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(An Autonomous Institute with Permanent Affiliation to JNTUK, Kakinada)

(Accredited By NAAC with ‘A’ Grade)

Seshadhri Rao Knowledge Village, GUDLAVALLERU – 521 356

AGAINST EARTHQUAKE FORCES

Submitted by:

I.SRINIVAS (15485A0120)

Project Guide:

N.SURESH (15485A0130)

Dr. P.KODANDA RAMA RAO

K.VINEELA SAI (15485A0123) Professor & HoD

K.KARTHIK (14481A0174)

J.PRATHAP REDDY (14481A0162)

CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE

SOFT STOREY

PRESENTATION OF PROBLEM

MODELING OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

PRELIMINARY DATA

PRELIMINARY STATIC ANALYSIS

SEISMIC ANALYSIS

LUMPED MASS SYSTEM

MASS AND STIFFNESS MATRIXS

MAT LAB ANALYSIS

RESULTS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCE

ABSTRACT

The Effective design and construction of earthquake resisting structures have

much greater importance in all over the world. Major metropolitan cities in India have

registered exponential growth of population resulting construction of many High-Rise

Buildings. As the Earthquakes are the most catastrophic natural hazards related to

ongoing tectonic processes which occur sudden and destruction takes place in few minutes.

Structures on the earth are generally subjected to two types of load static and

dynamic. Static loads are constant with time while dynamic loads are time- varying. In

general, the majority of civil engineering structures are designed with the assumption

that all applied loads are static. The effect of dynamic load is not considered because

the structure is rarely subjected to dynamic loads, This feature of neglecting the

dynamic forces may sometimes become the cause of disaster, particularly, in case of

Earthquake.

ABSTRACT

In High-Rise Buildings the Soft stories play an important role on its seismic

performance. At the soft storey level, there is a discontinuity in the rigidity of the

structure due to lack of infill walls or due to variation in floor height. It is this

continuity which is the cause of structural failure of multi stored buildings under

earthquake loads. Severe structural damage suffered by several modern buildings

during recent earthquakes illustrates the importance of avoiding sudden changes in

lateral stiffness and strength.

Infilled frame structures are commonly used in buildings. Masonry infilled RC

frames are the most common type of structures used for multi-storied constructions in the

developing countries, even in those which are located in seismically active regions also,

Masonry infill walls are mainly used to increase initial stiffness and strength of

reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings.

ABSTRACT

In this project the Response of Multi-storied residential building is

carried out against earthquake forces by assuming that the structure is

located in zone-III using MAT Lab analysis by considering the structure is

without infill walls and with soft storey, with infill walls and with soft

storey, without infill walls and without soft storey, & with infill walls and

without soft storey. In which by obtaining Time period, Frequency, Base

shear, Displacement, Storey drift.

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this project is to introduce the Response of Multi-storied

residential building against Earthquake forces, the Reinforced concrete frame

buildings are the most common type of constructions in urban India, which are subjected

to several types of forces during their lifetime, such as static forces due to dead and live

loads and dynamic forces due to wind and earthquakes. The response of buildings under

dynamic forces depends upon the dynamic characteristics of buildings which are

controlled by both their mass and stiffness properties.

The natural disasters have been fast recurring all over the world causing great

concern and damage to man and his properties. While the disasters like Earthquake,

Volcanoes, Floods, Cyclones etc are mostly tutored by the dynamically active earth and

the atmosphere. Among these disasters Earthquake is an endogenous natural disaster,

which occurs suddenly without any warning. Depending upon the magnitude and

intensity, bulk of destruction takes place with a short duration of time.

INTRODUCTION

The primary objective of earthquake resistant design is to prevent building

collapse during earthquakes thus minimizing the risk of death or injury to people

in or around those buildings. Earthquake forces are generated by the dynamic

response of the building to earthquake induced ground motion. The importance of

dynamic effects in structural response depends on the rate of change of external

forces and the dynamic properties of structures. Dynamic responses are stresses,

strains, displacement, acceleration etc.

So the main aim of the code is to withstand earthquake such that

complete collapse of structure is prevented, which ensures that no human life is lost.

This requires an estimation of acceleration, velocity, displacement, frequency and

duration of maximum strong ground motion which occurs at the site.

OBJECTIVE

The main focus of the project is to analysis the residential building

against earthquake forces.

To determine the base shear, time period, storey-displacements and

storey-drifts for each storey of a multi-storied residential building.

To make a study of multi-storied residential building by considering

with soft storey and without infill walls, with soft storey and without

infill walls, without soft storey and without infill walls, & without soft

storey and with infill walls

SOFT STOREY

It is the one which the lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the

storey above or less than 80 percent of the average lateral stiffness of the three storey’s

above.

By Providing Stiff Column at Open Ground Storey Stiffness of column is

directly proportional to its load carrying capacity i.e. higher the stiffness, higher is the

load carrying capacity. Stiffness can be increased by increasing the size of these loads

carrying member as they are able to bear the excessive load during earthquake.

building; and (b) A Building with soft story irregularity

PRESENTATION OF PROBLEM

Many High Rise structures are expected in the new city in future. This area

falls under seismic zone III, and covered by various types of structures are to be

developing for the purpose of Residential, Commercial, Office, hospital, school, collage,

etc are to be forming with different components like soft stories, infill walls, etc. which

are to be analyzed by considering earthquake forces.

In the present study, The Response against Earthquake forces of a Multi-

storied Residential building which is assuming to be located in newly formed capital of

Andhra Pradesh i.e., Amaravati which is under seismic zone III of severe condition

with hard rock soil strata and designed as Ordinary RC Moment Resisting Frame

(OMRF) and assuming with 5% damping. The analysis is done by considering the

Multi-storied Residential Building without infill walls and with soft storey, with

infill walls and with soft storey, without infill walls and without soft storey, with infill

walls and without soft storey.

MODELING OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

PLAN AND GEOMETRY OF STRUCTURE

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF MULTI-STORIED

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

PRELIMINARY DATA

Column sizes = 0.23x0.45 m

Transverse Beam sizes = 0.23x0.4 m

Longitudinal Beam size= 0.23X0.35 m

Thickness of Slab = 0.12 m

Number of Stories = 10 (G+9)

Height of Storey = 3.5 m

Bay width along Y-direction = 34.73 meters

Bay width along X-direction = 21.34 meters

Thickness of outer and infill walls = 0.23 m

Thickness of partition walls = 0.115m

Dimensions of doors D = 1.2x2.1 m

Dimensions of doors D2 = 1.0 x2.

0 m

Dimensions of windows W = 1.2x1.5 m

Support condition = Fixed

Input to the analysis = MAT Lab

PRELIMINARY DATA

Loading parameters

1. Dead Load

Floor finish= 1 kN/m2

Terrace finish = 1 kN/m2

2. Live Load

Live load on Floor = 3 kN/m2

Live load on Terrace = 2 kN/m2

For Seismic loading only 25% of the imposed load is considered i.e., As per IS 1893(part1)

the Imposed Uniformity Distributed Floor Loads up to and including 3.0 kN/m2 the Percentage

of Imposed Load must consider is 25. The imposed load on Roof need not to be considered for

calculating the design seismic forces

PRELIMINARY DATA

Miscellaneous Data:

Various details required for carrying out the analysis have been summarized as below:

Grade of concrete is assumed as M30 for columns, slabs and beams

Grade of steel is taken as Fe 415

Unit weight of RCC is 25 kN/m3

Unit weight of brick work is 20 kN/m3 (including plastering)

Material Properties:

Concrete

All components unless specified in design: M30 Grade, the young’s modules of concrete is

Ec

=5

0

00

√

fk

N/

m

m2

=5

0

0

0f

√M

N2

/

m

c

k c

k

Steel

HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe 415 confirming to IS 1786 is used throughout.

PRELIMINARY STATIC ANALYSIS

Load calculation sheet prepared for critical column D2:

Total Grand

Elevation From beam From beam From beam From beam Weight of

Load Total

(m) D1 D2 D2 D3 C2 D2 D2 E2 Column

(kN) (kN)

(kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN)

31.5 62.62 34.705 66.767 66.767 8.02 238.879 349.45

28 62.62 34.705 66.767 66.767 8.02 238.879 588.33

24.5 62.62 34.705 66.767 66.767 8.02 238.879 827.21

21 62.62 34.705 66.767 66.767 8.02 238.879 1066.09

17.5 62.62 34.705 66.767 66.767 8.02 238.879 1304.97

14 62.62 34.705 66.767 66.767 8.02 238.879 1543.85

10.5 62.62 34.705 66.767 66.767 8.02 238.879 1782.73

7 62.62 34.705 66.767 66.767 8.02 238.879 2021.61

3.5 62.62 34.705 66.767 66.767 8.02 238.879 2260.48

TOTAL LOAD 2260.48

SEISMIC ANALYSIS

Zone factor (Z)

It is a factor to obtain the design spectrum based on maximum seismic risk in the zone in

which the structure is located. Simply, zone factor is to estimate the effective peak ground

acceleration. Based on seismic intensity, zone factor is given.

From Table 2 of IS: 1893(part1):2002

Zone Factor

Z 0.36 0.24 0.16 0.10

Z=0.16

Structural Response Factor (Sa

/

g

)

It is a factor which exhibits the acceleration response spectrum of the structure

subjected to earthquake ground vibrations. Structural response factor depends on

fundamental natural period and damping of the structure. Spectral response factor is

obtained from IS 1893 (Part1) : 2002 in which soil is divided into 3 categories named

Type I (Rock or Hard soil),

Type II (Medium soil), and

Type III (Soft soil).

The proposed residential building is analyzing under Type I (Hard soil).

Multiplying factor:

The multiplying factor is taken as 1.0 for 5% damping of residential building

Response Spectrum

Fundamental natural period is the first modal time period of vibration.

Approximate fundamental natural period of vibration, (Ta) = 0.09ℎ/√𝑑

As per IS 1893 (part 1) : 2002

Where, h = Height of building in m

d = Base dimension of the building at the plinth level, in m, along the

considered direction of the lateral force.

Response spectra for rock and soil sites for 5 percent damping

Importance factor (I)

It is a factor used to obtain the design seismic force depending on the

functional use of the structure. It is based on hazardous consequences of its failure, its

post-earthquake functional need, historic value or economic importance. Importance

factor is nothing but to improve the seismic resistivity of the building by increasing

value of design horizontal acceleration coefficient (Ah ).Im portance factor i

s m oref or

cinem a ha llsa nd s

ch oolse t

c .becau seitsfa il

u reinvolves l

oss ofso m any lives.I

t is

tak en fro m IS :1893(P art1):

20 02

Importance factor

Response Reduction Factor (R)

It is the factor by which the actual base shear force, that would be generated if the structure

were to remain elastic during its response to the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) shaking,

shall be reduced to obtain the design lateral force. Response reduction factors taken from IS:

1893(Part1):2002.

frame (OMRF),

The value of Response Reduction Factor is taken as 3.0

Design Seismic Base Shear

The total design lateral force or design seismic base shear (VB

)

a

l

on

ga

n

y

p

r

in

c

i

p

al

d

i

r

e

c

ti

o

ns

ha llbe d e

te r

m ined by th e foll

o wing exp res

sion

VB

=

A

h*

W

Where,

Ah

=

De

s

ig

n

h

o

ri

z

o

nt

a

l

ac

c

e

le

r

a

t

i

on

s

p

ec

t

r

u

mv

a

l

ue

W = Seismic weight of building

Here, Ah

=

(Z

/

2

)𝐼

𝑅

x

(

/)

x

(𝑆

𝑔

/

)

a

Z = Zone factor

I = Importance factor

R = Response reduction factor

𝑆a

𝑔

/

=Av

e

r

a

ge

r

e

sp

o

n

s

ea

c

c

e

le

r

a

t

i

on

c

o

ef

f

i

c

i

en

t

,

I

ti

sd

e

p

e

n

di

n

g

up

o

nT

i

m

ep

e

r

i

od

a

n

dt

y

p

eo

f

so

i

l

RESPONSE OF MULTI-STORIED RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

AGAINST EARTHQUAKE FORCES

Lumped Mass System

SEISMIC WEIGHTS BY LUMPED MASS SYSTEM

Weight calculations of Dead Loads

Weight of column (on Terrace) = 25x0.23x0.45x888x(3.5-0.4)/2 = 352.935 kN

Weight of column (on Floor) = 25x0.23x0.45x88x(3.5-0.4) = 705.87 kN

Weight of beams (Transverse + Longitudinal) = 25x0.23x(0.4-0.12)x(21.34x9+18.84x2)+25x0.23x(0.35-0.12)x(34.73x8) = 737.324

kN

Weight of outfill walls (on Terrace) = 20x0.23x(2x29.7)x(3.5-0.35)/2+20x0.23x(2x17)x(3.5-0.35)/2 =672.773 kN

Weight of outfill walls (on Floor) = 20x0.23x(2x29.7)x(3.5-0.35)+20x0.23x(2x17)x(3.5-0.35) =1345.546 kN

Weight of infill walls (on Terrace) =

20x0.23x(2x29.7+2x23.4+2x12.9)x(3.5-0.35)/2+20x0.23x(3x17+6x12)x(3.5-0.4)/2+20x0.115x(2.1x12)x(3.5-0.12)/2+20x0.115x(2.5x4)

x(3.5-0.4)/2 = 1966.933 kN

Weight of infill walls (on Floor) =

20x0.23x(2x29.7+2x23.4+2x12.9)x(3.5-0.35)+20x0.23x(3x17+6x12)x(3.5-0.4)+20x0.115x(2.1x12)x(3.5-0.12)+20x0.115x(2.5x4)x(3.5-

0.4) = 3933.866 kN

Floor area = 34.73x21.34-2x(2.5x6.39+2.5x4.36) = 687.40 m2

Weight of slab = 25x687.40x0.12 = 2062.20 kN

Weight of terrace finishing = 1x687.40 = 687.40 kN

Weight of floor finishing = 1x687.40 = 687.40 kN

Weight calculations of Live Loads

Weight of Live load on Terrace = 0 kN

Weight of Live load on Floor = 25% of 3x687.40 = 2062.20x25/100 = 515.55 kN

MASS AND STIFFNESS VALUES OF MULTI- STORIED

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

MODAL 1 WITHOUT INFILL WALLS AND WITH SOFT STOREY

MASS MATRIX

548.53 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 617.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 617.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 617.11 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 617.11 0 0 0 0 0

[m]=

0 0 0 0 0 617.11 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 617.11 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 617.11 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 617.11 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 460

MASS AND STIFFNESS VALUES OF MULTI- STORIED

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

MODAL 1 WITHOUT INFILL WALLS AND WITH SOFT STOREY

STIFFNESS MATRIX

45.991 -44.295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

[K]= 106x

0 0 0 0 -44.295 88.590 -44.295 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -44.295 44.295

MASS AND STIFFNESS VALUES OF MULTI- STORIED

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

MODAL 2 WITH INFILL WALLS AND WITH SOFT STOREY

MASS MATRIX

749.03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1018.16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1018.16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1018.16 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1018.16 0 0 0 0 0

[m]=

0 0 0 0 0 1018.16 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1018.16 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1018.16 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1018.16 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 660.5

MASS AND STIFFNESS VALUES OF MULTI- STORIED

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

MODAL 2 WITH INFILL WALLS AND WITH SOFT STOREY

STIFFNESS MATRIX

149.228 -147.53 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

[K]= 106x

0 0 0 0 -147.53 295.07 -147.53 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -147.53 147.53

MASS AND STIFFNESS VALUES OF MULTI- STORIED

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

MODAL 3 WITHOUT INFILL WALLS AND WITHOUT SOFT STOREY

MASS MATRIX

617.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 617.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 617.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 617.11 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 617.11 0 0 0 0 0

[m]=

0 0 0 0 0 617.11 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 617.11 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 617.11 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 617.11 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 460

MASS AND STIFFNESS VALUES OF MULTI- STORIED

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

MODAL 3 WITHOUT INFILL WALLS AND WITHOUT SOFT STOREY

STIFFNESS MATRIX

88.590 -44.295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

[K]= 106x

0 0 0 0 -44.295 88.590 -44.295 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -44.295 44.295

MASS AND STIFFNESS VALUES OF MULTI- STORIED

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

MODAL 4 WITH INFILL WALLS AND WITHOUT SOFT STOREY

MASS MATRIX

1018.16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1018.16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1018.16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1018.16 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1018.16 0 0 0 0 0

[m]=

0 0 0 0 0 1018.16 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1018.16 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1018.16 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1018.16 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 660.5

MASS AND STIFFNESS VALUES OF MULTI- STORIED

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

MODAL 4 WITH INFILL WALLS AND WITHOUT SOFT STOREY

STIFFNESS MATRIX

295.07 -147.53 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

[K]= 106x

0 0 0 0 -147.53 295.07 -147.53 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -147.53 147.53

MAT LAB ANALYSIS

MAT Lab software is used to analyze the Response of Multi-storied Residential

Building against Earthquake Forces by introducing the Mass Matrixes and Stiffness

Matrixes as program input for the Model 1, Model 2, Model 3, Model 4 and then the free

Time Period, Frequency, Base Shear,

vibration analysis is carried out, therefore the Results

Displacement, Storey Drift are obtained for the four models are compared

The MAT Lab Program input and Results obtained as output for Modal 1 Without

Infill walls and With Soft storey was presented in APPENDIX of documentation

The output results of MAT Lab analysis were obtained for the four cases

i.e.,

1) Case 1 : Without Infill walls and With Soft storey

2) Case 2 : With Infill walls and With Soft storey

3) Case 3 : Without Infill walls and Without Soft storey

4) Case 4 : With Infill walls and Without Soft storey

RESULTS

TIME PERIOD

The Time periods of the multistoried residential building for the four cases at were

represented below

RESULTS OF FUNDAMENTAL TIME PERIOD

S/no Type of Structure Time period (Sec)

1 Case 1 0.393

2 Case 2 0.480

3 Case 3 0.153

4 Case 4 0.107

0.5 0.480

0.393

0.4

Time period (Sec)

0.3

RESULTS OF

0.2 0.153 FUNDAMENTAL TIME

0.107 PERIOD

0.1

0

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

Type of Structure

RESULTS

FREQUENCY

The Frequency’s of the multistoried residential building for the four cases at were

represented below

RESULTS OF FUNDAMENTAL OF FREQUENCY

S/no Type of Structure Frequency (Hz)

1 Case 1 84.312

2 Case 2 120.004

3 Case 3 84.369

4 Case 4 119.993

140

120 119.993

120

100 84.312 84.369

Frequency (Hz)

80 RESULTS OF

60 FUNDAMENTAL

FREQUENCY

40

20

0

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

Type of Structure

RESULTS

BASE SHEAR

The Base shears of the multistoried residential building for the four cases at were

represented below

RESULTS OF FUNDAMENTAL OF BASE SHEAR

S/no Type of Structure Base shear (kN)

1 Case 1 395.665

2 Case 2 530.956

3 Case 3 359.258

4 Case 4 580.605

600

580.605

530.956

500

395.665 359.258

Base shear (kN)

400

300

RESULTS OF BASE

200 SHEAR

100

0

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

Type of Structure

RESULTS

STOREY DISPLACEMENTS

The displacements of the multistoried residential building for the four cases at various

storey levels are represented below

CUMULATIVE STOREY DISPLACEMENT CUMULATIVE STOREY DISPLACEMENT FOR

FOR CASE 1 CASE 2

11 11

10 10

9 9

8 8

7 7

STOREY NO

STOREY NO

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

-1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

CUMULATIVE DISPLACEMENT (mm) CUMULATIVE DISPLACEMENT (mm)

RESULTS

STOREY DISPLACEMENTS

The displacements of the multistoried residential building for the four cases at various

storey levels are represented below

CASE 3 CASE 4

11 11

10 10

9 9

8 8

7 7

STOREY NO

STOREY NO

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1

1

0

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

CUMULATIVE DISPLACEMENT (mm) CUMULATIVE DISPLACEMENT (mm)

RESULTS

DISPLACEMENT

From the above storey level displacement data, The Displacements of the multistoried

residential building for the four cases at were represented below

RESULTS OF FUNDAMENTAL OF DISPLACEMENT

S/no Type of Structure Base shear (kN)

1 Case 1 395.665

2 Case 2 530.956

3 Case 3 359.258

4 Case 4 580.605

RESULTS OF DISPLACEMENT

3.5 3.2554

3 2.5918

Displacement (mm)

2.5

2

1.5 RESULTS OF

1 DISPLACEMENT

0.3406

0.5 0.1667

0

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

Type of Structure

RESULTS

STOREY DRIFT

The Storey Drifts of the multistoried residential building for the four cases at were

represented below

RESULTS OF FUNDAMENTAL OF STOREY DRIFT

S/no Type of Structure Storey Drift (mm)

1 Case 1 0.0082

2 Case 2 0.0034

3 Case 3 0.0075

4 Case 4 0.0037

0.009 0.0082

0.008 0.0075

0.007

Storey Drift (mm)

0.006

0.005

0.0037

0.004 0.0034 RESULTS OF STOREY

0.003 DRIFT

0.002

0.001

0

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

Type of Structure

CONCLUSION

It is observed that the stiffness of the structure is gradually increases from the case i

(without infill wall and with soft-storey) to case iii ( without infill wall and without soft-

storey), case ii ( with infill wall and with soft-storey) and case iv (with infill wall and without

soft-storey) respectively

It is observed that the fundamental Time period of the structure increases from 0.107 sec for

case iv and gradually increasing to case ii, case iii, and 0.480 for case i respectively.

The fundamental frequency of the structure is 84.312 Hz for case i and gradually increases

to case iii, case ii, and case iv 120.004 for case i respectively.

The base shear is gradually increases from case i, case ii, case iii, and case iv respectively.

The displacement of the structure gradually increases from case iv, case iii, case ii and case

i and in no case exceeds 0.004 times the storey height

The natural period decreases as the stiffness of the building increases and this leads to

increase in base shear. From analysis, it is found that for the models when stiffness of infill

walls is considered, the natural period decreases by 4.44 % compared to those when stiffness of

infill wall is neglected.

REFERENCE

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES by Pankaj Agarwal and Manish Shirkande.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN STRUCTURES. By Duggal S.K. (2010), Oxford University press YMCA library building, jai singh

Road, New Delhi.

Najma Nainan et al, Dynamic Response of seismo-resistant building frames. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Syed Khasim Mutwalli, Dr. Shaik Kamal Mohammed Azam, Dynamic Response of High Rise Structures. Syed Khasim Mutwalli Int. Journal of

Engineering Research and Applications

E. Pavan Kumar et al, Earthquake Analysis of Multi Storied Residential Building. E. Pavan Kumar et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and

Applications.

Ghalimath.A, Hatti M, Analytical review of soft storey. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

S. M. Hosseini-Gelekolai, Soft story design in reinforced concrete structure and effect of masonry infill wall. Sixth International Conference of Seismology

and Earthquake Engineering

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THANK YOU

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