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HIIT

entrenamiento intervalado de
alta intensidad
Mintxo Lasaosa
Curso Entrenador Superior de Musculación
APECED
Qué es HIIT??
Entrenamiento a intervalos de alta intensidad (HIIT), también llamado ejercicio
intermitente de alta intensidad (HIIE) o sprint entrenamiento interválico, es una
forma mejorada de intervalo de entrenamiento, una estrategia de ejercicio
alternando períodos de ejercicio anaeróbico intenso corto con períodos de
recuperación menos intensos.

HIIT es una forma de ejercicio cardiovascular.

Sesiones HIIT generalmente pueden variar de 9–20 minutos.

Estos entrenamientos cortos, intensos proporcionan mayor capacidad atlética y


condición, metabolismo de la glucosa mejora y mayor quema de grasa.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-intensity_interval_training
Protocolo típico del HIIT
Una sesión HIIT consiste en un período de ejercicio, seguido de seis a diez
repeticiones del ejercicio de alta intensidad, separados por el ejercicio de
intensidad media y terminando con un período de enfriamiento de ejercicio de
calentamiento. Cerca de máxima intensidad puede hacerse en el ejercicio de alta
intensidad.

El ejercicio medio debe ser aproximadamente 50% intensidad. El número de


repeticiones y la longitud de cada uno dependen el ejercicio. El objetivo es hacer
al menos seis ciclos y que toda la sesión HIIT durar por lo menos quince minutos y
no más de veinte. No hay ninguna fórmula específica para HIIT.

Dependiendo de su nivel desarrollo cardiovascular, el nivel de moderada


intensidad puede ser tan lenta como caminar.

El protocolo original establece una relación 2:1 de trabajo en períodos de


recuperación, por ejemplo, de 30 a 40 segundos de duro Sprint alternados con
15-20 segundos de trotar o caminar. HIIT constituye una excelente manera para
aprovechar al máximo un entrenamiento que es limitado en el tiempo.
OBJETIVO activación metabólica (mejoras anaeróbica y aeróbica)

PROTOCOLO es único, basado en Dr Tabata

• 5 minutos de calentamiento

• 8 intervalos de 20” de alta intensidad en uno o varios ejercicios,


seguidos de 10” de descanso

• 2 minutos de enfriamiento

• 1 o varios ejercicios en un entrenamiento, depende del nivel


http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/eng/html/research/areas/feat-
researchers/interview/izumi_t.html/
Método Tabata

basado en un estudio de 1996 [6] por profesor Izumi Tabata (田畑 泉) , utiliza 20
segundos de ejercicio ultra-intenso (a una intensidad de alrededor del 170% de
VO2max) seguido de 10 segundos de descanso, repetidas continuamente durante
4 minutos (8 ciclos).

Tabata había llamado el protocolo IE1. En el estudio original, los atletas


entrenaban 4 veces por semana, además de otro día de entrenamiento de estado
estacionario y obtuvieron ganancias similares a un grupo de atletas que hicieron
la formación de estado estacionario (70% VO2max) 5 veces por semana.

El grupo de estado estacionario tuvo un mayor VO2max al final (de 52 a 57


ml/kg/min), pero el grupo Tabata había iniciado inferior y ganó más general (de
48 a 55 ml/kg/min). Además, sólo el grupo Tabata obtuvo beneficios de capacidad
anaeróbica.

"... 8 muy duros intervalos de 20 segundos con períodos de descanso de 10 segundos


puede ser uno de los mejores programas de entrenamiento posibles".
dr. Izumi Tabata, Instituto Nacional de la salud y la nutrición, Tokio, Japón
TABATA, el origen del HIIT
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Oct;28(10):1327-30.
Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic
capacity and VO2max.
Tabata I, Nishimura K, Kouzaki M, Hirai Y, Ogita F, Miyachi M, Yamamoto K.
Source
Department of Physiology and Biomechanics, National Institute of Fitness and Sports,
Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.
Abstract
This study consists of two training experiments using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer.
First, the effect of 6 wk of moderate-intensity endurance training (intensity: 70% of maximal
oxygen uptake (VO2max), 60 min.d-1, 5 d.wk-1) on the anaerobic capacity (the maximal
accumulated oxygen deficit) and VO2max was evaluated. After the training, the anaerobic
capacity did not increase significantly (P > 0.10), while VO2max increased from 53 +/- 5 ml.kg-1
min-1 to 58 +/- 3 ml.kg-1.min-1 (P < 0.01) (mean +/- SD). Second, to quantify the effect of high-
intensity intermittent training on energy release, seven subjects performed an intermittent
training exercise 5 d.wk-1 for 6 wk. The exhaustive intermittent training consisted of seven to
eight sets of 20-s exercise at an intensity of about 170% of VO2max with a 10-s rest between
each bout. After the training period, VO2max increased by 7 ml.kg-1.min-1, while the anaerobic
capacity increased by 28%. In conclusion, this study showed that moderate-intensity aerobic
training that improves the maximal aerobic power does not change anaerobic capacity and that
adequate high-intensity intermittent training may improve both anaerobic and aerobic energy
supplying systems significantly, probably through imposing intensive stimuli on both systems.
HIIT y
Salud
J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jun;98(6):1985-90. Epub 2005 Feb 10.
Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance
capacity in humans.
Burgomaster KA, Hughes SC, Heigenhauser GJ, Bradwell SN, Gibala MJ.
Source
Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Dept. of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
L8S 4K1.
Abstract
Parra et al. (Acta Physiol. Scand 169: 157-165, 2000) showed that 2 wk of daily sprint interval training (SIT)
increased citrate synthase (CS) maximal activity but did not change "anaerobic" work capacity, possibly
because of chronic fatigue induced by daily training. The effect of fewer SIT sessions on muscle oxidative
potential is unknown, and aside from changes in peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2 peak)), no study has examined
the effect of SIT on "aerobic" exercise capacity. We tested the hypothesis that six sessions of SIT, performed
over 2 wk with 1-2 days rest between sessions to promote recovery, would increase CS maximal activity and
endurance capacity during cycling at approximately 80% Vo(2 peak). Eight recreationally active subjects [age
= 22 +/- 1 yr; Vo(2 peak) = 45 +/- 3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) (mean +/- SE)] were studied before and 3 days after SIT.
Each training session consisted of four to seven "all-out" 30-s Wingate tests with 4 min of recovery. After SIT,
CS maximal activity increased by 38% (5.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.7 mmol.kg protein(-1).h(-1)) and resting
muscle glycogen content increased by 26% (614 +/- 39 vs. 489 +/- 57 mmol/kg dry wt) (both P < 0.05). Most
strikingly, cycle endurance capacity increased by 100% after SIT (51 +/- 11 vs. 26 +/- 5 min; P < 0.05), despite
no change in Vo(2 peak). The coefficient of variation for the cycle test was 12.0%, and a control group (n = 8)
showed no change in performance when tested approximately 2 wk apart without SIT. We conclude that
short sprint interval training (approximately 15 min of intense exercise over 2 wk) increased muscle
oxidative potential and doubled endurance capacity during intense aerobic cycling in recreationally active
individuals.
J Appl Physiol. 2006 Jun;100(6):2041-7. Epub 2006 Feb 9.
Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate
metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance.
Burgomaster KA, Heigenhauser GJ, Gibala MJ.
Abstract
Our laboratory recently showed that six sessions of sprint interval training (SIT) over 2 wk increased muscle
oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity (Burgomaster KA, Hughes SC, Heigenhauser GJF, Bradwell
SN, and Gibala MJ. J Appl Physiol 98: 1895-1900, 2005). The present study tested the hypothesis that short-
term SIT would reduce skeletal muscle glycogenolysis and lactate accumulation during exercise and increase
the capacity for pyruvate oxidation via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Eight men [peak oxygen uptake (VO2
peak)=3.8+/-0.2 l/min] performed six sessions of SIT (4-7x30-s "all-out" cycling with 4 min of recovery) over
2 wk. Before and after SIT, biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and after each stage of a two-
stage cycling test that consisted of 10 min at approximately 60% followed by 10 min at approximately 90% of
VO2 peak. Subjects also performed a 250-kJ time trial (TT) before and after SIT to assess changes in cycling
performance. SIT increased muscle glycogen content by approximately 50% (main effect, P=0.04) and the
maximal activity of citrate synthase (posttraining: 7.8+/-0.4 vs. pretraining: 7.0+/-0.4 mol.kg protein -1.h-1;
P=0.04), but the maximal activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase was unchanged (posttraining: 5.1+/-
0.7 vs. pretraining: 4.9+/-0.6 mol.kg protein -1.h-1; P=0.76). The active form of PDH was higher after training
(main effect, P=0.04), and net muscle glycogenolysis (posttraining: 100+/-16 vs. pretraining: 139+/-11
mmol/kg dry wt; P=0.03) and lactate accumulation (posttraining: 55+/-2 vs. pretraining: 63+/-1 mmol/kg dry
wt; P=0.03) during exercise were reduced. TT performance improved by 9.6% after training (posttraining:
15.5+/-0.5 vs. pretraining: 17.2+/-1.0 min; P=0.006), and a control group (n=8, VO2 peak=3.9+/-0.2 l/min)
showed no change in performance when tested 2 wk apart without SIT (posttraining: 18.8+/-1.2 vs.
pretraining: 18.9+/-1.2 min; P=0.74). We conclude that short-term SIT improved cycling TT
performance and resulted in a closer matching of glycogenolytic flux and pyruvate oxidation
during submaximal exercise.
J Appl Physiol. 2007 Apr;102(4):1439-47. Epub 2006 Dec 14.
Two weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval training increases the capacity for fat oxidation
during exercise in women.
Talanian JL, Galloway SD, Heigenhauser GJ, Bonen A, Spriet LL.
Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
jtalania@uoguelph.ca
Abstract
Our aim was to examine the effects of seven high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) sessions over 2 wk
on skeletal muscle fuel content, mitochondrial enzyme activities, fatty acid transport proteins, peak O(2)
consumption (Vo(2 peak)), and whole body metabolic, hormonal, and cardiovascular responses to exercise.
Eight women (22.1 +/- 0.2 yr old, 65.0 +/- 2.2 kg body wt, 2.36 +/- 0.24 l/min Vo(2 peak)) performed a Vo(2
peak) test and a 60-min cycling trial at approximately 60% Vo(2 peak) before and after training. Each
session consisted of ten 4-min bouts at approximately 90% Vo(2 peak) with 2 min of rest
between intervals. Training increased Vo(2 peak) by 13%. After HIIT, plasma epinephrine and heart rate
were lower during the final 30 min of the 60-min cycling trial at approximately 60% pretraining Vo(2 peak).
Exercise whole body fat oxidation increased by 36% (from 15.0 +/- 2.4 to 20.4 +/- 2.5 g) after HIIT. Resting
muscle glycogen and triacylglycerol contents were unaffected by HIIT, but net glycogen use was reduced
during the posttraining 60-min cycling trial. HIIT significantly increased muscle mitochondrial beta-
hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (15.44 +/- 1.57 and 20.35 +/- 1.40 mmol.min(-1).kg wet mass(-1) before
and after training, respectively) and citrate synthase (24.45 +/- 1.89 and 29.31 +/- 1.64 mmol.min(-1).kg wet
mass(-1) before and after training, respectively) maximal activities by 32% and 20%, while cytoplasmic
hormone-sensitive lipase protein content was not significantly increased. Total muscle plasma membrane
fatty acid-binding protein content increased significantly (25%), whereas fatty acid translocase/CD36 content
was unaffected after HIIT. In summary, seven sessions of HIITover 2 wk induced marked increases
in whole body and skeletal muscle capacity for fatty acid oxidation during exercise in
moderately active women
Después de 7
sesiones:

-Disminuye el
consumo de CHO
- aumenta el
consumo de grasa
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Dec;33(6):1112-23.
High-intensity aerobic interval training increases fat and carbohydrate metabolic capacities in human
skeletal muscle.
Perry CG, Heigenhauser GJ, Bonen A, Spriet LL.
Source
Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
perryc@uoguelph.ca
Abstract
High-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) is a compromise between time-consuming moderate-intensity
training and sprint-interval training requiring all-out efforts. However, there are few data regarding the
ability of HIIT to increase the capacities of fat and carbohydrate oxidation in skeletal muscle. Using untrained
recreationally active individuals, we investigated skeletal muscle and whole-body metabolic adaptations that
occurred following 6 weeks of HIIT (~1 h of 10 x 4 min intervals at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2
peak), separated by 2 min rest, 3 d.week-1). A VO2 peak test, a test to exhaustion (TE) at 90% of pre-training
VO2 peak, and a 1 h cycle at 60% of pre-training VO2 peak were performed pre- and post-HIIT. Muscle
biopsies were sampled during the TE at rest, after 5 min, and at exhaustion. Training power output increased
by 21%, and VO2 peak increased by 9% following HIIT. Muscle adaptations at rest included the following: (i)
increased cytochrome c oxidase IV content (18%) and maximal activities of the mitochondrial enzymes
citrate synthase (26%), beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (29%), aspartate-amino transferase (26%), and
pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH; 21%); (ii) increased FAT/CD36, FABPpm, GLUT 4, and MCT 1 and 4 transport
proteins (14%-30%); and (iii) increased glycogen content (59%). Major adaptations during exercise included
the following: (i) reduced glycogenolysis, lactate accumulation, and substrate phosphorylation (0-5 min of
TE); (ii) unchanged PDH activation (carbohydrate oxidation; 0-5 min of TE); (iii) ~2-fold greater time during
the TE; and (iv) increased fat oxidation at 60% of pre-training VO2 peak. This study demonstrated that 18 h
of repeated high-intensity exercise sessions over 6 weeks (3 d.week-1) is a powerful method to increase
whole-body and skeletal muscle capacities to oxidize fat and carbohydrate in previously untrained
individuals.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Nov;110(5):893-903. Epub 2010 Jul 14.
High-intensity exercise and carbohydrate-reduced energy-restricted diet in obese individuals.
Sartor F, de Morree HM, Matschke V, Marcora SM, Milousis A, Thom JM, Kubis HP.
Source
School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, George Building, Holyhead Road, Bangor,
Gwynedd, UK.
Abstract
Continuous high glycemic load and inactivity challenge glucose homeostasis and fat oxidation.
Hyperglycemia and high intramuscular glucose levels mediate insulin resistance, a precursor state of type 2
diabetes. The aim was to investigate whether a carbohydrate (CHO)-reduced diet combined
with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) enhances the beneficial effects of the diet alone on
insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation in obese individuals. Nineteen obese subjects underwent
14 days of CHO-reduced and energy-restricted diet. Ten of them combined the diet with HIIT (4 min bouts at
90% VO(2peak) up to 10 times, 3 times a week). Oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS) increased significantly
in both groups; [diet-exercise (DE) group: pre 377 ± 70, post 396 ± 68 mL min(-1) m(-2); diet (D) group: pre
365 ± 91, post 404 ± 87 mL min(-1) m(-2); P < 0.001]. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio (RER) decreased
significantly in both groups (DE group: pre 0.91 ± 0.06, post 0.88 ± 0.06; D group: pre 0.92 ± 0.07, post
0.86 ± 0.07; P = 0.002). VO(2peak) increased significantly in the DE group (pre 27 ± 5, post 32 ± 6 mL kg(-
1) min(-1); P < 0.001), but not in the D group (pre 26 ± 9, post 26 ± 8 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). Lean mass and
resistin were preserved only in the DE group (P < 0.05). Fourteen days of CHO-reduced diet improved
OGIS and fat oxidation (RER) in obese subjects. The energy-balanced HIIT did not further
enhance these parameters, but increased aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) and preserved lean
mass and resistin.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Jul;111(7):1279-86. Epub 2010 Dec 4.
Adaptations to high-intensity training are independent of gender.
Astorino TA, Allen RP, Roberson DW, Jurancich M, Lewis R, McCarthy K, Trost E.
Source
Department of Kinesiology, California State University, San Marcos, 333 S. Twin Oaks Valley
Road, MH 352, San Marcos, CA 92096-0001, USA. astorino@csusm.edu
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify potential gender discrepancies in adaptation to low-
volume high-intensity interval training (HIT). Active, young men (n = 11, age = 25.3 ± 5.5 years)
and women (n = 9, age = 25.2 ± 3.1 years) matched for age, physical activity, and VO(2max)
completed six sessions of HIT separated by 48 h over a 2-3 week period. Subjects completed
four Wingate tests on days 1 and 2, five on days 3 and 4, and six on days 5 and 6. A control
group of five men and four women (age = 22.8 ± 2.8 years) completed all testing, but did not
perform HIT. Changes in VO(2max), oxygen (O(2)) pulse, peak/mean power output, fatiguability,
substrate oxidation, and voluntary force production of the knee flexors and extensors were
examined pre- and post-training with repeated measures ANOVA, with gender and group as
between-subjects variables. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in VCO(2max)
and peak/mean power output in response to HIT, as well as reduced respiratory exchange ratio
and heart rate during submaximal exercise. The magnitude of change in VO(2max) (5.9 vs.
6.8%), power output (10.4-14.9% vs. 9.1-10.9%), and substrate oxidation was similar (p > 0.05)
between men and women. Data show that adaptations to 6 days of low-volume HIT are similar
in men and women matched for VO(2max) and physical activity.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012 Jun;52(3):255-62.
High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.
Sijie T, Hainai Y, Fengying Y, Jianxiong W.
Department of Health and Exercise Science, Tianjin University of Sport, China - wangj@usq.edu.au.
Abstract
AIM:
The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT)
program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women.
METHODS:
Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen
and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT)
group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent
exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group
performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and
separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT
group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max.
RESULTS:
Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body
composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory
threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was
evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the
measured variables.
CONCLUSION:
The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have
demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young
women who are overweight.
J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Jan;26(1):138-45.
Effect of high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular function, VO2max, and muscular
force.
Astorino TA, Allen RP, Roberson DW, Jurancich M.
Source
Department of Kinesiology, California State University, San Marcos, California, USA.
astorino@csusm.edu
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term high-intensity
interval training (HIIT) on cardiovascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular
force. Active, young (age and body fat = 25.3 ± 4.5 years and 14.3 ± 6.4%) men and women (N =
20) of a similar age, physical activity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) completed 6
sessions of HIIT consisting of repeated Wingate tests over a 2- to 3-week period. Subjects
completed 4 Wingate tests on days 1 and 2, 5 on days 3 and 4, and 6 on days 5 and 6. A control
group of 9 men and women (age and body fat = 22.8 ± 2.8 years and 15.2 ± 6.9%) completed all
testing but did not perform HIIT. Changes in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR),
VO2max, body composition, oxygen (O2) pulse, peak, mean, and minimum power output,
fatigue index, and voluntary force production of the knee flexors and extensors were examined
pretraining and posttraining. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in VO2max, O2
pulse, and Wingate-derived power output with HIIT. The magnitude of improvement in VO2max
was related to baseline VO2max (r = -0.44, p = 0.05) and fatigue index (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). No
change (p > 0.05) in resting BP, HR, or force production was revealed. Data show
that HIIT significantly enhanced VO2max and O2 pulse and power output in active men and
women.
Aust Fam Physician. 2012 Dec;41(12):960-2.
Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.
Shiraev T, Barclay G.
University of Notre Dame, School of Medicine, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved
serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke,
acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs
prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian
Heart Foundation clinical guidelines.
OBJECTIVE:
This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic
disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular.
DISCUSSION:
Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially
weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly
exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of
recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient
compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for
implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise
are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those
unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before
commencing a HIIT program.
ESTUDIOS COMPARATIVOS CARDIO/FUERZA QUEMA DE GRASA
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27. [↩]
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HOMA in overweight adults from STRRIDE AT/RT. Slentz, C.A., Bateman, L.A., Willis, L.H., et al. Div. of Cardiology,
Dept. of Medicine, Duke Univ. Durham, NC. American Journal
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Effects of aerobic vs. resistance training on visceral and liver fat stores, liver enzymes, and insulin resistance by
HOMA in overweight adults from STRRIDE AT/RT.Slentz, C.A., Bateman, L.A., Willis, L.H. Div. of Cardiology, Dept.
of Medicine, PO Box 3022, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC. American Journal of Physiology -
Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2011 Nov;301(5):E1033-9. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00291.2011. Epub 2011 Aug
16. [↩]
Evidence based exercise – Clinical benefits of high intensity interval training. Shiraey, T., Barclay, G. Australian
Family Physician, 2012 Dec;41(12):960-2. [↩]
Acute psychological benefits of aerobic exercise: a field study into the effects of exercise characteristics. Rendi,
M., Szabo, A., Szabo, T., et al.Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest,
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