit on coupling, Ta the ene of the nostoad exrve, eta eoting — oun ‘num output — Ls rashid whet theo ‘eperata a i ‘Whon the Q's reduerd by the eblithn of the [O00 huni n parle! sen the soa tay itis necewary to fnrwase te coupling to About 184 Indes for etal erupling ae a the loading is incresed sill more by shutlng Tower values of redstanos acre the sesondary. the Siig mont a be eet ee ‘mum ouargy taster Te ean be ceen tat erin) toupling ean bo just shout reached withthe 10,000 restr in parallel and with snc Jomer vals of reitanes t would wot be posible fe get tzht enough coupling for ina ot puts Assuming that ce late Inthe eri lone Ae negiile in comparison othe power inthe Feseor the 0" the crcl Z e-k ss ince the reactance ofthe 2h-trn oil ea {ulated w be sprosinaely 600 cha tert {G's 1000/00, or 20 Tn thi parila cave, Aerefore, the sconlary cit must haves @ ofthe order 30 at eas if maim nergy it teuraferred. This is cnfirned bythe athed ‘eurve, which wae taken with 35 tans inthe ell tnd the 25,0000 reactor ia short. Using thee vse eal renctance reqresnted by the ern f tu i po work ot ‘be approximately 3, and in this case the maxi smu erorgy transfer also be seared ‘ith the Souplng distance at eron the aitrary sale (AU Use"soro” thre eal abit 3c neh separa: lion between the actual end of the el, tint ‘vith other constuction Uighter comping Sou be ost) "rom the date accumulated in the experzent, detezmiae the eae where eloal smpling Tearhod with minimus separsion between he nll and ealealate the @ by the method thre {or thes eats. The industarce ean be eater luymeaisof te formula inthe dita ehaptr in he nook or ty Lightning Cleator. "The eet ‘of ded eds inthe tapped ell can be ignored foe the prime of ti approniate ak ‘ter completing rin, go bak ad capa any Ayia ono, this time observing the eet en ou Ft wllage of varying the soniye tpwity ab rariows dagen of pling, Tl be served that withthe mpg ks than tel {ie output wotage wi go through a resnane ‘ave mth ike then Fig, basi one ‘sere! coupling & appreares, it that with ‘ouplngUghter than cra the rawr curve ‘wll hate ro buzpo, one on either side of the aint wher the ere sotually a reonast. The Sopltude of the humps i appnosimetay the fate as the smpfitade of the ouput volage et (rita outing andl renter tha the voltage SC actual rewance (nt goeater than ein! Souping) whic trap ax mb the curve. The tighter the soups the greater the separ ion etme the to _ RADIO FUNDAMENTALS EXPERIMENT 17 Capacity Coupling Apparatus: Saane equipmant ws for Espa. 18 snd’ ‘se the grid coll in the oa frequency operation foerate thease rilstor at hal oltage) ait vet up the fede fd tacing evndeiaer on the ett toad a visas tw experinents Hecae. stay ‘awe the eecleor al tual et eels te experiment intend Flaten, ts nevesry to powieslent shieing us eeduee ten cing to the unt Shere dies it eae ute an Volt Ors to appear sence te inoaded evita be complished hy plac fre ett ease 4 Lanuaeol ear ove he csi la tubo ata tuning eondensee allie the Kl sf the Inter to projet) ad sonnecting the ra te the negative “3” stator terminal, Keser ‘He seperation betwen the acl al ted iret sud Keeping the power ousted Uigethor where ty rune the pacer saps Unit tothe wlator and etn, roqwetiely, Alo wl ety. Consort the vt wiimeler to the ‘Gre, 2etom the let rang, ad ry illest ‘sitio ofthe apparstos unt wt tne Ue Yt or eo appeare sees the unoadel let when ite tne to resonance with the ote Jn tient cpg tao he wt ue et 1 ew al Sapa, Thtia sagen ene Pe ete ‘ts ve a Siping mn eh et hha tnt ad heath pret ity pickup. hosting pe of Se Wen, Se ln wwf Bestar ei hing sid ot cuenta oe the aay Such ei be gs Laan pec led aos gp sre any et th had et bo nathan ft ing er ening yt te anes rm bos ih ‘ea potty te matey oe a es al pte try cpu eluent coupling onde sot Beto Sct wil ole soagh ig forthe fst att, Sethe cnilitor fe- {uatey to about $200 ke and, sing ale ro tm the tuned-ccuit eu wljst the vrei te ‘sunance it the cela, Vary Ue ela frequen ss decril n Rep, 15 and take vl ge rugs. Connect wire tothe ok” ide (OF the eerie aad Bing it near the coupling fonvencer, asia wirying the frequen and take ing srt if readings “ny: vious potion of tie re and finaly connect it to the other set of Plate onthe vpn costae. Di wl probably ret in oversoupling and. diublee Inumped ennaies ere nth tual ted cireut) Shunt the varios valor of rovstance fort the tua eu nd eet the pate mente, noting appeonimately hw mach epting pacity is reed each time for maximum eens tee Tn alles the eat wil be ‘quite soe ‘When te data are taken and curves plotted, {Ue sinitvity between expat couling and i dhtive erpling wil beeome apparent, even tho che to wapeinent were wt performed fn exactly them hase EXPERIMENT Uw Link Coupling Apomatiee: Sane for Us V7. Procedures ‘The vets iva im Fig. 18, The sling dows ier Psp. 17 wi be ese and sb cg stb ini ‘The nk line connecting the twa ect ah, be tvisted az bot ies shoul be the se engl The links in Both eas as tera, coving of a ow tuera wound arond. the {round end of the bslatr pate coll and the responding etd of the ined eee The ink for the later may be arranged toe ped jingu out uf te eal ovary the coupling Stat sth about & tums on ear ink snd sucosivey eduae the umber of tary cbse ving the elect fm the output vatage The eestor and tuted "Sealtshoid be rete to te gal regency ‘eh the a eae ade Tel be fod a, ‘us He coupting ik mond around the eal Chong the number uf rao eter ik hs relatively litle feet so kg as tum oF bo Bs ‘tau ae Make rons in the sarae ways a2 in np. 15, varying the baling aver Ue rang of alae re Sisto and taking run a each ap onthe und (Sreuiteail. ep or varying degree of coping 36 a either end of th tink sitet, Compare the Fesults with te information obtained fm the ee Derimeat on inductive eoupling (Exp. 16) with spec to thee of sesondary cree Q onthe crergy tranver, For the ees where roan ‘corey trate i ort wtainabla with ua, foupling between the ink vol url the toned ‘ret eal elelte tha minima Qnceuery to cure etal coupling EXPERIMENT 1 Coupled Renonant Ciculea Appmratus Save equines a8 fr poesing Procedites The object of (his experiment ie to show the elect on merit of operating two ‘esa ceuits in ec, Sep theo tor for tunoderei freqneney contol ax Exp 17, ‘heching stay pickup to make eetaia thet not ‘gore thn n vt or taf pose on th tne tireut oa the ezeuit ard Conect each eal toa tara condenar, using ll the lane bate ‘cm. Tho goseral rect sergeant i sows in Fg. 14 Very loose coupling tat be teal be twoan the oastor and the Bet twod cet, ‘the eolin which movable with repo to th ‘ln the secondary ereuit, No seca coun fcndenser Ss nowsnary enagh eompliag eam be ‘reared by bringing awit fro te Primary creuit on the board to within a quater Inch aco ofthe en the wire projecting fom the shielded fad (rth Ep 1) Sosa tha ‘rllitor. Do not alow move than a hallauch of Wir to project fn the sil, gd faten the two Of this "eondenaer” ‘xllato feqaeney to abut S00 Ke ad aut the coupling "eandencer” to u value which pte Its tho coupled revit (Uhe pear tn hi Pena bein hohe win hanging Ui oxelatoeIequency by more tan a foo hued eyle, Tie conry eee shat be dtconnedted when the eri fe anade Itthe equeneychangn Ss appreciable, the, capacy must be reduce, since overculing (wie i ety exay to got) will greatly let the meas. trent, With the ot tno the primary ect to osm. The wa face put ear ena Be oscrve onthe rere (Ghebeitccilatorsboul he iu ean be ce he se wollte ae (but Hot Loui) the ert wa ing he Jow range fot mesurenent Tue wr-m, should ol be connectod directly to ths eeu care ts capacity will elange Use ting of the tating, forvdnes, anesthe deat will be ot of temo tance len the. mist totem tireuit where tho actual yearns are to Be Inule With the prety remnant umes the ‘tvs, to Uo sccnudaryireuit and tne the lat ler to resonance, Mevo the primary el way from the eecoudary until a eeaonsbly high Gestion obtained on the tne {ce the otling sll moro, eck th ting ofthe two ake wire they are esarilyreenant, sand vary the oer frequency aver a range of about fs ether way fon the resonant fe ‘quency, tag uaings a 1O-ke. interval,‘ Without touching the ng of ether sven ‘ane tic coupling and repest, Follow Use sane oredr with progress loser coping at {quite prouounead.doubletnumped ‘sous fur aban : j PAN (On plotting the data he curves ean be ect to look something ik thse niown ih Figo Carve Ain this group was ake wi que anping te primary et beg ate taste Siatanee’ and Six ais Sure Nighy to give 8 futher redontinn in sonpling, Neverthe the slighty fated topo tue ere, a wel nthe Fatt Wat Ue masinane smplitade fs pracy the see at that of We lost imp in each of te ater to curves, indict hat de oii ig very tear the etd vin Cv Bin i "acne" eoopling eid sw ble kang ne ical thatthe soup Carve 6, with incl." eospling sen consider ble overeouping and very pronoutre! double humps. Ia geal, thee curve wl not, be ‘sulyaytometticl, thee thearetialy or prac: Tay. ight innresrvion fusing the cuits to maonance wil have some effet on the metry, and Tnaportint cave of dieymmetry overs ping btwean the ela. tor an the primary etait. Its of RADIO FUNDAMENTALS 37 ‘measure the vole developed across te fom. Make sure stray piekoup i ase teed £ a With tho titer disconnected from 7 Ee rte te root oe — a Tree Inter oat sTOn ke Then, without “LE tucking theosellaor ani connect fete the‘ titer, wing an cutpat oud of Toa tina Hts pat ene diver, Cy tthe ealator fe fit importance to make this couplingthelooestquncy returns 6 is oreial aha, Then ty posible if reasonably gol curves are to be ob tind. ‘After completing a run with no loading on the secondary circuit the suze procedure should be followed with the 100,000-ohm resistor connected in parallel with the secondary, and then again ith the 60,000-ohrm resistor in parallel. Plot the data and compare the curves to those obtaiied with no loading. 1t will be found that Giger coupling is necessary for tausinum secondary voltage, and thatthe new miaximon wil be lowe than in the noad ease. The rvistance loading slo tends to fatten the tops of Uie overennpled frye, making the double inmpsless pronoutced, ‘Coinuare the st of eurves obtaine in this on- periment with these secured in Exp, 15. How do the curves with eoresponding loading compare near resonance? How do they compare at tre ‘quencies removed by 100 ke. of so fron rc hnaneo? ‘To make thie comparison it wil be neces saty to convert tho voltage reading to the rane scale by plotting solected curves, repronenting typical sats of conditions, in toro af personage fof the maximoim voltage obtsivel, Suggested ‘curves to plot in this fashion are these eorresponde ing to those shown in Fig. 9, and oxo sot of three (less thaw eritical coupling, ental coupling, ad tmorlerate overcoupling) for each condition of Toading (90. load, 100,000. ohms, and 50,000) ‘ohms) as oblained in the preseat expesiment. Note the “hand-pass” effect of a pait of over coupled circuits with. appropriate. resistance loading, EXPERIMENT 20 Pi-Scction Filter Operation Apparatus: Same as for preceding expert iments with the folowing values of I-watt rsis- {ors 10,000, 3000, 1000, 500 snd 200 olin, Procedure: The operating charncterstcs of the pisection Stor are investigated inthis experi ‘ent, The erouit arrangement is shown in Fig, 16, the two condensers being connected with one of the coilson the eireuit hoard to form alow-pacs fitter. The input side of the filter ie connected rectly aeross the verllator tank circuit. A blocking condenser of about 0.001, should be connected in series with the bot lead if the oscil tur plate eieit i seriesfed; this condenser is not necessary with the cieuit of Fig. 2. The vet vollmeter is connected seruss the Siter output to diferent settings of C4, the output eondenser, ‘until masimum output voltage i obtained. Exel time the capacity of Cy ie chauged, reset {bring the frequency back to the orignal value ‘When the masizaum posible output voltage is coblained inthis fashion, vary the osilator fre= ‘quency on both sides uf the original frequency, taking v-tv.m. readings simultaneously, unt ast of the 35-4-Me. band has been covered. Tt will be aatifastory ty take readings at 40- 0 S50.ke. intervals. Do not touel the tuning eon denser in the Biter while thie frequeney ran i be= ing made. When this sexes of data i onmplete, sulstitute the next lower value of resistance and repeat the whole procedure, Contin until al he resistance values specified have been used. Plot the date ns ilustested i Fig. IT Tn taking the data it wil be clverved that as the valueuf lind resistauce is owered the capacity ‘required i the output condense, Cs for mas mun output vollage progressively incresees It Dy this means that the inpeslanee mteling”” funetion of the filter is realized, and this chsrac- teristic compares to the use of more capacity in 8 parslle-tuned cireuit to maintain wulfielnt Q ‘then the load resistanoe's lowered, By comparing therelative power (2/2) delivered to the various values of Toad resistance it enn be seen that the SSeS Prt reer Vig? 4 output is approximately the sume over the range of loads shown in Fig. 17, iusteating the ability of such a coupling ereuil to provide proper iz pedanco matching over m wide range of load resistances. 38 ‘The bow-pass characteristic ofthe iter ean be folserved from the curves, although there is ne harp eatof However, the output drope eon tiinaity'om the highsfrequeney side of resonance, “while tie neary constant for a 2KUke. frequency anigeon the low-frequency side. The heaey verti fal ne xepwesents the initia Fequcney (S700 ke.) ‘Mt which the Alter sows nite for maximum output ‘Continue the experiment by taking anew value ‘of inductance and repeating the original proeo- ‘Sure vith varios loads, Plot curves ud compare ‘hea with those lane! with the ful 35 turns in ‘the coll Still lager values of inductance also m dbo used by connecting part of the second coil in Sees with the Best, Changing te LC ratio of Filter may result in a better impedance mateh with ceriain values of Toad rerstance, les ductance and more capacity being required fur lowereistaiee loads. This onresponds to the e. fect of w similar change in L/C ratio on coupling in an ordinary resonant cirouit-with the loud connected in parallel ‘The operation of the filter with loads having a ‘ogetaeiee a well ns reistance component, ont dition Frequently mot when w piseetion (iter is coupled to an antenna oF tranamision line, can be investigated. by eonriceting various values of ceupaeity or induetanee in series with the load resstance. Useful information about Ube tuning ‘eapabilties of the iter ean be obtained by l= Serving the linits of reactance which ean becom pensated for by the filter, for various values of Fond resistance. The eeactance vals ean be em puted from the ealeulsted or kowwn values of Fhduetance or enpacity inserted in the load eeu P. ‘art Four VACUUM-TUBE FUNDAMENTALS Eixeearenrs designed to show compre: hensively the operation ofthe vacuum tube as an amplifier require a fuiely elaborate array of ent apparatus, Finling the gsincfrequeney character- [sti of an audio amplifier, for example, requires the use of a calibrated source of variable f quenoy over the nudiosrequeney range, plus falbrated alternator iad a wens for measuring, voltages, with readings independent of frequency. Distortion eminot readily be obvervedwithont an otellosope, Such eqiipment is expensive and fatisfactory sulntitutes cnet Telly: be cone structed at howe ‘However, simple experiments desigued to show the propertis of vacutm tubes reall ean he per formed with the gear doserited in the preceding installments, As a eonvenience in setting up ape pperatus,a tube board such as is thown in Fig. 1 fan be added, Tt consists simply of a baseboard with a square piece of bukelite in which is Iounted sn ondiey octal eocket, connections Tiag brought out from the socket prongs rmachine-srvew terminals, This permits changing tube connevtions withont soldering, ‘The heater terminals ate permanently ronnoctel to a terme hl stsip mounted at the back of the board. ‘This strip loo has terminals for" supply, one negative and two positive. The latter take care of separate plate and vereen voltages when 2 tetrode OF pentode is used. A push-button mounted on the board provides « means of closing the plate (or screen) cireuit when tho illiammeter inthe test instrument is being ured for other measure ment, Tn uring the plate power supply With ie wari= blo voltage iviler it shoul be remembered ‘st only a lunited current can be taken through the divider tape for more than very short periods of time. ‘The variable resistor, in particular, is rated at only a few watts, and if the output eure ont is more than 15 milliamperes or 0 the time uring whiek current flows taust be kept toa ‘minimum, Since a reading ean be taken in a mat. ter of seconds tie ino handicap, butif the supply ig wed for continuous output the resistor arm should be eet at the end earieeted to the tra Former eonter tap (ee Fig. 3, p. 28), oF site shonld be provided for'shorting between the negative output terminal aud the wire con nected to the couterstap ofthe power transformer, Tube Characteristics Some amplifeation of the Handbook material dealing with tube constants may be helpful in onneetion with the experimental work. In the paragraph on “'Characterities”” (§3-2), for ine stance, plate resistanoe ia defined aa “the ratio, for a fixed grid voltage, of a small plate voltage change to the plate current change it elects.” ‘This ean be written in the form of sn equation: 3B, constant aad ) where ry stan for plate resistance, aR for the change in plate voltage, and fy for the eorre- sponding ehange in plate current, The sign & indicates that ‘we are concermed not with one Wale but with the difference helen tno ala, da other respects the equation is simply the familiar statement of Ohin's Law) The other two constants, amplification factor and mutual con- ductance, also can be defined in formulas instead of words 28, constant = SEE Cy constant) se 2H, mad) é 40 ‘By simple substitution in these formulas it is td that the three constants are related in this ‘The values of the constants can be found by plotting characteristic curves and measuring the ‘change which occurs in one quantity when the ‘other fe changed any arbitrary amount, However, this method must be used with some euution ‘when the characteristic curve doesnot tur ont to bes straight line. Ifthe line bends, the “eon stant” is not actually always the’ sume, but varies with the point on the eurve at which itis measured. Tor example, suppose that Tig. 2 represents a curve showing the variation of pate furent aa the plate voltage in varied, and frm ie Wwe want to determine the plate retstance. We avbiteaily sect A as the point from which to Start and, alo esbitrarly, devide to make the plate current change, Jy, 2 milliamperes. A 2 nnlliampere increase brings us to point B om the eurve. Then the corresponding change in plate voltage, Ey is the difference between the plate voltages which cause 1 and 2 muilfiasperes to flow. Thus Fy = 70 — 30 = 40 volts, Then 40, _ = gitig = 2.000 om Suppose that instead! of 2 milliamperes for Ip wwe had sclected 1 miliampere. ‘This. would bring us to point Con the curve, and now E, = 53 ~ 30 = 23. volts, Substituting. these ‘new values in the equation gives us 23 Jana, tem pike = 2000.01 ‘Because of the curvature ofthe characteristic the value of the “constant” 1» aa ineasured by this ‘method will depend considerably upon the value (of A elected, A the vale of & is mada smaller fand ialler the value of ratio Af 9/Aly air proaches the ratio AD/DE, where the line FE is ‘awa tangent to the curve at point A (that is, tho Tine FE touches but docs not intersect the ceurve at point A), Tn Fig, 2 this ratio i AD__ss—m DE ~ Toos— 0001 eee ae = 2.000 ota ‘hich isthe valve of the plate resistance at point A oon the curve. If points Bor C had boen elect Jnatead of as the starting placo (point at whieh plate resistance it to be determined) diferent ‘values of plate resistance would be obtained, sine it's obvious that tangents drawn through these ‘pointe would not eu with the tangent ZF. ‘In determining the values ofthe tube constants from the curves, therefore, the preferred proce: dure is to draw a tangent to the curve at the A Course in point at which the value of the constant isto be ‘measured, and thon use the tangent Hine as Basis for measirement of AZ, and al, (or whatover pair of quantities is represented by the curve). While there is bound to be some inaceuraey in drawing the tangent, in general the results ‘will be neater the truth than if two points on the curve itself are selected, Of course if the curve ix Hruigit the curve and its tangent eoincie. 40 ‘hat in the special aso of a straight-line curve points ean be taken dieectly from the eurve, Ga In the dingeats of the various set-ups for the ‘experiments to follow, millammeters sud volt- tneters ae indicated wire measurements are to be made. If enough separate instruments are at hand, they may be used as shown. However, if ‘uly the single combination test instrament is Available for measuring currents and voltages, ‘extreme eare shoe be sed to nee thatthe proper range is aclocted before making voltage mast ‘ments. Tn particular, ifthe instrument eset on the O-t una range for use with the vt. voltmeter, ‘and then connerted aerose « highevoleage part wf the circuit while inuivertontly Teton that rane, burn-out oF other serious damage to the meter ovement is slinost eertain to result, Tt isin portant to form the habit of checking the setting, Lif the range site before making any change i the instrument eonetins ASSIGNMENT 1 Sindy Handbook Sections 3-1 and 3-2, Perforn Bape. 21, 2 and 28. Questions 1) How des conduction take place in a there smionie vacuum tube? 2) What ia the space charge? 8) What is the purpowe of the grid in triode? 4) Name the three fundamental tube ebaras- teristics and define them 3) Why is a “load” necessary if a vacuum tube isto perform useful work? 1) What are tube chaenetetste curves? 7) Why is amplification possible with a triode tube? '5) What ia meant by the term ceapacity"? '9) What is the difference between static and dynamic characteristic curves? intreootrode RADIO FUNDAMENTALS 41 10) Tn what form isthe power supplied to the plate-eathode cirsit of e tbe disipated? 11) What is the purpase of tubo ratings? 12) What is moant by th term “plate-current cutoff point 18) What is grid bins, and why is it usod? 1) Define saturation point 15) What is ectifcaton? ASSIGNMENT 12 Study Handtwok Seotions 3-8 aud 3-4, Perfor xp. 24, Questions 1) Name three forms which the plate fod form triode amplifier may take, 2) Define voltage amplification; power amplis- cation, What is the essential difrance between ‘mpliiors designed forthe two purposes? a Niet, ermine the choi of epating \ for au amplifier? 1D) Define plate eleieney, How does i vary with diferent types of operation (Clase A, Bad oP '8) What is harmonic distortion and how i caused? 1) Describe Clase-A amplifier operation, 7) What is feed-back? What is the result of application of positive feed-back? OF negative TeedL-buck? '8) How is tho input eapacity of » teiode m= Dilfer affected by its operating emitions? 9) What is driving power? 10) What is tho phaco relationship batween the alternating voltage applied to the grid of an amplifier having 2 resistance load al the ain plied voltage which appears in the plate circuit? 11) What is the offct of the value of Toad ro= sistance on the amplifeation obtainable with sven tube? 12) Tf certain power amplifer circuit delivers 8.8 watts whon asignal voltage of 20 peak volts is applied to the grid, what is the power sensitivity of the amplifier? 13) Deseribe Class-B sanpliier operation. 1) What is the definition of a decibel? 15) If the power level ut one point in an ame plier is 0.25 watt and at alate point is 4 watis, ‘what i the gain in db 16), What are the of a Clase C amplifier? 11) Whatis the dierence betweon parallel and pushepull operation? 18) A certain circuit provides an attenuation ‘of 15 db, What ia the ratio of power levels in the eeouit? 19) If «signal of 0.6 volt is applied to an am plifler having a voltage ampliention of 125, wi Is the output voltage? 20) In & certain amplifier an input voltage of 0.01 vot produces an cutput voltage of 50 meross nguishing characteristics 500 ohms, The input resistance ofthe amples fe 8.1 megolim, What isthe gain of Uhe amplifier in abo? ASSIGNMENT 1 Study Handbook Sections 3-5 and 3-6. Perform, Questions 1) What is the purpose of the aereen grid in @ tetrode or pontode tube intendod for tse ae a aullosrequency amplifier? 2) Does the shistding affordad by the sezeen arid havo to beas complete in a totrode or pantode ‘designed for audio-requency amplifestion es in ‘one designed for radio-fequouey aumplieation? '8) Describe secondary emission. 4) How may the efeets of secondary emission bbe reduc in soren-srid tube? 8) What is the difereuce between @ “vatia- ley" and a “sharp cutot™” tube? ©}, Why is « mereury-vapor rectifir preferred to shigh-vacaum retior when the rectifier tibe ‘must handle a considersble amount of power? ") How docs a mereury-vapor grid-sontrol ree- tifier difer fromm high-vacuum triode? Could such a “gas triode” be used for amplification in ‘the orinary sense ofthe word? '8) Identify five general types of multipurpose tubes, 9), What in beam tuber 10) Name the two goncral types of exthodes ‘used in therminnie vacuum tubes, 11) ‘What isthe advantage of the unipotentia cathodot 12) What isthe purpose of conter-tapping the ‘filament supply of «tube whose cathode i heated by altemating curent? 18) A certain rl. power ampliior requires a negative grid bias of 200 wits for Class operie tion, Thed., guid eusrent i to be 16 mliamperes under opersting evnditims Ifthe bias isto be ob tained entirely from grid leak action, what value of grid-eak resistance is required? 14) A triode ampiiior requires a negative grid bias of 30 volts, at which bias the plate eurent poves, What value of eathode resistence ‘illgive the required bias? If the ampli it be Used wt audio frequencies ue Lor a8 100 eyes, ‘what valu of by-pass capaeity should be shunted across the resistor Uo minimiae negative foede back? 15) What value of cathode biaa resistance should be provided for & OF used as a Clase-A entode audio amplifier with 250 velts on the Plate? (Use published operating conditions.) ‘What value of by-pass condenser should be used to prevent negative feod-bnck at frequencies down to 80 evel? 16) A push-pull power amplier requires 400 wots bias and © de. grid enrrent of 18 mile Tiamperee por lube under rated operating eondi- 42 Z tions, If 130 volt of fixed ns to be provided by Thateries, what guid Teak resistance should be ved? ASSIGNMENT 14 Slunly Hanabook Seotion 5-7, Perform Exp, 26, Questions 1) How may a varwum-tibo iret be mate to generate ealsistainedowillatons? 2) Can oscillations be set up in a civait in whieh the feed-back is negative? 8) What i negative reastance? 4) Define series fod; paralil feo, 5) Draw two eireuta utilizing magnetic feede back. 6) How can the amount of feed-back be con- ‘eolled ia the Colitis cicuit? 7) Draw a simple triode crystal oveillator ex uit, Which of the ordinary osrliatar eiuite doe It resemble most cloely? '8) Define the plate efiieney of au osilator. 19) Name four factors which can alect the fr- quency of oxilation 10). What is multivibrator? Name one of the les for this type of onillato, 11) How eau the effect uf plate voltage varia- tons on frequency’ of oscillation be minimized” 12) Dra theee oscillator rirenite with capacity feed-back, an dcceribo how the feed-back may be controled in cach, 13), Wha isthe sual method of obtaining eid bag in an cailltor eieuie? Why ie 3 nse in preference to otter metluals? 14) How ean frequoney' dif in an oellator be reduced? 15) A 25-mierohenty oil is available for ure in an oscillator eiveut whieh i to opeeate at approx mately 2000 ko, What eapacity will be required to tune the eol? power * SUPPLY ~§ rake stage “oui oe Fes ASSIGNMENT 15 Study Hondtnk Sections 8 ad 5, Questions 1) What is a fuoreseent sereeu? A Conte in 2) Describe the consteuetion and operation of simple eathorloray ostllossope tube '3) By what wetlvads may an electron beam be deflected? '4) Define deflection sensitivity 3) How is the intensity of the luoreseent spot contalled? 16). What is the purpose of the sweep circuit in ‘an oscilloscope? 7) Nase two common Formas uf evens, Wat are the ulvantagen an disacvwntagen of each? '8) What is an electron gu? 9) Why ist desirable to use amples for the delietion voltages for a eathaate ny tubo? 10) Why should the time of the return trace fn a linear sweep circuit be a» short is possible? Ti) Explain the method by which patterns are formed on. the fuoresceut screen, Construct pattern, using a Linear sweep with retin trace time equal to 1/20 ofthe total time ofthe sweey eyele for tivo cyelesifasine wave spied to the vertical plates, Construct pattern, ting the sSuune wo sinewave cycles applied to the verte pistes, but with a single sine wave for the bor zontal sweep. Compare with the linear swexp 12) Desotibe the operation of a. gutriale linear aweep generator exPEEMENT 21 Diode Character Apparatus povwer supply, tube boar, test sey waemumetibe Yoltineter, and three Tarate resistor, 25,00, £80,000 and 100,000 obs. ‘The circuit arringe” rent is shown in Fig. 8. Measurements east be made of the voltage applied to the tbe aud the fueent flowing in its pste-cathvule iret; the Single tect inetrumont tan be used for both pur poses by being shifted back and forth for eve pair of readings, Hmever, the stall euro eon fumed by the instrument when used ar x volte tse the actual ontpit voltage to be lower when the vollage is being measured thax when the instrument is shifted to read plate curs Feult. Unless a separate vollmeter which cas be left permanently in the circuit is available, ibis ‘advisable to se the vt. voltmeter, thus avoiding the lending effect, ‘The test instetaent ie there fore sulted between the pte citeait of the tube being tested and the ple circuit of the voltmeter tube ‘Thi tube tobe tested nay be & 6H6, the diode section ofa combination diole-ansplifier tube, of fimply small trisde auch as the GI5 with the Fd and plate connceted together to ack ae & ule plate. Procedure: Tho object of the experiment i to plot characteristie curves, plate voltage v, plate ‘current, for the tate alone (tate rhirartereie) fad with various valuevof load resistance in serion With the plate eieuit(ayuauie characteristics). __ RADIO FUNDAMENTALS Starting at zero plate volésgo,inerease the plate voltage it small steps, taking plate eurrent read ings stench voltage step. With no load resistor in ‘he ereuit take readings at intervals of voltage 4 Berd dal oT Fes hich will give curront intervals of about 1 ie Tiare so thot enon pointe will be secured to five asmout curve wie the punts are plotted. In the ease of the GII6 tube, using one plate snd fathode only, one-volt intervals ate. suitable, Proceed similarly when the load resistance i ine sertrlin the circuit in this ease larger voltage in tervals (5-vlt steps, for instance) ean be ised Tsing the single tat set forall measireusents, the pushtion should be elosed while the volt tage measurement ie being toade so that the volt. fie cat be adjisted to the proper value with plate current flowing. Ifthe plate eiteuit ie not losed at the tine the voltage it adjusted, the voltage will drop when the millimeter i cou nected inthe plate cirouit of the tube to measure plate eutrent. Tt is not nesessey to make pro- vision for elosing the plate cenit of the v.t¥m. When the meter is being used elsewhere, ‘The obeerved dla shosld be plotted in the fashion shown in Fig, 4 which gives characteris- fecurves take on & 6 With no ad thes te high, reaching 10 miliampores with thout 75 yolte applied. Other types of tes may tive considerably diferent: platecurcent, value Sithout Inad, but should approsimate the loed curves given sinee the eurrent whiel ows at a given voltage is principally determined by the ful resistance rafler than the te, At ie to be cespected, the etrent decreases, at a given ape pled voltage, as the load resistance is inereased, 1 the no-load curve is insprvteat carefully, It will be observed that itis nota straight lin, par- Hcularly tear the lonevottage end, The lamp ia xp. 10 was aiother exaonple of « non-linear et cul alton for wliflerent reason. Tn the pres fat ‘case, the non-linearity arises from the fact that the nnmber of electrons dravn to the plates not stvietly qeoportinnal to the voltage applied 43 betwen plate and eathou, The de resistance of the diode at aay voltage i eqial to that voltage divided by the ouront whiel I forees trough the tube, In practice the behavior ofthe tube wien alternating voltage is appli is of more intent, In which ease the ae. plate resistance, oF rit: ‘anc elev Lo stall changes iw spied wot, is important. The value ofthis plate resistance is found as deserbed ia the intron to thie installment ‘Whim ond resistance ie inserted fn the plate circuit the linearity of the virut consisting of the tesistanoe and the tube is beteer than die of the tube alone. ‘This improvement, which inereaser as the loa resistance is increas, is because the Toad resistor tends to rehace the efeet of varia: tions in the resistasicw of Uwe tube. For example, i the resistance of the tubs varies betieen 1000 ‘and 3000 ohne with rertain range of applied ‘voltage the resistance cine is 2000 olin, or an Incerase of 200 por cent, sig the stualler number 8 a base, If 4 1,000-ohm resistor connected Series, the minimim resistance, oeses 11,000 ‘lia andl the maxiuun resistance 13,000 ole, fo that the increase iy resitance i now only 2000/1100, oF 18 por evit, With 30000 lie series the incerane is fron 101,000 fo 108,000, sihms, 0 thal the perrentage ierwase ix now per tent. lw the eurves of Fi 8 the adit of the Tad verstance snakes all the points fall on a line which i prnetinlly straight except at Ue lowe Yoltage ed where the tbe resistance hve its highest value. The higher the loud resistance the lees marked does this slight eurvature become. taking data i il le aberved that stl ‘current les in the pate cient even at zee pater ‘oltage. This current isthe result the fact that some eleetrons are emitted from the eathode with suficiont velocity to reach the plate even though there ine positive cliange on the plate to attract Power +8570 eae © supply == Ete Bias. -°paane suprey | tesa Lo} ties them, For complete eutaif of plate currant it would be neveney to make the plate a volt ot ‘wo negative with remrct to dhe cathode, thus repelling these high-energy cloctruns from the plate. Since the eurrent in any ease is very small 44 avery small faction of miliampere —it ean bbe neglected in most applications of the tue. ‘However, in fowing through an external load re tlstance of high value a volt or tro may be de= veloped across the load, which may need to be {ken into secount in sone cases, Fes EXPERIMENT 22 Triode Static Characteristics Apparatus: The set-up for this experiment ie shown in Fig. 6. Insofar asthe plate eeuitof the triodois concersed, the arrangement iepractically the same as that used for diode messurements, Fig. 3, except thet it is possible to measure plate voltage with the ast instrament rather than the vat, vollmeter. This ig because larger plato-volt- age steps maybe used 0 that a high range (500 volts oF the nearest puvided om the test intr mnt), whieh will have a resistance of a hull riego}im or 20, will give suficient neeuraey forall, ‘mewsurements, The bias supply is inearporated in tho set-up to provide vaya grid bins, nnd ts voltage output also may be meastred by the tastinstrumenton the condition 3 that the voltmeter resistance is 25,000 chs or so (25-volt sale). Be eure that the positive output terminal ofthe bias) supply in connected to the grounded fide of the 115-rolt lino, using the lamp Drovided for checking ‘st deverited in Part 2 Tn using a sleet in a place of the three indicated, the pushe Dutton should be else each tive the piste voltage is measured so that the Yoltage will be thst existing when plate cument Hows. ‘The resistor R shown in Tig, Sisnot ‘needed in this experiment, so the pis button may be ronnceted directly to the plate, A Course in Procedure: The objoct of the experiment isto Aotermine the selationship between plate voltage, plate current and grid voltage of « small trode, One quantity is held constant throughout «an, the second is varied, ancl oorreepending measure: rents of the third are made. 3 receiving triode ‘such a5 the GJS is suitable. Three sete of charac: teristics can be taken, the fist, with the plate voltage hold fixed while the bebavior of plate eure rent with varying grid voltage is obterved, ie called the “iid veltage-pate current” chara teristic. When a serios of such sata ie taken with several fied values of plate voltage, a amily” of curves resulls. A. typical grid voltage-piate feurent family taken inthis wagon 8 8J8eahown, in Big. 6. The plate voltage was set at 50-vlt intervals vont 80 to 400 volts (the maximum out- put voltage of the power aupply dese in Part 8), enough pointe belng taken at each plate volt- ‘age to permit smooth eurves to be drawn, Notice that for each value of plate voltage the curve Donut the higher values negative grid voltage (4s the plate current dereaeee tovvard the cut-off point) but that the curvature deereaser at the id ‘bins heeomes less negative. ‘The curves eventually straighten out aul Leeome practically pevallel, and the distances heteen the 0a Intervals also approach equalts, The dashed Hue hows the value of plate curvcut at which the plate dissipation (plate voltage multiplied by Dlate current) ie equal to the maximum rated Yalue for the tales shove this line the plate dis- SSation i exceeded ‘The “plate family,” shown plotted from ex- Perimental data in Tig. 7, i obtained by holding the grid hint constant. at eclcted values and ‘measuring the plate eurrent as the plate voltage ix varied. ‘These’ curves show the same. general tendency to bend when the plate current is near cut-off, and to ctrighton out at higher wales of plate currant "The pate family ie frquently tonne Useful than the set of grid voltageplate ourrent frves represented by Fig. 6. ‘When the remaining qvantity, plate current, Ble aad Pet RADIO FUNDAMENTALS held constant while the ged voltages waried (the plate voltage being adjusted foreach value of grid bins to give the selected valve of plate current) the fet of curves shown in Fig. 8esults, again plotted from experimental data on a 616, These constant current!” curvas show the raative effeet of grid Fis voltage and plate voltage on plate current. The Surven ae ney straight ines or all except very Stall values of plate eure, showing that the ‘xoplifeation factor i practically constant for a sven plate-curvent vale regardless of the plate fad end voltages, ‘The fct that, with th excep tion of the curve fora plate eurent of O1 Tampere the curve are very nearly paral! in dicates thatthe amplification fata als nest Independent of the plate current so Tong as the latter is wot nea the eut-off pont. "The vas of mplication fox, plate r= sistant rand mutual conductane, can be ‘canted from these three sts of eaves. Tho Mutual conductance, a,c be found from the eurven of Fig. © singe these eurves show the relationahip between grid voltage and pate eit Tent. The plate resistance, Afp/AZq. can. bo ‘meniured from the eueves of Fi. 7, whieh rato Plate caren to plato voltage fr wero vales Sf grid. bias, while the ampliGeation factor ‘Smal, can be taken from th carves of Fig. ' Tho method of making these measuroments i desert in the iatroduetion to ts iastalae Since those “constants” are a funetion of thes ‘oriables a large mimes of rapa wos bo T- ‘ulred to give thr bohavior even patil com: Blotly, but one special cue i shown in Fig. D. ‘This graph shows tho variation ia yy ty and J ss. neton of gid bas when the pve voltages Held ennatant at 250 vol, the normal rated op- erating voltae forthe tube, and sa plot of values ‘easured at 250-rat points on ead of te tree fets of curves in Figs, 7 and & Tt is plain that the ampligcation factor changes relatively lite compared tothe changes in to other two quan lites. Increasing: nezative grid bias causes the ruth conductance to deerease, which means {hat the amlifeation ssnnble from the be ako decreases since auplication is proportional 45 to mutual eonductonoe, other things being equal. On the other hand, the pate existance increases ‘with increasing negative grid bias, Asa ebock on he securary of measurement, the three eurves should entity the rolationsh mae ‘within reasonable limits of scouraey, for any ‘sven value of grid bina, i published average curves for the type of tube measured are available, it will be of interest to fompare them to the curves determined exper mentally. Bsact duplication of the published furves is not to be expected, of course, because fof slight variations in manufacture, EXPERIMENT 23 ‘Triode Dynamic Operation Same equipment as for xp. 22, Slstors of Iowatt rating will be satis Procedure: Tue ober ofthis experiment isto plot dynamic grid woltuge-plate eurrent clarses arises for representative vabes of plate Toad resistance, Using @ fied value of platesupply ‘ollage, insert «resistor ut R, Fig. 5, and wacasure the plate current as tho grid bias Varied in steps fof 25 volts or so, Tach time the grid bine is ‘changed raj the plato-aupply voltage (meas tured aerees the supply terminals, not from plate to cathode of the tube being invectignted) with te push-button eloved so that the voltage under Toad vil be the nctl value alented. Th voltage will neod to bo re-set as the pate eurrnt increases, Decanse of voltage diop in the power supply When a coniplete st of data has been obtained with one valu of plata load resistance, change to ‘another value and take another run. When ine isled with all values of resistance, plot the date jn the form of curves showing plate current sgsinst ge Bias, i 4 BG ieee A typical set of such enrves, taken on #615 ‘with the plate voltago constant at 300, isshownin Fig 10, As the plate load resistanco is made larger ‘the maximum plate current (et ero grid bias) bor comes smaller, esis to be expected. The plate surrent eatoff point however, cess at appro. mately the sume value of nogative grid bias in each case, since the plate voltage is fixed and at Piao oro current there is no voltage deup in the load tor, As in the euro of the dine which was the ject ‘of Hxp. 21, inereasing the valve of load resistance has the efleet of stinightening out the ‘curve, s0 that the eurves taken with high valies ‘of load shiow Tess bending than cirves with no Jog or small values of oud existance ‘The effect of the load resistance on the aunpli fication obtainable from the tube, aul alse the distortion it introduces, ea, be found graphically from eurves such as these, In Fig. 11, sm. tration, the curve for = 10,000 ohing has boon plotted singly for the purpune of sowing, the re- lationship between varying grid signal voltage and the corresponding variations in plate current, ‘An operating point should ba chosen somewhere near the middle of the rolaively-stenight past of the curve, such that the product of the plate current by the voltage between plate and cathode wll not exewed the rated plate dissipation af the ‘ube. In Fig 11 the operating point select isthe Bint 4, at — 7.5 volts grid bigs, aking the oe gual plate curtent slightly less thaw 8 miliam= pres, The dashed line extending downward from A is the axis of rid voltage, and the line extend ing to the right is the asin of plate eurvent, On the ‘id voltage axis a tine wave ix plotted so the as. Sued signs! voltage (the acta! shape ofthe sig ral wave is not highly important, but the sine ‘wave is representative ofa sige frequcney) ae & function of time, one complete exele being repre. sented. In Fig. 11 the signal has « mesinam Amplitude of § volts, eo that the instantaneous iri voltage swings between the lint of 23 Volts and = 12.5 volts about the fxed grid bins of ~7.5 volts. A corresponding time seale is aplied ‘tothe plate current ais eo thatthe plate current corresponding t0 the grid voltage af given ine staat can be plotted. A Cort in At zero time (beginning of the eyele) the ged voltage is ~7.3 and the plate current 7.8 aa..ajy- proximately. One-ighth eycle later (pint the ivi signal voltage has risen to 71 per cent of Taxis value ao that the instantaneous rid voltage is ~ 4 volte, The plate current, C, at that ame instant is 128 milliamperes, and this values plotted at D, one-eighth eyele from zero time on the plate-cutrent axis, Points for other instants are similarly obtained until enough are plotted to permit drawing a smooth curva. When the eyele { complete it can be eoropared for shape to the ‘oviginal grid signal. As Fig. 11 shows, the two halves of tho plate curt eyele are not exactly the same shape, as Uhey wore in the grid signal, ‘This lifference in shape represent distortion, and the greater the difference the snore distortion there is pmaent, Asis obvious feom the drawing, the distortion is eaused by the curvature of the tube chacucterstc, since if the. characterstie were perfectly straight the plate euerent woul be roportional to the arid voltage, Plotting salar graphs from dynamic curves taken with different values of load resistance readily wil show the effet of the load resistance on distortion. ‘Then of the tube ae an amplifier an also be found rom the graph of Fg. ar from the carves of Pig, 10. Referring to Fig. 13, it ean be sen that with fixed late supply voltage, 2, the current lowing in the plate cirentt ill case « voltage Arop across the load resistence, thie drop bein equal to Tyft where Z; isthe value of the plate ‘current and the resistance. The voltage setually between plato and cathode of the tube i the plste-supply voltage minus the voltage drop in the resistance. When an a. elgual is applied to ‘the grid, the plate current varies at the sate fee- queney, nce a corresponding ae, voltage is de- RADIO FUNDAMENTALS veloped across the load resistor. This a, voltage isthe useful outpat of the tube, The maximurn trop inthe resistor occurs when the plate current is maximum, eorsesponding to the most sitive Value of iitantanesos grid voltage and the minis Pal mum drop oeeurs when the plate current is mi mum, eomepending to the most negative value of instantancons grid voltage. In Fig. 11 these plate-curont values are 14.5 millamperes for an Instantaneous grid vollagee! — 2.5, anim for voltageat ~ 12.5.Sinee the plateloadresst- 10,000 chins, the maximum voltage drop ‘ium drop is 0.008 10,000, oF 30. volts, Th ullerence, 145 — $0, oF 113 wlts, i the ttal ‘hange in voltage acrons the loud corresponding toa total change in grid voltage uf 10 volte ence the voltage gain is 115/10, or 11.5. ‘The sae ie formation could be obtained from the curves of Fig. 10 by fing the eusrents corresponding to any. chosen change in gpid voltage, ind ten proceeding sa shove to find the voltage outpnt. From such information a curve cait be plotted showing the variation of amplification with load resistance, EXPERIMENT 24 Class-A Amplification Apparatus: The power supply, bias supply, vA. Woltmeter and tube board age used thi experiment, together with potentiometer oF volume control and the resistors specified in Exp, 28, Almost auy potentiometer resistance may be ‘sed, although values higher Ussn sbout 100,000 ‘ohms should be avoided if possible. The eieuit arrangement isshown in Vig. 18. The eater volt- age or the tubes s used asa souroe of te. voltage for the grid of the tube being Usted, the valus of voltage applied to the grid being adjusted by ‘means of the potentiometer. ‘The a0. voltage in either the guid or plate cizeut ia measured by the vacuumetube voltmeter, the input circuit of hich is connected to the creut being meastred through the 0.01-ufd. condenser, This condenser blocks the de. voltages present and permits only the ne, to be measured. Before performing. the experiment the v.t voltmeter should be ealfbrated on a. A source of Variable a voltage ean most conveniently beob> tained by making sight change in the bist sup- AT ply so that its voltage divider can be conneeted lirectly across the ae. line, Referring to Mig 2, Dage 18, Part 2, dienrnest the top end of Wf the ite and connect it to the a, output term nal. Then proceed to calibrate the voltmeter by the same method used in making the dc. alba tion, using the O.0l-yéd. blocking condenser in the “hot” voltmeter lead, Connect the T= condenser, C5, 10 the eathode of the voltmeter tube (Fig: 6, page 29, Part 3). ‘The calibration willbe in terme nf rs, wltages, snee the test Sot calibration ia rms. The av. calfortion wil resemble that taken on de, exrept thatthe eurve above about 40 volta the high range may show ‘onsiderable departure from linearity. If 20, we only the lear part of this scale. This effet ix ‘itributable to the fact that with a eapacty of fonly 1 afd, at C the time eonstant of the ecu ji too small at 6D eycles to permit the cathode bias tw build up to a value sullicent to prevent grid current from foving at the higher applied volte fges. In performing the experiment eare shold be taken to Keep the maximum voltage to be measured within the inex part f the high-ange Procedure: The purpnee of this experiment tu confirm by measurement the results of the wai calculations carried out a deseribed in Exp. 28, ‘Aadjust the grid bins (restore the voltage divider ‘oietion to the fiter after completing the a.e, talibration) and plate vitae to the values wed fn the ealeulations, using the sume tube. These were —7.5 and 300 volts respectively in our ex ample, using a 615. Set tho potentiometer so that ‘the voltage applied to the grid is about 2 volts Em, as metsured between guid and cathode (Fig 18). Inserts resistor in the plate creuit of the tube at &, and adjust the plate=upply voltage sagefom caypane Fits to tho selected value (300 this iustration) with plate current Sowing (push-button elosed). Shit the v.Lv.m. to the plate circuit and messure the ‘uc. autput voltage, Heeping the push-buttod closed, Repeat for various values of plate load re 48 sistance, using 00 resistors in seties to make up values intermediate to those available inthe nt fle units, The results of w typical set of measure- Ineuts are given below, for 2 volts ras, applied to the grid: he woo ‘The gain ofthe amplifier wil be equal to the out- put voltage divided by the input ve, oF just batt Giput voltage = 2) the figures above, Pot the date in the form of a eurve, at thown in Fg, i, ‘Note that the gain rises as the plate load re- nee is inereated, but eventually» point is reached whore a cotsiderable ineresee fn Toad re sistance eauses only « egtgbly small increase tain. The gain obtainable i proportional to th Aampieation factor and alo to the ratio of the Dla load ressiace ty the sum ofthe plate Yond Fesisianee and thea. plate resstaneeof the tube, fand when the plate load resistance large com: prod to the tube resistance this ratio. changes ‘very slowly. Hence the ampliieation tends to level off asthe plate lad reststanes fs increased, From the curvesof Fig. 9 the tube plate resistance is seen to bo about 7500 ohms. When the plate oat resistance i about 6 tes the plate reste, ance, or approximately 40,000 ohms the ampli fieaton increases very slowly with further ine ‘reas in Joad resistance. Hence « load in the Viinity of 50,000 obras is suitable valu for this tube as’ resistance-eoupled voltage amplifier, ra AL 10,000 obms, the vatuo used in the Masten tion of Exp. 28, the measured gain is about 135 ‘ascompared to the caleulsted value of 11,5, The percentage difference, while fairly Tange, isto be expected in view of avoidable errors fa meas ‘urement and ia plotting and reading the eurves, ‘Also, the resistance was sesumed to be exactly 10,000 china in the eslelations, while the masiae A Couns in facturing tolerances on these resistors is 10 per cent. Obmmoter measurvanent of the restr actually used in the exposimant showed the Te sistance to be on the high sie of 10,000 ohms. eas sue are Figs FXDPEMIMENT 25 Pentoxde Characteristics Apparatus: The spparats at-up weed in this ‘experiment is shown in Fig. 15, The power sup Diy, bias supply, tubo board and test instrument are required, In taking one set of data itis necss- sary to mulotain the screen grid at constant voltage, preferably the rated value, and for this pirpose « Vi-108-00 is substituted in the power apply for the VR+1S0-90 previously specie ‘The tubo tested ean be a small ceiving pentode such as the 67 ‘In making voltage measuromenta, the highest voltage range on the test instrument whieh will permit reasonably accurate reading abould’ be ‘sed so that the offects of voltage rogulation will bbe muimized. The 500-voleseae or plate voltage and 25-olt seae for grid voltage will be eatisfac= tory (or nearest equivalent ranges provided on ‘tho actual instrument) ‘Procedure: In this experiment curves equiva lent to those ptt forthe tride (Exp, 22) are to be obtained, for the purpose of determining the relationships Between plate current and grid and plate voltages ina pentode, Tis advisable to take lute for the platesrltage-plate current fain fist. Using a 7, fist set tho rid bias at tere and then vary the plate voltage, taking plate current readings at ench value of plate veltage selected, rom e plato voltage of 100 up to the mosis available from the supply (about, 400), S0-volt ‘steps will be satisfuctory. Below 100 volts itis sugested that readings be taken at 10,25, 50 and 75 volts. Bach timo the plate voltage is adjusted bbe sure the push-button in the plate eieuit closed ao that the voltage will beset to the proper ‘value with plate current Sowing. ‘When a Set of meagurements as been made with zero guid bis, increase the bias to 1 volt _ RADIO FUNDAMENTALS 49 tive and repeat. Continue at 1-volt intervals in bias until a sct of measurements has been taken for — 6 volts, At higher bias the plate current will be cut off, or else so small in value as to be negligible. Plot the data in curves such as are shown in Fig. 16. B tt = 00 200300400 PLATE VOLTAGE Fig. 16 19) PLATE CURRENT, Ha. Comparing these curves to the equivalent triode family in Fig, 7 shows a tremendous dif- ference in the behavior of plate eurrent with vary- ing plate voltage. In the triode case (Fig. 7) the plate current is very markedly dependent upon the plate voltage. On the other hand, except for the region of plate voltage lower than the screen voltage, the plate current of the pentode is prac- tically unaffected by the plate voltage. ‘The curves begin to droop as the plate voltage is re- duced below 100, but the drop-off is not really marked until the plate voltage is quite low, The fact that the plate voltage has relatively little effect on plate current while the grid voltage has avery great effect indicates that the amplification factor, AHp/AE,, is very high, ‘The cause of this behavior is the screen grid. nee the screen grid is an electrostatic shield, it, prevents the electrie field set up by the plate fron App 250¥. Jo Plate ReScreen 7 Gnd vase } 1. Cathode Fig. 17 penetrating to the region occupied by the cathode and control grid, hence electrons in this region are unaffected by the plate potential, The control grid, however, has just as much effect on the elec- tron stream as it docs in a triode. Electrons pass- ing through the control grid are attracted to the screon because the latter is operated at a positive potential, but many of them have sufficient velocity to pass between the sereen-grid wires without being eaught by the screen grid itself, ‘These electrons then core under the influence of the electric field set up hy the plate and are at. tracted to it, forming the plate current, Since the plate can attract only the electrons which got ‘through the sereen, it is obvious that the plate current will be determined almost wholly by the screen potential and the structure of the screen rid. The effect of the screen grid on plate current can be found by holding the plate voltage at a fixed value and varying the sereen voltage (for a fixed value of grid bins) while observing the plate current. A slight modification of the experimental set-up of Fig. 15 is necessary. Connect the sereen grid to the variable tap on the power supply as shown in Fig. 17, and tap the plate connection on the power-supply voltage divider so that the plate voltage will be about 250 volts. The first tap below maximum will be satisfactory. If the plate voltage varies slightly during a run no harm will be done since the plate current is only slightly “ 1 1 T ut - ga Se go 8 s a eaten ent ama 001m resem eo “semen voursee Fig. 18 affected by the plate voltage so long as it is ap- preciably higher than the sereen voltage. Vary the sereen voltage in small enough steps so that smooth curves ean be plotted from the data. Do this for several values of grid-bins voltage. ‘Typi- cal experimental curves obtained by this method are shown in Fig. 18, taken on a 67. These curves have essentially the same nature as the curves of Fig. 7, whieh is to be expected from the explanation of the operation of the serecn-grid tube given above. Since the plate voltage has relatively little ef- fect on the plate current, a single-grid voltage plate current curve will suffice for practically all plate voltages above the sereen voltage, so long as the latter is not changed. Such a characteristic ‘can be taken by holding the plate and sereen volt- ages fixed, reading plato current while varying the grid bias, An experimental curve on a 6J7 is shown in Fig. 19. Although in the triode ease the 50 Ai Course in corresponding curves (Fig. 6) had to be drawn for soveral values of plate voltage, in this ease such a series would lie 50 close together as to merge into one curve, for all practical purposes. It can be seen, however, that the curve has the same gen eral characteristics as those typical of triodes, and TH oo 3. PLATE CURRENT, Ma Gh1p VOLTAGE Fig 19 if the mutual conductance is measured it will be found to be approximately the same as for a triode of the sume size, The plate resistance is ob- ously high, since a large change in plate voltage is required to make a comparatively small change plate current. Both plate resistance aud aiu- plification factor are very diflicult to measure with any reasonable accuracy because in each case the ratio of the two quantities involved is so high that the probable error in measuring the smaller of the two reflects a large error in the ratio. Further experimental work may be done with the tube by plotting a series of grid voltage-plate current curves for different values of screen voltage. Also, the effect of secondary emission may be investigated by running a series of plate voltage-plate current curves, corresponding to those of Fig. 16, but with the suppressor grid con- nected to plate instead of cathode. The charae- teristics of a variable-w tube of the same general type, such as the 6K7, also may be taken and compared to the sharp cut-off 6J7. EXPERIMENT 26 Oscillator Operation the blocking capacities are midget mica con- densers. Provision should be made for changing the grid-leak resistance and for using different values of load resistance. The J-watt resistors used in previous experiments will be satisfactory in both eases, Procedure: The object of this experiment is to show the effect of grid-leak resistance on oscillator plate current, grid current, and rf. output volt age, the plate voltage being fixed at some con- venient value and other circuit conditions eft unchanged. In the eirenit of Fig, 20 the tuned cir- cuit is formed by one of the condensers and coils on the circuit board, the whole 35-turn coil being used with the cathode of the oscillator tube (a 655) tapped on the coil 10 tums from the grid end, ‘The v.t. voltmeter is connected between the cathode and plate of the tube (through the plate blocking condenser) to measure the rf. plate voltage. The Iafd. by-pass condenser in the v.t.vam, cathode circuit (C2) should not be used. the plate voltage at some value which prevents excessive plate current, such as 100 volts, insert a 5000-ohm resistor as'a grid leak and measure the plate current, grid enrrent, and rf plate voltage. Adjust the plate voltage to the chosen value with the plate circuit closed so that the tube draws plate current. There should be no load on the oscillator on the first run, Change the grid leak to 10,000 ohms and repeat, then con- tinue with successively higher values of grid-leak resistance up to 100,000 ohms. Connect a 25,000- ohin resistor across the v.t.v.an. input eireuit as a Toad and repeat the measurements, Continue with lower values of load resistance until the cir- cuit refuses to oscillate. ‘The data may then be plotted in graphical form. ‘Typical results of such measurements are shown in the curves of Fig. 21. Curves for no load and for # load of 10,000 ohms are shown for com- parison, although if several values of load re- sistance are used it would be better to use separate sheets for each, to avoid confusion. With no load the variation in r-f, output voltage over the whole range of grid-leak resistance is relatively small ‘The plate current is low and decreases somewhat as the grid-leak resistance is increased. The grid current at the lowest grid-leak resistance is rela aS, oooverd yee ; ce Apparatus: The power supply, v.t. voltmeter and tube board are needed for this experiment, together with the Power SUPPLY additional parts indicated in the dia- * gram of Fig. 20. The Hartley oscillator circuit is indicated in this diagram, with parallel feed in both plato and grid circuits, The radio-frequency chokes are 2.5-millibenry pie-wound units, and Fig. 20 ofevrm RADIO FUNDAMENTALS tively high, but decreases with increasing grid- leak resistance. The grid bins — product of grid current by grid-leak resistance — shows com paratively little variation, indicating the self- regulating properties of the oscillator in this respect; that is, the grid current regulates itself so as to develop about the same bias over a wide range of grid resistance. 1) ae Wo load ° 130008 load! —-]90 PLATE OR GRID CURRENT Ma. oat t ‘0 1 2% 30 40 60 60 70 60 90 100 GRID LEAK RESISTANCE. (atuttiply'by 1000) Fig. 21 When the circuit is loaded the plate current shows a pronounced increase. This is partly be- entse the load reduecs the @ of the tuned cicuit, thus lowering its parallel impedance and hence eu more plate current to flow, much in the same way that the plate current inereased in the curves of Fig, 10 with lower load resistance for a fixed value of grid bias, At the same time the r-f output voltage decreases while the internal volt age drop in the tube increases. This effect is comparable to the decrease in amplification with lower load resistance which was observed in Exp. 24, The plato-current increase is exaggerated in the case of the oscillator because the decrease in nf. plate voltage is accompanied by a propor- tional decrease in r.f, grid voltage, since the rf. grid voltage is obtained from the plate circuit. Hence the grid bias also decreases, if the grid-leale resistance and feed-back coupling are fixed. With lower grid bias more plate current will flow, and to some extent the amplificution increases so that the rf. output voltage tends to become greater. ‘Thus two tendencies working in opposite dirce- tions are present, but with the net result that there is a deerease in both rf. output voltage and grid bias and au increase in plate current, In- creasing the value of grid-leak resistance again resnlts in self-regulating action with respect to grid bias, while rf. output voltage and plate eurrent decrease together, ‘The experiment can be extended by making a similar set of observations with a new ve feed-back, obtained by eb the posi the cathode tap on the coil. Itis also of inten compare the operation of the various oscillator circuits which can be made up from the coils and condensers on the cirenit board, Part Five RADIO-FREQUENCY POWER GENERATION ‘Tir: exporiments in this part do not re- quire any equipment additional to that already used in the preceding work. Mueb of the useful practical knowledge of the operation of the vari ous parts of transmitters comes from actual eon- struction and use, and tho average amateur, for whom this course is intended, usually has ac- quired a fair fund of such knowledge. Supple- mentary to the experiments, the beginner can get a great deal of pructical benefit from building up various basic circuits shown in the Handbook and observing their operation. This additional work also is recommended 93 part of a classroom pro- gram. The experiments devised for this install- ment have for their purpose the focussing of at tention on points which ordinarily are somewhat obscure to the practicing amateur and which, because of their basic nature, form a good back- ground for understanding otherwise puzzling phenomena which arise occasionally in the course of adjusting a transmitter. Circuit Note Tn the 1942 Standard edition of the Handbook and the first three printings of the Defense edi- tion, circuit (F) in the group of cireuits showing capacity coupling between driver and amplifier stages (§ 4-6) should be revised so that the driver plate-supply lead is tapped on the center of the Griver tauk coil. The eonneetion shown, while not actually incorrect, would necessitate “operating the cathode of the amplifier at, radio-frequency potential above ground, which is usually unde- sirable when it car be avoided, The driver and amplifier cathodes in both this and cireuit (F) should be assumed to be grounded, ASSIGNMENT 16 Study Handbook Sections 4-1 to 4-5, inclusive. Perform Exp. 27. Ques 1) Why is it general practice, on frequencies below 60 megacycles, to use multi-stage transmit- ters in preference to the much simpler arrange- ment of an oscillator coupled to an antenna? 2) What is a buffer amplifier? 8) What are the advantages and disadvantages of sclf-controlled oscillator as compared to the crystal-controlled type? 4) Describe the clectron-coupled oscillator. What features make it preferable to simpler self- controlled oscillator circuits? 5) What requirement must be met by the os- cillator tank circuit to give the highest frequency stability? How can this be accomplished in practice? 6) How should an oscillator be adjusted and operated to secure a high order of frequency stability? What constructional precautions should be observed? 7) Draw an electron-eoupled oscillator circuit, using a tube having an indireetly-heated eathode, with tuned output. 8) Draw a erys pontode tube. 9) If a crystal oscillntor refuses to function, what are some of the possible causes? 10) Compare the triode with a tetrode or pontode as a erystal oscillator tube. 11) What determines the frequency at which a crystal will oscillate? 12) Name four factors which can cause the frequency of a crystal to shift from its calibrated vale, 13) Show a crystal oscillator cireuit which will give output at a harmonic of the crystal fre- queney. 14) Deseribe the behavior of the plate current of a crystal oscillator as the plate tank circuit is tuned through resonance. 15) What is the correct method of adjusting a ‘Tri-tet oscillator? 16) What determines the safe power input to a crystal oseillator cirouit? 17) What are the distinguishing characteristics of some of the better known erystal cuts, such as the X, ¥ and AT? 18) What is a “harmonic” erystal? 19) Why is frequency multiplication generally necessary in transmitters operating above about 7 megacycles? 20) What precautionary measures can be taken to prevent fracturing a crystal from excessive rf. voltage? 21) What is the effect on rf, crystal voltage of taking power output from a crystal oscillator? tal oscillator circuit using a RADIO. FUNDAMENTALS 53 ASSIGNMENT 17 Study Handbook Sections 4-6 and 4-7. Perform Exps. 28 and 2. Questions 1) Draw a circuit diagram showing Tink cou- pling between a single-cnded driver stage and a push-pull amplifier. Indicate series-fed plate sup- ply for the driver and series-fed bias supply for the amplifier. 2) When is it desirable to use link coupling be- tweon driver and amplifier stages? 3) If the effect of shunting capacities ean be neglected, as at luw frequencies, would you expect the same coupling efficiency to be obtained with capacity and with link coupling, assuming op- timum adjustments in each case? 4) Draw a circuit dingram showing capacity coupling between a single-ended driver and sit gle-ended amplifier. Indicate a method for ob- taining optimum energy transfer (“impedance matching”). 5) To what part of the tank coil should a link winding be coupled in order to minimize eapacity coupling? 6) Why i rf, amplific 7) Tf, when adjusting a link-coupled driver- amplifier circuit, it is found that the amplifier ex- citation is insufficient even though the driver power output capability is known to be ample, what is the probable cause? How may the condi- tion be remedied’? 8) What precautions must be taken to prevent self-oscillation in sereen-grid rf. ampli 9) Draw a cireuit of a plate-neutralized tube triode amplificr using @ split-stator tank condenser. Show a driver stage with eapac coupling to the amplifier. 10) Draw a cross-neutralized push-pull triode amplificr cireuit, with a link-coupled single-ended sereen-grid driver. Use split-stator or balanced condensers in the amplifier plate and grid tank circuits, 11) Why is it possible, as a general rule, to ob- tain more complete neutralization of push-pull than a single-ended amplifier 12) Draw a circuit of a gri fier using a single-ended or unbalanced grid tank condenser. Show link coupling to a plate-neu- tralized driver stage. 13) Describe the procedure used in neutraliz~ ing an amplifier, using a milliammeter in the grid cireuit as an indicator. 14) If it is found impossible to neutralize an amplifier completely, how would you test for coupling (external to the tube) between the input and output circuits? 15) What is the principle of inductive neu- tralization? 16) If the impedance in the plate cireuit of a neutralization necessary in a triode ingle- eutralized ampli- 3.5-Me. amplifier is 2000 ohms, what value of by-pass eapacity will be suitable in the plate cir- cuit if series feed is uscd? 17) A certain amplifier exhibits a grid im pedance of 4000 ohms under normal operating conditions, If the driver stage requires a load of 6000 ohms for optimum efficiency, what means can be used to secure optimum power transfor with capacity coupling? If the operating fre- queney is 7 Me,, what values of coupling capacity will be satisfactory? 18) If the amplifier of Question 17 is link- coupled to the driver stage, and a Q of 10 is neces- sary in both the driver plate tank cireuit and amplifior grid tank circuit to assure sulficiont eou- pling, what values of inductance and capacity should be used in each circuit? ASSIGNMENT 18 Study Handbook Sections 4-8 and 4-9. Perform Exp. 30. Questions 1) What is the mini load) in a plate tank cordance with good design principles necessary to set such a lower limit for Qr 2) Given a fixed value of lond resistance, how may the Q of a tank cireuit bo adjusted to the proper value? 3) Of what order is the plate efficiency of a properly-operated r.f, amplifier? Is this the same as the ratio of actual useful power output to de. input? 4) Define operating angle. What. is the usual range of values of operating angle for a Class-C amplifier? 5) How may the load on a Class-C amplifier be adjusted? 6) A certain power tube requires @ negative bias of 70 volts to cut off plate current at the recommended value of d.c. plate voltage. If the peak grid voltage for full output under a given set of operating conditions is +120 volts and the operating angle is to be 150 degrees, what operat ing grid bias is required and what is the rms. value of r.f. grid voltage which must be applied to the tube? 7) What operating bias and what value of rf grid voltage (peak) would be required with the tube of Question 6 if the operating angle were changed to 120 degrees, other conditions temain- ing the same? 8) The grid loss in the tube of Question 6 is 4 watts, What is the approximate valuo of d.c. grid current? 9) A Class-C amplifier is operating on 3600 ke. with a plate input of 120 milliamperes at 750 volts. What tank capacity should be used if the plate circuit is that shown at (B), in the Hand- book diagram showing various types of plate tank 54 circuits (§ 4-8)? What capacity is necessary if the cireuit is that shown at (B)? 10) A push-pull amplifier operating on 7200 ke. is loaded so that the plate current is 250 ma, The applied plate voltage is 1500. What value of inductance should be used in the tank circuit if the Q of the circuit is to be 127 11) Describe the behavior of plate current with plate tank tuning of a Class-C amplifier. 12) Why is the plate current of a Class-C am- plifict least when the plite tank circuit is tuned to resonance with the frequeney of the rf. grid voltage? Why is the plate dissipation also mini- mum at this point? 13) On coupling an antenna circuit toa Class-C amplifier itis found that it is necessary to retune the plate tank circuit. What is the cause? 14) Why is it necessary to supply more driving power to a Class-C amplificr than that actully consumed in heating the grid? What effect docs the operating frequency have upon the relative amount. of additional power which must be supplied? 13). What is the purpose of a dummy antenna? Describe x circuit arrangement suitable for the purpose. 16) Why should an r.f. power am be tuned up with low plute voltage? 17) If the plate current of a Class-C stage rises continually after a period of steady operntion, what is the likely cause? 18) Describe the construction and use of a Faraday screen (clectrostatic shield). What is the purpose of such a device? flor initially ASSIGNMENT 19 Study Handbook Seeiions 4-10 to 4-12, in clusive, Questions 1) In what way docs a frequency multiplier differ from a straight-through amplifier? 2) Why is frequency multiplication necessary in high-frequency transmitters? 3) Why is the frequency doubler the most common type of frequency multiplier? 4) Can a push-pull cirenit be used satisfucto- rily for frequency doubling? Explain. 5) How do the operating conditions for fre~ queney doubling compare with those for straight amplification? Is it possible to obtain as high plate efficiency with a doubler as with a straight amplifier? If so, how can it be accomplished? 6) What is a parasitic oscillation? Why is such an oscillation undesirabl 7) Describe three forms of parasitic oscillations and the means for suppressing each type. 8) Explain how you would go about testing an amplifier for parasitic oscillations. How could a parasitic be distinguished from oscillation result- ing from improper neutralization of a triode am- A Course in plifier or insufficient sereening in the ease of « sercen-grid amplifier? 9) What is a linear tank circuit? 10) Why are linear tank circuits preferable at ultrahigh frequencies to ordinary cireuits con- sisting of eoils and condensers? 11) Draw an oscillator circuit using a single tube working into a quarter-wave parallel tank circuit. 12) What is the advantage of increasing the Jength, in. terms of quarter wavelengths, of a resonant line used as a tank circuit? 13) Why is it frequently necessary to use ine ductances in the exthode Teads of wh.f. oseil- lators? 14) What are the advantages of 1 concentric line over the parailel-conductor line? Name some mechanical disadvantages, 15) Draw a circuit uf a singic-tube oscillator using a quarter-wave concentric line. Indicate a method of coupling to the output circuit, 16) What is the customary method of adjust- ing the resonant frequency of a linear eireuit? 17) A parallel-conductor line is to be used as a tank circuit in a 112-Me, oscillator. What should its approximate length be if itis to resonate to the operating frequency without the tube connected? When the tube is eormected, would you expect the actual frequency to be higher or lower than the frequency of the line alone? How may the effect of the tube on the frequency be reduced? 18) Why is it desirable to “tap de ine used for frequeney control in au ose circuit? lator POWER SUPPLY 4 Fig. EXPERIMENT 27 Crystal Oscillator Operation Apparatus: The power supply, vacuum-tube voltmeter, test instrument and erystal oscillator are used in this experiment. ‘The circuit arrange- ment is shown in Vig. 1. The plate voitage for both oscillator and v.t.v.m. is taken from the 150-volt regulated tap in the power supply. The push-but- ton on the tube board ean be used to close the RADIO FUNDAMEN plate-supply: circuit of the oscillator when the milliarameter is used with the v.t.v.m., in case the test set is used for all current measurements. The v.t. voltmeter is coupled to the output ei cuit of the oseillntor through a small condenser, ©, as shown in Fig. 1, or to the grid of the oseilla- tor tube through a sceond eondenser, Cs. (Com- plete oscillator connections are not shown; only the parts of the civeuit to which the v.t.v.m should be coupled are indicated.) ‘hese eon densers must. he adjusted so that the v.t.van reads half te full seale on the medium range. It will be convenient to use a 30-aufd, trimmer [or OL ame type of condenser ean also be used at C2, althoush a fixed condenser of about 5 suf can be substituted. Procedure: ‘The object of this experiment. is w determine the operating charseteristies of a crystal oscillator with respect to plate current, rf. grid voltage andr.f, output voltage. While the actual r, voltages eannot be determined aveu- rately with the simple equipment available, the relative voltage in either the plate or grid civeuit of the oseillator ean be sletermined with suflicient, accuracy for the ywpose. ‘The d.c. calibration of the v.t.v.m. may be used. The setting of the plate tank condenser of the oscillator is used as an urbitrary reference ip the experiment. If the oscil Intur docs not already huve s tuning dial which be read to a division or soon a 100-division seule, such dial or seale should be provided, Using the 6F6 in the oscillator, connect. the t.vam. to the plate circuit and set the oscillator in operation. Adjust Cy to give a suitable reading hear full seate on the medium range of the volt~ meter, Starting at maximura capacity on the os cillator tank condenser, reduce the capacity until the oscillator just starts, as indicated by a reading on the v-tov.m, (a receiver may be used for moni- toring the oscillator signal) and take voltmeter readings as the capacity is decreased to mink mum, In the region immediately after oscillations begin it will be necessary to take readings at quite small capacity intervals in order to get enough points to plot a smooth curve, Take care not to disturb the leads to the v.tv.an. once the run is started, because varinble stray pickup will make the readings inconsistent. If a second milliam= ineter is available, take simultaneous readings of plate current; if not, the procedure may be re~ peated for the plate-current roadings, leaving the v.t.v.m, connected to the plate eireuit. When these data have becn taken, the v.t.v.m. should be connected to the grid of the oscillator and Cz adjusted, if necessury, to give a maximum reading between half and fuil scale. Observe the dial sotting at which oscillations start, and if it differs from that noted previously, connect C, across the tank circuit and adjust it to make os- cillations begin at the same tank condenser set- ting. This compensates for the capacity of the v.t.v.n, tube which wes shunted across the cireuit PAISEEEEEE in the first run, Repeat the run, taking readings of the rf. grid voltage. When this ig completed, connect a 5000-ohm I-watt resistor across the tank circuit, as shown at R in Vig. 1, and repeat the whole procedure. It may be necessary to read just (and Co to get suitable readings, or to shift to the low-voltage seule on the v.t.v.m, when reading the rf. grid voltage. 55 ge 8 28 PLATE CUARENT- Ma REQUTOUT VOLGE-RELLINE. R.ECAYSTAL OUTAGE: RELATIVE DIAL DIVISIONS Fig.2 To get a proper comparison between the no- Joad and load conditions, the following procedure is advisable: With no load on the oscillator, con- nect the v.t.v.m. to the grid and adjust C2 to give a reading of half to full seale on the medium voltage range. Adjust the oscillator tuning for maximum rf, grid voltage and note the value. ‘Then, without moving the connecting wires, con- nect the load resistor to the plate tank and retune the oscillator condenser for maximum rf. grid voltage, The latter figure divided by the former gives the ratio of load voltage to no-load voltage. Similar readings should be taken of the rf. plate voltage with and without lond to determine the load /no-load ratio in the plate circuit. In plotting the data the form shown in Fig. 2is recommended. ‘The rf. grid voltage is plotted in terms of percentage of the maximum grid voltage observed in the no-load condition; the load data are also in terms of percentage of the maximum voltage observed, but reduced by the ratio of load to no-load voltage found as described above. The same method is used in plotting the rf. plate voltage. The plate current values shown are the actual values measured. ‘The curves of Fig. 2 give the results of experi- mental measurements on a 646 oscillator. As 56 A Course in additional information, the vertical broken indicate the frequency to which the tuned circuit is resonant at that setting of the tuning con- denser. The line just to the left of the 3.5-Me. line ETLELLE NM] fei t & oS o8 8 O70 2 30 40 s0 «10 80 90 100 DIAL DIVISIONS Fig. PATE CURRENT- Ma RFOUTOUT VLLAGE ARETE RECIVSALNOLTAGE-REATIE & is the frequency of the crystal used, 3550 ke. As the tuning eapacity is decreased from maximum, oscillation starts at approximately the capacity which represents resonance with the erystal. ‘The plate current immediately drops to about half its non-oscillating value, goes through a minimum and then rises again to a maximum. ‘This is fol- lowed by a relatively small decrease to a broad minimum and then a slow rise. Oscillation con- tinucs throughout the remainder of the condenser range, 80 that the non-oscillating value of plate current does not recur on the low-capacity side of resonance. The rf. plate voltage rises rather abruptly once oscillations start, and goes through ‘a maximum at a condenser setting somewhat be- low actual resonance in the plate circuit. ‘The rf grid voltage curve is similar, but reaches its maxi- mum at a still lower setting of the condenser. ‘this behavior is the result of the necessity for adjusting the tank eireuit tuning to maintain the proper phase relationship between the fed-back voltage in the grid circuit and the generated r.f. voltage in the plate circuit. This requires that the plate circuit show inductive reactance; that is, the plate circuit, must be tuned slightly to the high-frequency side of resonance with the erystal frequency. The tank circuit impedance decreases as the circuit is detuned. The plate current is low- est near resonance, where the tank impedance is highest, and there is also a small maximum in the Plate voltage at this point. However, this tun- ing condition is not that which gives strongost oscillation, With slightly lower capacity the rf. plate voltage reaches a peak, but the tank is detuned and its impedances decreases, hence the plate current rises, Further detuning gives the phase relationship which results in maximum feed-back, as shown by the peak of r.f. grid volt- age, but there is some decrease in actual output at this point because the tank circuit is now detuned still farther from resonance. ‘The peak of r.f. grid voltage is accompanied by a maximum in the d.c. plate current, corresponding to high grid excita- tion with a detuned tank circuit. With further detuning the feed-back decreases, causing the plate current to drop once more, while the rf. output (plate) voltage drops rapidly because the tank circuit is no longer near resonance. There is relatively little change in the threc quantities when the tank eireuit is considerably off resonance and the oscillations are weak. ‘The net operation is thus the result of several conflicting factors, since there is no one setting of the tank condenser which will give, simultancously, maximum out- put, maximum feed-back voltage, and minimum, plate current. When the oscillator is loxded, oscillations com- menee at a slightly lower capacity setting than in the unloaded case; that is more feed-back is needed to cause oscillations to bein. Since the impedance of the loaded tank is lower than in the case without load, the minimum plate current is considerably higher than without load. ‘Thus the de. plate input to the tubes rises as the power consumption in the tank and load increases. For the same reason the r.f, plate and grid voltages are lower than in the unloaded ease, and the maxima are fairly broad as compared to the solid curves. This shows the result of lowering the Q of the tank circuit by loading; the selectivity of the tank is decreased to such an extent that the sharp humps are smoothed down, and the double-hump effects observed in the case of the plate current, and the rf, plate voltage disappear completely. With these modifications, the operation is similar to that without load. ‘To compare the operation of a triode with that of the pentode, substitute a 6J5 for the GF6 (the 6J5 will ft in’ the same socket and no circuit changes are necessary) and repeat the procedure described ubove for the pentode. Plot a second set of curves in the same manner. A typieal sot for a 605 is shown in Fig. 3. Note that the donble-hump_ effects are not present with this tube in the un- loaded ease; this is because the effective @ of the tank circuit is lower since it is shunted by the comparatively low plate resistance of the triode, whereas the plate resistance of the pentode is 60 fected very little. ‘The no-load curves for the triode resemble in shape, although not in ampli- tude, the load curves for the pentode. The effect of loading is similar in both cases. Once the oseil- ator tuning is well on the high frequency side of Tesonanee the voltages and currents are about the same with or without load, illustrating that the __RADIO effect of loading a tuned circuit is largely con- fined to the region near resonance. Near minimum capacity on the tuning con- denser the rf, output voltage rises, although neither the plate current.nor rf. grid voltage show any particular change. The reason for this is that the plate circuit is nearing resonance at the second harmonic of the erystal frequency, with the result that the impedance for the second-harmonic component of the plate current is increasing, hence a larger voltage appears across the tank circuit. The effect is also present, although not 80 marked, in the pentode eurve for rf, plate voltage. EXPERIMENT 28 Interstage Coupling Apparatus: ‘This experiment requires the crystal oscillator, power supply, bias supply, tube board and test instrument. ‘The eireuit arrange- ment is shown in Fig. 4. Power for the oscillator is taken from the 150-volt regulated tap on the power supply so that the plate voltage will stay constant as the r.f. power taken from the oxcill- tor is varied. (Should tho regulator tube ecase to glow at any time during the experiment, the dropping resistor in the power supply in series with the VR-150-30 should be decreased in value until the tube glows under all conditions. The 10,000-ohm resistor recommended in Fig. 3, page 28, Part 3, may be shunted by a 15,000-ohm unit to accomplish this.) ‘The coil L is the movable coil from the circuit board. C1 is a small fixed mica eousenser; a eapac- ity of 100 pufd. is satisfactory, but larger values amt PowER SUPPLY Of ‘UNDAMENTALS 57 may be used without affecting the results of the experiment. RFC is a 2.5-millihenry choke coil and Cis one of the tuning condensers (250 wufd.) on the circuit board. The tube used in the experi- ment should be 6/5 or 6CS. Fig. 4 cal 15 20 25 30 35 RECTEED GRI0 CURRENT Ha 50 TURNS IN RIO CRCLT Procedure: Capcity coupling may be checked by means of the set-up shown in Fig. A. ‘The plug-in tank coil is removed from the oscillator and the coil Z is connected actoss the tank eon denser in its place, using a clip connection at the ungrounded end s0 that the number of turns ean be varied. ‘The coil is set up on the tube board near the tube socket and connected to the tube as shown. The plate of the tube is connected to the cathode to prevent its acquiring a charge by col- lecting stray electrons. The bias should be ad- justed to about 50 volts. Connect the two clips to the end of the coil, putting all 35 turns in circuit, aud rotate the os” cillator tank condenser to obtain oscillation. Tt will be helpful to monitor the oscillator by a re- ceiver set to the erystul frequency. ‘The shunting. capacity of the tube, together with the large i ductance, may make it impossible to set the cir- cuit to resonance with the crystal so if oscillation does not take place move the taps down to 30 tums and try again. Using the equipment. pre- viously described, 30 tums was the maximum number permissible with this eircuit and a erystal having a frequency of about 3550 ke. When the largest usable value of inductance has been found, leave the oscillator plate tap set and take grid current readings as the grid clip is moved down ono tap at a time. Each time tho tap is changed, readjust the oscillator plate condenser to obtain maximum grid current, Then move the oscillator plate clip down one tap (5 turns) toward the ground or cathode end of the coil and repeat, starting at the end of the coil with the grid tap. Move the plate tap down another 5 turns and repeat, continuing in this way until the plate tap is carried down at least to the 15th turn from the bottom end of the coil. The data so obtained may then be plotted in the form of curves showing the relationship between rectified grid current and number of turns included in the grid cireuit of the tube. A typical sot of such curves, taken with a 6J5, is shown in Fig. 5. The number on each curve indicates the number of turns in use in the oscilla- tor plate circuit. 5 A Course in Note that maximnm output (maximum reeti- fied grid current) is obtained when the grid tap includes fewer turns than are in use in the os- cillator plate circuit. If the curves are inspected carefully it will be found that maximum current oceurs when the grid eireuit has approximately 70 por cont as many turns as the oscillator plate cireuit, in each case. This indicates that the load represented by the grid-eathode circuit of the 65 has a lower value of resistance than the value required by the oscillator tube for maximum oute put. ‘The tapped coil is thus used as an autotrans- former for the purpose of transforming the actual load resistance into the value required by the tube. Since practically the same turns ratio is re- quired in each ease the operation is evidently quite independent of the constants of the tuned circuit. Actually, the maximum rectified current obtainable decreases as the number of turns in the plate cireuit of the oscillator is made smaller. Th is beeause the decreasing L/C ratio is accom- panied by an increase in the r.f. current circulat- ing in the tank (the Q of the loaded cireuit is raised) causing the internal losses of the tank cir- cuit to increase. Hence a somewhat smaller proportion of the power developed by the os cillator tube is available for the fond. If the L/C ratio could be decreased without increasing the tank lasses the output current would be the same in each case. In the experimental set-up some of the loss undoubtedly is “dead-end” loss in the unused turns of the coil, caused by current, cit culating through the distributed capacity of the unused turns. ‘The effect of a change in load impedance can bbe observed by changing the bias on the tube and following the experimental procedure just do- scribed. As the bias is increased the impedance of the grid-cathode cireuit increases, since a con- siderably larger rf. grid voltage must be applied to overcome the bins and cause the same or less gtid ourrent to flow. The curves of Fig. 6 show the results of such a run, using four difforent values in RECTIFIED GRID CURRENT MA 10 1S 20 25 30 38 URNS IN GRID CIRCUIT of negative grid bias, 25, 50, 75 and 100 volts. In all four eases the oscillator plate was tapped on the coil at the 25th turn. At the highest bias, 100 volts, the grid current is just reaching maximum with 30 turns in the grid circuit; that is, a step-up pedance ratio is required, showing that the grid impedance is higher than the value required by the oscillator tubo for maximum output. With 79 volts bias the maximum current is secured with the same number of turns in the grid circuit, as in the plate circuit, The curve for Ee = —50 is simply a repetition of the corresponding curve Fig. a PTS 8 i in Fig. 5, With —25 voits bias the grid circuit must be tapped seross approximately half the number of turns used in the plate cireuit, indicat= ing that the impedance has decreased very con- siderably. ‘The resistance (or impedance) of the grid circuit therefore depends not only on the characteristics of the tube but also on the condi~ tions under whieh it is operated. If the tube had boen actually oper: an anuplifier, stith if ferent coulitions would obtain and the curves would show maximum points at different tun ratios than those indicated. In such a case the effect. of the plate voltage would be to attract some of the electrons which in the experimental set-up are drawn to the grid, and this would tend to reduce the grid eurrent and thus raise the grid impedance, since less current would flow for the same applied rf. grid voltage the second part of the experiment link eou- pling is investigated. The cireuit arrangement is shown in Fig. 4-B, The regular plug-in tank eoil is retired to the o-illator cireuit, and is provided with an outpnt link winding of three turns or so wound close to the “ground” end of the enil The oil L is connected to Cs, one of the variable condensers on the cirenit hoard, as shown. AS ct preliniinary experiment, witak abont 10 turns at the sronnid cud of L, anil connect Cs and the grid tap to the other ent of the coil so that the full 35 turns are used, Using about 50 volts bias, adjust Cz and the oseillator tank condenser for maxinuara rectified grid current. There may be some inter action between the two condensers, so “rock Ce buck and forth while adjusting the oscillator tank condenser until it is certain that maximum output is secured. ‘Take one turn off the link and again adjust for maximum grid current; eontinne in this way until only one fink turn is left. ‘The result of such an experiaucutal procedure is shown in Fig. 7, where the number of lik trrns on L is plotted against grid current in terms of percentage of the maximum current obtainable, Note that there is a broad maximum to the curve, the out put showing negligible variation with links having from 2 to 5 turns. ‘The value for one tur is prob- _ RADIO FUNDAMEN’ ably low, since the turn was not held very tightly to the coil form, Obviously the number of turus is not critical. The maxinuusn ontput is in the region where the link has enough turus te give a suflie ciently-high cocifivieut af eaupling with ing enough reactance to limit the flow of rf current in the link cirenit. Using a link of about three turas on L, seb the tap from Cy at the ead of Ue coil (35 turns) and tap the grid on the samw spot. Adjust C2 and the oscillator plite condenser for maxirnum grid cur rent, then move the grid clip down one tap (30 turns) and again adjust the two condensers for maximum grid eutrent. Continue moving the grid elip down the coil. As the tap approaches the bottom end the loading on the oscillator increases and may cause the oscillator to stop. ‘The best procedure is to keep the oscillator tank eondenser well on the low-capacity side of resonance, then rock Cz back and forth through resonance while carefully increasing the oscillator condenser en~ city until it is set just below the point where illation ceases when C2 goes through resonani (Monitoring the oscillator in a receiver will be helpful.) This point ssuisly will result in maxi- mum output, When the run is completed, move the clip from C2 down one tap and repeat, Cone tinue until the {ap from Cz has been moved down to the 15th or 20th lurn, Plut the data in the sume way as in the case of eapacity conpling, ‘A set of experimental data so obtained is shown graphically in Fig, 8. The tube and grid bias were the same as in Fig. 5. There is quite a marked difference between these curves and those of Fig. 5, showing that more than simple autotransformer action is involved. Maximum grid current. is secured with approximately the same number of turns between grid and vathode in all four eases shown (the numbers on the curves indicate the number of turns across which C2 is connected). ‘his is because in the link-eoupled ease — link coupling is equivalent to inductive coupling — the coupling depends very lurgely on the effective POWER suPPLY soayqehd wT ose 59 PALS @ of the secondary cireuit, the constants of the primary circuit being fixed. With a fixed value of Jond resistance, represented by the grid eireuit of the tube, the @ of the eireuit depends on the L/C ratio and/or the ratio of tums in the tuned eireuit to turns in the load (grid-eathode) circuit. Using 35 turns in the tuned circuit, maximum output is 2” fer 8 Bo 8 ws to as so as secured with about 15 turns in the grid or load circuit, illustrating the inerease in effective @— and hence increase in coupling to the primary — allorded by tapping the load down on the coil, A similar effeet is observed with smaller numbers of turns in the tuned circuit, until with Cz across 20 tufns maximum output also is secured with 20 turns in the grid circuit. In this case the Q hi been raised to the vahic required for optimum coupling solely by reducing the L/C ratio, whereas in the 35-turn case the game effect was secured by tapping down, With 35 turns across Cy and 35 turns also in the grid cirouit, the maximum grid current is about 9 milliamperes. ‘This is the value represented by. ‘100% in Fig. 7, and is the maximum obtainable with any number of link turns with this circuit and loading. Hence adjustment of the link turns alone eannot result in maximum energy transfer unless the effective @ of the eireuit is high enough to provide optimum coupling, If the @ is too low, it must be increased either by tapping the load down on the coil or by decreasing the L/C ratio; unless this is done, maximum output eannot be secured. Note that the maximum grid enrrent obtain- able with link coupling is less than with eapacity coupling. The difference is attributable to the additional losses in the second tuned circuit. used in link coupling. Other considerations, such as the effect of too-high shunt capacity, may result in a reversal of this situation at higher frequencies, but at the fre- queney used in this experiment (8550 ke.) these effects are negli- gible. EXPERIMENT 29 nor VTVM, Bias ~ SUPPLY 5 en Neutralising an Amplifier Apparatus: The set-up for this experiment is shown in Fig, 9. Equipment required includes the 60 power supply, bias supply, erystal oscillator, vacuum-tube voltmeter, tube board, circui board, and test instrument. The tube used is a 615 or similar small triode. The coil L is the fixed coil on the circuit board and condenser C1 is the variable condenser associated with that coil. C1 should be connected across 30 turns of L, with the tap to ground placed at the 15th turn on the coil. Cz is the small condenser (25 to 50 nuful maximum eapacity) on the cireuit board. ‘The 100-ufd. condensers are small fixed mica units REC is. 2.5-millihenry rf, choke. ‘The connections “X," “Y" and “Z" preferably should be flexible leads with clips at both ends s0 that they ean be connected and disconnected con veniently. The crystal oscillator plate voltage can be taken from the 150-volt regulated tap on the plate power supply. ‘The bias on the tube under test. should be set to about 75 volts. Proved experiment is an exer¢ neutyalizing an rf. amplifier. Connect the cireui as shown, omitting for the moment, the leads “X," “Y and "7." Set the erystal oscitlator in operation and, with the turned circuit LC; in about the position it will occupy (neur the tube), tune C) for maximum deflection on the v.t. volt~ meter, If the deflection is more than a flicker on the low range, move the tuned circuit as far as possible from ‘the oscillator, while still keeping within reasonable distance of the tube so that Jong connecting leads will not be necessary. It should be postible to get the v.t.v.m. reading down to less than | volt without much difficul When this has been done, connect the leads ““X,”” “Y" and “Z,” set Cy to miniroum eapacity, put the v.t.v.mn. on the high range, and adjust. (3 for i m, deilection. Tnerease the ea- of Cz slightly and again tune C3 for maxi- POWER SUPPLY Bias: SUPPLY y Fig. 10 mum deflection, Continue this process, observing that the deflection decreases as the capacity of Cs increases, until a point is reached where an in- crease in capacity causes the deflection to inercase again. The setting of Cz which gives minimum, A Course in output voltage is that at which the tube is neu- tralized as well as the circuit conditions will per- mit. In most eases it will not be possible to adjust the circuit so that the rf, voltage disappears com- pletely from the plate circuit, but it should be possible to get it down to around half scale on the Jow range of the v.tv.m. It will be observed that hand-eapscity effects are quite evident in adjusting both eondensers, This is partly because the hand adds a small amount of capacity which detunes the circuit, sinee the shafts of both condensers are above ground for rf., and partly beeause the body picks up some rf, voltuge from the oscillator and couples it to the eireuit when the hand is brought near cither condenser, This effect can be elimi nated by dispensing with the ordinary tuning knobs and, instead, sawing slots in the ends of the condenser shafts, the condensers then being turned by means of an 8- or 10-inch length of wooden rod (any other insulating material will do) cut at ane end to fit the slots. Connect the test instrument a8 a milliammeter in series with the wrid-bias lead to the amplifier and repeat the experiment, using grid-eurrent as a neutralizing indicator. Disconnect the v.t.v.m. in this case. Adjust the neutralizing condenser, (Cs, so that there is least change in rectified grid current as Cy is tuned through resonance. It should be possible to neutralize well enough so that there is the barest flicker, or none at all, in grid current. How does this method compare in sensitivity with the v.t.v.m, method? EXPERIMENT 30 Class-C Amplifier Operation Apparatus: This experiment uses the appara- Fig, 10, It resembles quite closely the circuit used in the preceding experi- ment except that provision is made for applying plate voltage to the amplifier tube and for con necting a load resistance in the plate eireuit, The 0.001-4fd. blocking condenser in the plate cireuit replaces the direct ground used in Exp. 29; this is necessary to prevent short-cireuiting the plate- supply voltage. The crystal oscillator again gets its plate power from the 150-volt regulated tap ‘on the power supply. Procedure: ‘The object of this experiment is to observe the behavior of @ Class-C amplifier under different lad conditions. A small tube such as a 6J5 will be suitable, Set the variable resistor on the power supply so that only the bleeder current flows through it (arm to the left end in Fig. 8, page 28, Part 8) since the current drawn will execed a safe value for this resistor. The plate voltage for the amplifier may be adjusted to a suitable value by tapping the output clip on the divider at. & point which gives 250 to 300 volts. With the amplifier plate voltage tap discon- nected, neutralize the amplifier by the gri current method described in the preceding ex- periment, Set the bias at 30 volts so that the tube is biased well beyond the cut-off point for that plato voltage. With the 6J5 cut-off bias is approximately 15 volts, neglecting the “tailing off” effect associated with the change in amy cation factor near the cut-off point (see Exp. 2 Although the plate current may not actually reach zero until the bias is 20 volts or more, the plate current in the region between the cut-off bias calculated on the assumption that the am- plication factor is constant (He/u, in this case 300/20) and the actual cut-off point is so sinall that its influcnee on the operation of the tube as a Class-C amplifier is practically negligible. Adjust the oscillator tuning so that the grid current is approximately 10 milliamperes with no plate voltaxe on the amplifier. After neutralization, apply measure the amplifier plate current, circuit is uot set at resonance with the oscillator frequency the plate current. prob: will be in the vicinity of 30 milliamperes. Care- fully tune the amplifier tank cireuit, observing that at resonance the plate current drops to a comparatively low value ~-well below 10 mil- Jiamperes, The resonance point should be quite sharp. The plate current is minimum at resonance because at this point the impedance of the tank circuit: is highest to rf, current of the frequency. generated by the crystal oscillator, and tuning to resonance is equivalent to connecting a high value of loud resistance in series with the am- pilifier plate cirenit. Hence there is a large rf. voltage drop in the tank circuit and the average voltage acting to cause plate reduced. ‘The d.c. plate current, is likewise re- duced. When the tank circuit is off resonance its impedance to the erystal frequency is low and the r, voltage drop is negligible, hence practically the full d.c, plate voltage is continuously applied to the tube and the plate current is high. It is higher than in Class-A applications because the rf. grid voltage drives the grid considerably positive with respect to the cathode over a part of the r-f, eyele. The variation in r-f. tank voltage ean be observed by touching a neon bulb to one side of the tank condenser. ‘The bulb will glow brightly when the tank is tuned to resonance but goes out when the condenser is detuned. Note also that the grid current drops when the plate voltage is applied to the amplifier. When there is plate voltage on the tube some of the electrons which formerly were attracted to the grid go to the plate instead. ‘The number thus diverted depends upon the effective plate voltage, which in turn depends upon the tuning of the tank cireuit for the reasons mentioned above, With the tank circuit tuned to resonance the drop in grid current is slight, but if the tank is plate voltage and If the tank stal ly RADIO FUNDAMENTALS 61 detuned the grid current muy drop to as little as half its value with the plate voltage off. Connect a 25,000-ohim L-watt resistor between the plate of the tube and the positive plate volt- age lead as shown at 2 in Fig. 10. Apply plate voltage and observe the plate current as the plate tank cirenit is tuned through resonance, leaving the excitation the same as before — that is, adjusted to give a rectificd grid current of about 10 ma. with no plate voltage on the am- plifier. Tn this case the resonance point will not be quite as sharp and the minimum plate eurrent will be higher than without load. Note that the off-resonance plate current is the same as before, showing that the off-resonance impedance of the tank circuit is 60 low that the presence of the load resistor does not affect it. At resonance, however, the tank impedance is reduced by the load re sistor and the rf, voltage drop consequently is less. Henee the average plate voltage cau plate current flow is higher and the plate enerent also is higher. The grid current also shows a greater drop, at resonance, with the load resistor connected, again because the cffective plate voltage is higher aud more electrons are diverted from the grid to the plate. ‘The same procedure should be followed with 10,000- and 5000-ohm I-watt resistors as lead when it will be found that the greater the londi ite, the lower the toad resistance, the higher the plate current and the lower the grid eurrent. As the load resistance progressively decreases the tank impedance also decreases, resulting in 9 lower rf. voltage drop and consequently higher average plate voltage during the part of the cycle when plate current flows. If the tank circu is detuned off resonazice, however, the presence of the load resistor has relatively little effect on the impedance and the off-resonance conditions are practically the same regardless of load resistance. Observations on Class-C araplifiers can be car ried farther by using the v-t. voltmeter to measure the rf. output voltage. For this purpose the volt meter may be conniceted to the plate circuit as shown in Fig. 9, using a very small value of cou- pling capacity s0 that the indication will come on the medium range of the v.t.v.n. If care is tuken not to disturb the v.t.v.m. position or leads when changing load resistors, the relative varia tion of rf. tauk voltage with changes in load ean be measured, It is also of interest, with a fixed value of load resistance, to measure the variatio in rf, tank or output voltage as the excitation is changed; the rectified grid current can be used as a measure of the excitation. Since power output is proportional to the square of the voltage, a series of such observations can be plotted in terms of power output vs, grid current, for a fixed load resistance and grid bias. Part Six MODULATION ‘Bass section deals with various tnethods for modulating a radio-frequency carrier. ‘The experimental work consists in determining the modulation characteristies of r.f. amplifiers, using the point-by-point method, under different con- ditions of operation, The’ influence of various factors on the linearity of a modulated amplifier is the chief subject investigated. Contrary to what might be anticipated, the experiments outlined do not involve actual mod- ulation of a carrier. Unless an oseilloseope_is available for depicting actual operation with modulation, the use of a modulating signal would add comparatively little to the instructional value of the experiments. ‘Those who do have an oscillo- scope and an audio amplifier suitable for modu- lating the experimental amplifiers ean, of course, extend the work. The obvious direction for such an extension to take is in comparing oscilloscope patterns with the performance eurves obtained as described in the experiments, ASSIGNMENT 20 Study Hondhook Sections 5-1, 5-2 and 5-2. Perform Fxps. 31 and 32. Questions 1) What is meant by the term “modulation”? 2) What is the funetion of the microphone in a radiotelephone system? 3) Name the three fundamental methods of modulating a radio-frequency current. 4) What is the “earrier”? 5) In present-day practice, what requirements must be met by the earrier in radiotelephone transmission on communication frequencies’ 6) Why is e “buffer” amplifier necessary? 7) Define percentage of modulation. 8) What is meant by “linearity” of a modu- lated amplifier? 9) Define modulation eapability. 10) An unmodulated carrier produces a cur- rent of 2.5 amperes in an antenna system. When modulation is applied it is found that the maxi- mum instantaneous amplitude of the current is 4.3 amperes, What is the percentage of modula- tion, assuming that the modulated amplifier is linear? 11) What is the ratio of average power in a AND KEYING 100 per cent amplitude-modulated wave to the power in the carrier alone, assuming sinusoidal modulation? 12) What is meant by the term “modulation envelope”? 13) What are sidebands? 14) If the modulation applied to a carrier is unsymmetrical, how should the modulation per- centage be computed? 15) Deseribe overmodulation. overmodulation be avoided? 16) A 3900-ke, carrier is modulated by a sinus- oidal signal having a frequency. of 1600 cycles. What are the sideband frequencics? 17) ‘The audio-frequency output of the modu- lator of a certain radiotelephone transmitter con- tains substantially no audio frequencies higher than 4200 cycles. What channel width is required for the modulated output of the transmitter? 18) A transmitter is modulated by 2 1000-cycle tone which has pronounced harmonies up to the fifth. If the carrier frequency is 28,650 ke., whut are the frequeney limits of the channel oceupied by the signal? 19) What are spurious sidebands? 20) Name three systems used for amplitude modulation, 21) What is the average ratio of power in speech waveforms to power in a sine wave? How does this affect the required power eapacity of the modulator, when plate modulation is used” 22) Define modulating impedance of a Class-C plate-modulated amplifier. 23) A Class-C amplifier is operating at a plate voltage of 2000 and is adjusted so that the plate current, is 150 milliamperes. How much audio power is roquired for plate modulation of the amplifier, for a modulation pereentage of 100, assuming that the modulating signal is sinusoidal? 24) What is the modulating impedance of the amplifier in Question 23? 25) Draw a circuit diagram showing plate modulation of a neutralized triode Class-C ampli fier, using a Class-B modulator. 26) An amplifier having an audio-frequency power output of 130 watts is available for plate modulating a transmitter. If the modulation is to be 100 per cent, what is the maximum posible power input to the Class-C modulated amplifier? 27) How can the power input to a Clase-C Why should RADIO FUNDAMENTALS 63 plate-modulated amplifier be adjusted to the Proper value for 100 per cent modulation? 28) How may plate modulation be applied to a tetrode or pentode Class-C amplifier? Draw a circuit. disgram, 29) Describe the method of using choke cou- pling between the modulator and modulated ‘amplifier. Why is this system seldom used? 30) Does the de. plate current of a properly- operating Class-C “amplifier change when the amplifier is plate modulated? Why? 31) A. screen-grid Class-Cplate-modulated amplifier operates under the following conditions; plate voltage, 2500 volts; plate current, 125 ma.; seroen voltage, 400 volts; screen current, 30 ma, If the screen current is to be taken from the plate supply, what value of sereen dropping resistor is required, and what is the modulating imy of the amplifier? Tow much audio power i sary for 100 per cent modulation? 82) Why is it necessary to neutralize a triode amplifier as completely as possible when the am- plifier is to be modulated? 383) Describe the gencrat operating conditions necessary if a Class-C amplifier is to have a linear modnlation charact ASSIGNMENT 21 Study Handbook Sections 5-4 and 5-5. Per- form Exp. 33. Questions 1) What are the advantages and disadvantages of grid-bias modulation as compared with plate modulation? 2) Deseribe the essential prineiples of the grid= bias modulation system. 3) Why should the souree of fixed bias used with a grid-bias modulated amplifier have low ine ternal resistance? 4) A tube having a rated plate dissipation of 80 watts is to be used as a grid-bias modulated am- plifier. What is the approximate carrier power output obtainable? low much power could be secured from the same tube if plate modulation was used? 5) In a grid-bias modulated amplifier, what is fect on linearity of adjusting for too-hi carrier eflicieney? 6) Draw a cireuit diagram of a Class-C am- plifier arranged for grid-bias modulation, 7) Describe the operating principles of sup- pressor-grid modulation. How does this method compare with grid-bias modulation? 8) Why is it necessary that the rf. stage driv- ing ® grid-bias modulated amplifier have good output-voltage regulation? How can good regula- tion be secured? 9) Describe a method of adjusting a grid-bias modulated amplifier for proper operating cond 10) Why should the de. plate current. of a properly-operated grid-bias modulated amplifier be constant under inodulation? What is the per- missible tolerance in this respect? Is constant plate current a certain indication that the am- plifier is operating lincarly? 11) What is the effect of load resistance on the carrier power output obtainable from a grid modulated amplifier, assuming that the ampl adjusted for Tincat operation? 12) What is the effect of excitation voltage on the lincarity of a grid-bias modulated amplifier, assuming that load resistance, d.c. grid-bias volt. age, cte., are fixed? 33) Explain the operating principles of eathode modulation, 14) ‘Two tubes each having a plate dissipation rating of 60 watts are to be used in push-pull as a cathode-modulated amplifier. If a modulator having an audio-frequency power output of 80 watts is available, what is the maximum carrier output power obtainable if the modulation. per- centage is to be 100 per cent? If the plate voltage on the modulated amplifier is 1500, what is the modulating impedance? 15) How should a cathode-mnodulated amplifier be adjusted for linear operation? ier ASSIGNMENT 22 Study Handbook Sections 5-6, 5-7, 8 and 5-9, Questions 1) Why is a Class-B type audio amplifier gen- erally used for plate modulation of a Class-G amplifier? 2) Why is it necessary to have good regulation of the output voltage of the stage driving a Class-B amplifier? 3) What design precautions should be taken to ensure good output voltage regulation of the diver stage? 4) A Class-C amplifier taking a plate current of 180 ma. at a plate voltage of 1250 is to be plate modulated. How much audio-frequency power is required? If the Class-B modulator requires = plate-to-plate load of 10,000 ohms, what is the proper turns ratio of the coupling’ transformer, assuming that the transformer losses are negli: gible? 5) Why is it necessary to use a voltage source having low internal resistance to supply grid bias for a Class-B amplifier? 6) Is it safe to operate a Class-B modulator fhout load? 7) What is the result of overdriving a Class-B modulator? 8) What requirements should be met by the plate supply for a Class-B modulator? 9) What is meant by the terms “sensitivity” and “irequency response” when used in connec tion with microphones? 10) Deseribe the prinetple of operation of four types of microphones and show suitable circuits for connecting them to an amplifier. 11) About what order of output voltage can be expected irom a erystal mierophone under normal conditions — that is, specch of average intensity —from single-button earbon, double-button cnr bon, and velocity microphones, when provided with appropriate coupling transformers? 12) What is meant by “stage gain”? 13) What is the general function of a speech amplifier in a modulation system? 14) Why is resistance coupling generally used in voltage-amplifier stages? Under what condi- tions is resistance coupling inapplicable? the frequency response 15) What, determin characteristic of a resistance-coupled amplifier? Over what frequency range is it necessary to have “flat” amplification for satisfactory speech trans 16) What is a decoupling circuit, and why is it used? 17) What considerations determine the point in the circuit at which the gain control is placed? 18) An amplifier is to deliver an audio power output of 2 watts when excited by a crystal micto- phone having a peak output voltage of 0.02 volts with normal specch. Using the tube characteristic tables and the data in Table I (§ 5-8) of the Hand- book, select a suitable tube line-up and draw a cirenit diagram, marking proper values on the components. Indieate proper plate voltages on the circuit diagram, 19) Describe the operation of a phase inverter. For what purpose is such a circuit used? 20) What, precautions should be taken to mini- mize bum in a speech amplifier? ASSIGNMENT 23 Study Handbook Section 5-10. If an oscillo- scope is available, use it in conjunction with Exps. 81, 82 and 33, making connections ns described in the Handbook. Compare the oseillo- scope patterns with the data obtained by meas- urement and plotted graphically. A suitable modulating voltage must be available for this purpose; 60-cyele a.c. will be quite satisfactory if the voltage can be adjusted to the proper v A transformer having suitable turns ratio should bbe tised between the modulated amplifier and the 115-volt a.e. line, Questions 1) What is the difference between the “wave- envelope” and “trapezoidal” patterns used in checking modulation? 2) What connections are necessary between the transmitter and oscilloscope to obtain the wave-envelope pattern? 3) Show a method of connecting the oscillo- scope and transmitter for securing a wedge pat- tern, What precautions are necessary in making these connections? A Conn in 4) How can percentage of modulation be measured with the oscilloscope? 5) If the voice waveform is found to be unsym- metrical, what can be done in the speech amplifier to insure that “splatter,” or spurious sidebands, will be minimized on occasional voice peaks which cause overmodulation? 6) Why is it frequently desirable to connect a tuned eireuit to the vertical-plate terminals of the oscilloscope, coupling through a link cireuit to tho transmitter? 7) In using the wedge pattern, from what part of the audio system should the audio voltage for the horizontal sweep be taken? '8) How can the oscilloscope be used to check the linearity of a ‘phone transmitter? Which type of pattern is preferable? 9) If indications of a carrier appear on the os- cilloseope sereen when the plate current of the modulated amplifier is completely cut off but. the transmitter is otherwise operating, what are the possible causes? 10) What is the effect on the modulation pat- tern of the presence of radio-frequency voltage on the horizontal plates of the oscilloscope? What can be done to prevent such a voltage from reach ing the horizontal plates? 31) Describe a method of checking for spurious sidebands. 12) Name some possible causes for an upward shift in plate current with plate modulation; with grid-bias modulation, 13) If the earior is found to have excessive ‘modulation, how can the eause of the hun be localized? 14) What is the common indication of the presence of rf. in the audio syste:? What pre- ‘cautions are necessary to prevent such rf. pickup? 15) Name some possible causes of a downward shift in plate current with plate modulation; with grid-bias modulation. ASSIGNMENT 24 Study Handbook Sections 5-11 and 5-12. Per form Exp. 34 Questions 1) How does frequency modulation differ from amplitude modulation? 2) Define frequency deviation and deviation ratio. 3) In what two respects does frequeney modu- lation have distinet advantages over amplitude modulation? What is the chief disadvantage of frequency modulation from a practical commu cation standpoint 4) Explain why large deviation ratio gives an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio as com- pared to a low deviation ratio. 5) Why is 2 frequency modulation system less sensitive to natural statie and other electrical noises than an amplitude modulation systema?