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Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Fuel
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/fuel

Modelling and experimental investigation of engine performance and


emissions fuelled with biodiesel produced from Australian Beauty Leaf
Tree
N.M.S. Hassan, M.G. Rasul ⇑, C.A. Harch
School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland 4702, Australia

h i g h l i g h t s

 Compression ignition (CI) engine performance and emission testing using biodiesel.
 Biodiesel produced from Australian Beauty Leaf Tree (BLT) oil.
 Engine combustion model development using CFD program AVL Fire.
 Optimisation of engine performance and emissions using energy balance.
 New knowledge towards development of BLT biodiesel industry in Australia.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This study first experimentally investigates the performance and exhausts emissions of a compression
Received 7 August 2014 ignition (CI) engine fuelled with biodiesel produced from Australian beauty leaf tree (BLT) oil and com-
Received in revised form 4 February 2015 pares these results with that of petroleum diesel. Then, an engine combustion model is developed using
Accepted 5 February 2015
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, AVL Fire, to predict the engine performance and emission
Available online 20 February 2015
of those biodiesels and petroleum diesel. Experiments were done according to ISO 8178 standard engine
test procedure using B5 biodiesel (5% BLT blend), B10 (10% BLT blend) and petroleum diesel in a 4-cylin-
Keywords:
der engine test-bed equipped with necessary dynamometer and sensors. The measurements were done
Australian Beauty Leaf Tree (BLT) biodiesel
Engine performance
for engine power, torque, specific fuel consumption and engine emissions. The combustion model is
Engine emissions validated with the experimentally measured data, which shows very good agreement between them,
Computational fluid dynamics program AVL more specifically variation of only up to 4.4% in power, 4.0% in torque and 3.3% in specific fuel consump-
Fire tion was found. The experimental results show that overall B10 biodiesel provides significantly reduced
engine emissions, up to 18% compared to petroleum diesel. The validated model is then used to optimise
the engine performance and emissions as a function of operating parameters such as ignition timing,
crank angles and compression ratios. The simulation results show that B10 provides a slight improve-
ment in performance and significant reduction in emission. It is believed that this paper provides a solid
base of new knowledge towards achieving a sustainable BLT biodiesel industry.
Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction sources such as biodiesel [1,2]. In order to counter greenhouse gas


emission, European Union ratified the Kyoto Protocol and empha-
Current global energy supply is to a large extent based on fossil sised the potential for scientific innovation in 2002 which unfortu-
fuels (oil, natural gas, coal), of which the reserves are finite. nately has not yet been achieved. The atmospheric CO2
Growing world population, the increasing energy consumption concentration has already exceeded the allowable level 10 years
per capita, dependency on imported fossil fuel and the global warm- earlier than had previously been predicted [3].
ing due to greenhouse gas emission provides an opportunity for the By 2030, the energy consumption and the CO2 emission of
supply of locally produced alternative renewable automotive fuel transport sector are predicted to have 80% above the levels of
2007 [4]. Besides, it is also the transport sector that most heavily
depends on oil (through the oil-derived liquid products gasoline
⇑ Corresponding author. Fax: +61 7 49309382. and diesel) and currently consumes 30% of global petroleum oil
E-mail address: m.rasul@cqu.edu.au (M.G. Rasul).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.02.016
0016-2361/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
626 N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635

increasing to 60% by 2030 [5]. Furthermore, the availability of pet- This will reduce the peak temperatures and cause NOx formation
roleum oil is geographically restricted and the era of cheap and to occur later, resulting in lower concentrations [25].
secure oil is almost over. Therefore, development of a sustainable The Australian Beauty Leaf Tree (BLT) or Calophyllum inophyllum
long term alternative fuel has become necessary [5] and biodiesel is a wild Australian species native to parts of Northern Australia.
is receiving much attention and coming forward as an alternative The Australian BLT has a high potential for large scale second gen-
to conventional fossil fuel. eration biodiesel production as it can tolerate harsh environmental
Biodiesels, made from various crops as well as animal fat, are conditions such as drought, salinity, acidity and a large range of
renewable, bio-degradable, non-toxic and eco-friendly compared temperature, requires little maintenance, is non-edible, has a large
with fossil fuels. Currently, the sources of biodiesel include soy- yield of fruit of around 3000–10,000 seeds/tree/year and has high
bean oil [6] sunflower oil, corn oil, used fried oil, olive oil [7] rape- kernel oil of around 65%. The wild tree lives for up to 200 years,
seed oil [8], castor oil, lesquerella oil, milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil producing fruit twice a year. The BLT is estimated to be able to pro-
[9], Jatropha curcas, Pongamia glabra (karanja), Madhuca indica duce up to 4000 l of oil per hectare per year [26].
(mahua) and Salvadora oleoides (Pilu) [10], palm oil [11] and lin- A limited number of studies have been undertaken on the pro-
seed oil [12]. In general, biodiesel derived from these sources can duction of biodiesel from C. inophyllum, in India [27–31] in
be defined as monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids [13]. The Malaysia [32–34] and in Indonesia [35]. It is seen from these stud-
mono-alkyl esters that are the main chemical species of biodiesel, ies that biodiesel from C. inophyllum is still in a nascent state com-
has properties similar to diesel fuel [14]. It can be used in modern pared to the production of biodiesel from palm oil and Jatropha oil.
diesel engines in its pure form (B100) or may be blended with pet- Biodiesel from BLT has not adequately been evaluated yet. In order
roleum diesel. Biodiesel produced from edible oil sources such as to establish BLT as a widely acceptable automotive fuel and to
palm oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil, is called 1st generation improve the technical and economic feasibility as a biodiesel, it
biodiesel. is essential to undertake further research.
The report on bio fuel technologies [15] confirmed that 1st gen- This study tested and assessed the potential of BLT biodiesel as
eration biodiesels are limited in their ability to contribute to cli- an alternative fuel for automobiles in Australia. Currently, only up
mate change mitigation, economic growth, and as substitute for to 10% renewable fuel from other biodiesel sources is mixed with
petroleum production. Consequently, there was a need to develop petroleum diesel commercially in Australia. This has not been test-
technologies for alternative feed stocks to overcome the major ed for BLT yet, which has been addressed in this study. This study
shortcomings of supply of 1st generation biodiesels. The biodiesels found that BLT biodiesel up to 10% in petroleum diesel (i.e. B10)
obtained from such technologies have been defined as 2nd gen- provides better results in terms of engine performance and emis-
eration biodiesels which are generally produced from non-edible sions than petroleum diesel. Initially, this study experimentally
feed stocks such as waste vegetable oils and fats, non-food crops, measured engine performance and emissions using B5 and B10
forestry residues, biomass sources and algae [16]. BLT biodiesels, and petroleum diesel. Then, a combustion model
The majority of diesel engines have the capability to run on bio- is developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software,
diesel unmodified, and most of the major engine companies have AVL Fire, and validated with experimentally measured data and
formally stated that engine warranties will not be void by the discussed accordingly. Finally, the model is optimised for assessing
use of biodiesel blends up to B20, with a number of manufactures engine performance and reducing emission as a function of operat-
allowing B100 [17]. It has been documented that an unmodified ing parameters. However, further research with higher BLT fraction
diesel engine will produce slightly less power and torque running can be tested which is our target for future study.
with biodiesel. Small scale experimental studies of BLT biodiesel
compared to petroleum diesel in an engine running at 60 km/h 2. Theoretical consideration
or more shows a reduction of about 1% in power, but an increase
of about 5% in thermal efficiency [18,19]. Engine performance In a compression ignition (CI) engine the air is compressed and
could be improved if the viscosity could be reduced through the the fuel is injected into the air where combustion is initiated
addition of alcohol [20]. The viscosity of biodiesel affects the per- because the air is at sufficiently high temperature from being
formance because it results in larger droplet size of the fuel that
Table 1
is injected. Increasing the injection pressure will assist in reducing
Kubota V3300 engine specifications.
the droplet size and provide improved combustion and perfor-
mance [21]. Venkatraman and Devaradjane [22] showed that the Kubota V3300 –T specifications
optimum performance of a compression ignition (CI) engine Type Vertical, 4 cycle liquid cooled diesel
fuelled with biodiesel was achieved with a higher compression No. of cylinder 4
Bore  Stroke (mm) 98  110
ratio, advanced injection timing and high injector opening
Total displacement (L) 3.32
pressure. Compression ration 22.6
Despite the fact that the majority of harmful emissions are Combustion system E-TVCS
reduced when using biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel, opti- Intake system Natural aspired
mising the engine for the biodiesel can improve this even further. Output gross intermittent (kW/rpm) 54.5/2600
Net intermittent (kW/rpm) 50.7/2600
One method of reducing emissions is to increase the injection pres- Net continuous (kW/rpm) 44.1/2600
sure, this will generally reduce the fuel droplet size and improve No load high idling speed (rpm) 2800
combustion, and there is evidence of this reducing oxide of No load low idling speed (rpm) 700–750
nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) [21] and carbon Direction of rotation Counter clockwise (viewed from
flywheel side)
mono-oxides (CO) [23]. Lapuerta et al. [24] suggests that the short
Governing Centrifugal fly weight high speed
ignition delay when using biodiesel could also attribute to lower governor
hydro carbon (HC) emissions. The injection timing and combustion Fuel Diesel fuel No-2-D (ASTM D975)
timing are critical in controlling the formation of NOx. The time the Starter capacity (V kW) 12–2.5
reaction takes the oxygen concentration and the temperature in Alternator capacity (V A) 12–60
Dry weight with SAE flywheel and 272
the cylinder all impact on the formation of NOx [23]. Retarding
housing (kg)
the injection timing will in turn retard the combustion process.
N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635 627

Table 2a where ip is the indicated power (in kW), that is the rate of work done
Crude oil properties (by oil press). by the gas on the piston of the engine and it is evaluated by an indi-
Property Values cator diagram. Vs is the swept volume (air flow rate) of engine (in m3/
Acid value (mgkOh/g) 36.26
s), N is engine speed (in revs per second) and n is the number of cylin-
Density (kg/L) 0.964 ders. The airflow rates for naturally aspirated and force aspirated
Surface tension (mN/m2, @40 °C) 30.85 running can be approximately calculated with simple gas expan-
Higher heating value (MJ/kg) 38.10 sion/compression laws. To calculate the flow rate of air induced for
Kinematic viscosity (40 °C, cSt) 56.74
natural aspiration (Vi in m3/s), the following equation can be used,
2N
V i ¼ V s  I  gvol ; where; I ¼ ð2Þ
ðstrokes=cycleÞ
Table 2b
Fuel properties of beauty leaf oil biodiesel. It can be assumed that the volumetric efficiency, gvol, varies only
Property Unit Oil press (OP) with engine speed. To simplify the matter further, it can be assumed
Kinematic viscosity @40 °C mm2/s 4.5 that the restrictions to airflow are entirely in the compressor and
Density kg/m3 0.89 engine head, and not in the filter and ducting. For calculating the
HHV MJ/kg 40.9 airflow (pf in m3/s), the following equation can be applied [37],
Acid value mg KOH/g 0.88
Oxidation stability hours 4.1 pf ¼ p0  en ð3Þ
Iodine value g iod/100 g 81.4
Saponification value Mg KOH/g 191.2 where p0 is the output power (in kW); n is the gas constant for air,
Cetane number – 56.5 and e is the compression ratio.
Linolenic acid content %(m/m) 0.28 The volume of air inside the cylinders, measured at atmospheric
Flash point °C 145.6
conditions, Vi, is not equal to Vs The engine compression ratio (e)
CFPP °C 2.45
Cloud point °C 12.55 can be given by,
Pour point °C 2.76
Vs þ Vc
e¼ ð4Þ
Vc
compressed. The diesel cycle describes the thermodynamic cycle
that occurs within the cylinders of a CI engine [36]. as opposed to the effective compression ratio (eeffective),
Performances of CI engine can be calculated for different loads Vi þ Vc
and speeds. Engine performance depends on the conditions and eeffective ¼ ð5Þ
Vc
the form in which the engine is tested such as fully or partly
equipped. Artificially improving the volumetric efficiency increases where Vc (in m3/s) is the engine clearance volume. Similarly, we
the amount of air that the CI has available for combustion. This have the standard volumetric efficiency and an effective volumetric
increases the mean effective pressure (MEP), which increases the efficiency for the comparison of the forced charge (at atmospheric
power output of the engine. The indicated power of 4-stroke CI conditions) to the swept volume. The naturally aspirated efficiency
engine can be calculated by [36], is given by,

ðMEPÞ  V s  Nn Vi
ip ¼ ð1Þ gvol ¼ ð6Þ
2 Vs

(a) Piston geometry

Mesh with 0 crank angle

Mesh with 180 degree Crank Angle


(b) Mesh with 0 and 180 degrees Crank Angle

Fig. 1. Piston geometry and mesh generation. (a) Piston geometry. (b) Mesh with 0° and 180° Crank Angle.
628 N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635

and the force aspirated efficiency or effective volumetric efficiency Torque and engine brake power is measured [36] by:
is given by,
T ¼ WR ð10Þ
V comp
gvoleffective ¼ ð7Þ where T is Torque (in N/m), W is net load (kg) and R is radius (in
Vs m).
where Vcomp is the forced aspiration volume (in m3/s) or volume Brake power ðbp in kWÞ is 2pNT: ð11Þ
when manifold air is compressed.
Volumetric efficiency with normal aspiration is above 80% and
it is affected by various factors such as mixture strength, compres-
sion ratio, specific enthalpy of vaporisation of the fuel, heating of
the induced charge, cylinder temperature, valve timing, induction
and port design and the atmospheric conditions [36]. The initial
conditions for compressions (when the piston is at bottom dead
centre (BDC)) can be written as,
V i ¼ gvol  V ð8Þ
3
where V is volume when piston is at BDC (in m /s). When the mani-
fold air is compressed, the conditions for compression can be given
by,
V i ¼ V comp and p0 ¼ pi  gnvol ð9Þ

where pi is the indicated power (in kW) and p0 is the output power
(in kW).

(a) Comparison of CO2emissions

(a) Torque comparison (b) Comparison of CO emissions

(c) Comparison of NOx emissions


(b) Powercomparison
Fig. 3. Comparison of CO2, CO and NOx of petroleum diesel, B5 and B10. (a)
Fig. 2. Torque and power comparison of petroleum diesel, B5 and B10. (a) Torque Comparison of CO2 emissions. (b) Comparison of CO emissions. (c) Comparison of
comparison. (b) Power comparison. NOx emissions.
N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635 629

3. Methodology Different engine speeds were chosen at different loads for the
tests. These values remained constant throughout testing, so that
3.1. Experimental measurement performance and emissions values for each fuel could be directly
compared. The engine is preconditioned before each test, by warm-
Engine performance and emission tests were carried out ing up the engines at its rated power for 40 min before each test
according to ISO 8178 standard engine test procedure using B5 cycle. This helped to stabilise the engines exhaust emissions so
BLT biodiesel and B10 BLT biodiesel, and petroleum biodiesel. that accurate data could be obtained. This preconditioning period
Emphasis was given on engine power, torque, specific fuel con- also protected against the influence of deposits in the exhaust sys-
sumption and engine emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, and HC. tem from previous tests, which may have been performed with dif-
Combustion peak pressure and temperature developed with bio- ferent fuels. A large amount of data was collected for each test fuel
diesel in combustion chamber were observed by combustion to avoid any irregularities in test data. Results are then averaged so
analyzer. The diesel engine that was used in this study is a that one value could be found for each particular characteristic.
Kubota V3300 that uses four cylinders, natural aspiration, indirect Table 1 shows the detailed engine specifications of Kubota V3300.
injection and compression ignition. This engine is mainly used in Oil was extracted from obtained kernel by mechanical oil
agricultural and industrial equipment because of its low speed extraction using an electric powered screw press, known as oil
and high torque characteristics. press. The crude oil was then converted to biodiesel using transes-
The three main parameters that characterise the performance of terification method. The two-step process, namely acid-catalysed
a diesel engine are brake power, torque and specific fuel consump- pre-esterification and base-catalysed transesterification, was used
tion. The brake power and torque are calculated by a dynamome- for biodiesel production from high fatty acid contained beauty leaf
ter, and specific fuel consumption is evaluated by measuring the oil in a 500 ml triple neck bottom flask reactor by wider team of
flow rate of fuel being supplied to the engine with a fuel flow the project. The complete production processes can be found in
meter. In case of absorption dynamometer the torque is obtained Ref. [38]. The properties of crude oil and BLT biodiesel are given
by the net load at a known radius, calculated by the Eqs. (10) in Tables 2a and 2b respectively. The properties were compared
and (11). with the published literatures [27–29,39–41] and all were found
to be in good agreement. It is to be noted that the acid value was

(a) in petroleum diesel (a) in petroleum diesel

(b) in B5 (b) in B5

(c) in B10 (c) in B10


Fig. 4. The progress of combustion reaction at 720° CA. (a) In petroleum diesel. (b) Fig. 5. Progress of temperature inside combustion chamber at 720° CA. (a) In
In B5. (c) In B10. petroleum diesel. (b) In B5. (c) In B10.
630 N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635

found to be 0.88 KOH/g which is higher than a set value of The standard K–e model is used in CFD for solving turbulence mod-
0.5 KOH/g maximum according to EN14214 and ASTM D6751 bio- els. It is based on transport equations for the turbulence kinetic
diesel standards, however, very close to the value given by ASTM energy (K) and its dissipation rate (e). For the derivation of the
D6751-06 standards which indicates the acid value of 0.8 KOH/g K–e model, negligible effects of molecular viscosity and fully turbu-
maximum. The little increase in acid value of this study could be lent flow are assumed [42].
due to use of screw oil press for producing BLT oil.
3.2.1. Boundary conditions
3.2. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and simulation The boundary conditions for the model were designed based on
the engine that was used in experimental testing. This would help
An engine combustion model was developed using CFD soft- in making comparison and validating the CFD model against the
ware to predict the performance and emissions. This model was experimental results. The dimensions of the combustion chamber
used to simulate a range of parameters in the combustion chamber of the engine was used in creating the model, these are based on
including combustion duration, combustion temperature, burning the diameter of the combustion chamber, which is equal to the
velocity, etc. The model was then validated with the experimental- bore of the cylinder and the height, which is equal to the distance
ly measured data. It was then used to optimise operating para- between the piston top at top dead centre position and the cylinder
meters such as fuel injection timing, injection pressure, air–fuel head.
ratio, crank angle and combustion chamber geometry such as pis- When the position of the piston is at the top of its stroke, the
ton, piston ring, cylinder head, inlet and outlet valve to increase the height is known as the minimum height of the combustion cham-
performance and efficiency and to reduce emissions and opera- ber for the model. On the other hand, when the piston is at the bot-
tional limitations for the engine running on second generation tom of its stroke, the height is known as the maximum height of
biodiesel. the combustion chamber in the model. The pressure inlet bound-
The Navier–Stokes equations describe the conservation of mass, ary conditions define the fluid pressure at the flow inlets and the
the conservation of momentum and the conservation of energy. scalar properties of the flow. The pressure outlet boundary

(a) in petroleum diesel (a) in petroleum diesel

(b) in B5 (b) in B5

(c) in B10 (c) in B10


Fig. 6. Emission of NOx mass fraction at 720° CA. (a) In petroleum diesel. (b) In B5. Fig. 7. Emission of soot mass fraction at 720° CA. (a) In petroleum diesel. (b) In B5.
(c) In B10. (c) In B10.
N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635 631

(a) Mean NOx mass fraction

(b) Mean soot mass fraction


Fig. 8. Comparison of mean mass fraction of NOx and soot for petroleum diesel, B5 and B10 at 720° CA. (a) Mean NOx mass fraction. (b) Mean soot mass fraction.

Table 3
The comparison between the experimental and numerical results.

Fuel type Experimental Simulation Differences


Torque (N m) Power (kW) SFC (kg/kW h) Torque (N m) Power (kW) SFC (kg/kW h) Torque (%) Power (%) SFC (%)
Petroleum diesel 176 47.9 0.237 180.0 49.1 0.246 2.3 2.5 3.3
5% BLT (B5) 173 47.1 0.239 179.96 49.0 0.2455 4.0 4.0 2.8
10% BLT (B10) 172 46.83 0.24 179.0 48.9 0.245 4.0 4.4 2.5

conditions specify the static pressure at the outlet boundary to be The ESED was developed in order to maximise the ease of use,
used when the flow is subsonic. All of the other flow quantities can reliability and accuracy. The output results from the simulations
be extrapolated from the interior [42]. in AVL Fire are quite extensive which gives the required results
for an in depth analysis of the combustion and fluid flow
3.2.2. Simulation approaches within the combustion chamber. As a result of these factors, this
There are a number of different CFD modelling programs that program would be an excellent selection to use for the simulation
are available for use for the modelling and optimising a CI engine and optimisation of engine performance fuelled with diesel and
running with biodiesel. AVL Fire is powerful multi-purpose ther- biodiesel.
mo-fluid dynamics software with a particular focus on handling
fluid flow applications related to internal combustion engines 3.2.3. Simulation parameters
and power trains. CFD code ‘AVL Fire’’ was used for modelling in The following parameters were used for the simulation: num-
this study. As a part of the AVL Fire package, there is a product ber of cylinder: 4; bore: 98 cm; stroke: 110 cm; compression ratio:
known as Engine Simulation Environment Diesel (ESED). The 22.6; crank radius: 55 cm; connecting rod length: 94 cm, number
ESED is a CFD simulation tool that is used to set up, perform and of injection holes: 4; engine speed 2000 rpm; and friction power:
analyse the injection and combustion process in diesel engines. 1000 W.
632 N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635

3.2.4. Geometry and mesh of biodiesel is lower than the petroleum diesel, which leads to a
The piston shape was created based on the piston and injector slight decrease in power output for biodiesel fuels. Decrease in
geometry parameters which are shown in Fig. 1(a). The mesh for power and torque is due to their lower energy content of bio-
the simulation was generated based on a crank angle, as it has been diesel.
defined that there are 4 injector nozzle holes, the cylinder is split The specific fuel consumptions (SFC) of these fuels were mea-
up into quadrants for the simulation. Typical meshes are presented sured as a function of engine speed from 1400 rpm to 2600 rpm.
in Fig. 1(b). For the initial simulation to compare the three different The results indicate that there is no significant difference in SFC
fuel types, i.e. petroleum diesel, 10% biodiesel B10, and 5% biodie- for all three fuels as a function of engine speed. The SFC of B10
sel B5, the injection timing was set at a crank angle of 11° before (0.24 kg/kW h) was found 1.26% higher at about 2000 rpm than
top dead centre. This is based on the operating manual specifica- SFC of petroleum diesel (0.237 kg/kW h).
tions for the Kubota V3300 diesel engine. Fig. 3(a) shows the CO2 emissions of these fuels. It is clear from
Fig. 3(a) that both B5 and B10 produce higher CO2 emissions com-
4. Results and discussion pared to petroleum diesel. B5 CO2 emissions are significantly high-
er than B10 and petroleum diesel in the lower range of the speeds;
4.1. Experimental results however, CO2 emissions of both B5 and B10 are similar at the speed
of 2200 rpm onward. Both B5 and B10 biodiesels produce sig-
The results of performances and emissions tested for Type 1 – nificantly lower CO emissions in comparison with the petroleum
B5 (5% BLT) and Type 2 – B10 (10% BLT) are reported, discussed diesel as shown in Fig. 3(b), particularly at the speed of
and compared with the petroleum diesel in this section. Fig. 2(a) 2000 rpm onward. This lower CO emissions is usually occurred
and (b) shows the torque and power results for bio-diesel Types when CO2 emissions is higher at the corresponding engine speed.
1 and 2 at five different engine speeds at 100% throttle. It can be BLT biodiesels have higher oxygen content compared to petroleum
seen from Fig. 2(a) that the output torque decreases with increas- diesel; as a result, a more complete combustion has been occurred
ing speed. On the other hand, the output power increases with with BLT than that of petroleum diesel. Therefore, both types of
increasing speed which is seen from Fig. 2(b). It is to be noted that BLT discharge less CO in the exhaust stream. It can also be seen
the torque and power output of the normal diesel is slightly higher from Fig. 3(b) that there is no significant difference in CO emission
than the bio-diesels of B5 and B10 throughout the speed tested. of B5 and B10. Fig. 3(c) shows the NOx emissions of those fuels. A
This phenomenon agrees well with the experimental findings of decrease in NOx emissions shows the most in B10 compared to
McCarthy et al. [43,44]. The decrease in output torque influences B5 and petroleum diesel. It is seen from Fig. 3(c) that NOx emis-
the power output of the engine, since torque and power are direct- sions in B5 and petroleum diesel are somewhat similar at the speed
ly proportional when the engine speed is fixed. The energy content of 2500 rpm onward.

(a) at injection timing of 705° CA

(b) at injection timing of 719° CA


Fig. 9. Comparison of mean NOx fraction of petroleum diesel, B5 and B10 at different injection timing. (a) At injection timing of 705° CA. (b) At injection timing of 719° CA.
N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635 633

Experimental error analysis was performed using the equation by B5 and B10 biodiesel. On the other hand, outside the main spray
given in the literature [45], as follows; area, the temperature of B10 also appears to be lower than that in
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi the petroleum diesel and B5. Therefore it can be said that the lower
SSðTotal EXPÞ ¼ ðA1 Þ2 þ ðA2 Þ2 þ ðA3 Þ2 þ ðA4 Þ2 þ ðA5 Þ2 þ ðA6 Þ2 þ . . . combustion temperature reduces the NOx emission which agrees
well with the published literature [46]. The images of the flow velo-
where A1 = uncertainly of torque; A2 = uncertainly of power; city indicate the velocity of the flow within the combustion
A3 = uncertainly of SFC; A4 = uncertainly of CO; A5 = uncertainly of chamber.
CO2; A6 = uncertainly of NOx, etc.
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 2 2 2 2 2
SSðTotal EXPÞ ¼ ð0:860Þ þ ð0:793Þ þ ð0:912Þ þ ð1:423Þ þ ð0:892Þ þ ð2:201Þ 4.2.2. Emissions
¼ 3:14%. The analysis shows the percentage of error lies within the acceptable The images of emission of NOx mass fraction and emission of
limit. soot mass fraction can be found in Figs. 6 and 7 for injection timing
of 720° CA for petroleum diesel, B5 and B10 fuel, respectively.
4.2. Simulation results These images show the fraction of NOx and soot within the com-
bustion chamber at each stages of the piston cycle. These images
4.2.1. Combustion can be used to see when the emissions are being produced and
The detailed simulations were undertaken to observe how the the amount that is presented which can be compared between
combustion reaction, temperature and flow velocity progresses the fuel types to further back up of findings.
for B5, B10 and petroleum diesel. The simulation was done for a Fig. 8 shows the mean mass fraction of NOx (Fig. 8(a)) and shoot
crank angle of 720° CA at 2600 rpm, the images of which are pre- (Fig. 8(b)) for the petroleum diesel, B5 and B10 respectively at 720°
sented and discussed in this section. Fig. 4 shows the progress in CA. It can be seen from Fig. 8(a) that the diesel fuel has the highest
combustion reaction for petroleum diesel (Fig. 4(a)), B5 fraction of NOx after the combustion is completed followed by B5
(Fig. 4(b)) and B10 (Fig. 4(c)) fuels, respectively which indicate that biodiesel blend approximately 3% lower and then B10 biodiesel
there is virtually no difference in combustion reactions between approximately 14% lower. Fig. 8(b) shows that the diesel fuel has
them. The images of combustion reaction show when the reaction the highest fraction of soot after the combustion is completed fol-
is occurring and how the reaction moves throughout the cylinder. lowed by B5 biodiesel blend approximately 6% lower and then B10
Fig. 5 shows the progress of the temperature inside the combus- biodiesel approximately 18% lower. This shows that there is a fairly
tion chamber of petroleum diesel (Fig. 5(a)), B5 (Fig. 5(b)) and B10 significant difference in both NOx and soot production between the
(Fig. 5(c)) fuels, respectively. These images can be used to track fuel types. The difference between petroleum diesel and B5 biodie-
the temperature changes as the piston moves and the combustion sel is not overly large, but B10 does have significantly lower emis-
occurs. Highest temperature is found for petroleum diesel followed sions. When comparing diesel to B10 biodiesel, the difference is

(a) at injection timing of 705° CA

(b) at injection timing of 719° CA


Fig. 10. Mean soot fraction of petroleum diesel, B5 and B10 at different injection timing. (a) At injection timing of 705° CA. (b) At injection timing of 719° CA.
634 N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635

substantial. The large 14–18% reduction in emissions indicates that 4.4. Model optimisation
the B10 biodiesel is much better in terms of emissions reduction
than petroleum diesel. Injection timing is one of the major parameters that can be
adjusted to optimise the engine for better performance and effi-
4.3. Model validation ciency or a reduction in emissions. The injection timing can be
advanced or retarded to achieve the desired optimisation effect.
Validation of the model is essential to ensure an accurate and Figs. 9 and 10 show the simulations results for ‘‘Mean NOx mass
realistic model has been developed. The simulation results are fraction’’ (Fig. 9) and ‘‘Mean soot mass fraction’’ (Fig. 9) at different
compared with the experimental results in Table 3. These results injection timing of 705° CA and 719° CA.
were undertaken at 2600 rpm. Advancing injection timing increases the engine performance
It can be seen from Table 3 that the simulated results are in very and efficiency for B10 biodiesel, and as expected, retarding the
good agreement with the corresponding experiments, which varies injection timing reduces performance. The impact of the injection
only within 4.4%. In terms of brake power, it can be seen from timing on emissions was to reduce the soot as the timing was
Table 3 that the petroleum diesel produces 49.1 kW, compared to advanced but increase the NOx mass fraction. Fig. 9(a) (for NOx)
49.0 kW for B5 and 48.9 kW for B10 biodiesel blends. The torque and Fig. 10(a) (for soot) at 705° CA shows that the NOx and soot
from the simulation results again gives the highest results to the mass fractions remain lowest for B10 fuel, despite having the high-
B10 biodiesel blend at 179 N m, compared to 180 N m for petro- est performance. This shows that advancing the injection timing is
leum diesel and 179.9 N m for B5 biodiesel. Overall it can be said very effective for the use of biodiesel. Retarding injection timing
that at standard operating conditions of the engine, there is very (i.e. at 719° CA) reduces performance and emissions and resulted
little difference between the three fuel types in terms of power, in B5 biodiesel blend having the highest performance and NOx
torque and SFC. The B10 biodiesel has the slightly better perfor- emissions (Fig. 9(b), but slightly less soot emissions than diesel
mance, followed by B5 and then the standard petroleum diesel. (Fig. 10(b)).
The thermal efficiency of the engine was found to be 44% for B5 From the simulations it was found that increasing compression
and B10 biodiesel blend and 43% for the petroleum diesel. This ratio increases performance. The simulation results for adjusting
shows that there is only a small difference in the engine efficiency. the compression ratio can be found in Fig. 11 for B10. Fig. 11 shows
Fuel consumption is another indicator of the efficiency of the diesel and compare the mean NOx and soot mass fraction for the engine
engine whilst running at different fuels. However, there is virtually with a reduced compression ratio of 20, the standard 22.6 and an
no difference (0.5% variation) in SFC for B10, B5 and petroleum increased 24. Increasing the compression ratio increases the power
diesel. by approximately 1.2% but the NOx mass fraction remains almost

(a) Mean NOx mass fraction

(b) Mean soot mass fraction


Fig. 11. Mean NOx and soot mass fraction at different compression ratio for B10. (a) Mean NOx mass fraction. (b) Mean soot mass fraction.
N.M.S. Hassan et al. / Fuel 150 (2015) 625–635 635

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