Está en la página 1de 41

specific

for accreditation
criteria

5
Calibration
Metrology and
specific criteria
for accreditation

Metrology and Calibration

4th edition September 2015


specific criteria for accreditation

Metrology and Calibration


AS LAB C 5

Edition Statement
Edition Amendment Date of Issue ISBN No.
1 Updated from Telarc NZ version September 2002 0908611 39 0
2 Updated April 2005 0908611 39 0
3 Revised and Reformatted February 2009 978-0-9086114-48-5

Uncertainty terminology change to


CMC

New references to IANZ traceability


and proficiency testing policies
4 September 2015 978-1-877531-21-7
Updates to selected sections,
appendices and renumbering

Revised reporting requirements

Published by:
International Accreditation New Zealand
626 Great South Road, Ellerslie, Auckland 1051
Private Bag 28908, Remuera, Auckland 1541, New Zealand
Telephone 64 9 525 6655
Facsimile 64 9 525 2266
Email: info@ianz.govt.nz
Internet: www.ianz.govt.nz

© Copyright International Accreditation New Zealand 2015


Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Contents Page

1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 5
2 Definitions and Acronyms ................................................................................................................ 5
3 Classes of Test ................................................................................................................................... 5
4 Calibration .......................................................................................................................................... 6
5 Traceability of Measurement ............................................................................................................ 6
6 Laboratory Accommodation and Safety ......................................................................................... 7
7 Branch Laboratories and Site Calibration ...................................................................................... 7
8 Computer-Controlled Calibration Equipment ................................................................................. 8
9 Laboratory Staff ................................................................................................................................. 8
10 Calibration Methods .......................................................................................................................... 8
11 Uncertainty of Measurement .......................................................................................................... 10
12 Certificates of Calibration ............................................................................................................... 11
13 Compliance with Specification ....................................................................................................... 11
14 Proficiency Testing .......................................................................................................................... 12
15 References ........................................................................................................................................ 12
Appendix 1 Classes of Test ....................................................................................................................... 13
Appendix 2 Equipment Calibration Intervals .......................................................................................... 19
Appendix 3 Approved Signatories and Other Staff ................................................................................. 27
Appendix 4 Examples: Evaluation of Uncertainty of Measurement ...................................................... 29

4
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

1 Introduction
International Accreditation New Zealand (IANZ)’s Specific Criteria Schedules amplify or specialise the IANZ
general criteria for particular areas of technology.

This schedule must be read together with current issues of the IANZ general criteria for accreditation NZS
ISO/IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, IANZ
Technical Policies and the IANZ publication Procedures and Conditions of Accreditation (describing the
organisation and operation of the IANZ Laboratory Accreditation Programme).

This schedule defines technical requirements for accreditation of Metrology and Calibration laboratories in
addition to those of NZS ISO/IEC 17025 and IANZ Technical Policies.

This schedule provides information on classes of test, staff, accommodation, equipment and other aspects
of good laboratory management practice which are considered a minimum standard for Metrology and
Calibration laboratories. Detailed criteria are also described for uncertainty of measurement, including some
worked examples, as well as recommended calibration periods for equipment.

The field covers all types of calibration including:


(a) Engineering metrology
(b) Electrical
(c) Temperature
(d) Optical and radiometry
(e) Mass, volume and density
(f) Pressure and flow.

A list of Specific Criteria Schedules published to date is available here or from IANZ on request.

2 Definitions and Acronyms


(a) Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) is defined in the ILAC Policy for Uncertainty in
Measurement (see reference 8). The CMC appears in the laboratory’s scope of accreditation
associated with a measurement parameter or range of parameters. CMC, for the purposes of IANZ
scopes of accreditation is used in essentially the same way that the terms least uncertainty and best
measurement capability (BMC) are used.
(b) Comite International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM): International Committee of Weights and Measures
(c) International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC)
(d) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA)
(e) Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC)
(f) European Accreditation (EA)
(g) National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA), Australia
(h) United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS)
(i) Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand (MSL)
(j) National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA)
(k) Device under calibration (DUC)
(l) Système International d'Unités (SI): Internation System of Units.

3 Classes of Test
Accreditation by IANZ does not constitute a blanket approval of all of a laboratory’s activities. Therefore, a
means of identifying those activities where competence has been demonstrated and for which accreditation
has been granted is necessary.

Accreditation is normally granted only for work which is performed regularly and for which the laboratory is
appropriately equipped and has demonstrated its capability.

5
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

The field of Metrology and Calibration covers those measurements listed in Appendix 1. Note that where
reference is made to “tests”, these should be interpreted as measurements for the purposes of accreditation
in this field.

Issued Schedules to the Certificate of Accreditation (Scopes of Accreditation) can be viewed via the IANZ
Directory at www.ianz.govt.nz

4 Calibration
Calibration involves controlled comparison of the device under calibration (DUC) against a “known”
instrument over the range of values of use of the DUC. The differences between the “known” instrument and
the DUC are tabulated as corrections to the DUC for a range of pre-selected calibration points.

Calibration does not involve adjustment; that is a separate process which may also be carried out as part of
the service offered by the calibration agency.

Many calibrations (and electrical in particular) are complicated by the possibility of hardware and/or software
adjustment during the comparison.

Where instruments submitted to a calibration laboratory are likely to be adjusted, appropriate “as received”
measurements must be made and reported. The full calibration can then be carried out after the adjustment.
If this procedure is not followed then historical stability data is lost, as is the submitting laboratory’s ability to
take appropriate corrective action on out-of-calibration equipment.

Where adjustment of hardware or software takes place during servicing this may invalidate the current
calibration certificate, for example any of the following will invalidate a balance calibration certificate:
(a) Re-programming of scale factors stored in microprocessor memory
(b) Any adjustments, such as to linearity or corner-load error
(c) Replacement, re-machining or alteration of internal weights or parts associated with the load cell.

Manufacturers’ calibration certificates are acceptable for traceability purposes providing they are endorsed
with the accreditation symbol of an ILAC MRA signatory laboratory accreditation body. Calibration
certificates endorsed with the logo of an ISO 9001 certifying body alone will not be accepted for critical
measurements where traceability is required.

5 Traceability of Measurement
Traceability of a measurement result is ensured when the result can be related to a stated reference through
a documented unbroken chain of calibrations, each contributing to the measurement uncertainty (see
reference 4).

The IANZ policy on traceability of measurement is set out in the IANZ Technical Policy No.1: Traceability of
Measurement. All IANZ accredited Metrology and Calibration laboratories are required to maintain
conformity with this policy.

The calibration certificates issued by accredited laboratories must be endorsed in accordance with the
requirements of the accreditation bodies concerned. This constitutes proof of traceability to national
standards. The calibration certificate must include a statement on the traceability to the SI, and reference
may be made to the national measurement institute if desired. An example of such a statement is:
“Measurements reported in this certificate are traceable to the SI via the Measurement Standards Laboratory
of New Zealand” or similar.

6
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

6 Laboratory Accommodation and Safety


6.1 Accommodation
Accommodation requirements for Metrology and Calibration laboratories vary depending upon the nature of
the items to be calibrated and the uncertainty with which measurements are to be made. A formal laboratory
area will be required for precise measurements but many calibrations may be satisfactorily performed in
production areas or in the field.

Formal laboratory areas must have good lighting (a minimum of 400 lux is recommended for laboratory
areas), adequate bench space, freedom from dust and fumes, freedom from vibration and acoustic noise
and appropriate control of temperature and humidity. The extent to which these environmental factors apply
will vary according to the type of measurement and the uncertainty with which calibrations are performed.

When precise measurements are to be made in laboratories the following factors will assume greater
importance:
(a) Isolation from sources of mechanical vibration and shock likely to have a detrimental effect on sensitive
instruments, e.g. lifts, plant rooms, busy roads, etc.
(b) Smooth, antistatic finishes for walls, ceilings and floors and, where necessary, air filtration to facilitate
dust control
(c) Insulation of walls and shading from direct sunlight
(d) Temperature control of the laboratory at a selected temperature (20 °C or 23 °C ± 2 °C for example)
(e) Humidity control in the region of 35 % RH to 70 % RH
(f) Freedom from fumes likely to have an adverse effect on equipment (e.g. corrosion of switch contacts)
(g) Isolation from electromagnetic interference. This is less likely to be necessary for DC and low
frequency AC measurements but assumes importance at RF frequencies. Screening may be
necessary for some precise electrical calibrations
(h) Stabilisation or filtering of incoming mains power supply where purity of waveform and constancy of
voltage is important.
6.2 Safety
While safety falls outside the scope of accreditation, metrology and calibration laboratories are expected to
comply with the Electrical Safety Regulations and any other relevant health and safety requirements. AS
2243 is recommended as a guide to safe practices in laboratories.

7 Branch Laboratories and Site Calibration


Some metrological measurements for which formal laboratory accommodation is not essential or not
possible, for example machine tool checks, balance calibration, field pressure or temperature calibrations,
field calibration of metering installations, may be performed in situ and accreditation may be granted for
these tests even though the laboratory has no specific test room set aside for this work. In these
circumstances IANZ considers that the staff, reference standards, measuring equipment, storage facilities,
transport, and office facilities make a laboratory.

Where an accredited calibration laboratory offers on-site calibration from more than one branch, with all
branches having the same scope and procedures, the accredited main branch(es) will be fully assessed as
usual. The assessment will cover staff from all sites and their records and equipment details. In addition,
each subsidiary branch operation shall, where relevant and at the discretion of IANZ, be assessed at least
once between routine reassessments.

The accredited laboratory’s quality management system must encompass all branch and site operations,
and every branch must be included in the accredited laboratory’s internal audit schedule.

The accredited laboratory’s scope of accreditation shall list all branches from which on-site calibration
services are offered. On-site calibration capability must be clearly identified in the scope of accreditation
along with the CMC (least uncertainty) for each accredited measurement range.

7
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

8 Computer-Controlled Calibration Equipment


Appropriate quality assurance is needed of all in-house developed software (see NZS ISO/IEC 17025).
Automatic test equipment must be calibrated in a similar manner to other calibration equipment.

The following comments apply to the use of computers or other instrumentation for direct data capture and
control of the calibration operation. Where control is by proprietary software such as that supplied with some
calibrators, validation will only be required of the individual calibration routines for instruments and not for
the programme supplied by the manufacturer.

For in-house developed software, standard data sets of raw data can be developed for feeding through the
system to check routines if they are new to the laboratory, updated, or modified. Care should be taken to
ensure that such data sets cover the expected range of values and include combinations of peculiar
circumstances to highlight faults in basic logic of the programme or its subroutines. Alternative systems using
spreadsheets or other software may also be used.

Reference artefacts may be held to check the operation of the whole system at appropriate intervals.

The results of this testing should be recorded and incorporated in the maintenance history. Software
maintenance should include a back-up regime and a system recovery plan.

Note: Electronic data must be treated in an equivalent way to hard copy data to ensure it is not lost or
changed without an audit trail. In most situations this takes the form of version control and change history.

9 Laboratory Staff
NZS ISO/IEC 17025 gives the general requirements for laboratory personnel.

Laboratory personnel seeking signatory approval within Metrology and Calibration laboratories are expected
to hold an appropriate tertiary qualification, for example a degree, diploma, National Certificate or other
post-secondary qualification together with suitable experience (alternatively employees with suitable
experience and theoretical knowledge may be deemed appropriately qualified). Signatory requirements are
specified in Appendix 3 of this document.

At least one staff member must be able to determine CMCs and perform appropriate uncertainty analyses,
as required by Section 11 of this Schedule.

Courses run by MSL in relevant fields of calibration (for example thermometer calibration) and measurement
uncertainty, which IANZ deems appropriate for some organisations and signatories, are usually offered at
least once annually.

10 Calibration Methods
Where calibration methods are based on manufacturers’ methods, these must be specialised for the
laboratory’s own equipment. The procedures must exercise all relevant parts of the hardware and software
of the instrument (full range of parameters), particularly for calibration purposes.

Where standard methods or references are available for calibration purposes (for example. BS EN 837-1 or
Metrology Society of Australasia method 1 for pressure gauges, EN ISO 7500-1 for materials testing
machines, along with MSL Technical Guides) these should be used. Some detailed technical requirements
are given below. These are not exhaustive and cover only a small range of the measurements that can be
accredited in the metrology and calibration field. References to MSL technical guides and other documents
below were valid at the time of publishing this schedule and may be superseded in the future.

MSL courses and workshops, where offered in the fields below, can be considered suitable training in
methods and processes.

8
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Useful guidance on other measurements can be found in the European Co-operation for Accreditation (EA)
Guidelines documents. A list of these can be obtained from IANZ.

Note: Although there are few standard methods in calibration, IANZ considers that assessment and
appropriate measurement audits and proficiency tests (including inter-laboratory comparisons with an
accredited laboratory) can be considered to validate in-house developed methods.
10.1 Balances and weighing devices
Information on methods for the calibration and quality assurance of balances are given in MSL’s Technical
Guide 25: Calibration Balances and 12: Assuring the Quality of Weighing Results. Additional information can
also be found in Monograph 4, The Calibration of Weights and Balances by Morris and Fen of NMIA.
10.2 Masses
The reference methods and supporting information for the calibration of masses is given in MSL’s Technical
Guides 6: Magnetic Effects in Weighing and 7: Calibrating Standard Weights. Additional information can also
be found in Monograph 4, The Calibration of Weights and Balances by Morris and Fen of NMIA.
10.3 Thermometers and hygrometers (humidity meters)
Reference 3 gives much detail about the working of thermometers and how to make traceable
measurements including during calibration. It describes calibration procedures and how to determine
uncertainty for glass thermometers, resistance thermometers, thermocouples, amongst others. It also gives
examples of calibration certificates. For supporting information please refer to the following MSL Technical
Guides (more guides may be added in the future):
 1: Ice point
 2: Infrared thermometry ice point
 11 Thermometer immersion and dry-block calibrators
 14: Making sense of thermocouples
 15: Correcting radiation thermometers for reflection errors
 18: Resistance measurement for thermometry
 22: Calibration of low-temperature infrared thermometers
 23: Using industrial platinum resistance thermometers for laboratory thermometry
 24: Dew-frost error and the chilled-mirror hygrometer
 26: Size-of-source effect in infrared thermometers
 29: Focus effect in thermal imagers.
10.3.1 Thermocouples
All base-metal thermocouples (Type T, N, K, J, E) suffer from errors due to metallurgical changes that occur at
temperatures above 150 °C. Because the thermocouple emf is produced by those parts of the thermocouple
located in temperature gradients (not at the thermocouple tip as commonly thought), thermocouples exposed to
these temperatures may be sensitive to immersion conditions and history of thermal exposure. For the highest
accuracy at these temperatures, thermocouples should be used only for a single application and fixed in position
so the immersion conditions cannot change. Where accuracy better than the indication given by the
manufacturers ‘limits of error’ is required, they must be (i) calibrated in situ, or (ii) taken new from a batch for which
a sample has been calibrated, and (iii) replaced regularly according to observed drift rates and users accuracy
requirements.

The effects of inhomogeneity caused by cold work or previous heat treatment, compensating leads, cold junction
compensation and thermal losses on temperature measurements should be included in the uncertainty
assessment. Calibrations of thermocouples must include the compensating lead to be used.

An approximate expression for the standard uncertainty due to inhomogeneity in base-metal thermocouples can
be obtained using the following formula:

u = 0.15 + 0.0003•t + 0.000004•t2

where:
u = standard uncertainty for thermocouple inhomogeneity,

9
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

t = temperature in degrees Celsius.

10.4 Calibration of Pressure Gauges and Transducers


The MSL course on Pressure Gauge Calibration and the published course notes have valuable information
on making pressure measurements, on determining uncertainty and also on how to report. See also the
MSL Technical Guide 13: Pressure Gauge Calibration.
10.5 Revenue Meters
Calibration of electricity revenue meters is covered in the Electricity Industry Participation Code, Part 10
Metering.

Accuracy specifications for electricity meters along with limits for variation in supply voltage, temperature,
electromagnetic fields and other influence quantities are given in meter standards such as IEC 61036 and
IEC 60687 (superseded but still in use) and in the IEC 62052 and IEC 62053 series of standards.

Calibration procedures for gas meters are given in NZS 5259.

11 Uncertainty of Measurement
Metrology and Calibration laboratories must document a policy on calculation of the uncertainty of
measurement of any DUC.

Laboratories are strongly advised to follow the policy outlined in the guidance document (reference 2) and
to incorporate its guidance and the following IANZ policy into their own policy statement.

The IANZ measurement uncertainty policy is:

All known components of uncertainty arising from type A and type B contributions must be considered,
evaluated and prepared in an uncertainty budget including:
(a) Calibration uncertainty from the certificate of the reference standard calibration certificate
(b) Any known drift-related effects not allowed for in the original calibration certificate or covered by the
specified calibration interval (also becomes part of the CMC)
(c) Any influence quantity effects caused by method, environment, DUC, or operator effects and not able
to be randomised i.e. allowed for in a type A assessment. Where information is available from inter-
laboratory trials or measurement audits this should be used
(d) Type A contributions obtained by repeating the measurements, preferably 10 times or more but
certainly not less than 5 over a range of normal operation of the equipment.

These contributions will be designated and evaluated as standard uncertainty from type A or type B
components. The combined standard uncertainty is normally determined from the contributing standard
uncertainties using the root sum square (RSS) method of reference 2.

Note: In circumstances where the input quantities might be correlated, such as for a group of weights all
calibrated with the same reference, the individual standard uncertainties will be summed.

The expanded uncertainty is calculated to give a 95% level of confidence about the result of the
measurement (the best estimate of the value of the measurand) by multiplying by a coverage factor. In many
cases the coverage factor will be close to 2 but laboratories need to justify the coverage factor used in their
particular determinations.

An accredited laboratory must also calculate its CMC. The CMC is determined by considering a “best existing
device” DUC (e.g. a device similar to the laboratory’s reference device). The contributions are then
evaluated, as above for this device, to give the CMC for the laboratory over appropriate ranges of its
capability. The CMC for each accredited measurement or range is of measurements is then added to the
laboratory’s scope of accreditation.

10
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Appendix 4 provides sample calculations of uncertainty and CMC. References 2 and 3 also provide worked
examples that are informative and helpful.

There are also some helpful uncertainty calculators available on the Internet, for example the MSL
uncertainty calculator.
11.1 Reporting uncertainties
The estimated uncertainty shall be rounded up and be reported using a maximum of two significant figures.
Results should be rounded to the readability of the instrument being calibrated. The uncertainty should be
in the same units as the results. However, there may be cases where it is more practical for the uncertainty
to be reported as a percentage that applies to all results.

12 Certificates of Calibration
NZS ISO/IEC 17025 and Appendix 1 in Procedures and Conditions of Accreditation give additional IANZ
requirements for reporting results.

In addition to these requirements, calibration certificates shall contain:


(a) The laboratory’s accreditation number
(b) The confidence level and calculated k value appropriate to the uncertainty of measurement reported
(c) The statement that the certificate shall not be reproduced except in full.

Laboratories are not permitted to endorse reports which contain uncertainties less than the CMC outlined in
their scope of accreditation.

Units and unit symbols shall be in the form specified in the SI unless the device being calibrated reads in
other units or where contractual arrangements demand otherwise.

13 Compliance with Specification


Laboratories may report compliance with a metrological specification or a manufacturer’s specification, along
with the calibration results, in order to verify a DUC. The preferred way to do this is to report compliance with
the specification to the edge of the “window of uncertainty” (for example upper limit minus uncertainty) and
not make a statement within the window below the limit.

If the accredited laboratory issues endorsed certificates which include compliance statements, there are four
conditions to consider:
 Where the measurement result is compliant, and with the addition of uncertainty is still compliant, a
‘pass’ statement must be made;
 Where the measurement result is non-compliant, and the addition of uncertainty is still non-
compliant, a ‘fail’ statement must be made;
 Where the measurement result is compliant but adding the uncertainty would make it non-
compliant, a ‘window of uncertainty’ statement must be made i.e. the user cannot be sure whether
this result is compliant or not;
 Where the measurement result is non-compliant but adding the uncertainty would make it
compliant, a ‘window of uncertainty’ statement must be made i.e. the user cannot be sure whether
this result is compliant or not.

11
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

IANZ will not usually accept the reporting of compliance with specification unless the results and
uncertainty are also reported. Reference should be made to the ILAC Guidelines on the Reporting of
Compliance with Specification (reference 6).

A certificate which reports compliance only (no numerical results and uncertainty) will only be allowed with
the client’s written approval, where it is not intended to be used in support of the further dissemination of
metrological traceability, and as long as full supporting records are maintained and are accessible to the
client if requested.

Alternatively, the laboratory may state compliance up to the limit but draw attention to the uncertainty. Under
no circumstances can compliance be implied above an upper limit or below a lower limit (see references 7
and 8 for further guidance).

14 Proficiency Testing
The IANZ policy on participation in proficiency testing activities is set out in the IANZ Technical Policy No.2:
Participation in Proficiency Testing Activities. All IANZ accredited Metrology and Calibration laboratories are
required to maintain conformity with this policy.

15 References
1. UKAS M3003, Edition 3, November 2012, The Expression of Uncertainty and Confidence in
Measurement for Calibration.
2. JCGM 100:2008GUM 1995 with minor corrections) Evaluation of measurement data — Guide to the
expression of uncertainty in measurement.
3. Traceable Temperatures; Second Edition, JV Nicholas and D R White, John Wiley, 2001.
4. ISO/IEC Guide 99: 2007. International vocabulary of metrology-Basic and general concepts and
associated terms (VIM).
5. Planning of Metrology and Testing Laboratories, OIML.
6. Guidelines on Assessment and Reporting of Compliance with Specification, ILAC-G8
(http://ilac.org/publications-and-resources/).
7. Method of Stating Test Results and Compliance with Specification, APLAC TC004.
8. ILAC Policy for Uncertainty in Measurement P14 (http://ilac.org/publications-and-resources/).
9. IANZ Measurement traceability policy, AS TP1.
10. IANZ PT participation policy, AS TP2.

12
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Appendix 1
Classes of Test

5.01 Engineers’ Limit Gauges  Accuracy of gear drives


(a) Plain plug, ring and gap gauges. Taper  Accuracy of built-in measuring
plug and ring gauges. systems
(b) Parallel screw plug and ring gauges. (b) Practical tests including
Adjustable thread calliper gauges for  Performance tests
parallel threads.  Deflection tests
(c) Taper screw plug and ring gauges.
Adjustable thread calliper gauges (3 5.05 Geometric Form
roll type) for taper threads. (a) Surface texture
(d) Profile gauges (b) Roundness
(e) Position and receiver gauges involving (c) Straightness
both linear and angular measurements. (d) Flatness
(f) Spline and serration gauges. (e) Eccentricity
(g) Other gauges involving measurements (f) Squareness
similar to those under (a) and including (g) Angle
depth gauges, height gauges and
gauges involving plane coordinated 5.06 Gears, Splines and Serrations
position of holes and spigots. (a) Machine cut gears – helical and
straight spur
5.02 Jigs, Fixtures, Cutting Tools and (b) Bevel gears (machine cut)
Components (c) Gears for traction
(d) Worm gearing
5.03 Engineers’ Measuring Tools and Instruments (e) Fine pitch gears
(a) Examination to nominated national or (f) Gears for turbines and similar drives
international standards (New Zealand, (g) Straight-sided splines and
British, Australian, ASTM, ISO etc.) of serrations
measurement tools and instruments.
 Test sieves 5.11 Working Standards of Length and Angle
 Engineers’ straightedges (a) Gauge blocks and accessories
 Toolmakers’ straightedges (b) Length bars and accessories
 Surface plates (c) Cylindrical standards, internal and
 Toolmakers’ flats external
 Engineers’ parallels (steel) (d) Spherical standards
 Vernier callipers (e) Thread measurement accessories
 Vernier height gauges (f) Precision linear scales
 Feeler gauges (g) Laser measuring systems
 External micrometres (h) Precision graticules including stage
 Internal micrometres (including micrometres and haemacytometer
stick micrometres) counting chambers
(i) Surveying tapes and petroleum dip
 Engineers’ comparators for
tapes
external measurement
(j) Screw pitch reference standards
(magnification up to 2,000)
(k) Angle gauges and precision
(b) Other tools and instruments.
polygons
(l) Precision circular scales
5.04 Machine Tools
(m) Reference standards for surface
(a) Geometric testing including
finish
 Flatness of beds and tables
(n) Geodetic baselines
 Straightness of guideways
 Alignments (parallelism, 5.12 Precision Measuring Instruments
squareness, etc) (a) Length measuring machines
 Accuracy of lead screws
13
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

(b) Screw diameter measuring machines (b) Mechanical type meters


(c) Screw pitch measuring machines (c) Variable aperture meters
(d) Precision projection apparatus (d) Dry meters
(e) Taper measuring machines (e) Wet meters
(f) Drunkenness measuring machines (f) Electromagnetic meters
(g) Auto-collimators and other optical (g) Turbine meters
instruments used in engineering (h) Vortex meters
metrology (i) Differential pressure meters
(h) Dividing heads and tables (j) Open channel water meters
(i) Gear in hob measuring equipment (k) Weir type structures
(j) Extensometers for determination of (l) Other devices
modulus of elasticity
(k) Engineers’ comparators with 5.31 Volumetric Equipment
magnification greater than 2,000 (a) Examination of laboratory
(l) Sine bars and sine tables volumetric glassware including
(m) Cryptometers examination for compliance with the
Class A or Class B requirements of
5.13 Area Standards the relevant national or international
(a) Flexible circular area standards standards
(b) Examination of other types of
5.14 Laser Frequency volumetric apparatus (including gas
(a) Stabilised lasers of the mise en meters)
practique (c) Calibration of tanks, cylinders and
(b) Other stabilised lasers other industrial volumetric
apparatus including calibration by
5.16 Gas Instrumentation strapping and calibration by internal
(a) Gas analysers measurements
(b) Breath analysers
(c) Dynamic gas blenders 5.32 Density
(d) Other instruments (a) Density of solids
(b) Density of liquids
5.21 Masses (c) Density of gases
(a) Examination of laboratory standards of (d) Nuclear moisture and density
mass meters
(b) Examination of industrial standards of
mass 5.33 Hydrometers
(c) Determination of the mass of solid (a) Density hydrometers
objects (b) Specific gravity hydrometers
(c) Brix hydrometers
5.22 Precision Laboratory Balances (d) Proof spirit hydrometers
Examination of the performance of precision
laboratory balances having a nominal 5.34 Densitometers
measurement uncertainty not exceeding 1 (a) Liquid densitometers
part in 100,000 of maximum capacity. (b) Gas densitometers

5.23 Industrial Balances 5.35 Hygrometry


Examination of the performance of industrial (a) Humidity measuring devices
balances having a nominal measurement (b) Environmental chambers
uncertainty exceeding 1 part in 100,000 of
maximum capacity. 5.41 Barometers
(a) Aneroid barometers (including
5.24 Industrial Weighing Appliances digital barometers)
(b) Barographs
5.25 Pattern Approval Tests (c) Mercury barometers, Fortin & Kew
types
5.28 Flow Measuring Devices
(a) Anemometers
14
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

5.42 Differential Pressure Measuring Devices 5.61 Temperature Measuring Equipment


(including Manometers) (a) Rare metal thermocouples
(a) Diaphragm types (b) Base metal thermocouples
(b) Liquid column types, inclined and (c) Platinum (and other metallic)
vertical resistance thermometers
(c) Other types (d) Germanium thermometers
(e) Thermistors and other semi-
5.43 Pressure Gauge Testers and Pressure conductor thermometers
Balances (f) Liquid-in-glass thermometers
(g) Clinical thermometers
5.44 Pressure and Vacuum (h) Optical pyrometers
(a) Pressure gauges (i) Strip lamps
(b) Vacuum gauges (j) Radiation pyrometers
(c) Pressure transducers (k) Vapour pressure thermometers
(d) Pressure recorders (l) Filled metal systems
(m) Bimetallic systems
5.51 Force Measuring Devices (n) Digital quartz frequency units
(a) Proving devices (o) Indicators, recorders and controllers
(b) Elastic force measuring devices (p) Other direct reading temperature
(c) Force dynamometers measuring systems

5.52 Strain and Displacement 5.63 Temperature controlled enclosures


(a) Extensometers (a) Ovens and furnaces (including
(b) Strain gauges autoclaves)
(c) Dial gauges (b) Baths
(d) Other devices (c) Incubators
(d) Refrigerators and freezers
5.53 Testing Machines (e) Conditioning rooms and cabinets
(a) Tension and universal machines in (f) Other enclosures
tension
(b) Compression and universal machines 5.64 Thermal Radiation
in compression
(c) Vickers hardness machines 5.65 Photometers and Radiometers
(d) Rockwell hardness machines (a) Photometers
(e) Brinell hardness machines (b) Illuminance meters
(f) Izod impact machines (c) Luminance meters
(g) Charpy impact machines (d) UV meters
(h) Deadweight rubber hardness testers (e) Irradiance meters for solar radiation
(i) Micro-hardness rubber testers (i) Pyrheliometers
(j) Rubber hardness meters (durometers) (ii) Pyranometers
(k) Plastic hardness testers (iii) Ultraviolet pyranometers
(l) Torsion machines (iv) Pyrradiometers
(m) Tension-torque machines (v) Albedometers
(n) Road friction testers (vi) Pyr-albedometers
(o) Other testing machines (f) Erythemal meters & other
broadband radiometers
5.54 Mechanical Testing Equipment (g) Laser power meters
(a) Portable Brinell measuring (h) Detector spectral responsivity
microscopes measurement
(b) Indenters for hardness machines
(c) Hardness blocks for metals testing
(d) Other equipment

5.55 Speed Measuring Devices


(a) Tachometers
(b) Speedometers
(c) Velocity transducers
15
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

5.66 Lamps, LEDs, Lasers & Other Light Sources (h) Standard sound sources
(a) Lamps: Luminous intensity (i) Noise dose meters
(b) Lamps: Luminous flux (j) Audiometers
(c) LEDs (k) Other specified equipment
(d) Lasers: Power
(e) Illuminance 5.72 Ionizing Radiation
(f) General sources: Spectral irradiance
(g) General sources: Broadband irradiance 5.75 Vibration Measuring and Calibrating
(h) Photoluminescent materials Equipment
(i) Luminaires: Luminous intensity (a) Vibration transducers including
distribution accelerometers, velocity and
displacement pickups
5.67 Colour of Light Source and Colorimeters (b) Vibration measuring systems
(a) General sources: Colour emitted (c) Analysers and filters
(b) Displays: Colour emitted L*a*b* (d) Vibration recording systems
(c) Colorimeters (e) Vibration calibrators
(d) Lamps: Colour temperature (f) Other vibration measuring
(e) Colour temperature meters equipment

5.68 Optical Properties of Materials: Spectral 5.81 Conductors and Resistance Alloys
(a) Regular transmittance and absorbance (a) Resistivity
(b) Wavelength calibration filters (b) Resistance of length of conductor
(c) Diffuse transmittance (c) Temperature coefficient
(d) Diffuse reflectance (d) Physical properties
(e) Specular reflectance
5.82 Resistors, Resistance Boxes and
5.69 Optical Properties of Materials: Spectrally Potential Dividers
integrated (a) Precision resistors, resistance
(a) Luminance transmittance boxes and conductance boxes
(b) Luminous reflectance (b) Volt ratio boxes and potential
(c) Chromaticity and luminance factor dividers
(d) Retroreflectors: CIL value (c) DC shunts
(d) AC shunts
5.70 Optical Instruments
(a) Focal length 5.84 Capacitors
(b) Image plane principal point and nodal (a) Precision capacitors
points (b) Capacitance attenuators
(c) Field of view (c) Capacitance potential dividers
(d) Refractive index & refractometers
(e) Polarimeters 5.85 Inductors and Transformers
(f) Sacharimeters (a) Inductors, self and mutual
(g) Quartz control plates (b) Ratio transformers
(c) Power transformers and reactors
5.71 Acoustic Equipment (d) Current transformers: protection
(a) Microphones and measurement
(b) Sound level meters including sound (e) Voltage transformers: protection
survey meters and impulse sound level and measurement
meters (f) Audio transformers
(c) Sound spectrum analysers and filters (g) RF transformers
(d) Acoustic calibrators, including (h) Pulse transformers
pistonphones and reference sound (i) Auto transformers
sources (j) Phase shifting transformers
(e) Sound level recording systems (k) Reference ballasts
(f) Instrumentation and professional tape (l) Neutral earthing transformers
recorders
(g) Acoustic interferometers (impedance 5.86 Voltage Standards and Current Standards
tubes) (a) Standard cells
16
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

(b) Electronic emf reference devices 5.92 Waveform


(a) Frequency characteristics
5.87 Transfer Instruments (AC/DC) (b) Input characteristics
(c) Timing characteristics
5.88 Calibrators for Instrumentation (d) Distortion
(a) DC voltage (e) Other characteristics
(b) AC voltage
(c) DC current 5.93 Signal Sources
(d) AC current (a) Frequency characteristics
(e) Resistance (b) Output characteristics
(f) AC power sources (c) Modulation characteristics
(d) Sweep characteristics
5.89 Indicating Instruments and Recording (e) Other characteristics
Instruments
(a) DC voltmeters 5.95 Communications Equipment
(b) AC voltmeters (a) Line transmission measuring
(c) DC ammeters equipment
(d) AC ammeters (b) Radio transmission measuring
(e) Wattmeters equipment
(f) Varmeters (c) Field intensity measuring equipment
(g) Phase angle indicators (d) Electrical noise and interference
(h) Power factor meters measuring equipment
(i) Ohmmeters (e) Impedance and reflection
(j) LCR meters measuring equipment
(k) Galvanometers and null detectors (f) Spectrum analysis measuring
(l) Energy meters equipment
(m) Graphic recording instruments (g) Data transmission equipment
(n) Digital storage recorders (h) Power measuring equipment
(o) Instrumentation tape recorders (i) Attenuators and amplifiers
(p) Electric field strength meters (j) Waveguide and coaxial components
(q) Other specified devices (k) Communication systems
(l) Data acquisition systems
5.90 Bridges, Potentiometers and Test Sets (m) Processor controlled systems
(a) DC bridges (n) Other equipment
(b) DC potentiometers
(c) AC bridges 5.96 Electronic Equipment
(d) AC potentiometers (a) High voltage impulse and
(e) Ratiometers disturbance tests
(f) Current transformer testing sets (b) Transducer indicators and
(g) Voltage transformer testing sets calibrators
(h) Partial discharge test equipment (c) Doppler radar equipment
(d) Miscellaneous equipment and tests
5.91 Time and Frequency
(a) Frequency meters 5.97 High Voltage
(b) Wavemeters (a) Direct voltage
(c) Counters (b) Alternating voltage
(d) Time interval meters (c) Impulse voltage
(e) Clocks and watches (d) Impulse current
(f) Stroboscopes (e) Partial discharge
(g) Frequency standards (f) Dielectric tests
(g) Other specified tests

17
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Notes on classes of tests

(a) Accreditation for adjustable thread calliper gauges (class 5.01) is granted only to laboratories which
can perform complete examinations. It is not granted for “setting only”. Facilities are required for
checking geometry of the anvils including thread form, eccentricity and taper of roller anvils and relative
position of fixed anvils. It is usually necessary for laboratories to have their own facilities for the
checking of setting plugs. In some circumstances regular checking of setting plugs by an IANZ
accredited laboratory or by MSL may be accepted.

(b) Class 5.02 covers measurement of jigs, fixtures, cutting tools and components which are similar to the
gauge measurement in class 5.01. It includes also the examination of laboratory moulds and cutting
dies such as cement cube moulds, vicat moulds, rubber specimen cutters such as tension test dies,
compression set test cutters and tear test dies.

(c) Engineers’ comparators with magnifications greater than 2000 are included in class 5.12.

(d) A wide range of laboratory instruments come within the scope of class 5.03 (b).
Examples include:
(i) Vicat apparatus (cement testing)
(ii) Pensky-Martens apparatus (petroleum testing)
(iii) Penetration needles (bitumen and grease testing)
(iv) Thickness gauges for rubber, plastics, textiles and other materials
(v) Airflow nozzles and petrol jets.

Precision measuring instruments are included in class 5.12.

(e) Acceptance test charts for metal working and wood working machines have been published:
(i) Jointly by the Institutions of Mechanical Engineers and Production Engineers
(ii) By the Machinery Publishing Co Limited – Testing Machine Tools, by Dr G Schelsinger and Dr
F Koenigsberger
(iii) ISO 230 - Machine Tool Test Code together with specific ISO recommendations.

(f) Examination of gear cutting tools such as hobs and rack type cutters are included in class 5.02.
Examination of the gauges specified in BS 2059 is included in class 5.01 (g).

(g) Special purpose laboratory items are included in class 5.31 (b), examples include:
(i) Dean and Stark apparatus
(ii) Diluent trap for testing crankcase oil
(iii) Degassing chamber for gas content of insulating oils.

18
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Appendix 2
Equipment Calibration Intervals
The following table sets out the normal periods between successive calibrations for a number of reference
standards and measuring instruments. It must be stressed that each period is generally considered to be
the maximum appropriate in each case providing that the other criteria specified below are met:
(a) the equipment is of good quality and of proven stability, and
(b) the laboratory has both the equipment capability and staff expertise to perform adequate internal
checks, and
(c) if any suspicion or indication of overloading or mishandling arises the equipment will be checked (and
recalibrated if necessary) immediately and thereafter at frequent intervals until it can be shown that
stability has not been impaired.

Where the above criteria cannot be met, appropriately shorter intervals may be necessary.

IANZ is, however, prepared to consider submissions for extension of calibration intervals based on factors
such as history of stability, frequency of use, accuracy required, ability of staff to perform regular checks and
successful participation in measurement audits. It is the responsibility of the laboratory to provide evidence
that its calibration system would ensure that confidence in the equipment could be maintained.

Items marked with an asterisk in the table are those which can be calibrated by the staff of a laboratory if it
is suitably equipped and the staff is competent to perform such recalibrations. Equipment inter-comparisons
are usually performed by laboratory staff.

Where calibrations have been performed by the staff of a laboratory, adequate records of these
measurements must be maintained.

The second column shows the maximum recommended period between the initial calibration and the first
recalibration. The third shows the maximum period between subsequent recalibrations provided that the two
earlier calibrations indicate that the item is stable. These recalibration intervals apply only to equipment of
good quality and stability that is used, handled and stored with care. High usage of equipment may lead to
a reduction in these periods.

These intervals may need to be more frequent if the laboratory uses certain standards, methods, or is
governed by certain regulations.

Equipment Recommended maximum period (years)


between successive calibrations

Initial Calibration Subsequent


Calibration

Accelerometers One One

Acoustic calibrators One Inter-compare every six months One

Anemometers One One

Angle gauges
(a) Reference Three Five
(b) Working Two Four

19
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Equipment Recommended maximum period (years)


between successive calibrations

Initial Calibration Subsequent


Calibration

Attenuators Three (Frequency response). Three


Resistance and return loss check
annually where appropriate

Balances One Three

Bandpass filter sets Two Two

Barometers
(a) Fortin and Kew types Five Five
(b) Digital/Aneroid One Three

Bridges Three (Full calibration) Three


Range check annually

Calibration baths and furnaces Three Complete temperature survey Five


initially

Capacitors Three Inter-compare annually Three

Dead weight testers Five Five

Density bottles Two Five

Digital multimeters* One Two

Calibrators with self checking Two Two

Calibrators without self checking One Two

Dividing heads Three Five

Environmental chambers Three Time and spatial (temperature Five


variations, recovery time, rate of
ventilation)

20
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Equipment Recommended maximum period (years)


between successive calibrations

Initial Calibration Subsequent


Calibration

Filters - optical for calibrating


spectrophotometers
(a) Absorbance filters
(i) Neutral-density glass Two Two
(ii) Metal-on-quartz reflecting One Two
(iii) Sealed cuvettes of solution One Two
(b) Wavelength filters
(i) Holmium and didymium Five Ten

Frequency analysers Five Five

Frequency counters* One Five

Frequency standards See “Time” below

Force testing machines Two to five years depending on type.


Where required by a standard method,
this period will be less

Gauge blocks
(a) Reference Three Five
(b) Working Two Four

Height setting micrometres and riser Two Four


blocks

Hydrometers Three Five

Hygrometers*
(a) Assman and sling type Six months (compare thermometers at
psychrometers room temperature with wick dry).
Five years (complete calibration)

(b) Mechanical (e.g. hair type) Three months One


thermohygrometers

(c) Electrical impedance sensor One One

(d) Chilled mirror sensor One Five

21
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Equipment Recommended maximum period (years)


between successive calibrations

Initial Calibration Subsequent


Calibration

(e) Other One One

Inductors Three Inter-compare annually Three

Instruments, electrical* (analogue) Three Inter-compare every six months Three


or more frequently as required

Instrument and ratio transformers Five Five

Instrument transformer test sets Three (Full calibration). Annual inter- Five
comparison of transformers to
detect major problems

Lamps
Irradiance sources 50 hours or five years 50 hours or five
years

Length bars
(a) Reference Three Five
(b) Working Two Four

Levels
Precision Three Five

Linear scales
Precision Three Five

Manometers
(a) Liquid Two Five
(b) Digital/mechanical* One Two

Masses (integral, stainless steel or


nickel chrome alloys)
(a) Reference One Five
(b) Working* One Three

Masses (all other types) One Three


Working*

Micrometres, dial gauges, callipers etc. See IANZ Technical Guide AS TG 1

Microphones One Three monthly check of One


frequency response and
sensitivity. Calibrate annually or

22
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Equipment Recommended maximum period (years)


between successive calibrations

Initial Calibration Subsequent


Calibration

when ±1 dB change is detected


whichever is sooner

Optical flats Three Five

Optical parallels Three Five

Orifice plates and nozzles Initial dimensional calibration


Six monthly visual inspection

Photometers One Three

Oscilloscopes One One

Pistonphones One Inter-compare every six months

Potentiometers Five Five

Precision polygons Three Five

Pressure and vacuum gauges


(a) Reference One Two
(b) Working* Three months Six months

RF noise sources Two Two

RF power measuring equipment One Power references Three


Three years for thermistor sensors
Annual check of VSWR

Radiometers
(a) Visible One Three
(b) UVA One Two
(c) UVB, UVC One One
(d) Irradiance meters for solar radiation One One

Reference glass filters Five Ten

Resistors One After initial drift rate has been Three


established. Inter-compare
annually

Rollers and balls Three Five

23
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Equipment Recommended maximum period (years)


between successive calibrations

Initial Calibration Subsequent


Calibration

Roundness standards Three Five

Roughness standards Three Five

Screw check plugs for ring gauges Three Five

Screw pitch reference standards Three Five

Setting cylinders Three Five

Setting rings Three Five

Signal generators One Two

Sound level meters Two Check every three months Two

Sound power sources Five Five

Spectrophometers Six months Six months


Wavelength and absorbance calibration
See IANZ Technical Guide AS TG 4

Squares
(a) Try squares Two Five
(b) Block squares Three Five

Standard cells, electronic One One


Inter-compare at least three monthly to
establish drift rate of a group
One cell in a group needs to be
calibrated annually. Then inter-compare
within group as required

Surface plates
(a) Cast iron Three Five
(b) Granite Three Five

Thermocouples (probe only)


(a) Rare metal 100 hours use or three years whichever
is the sooner
(b) Base metal Calibration intervals to suit the particular
application

24
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Equipment Recommended maximum period (years)


between successive calibrations

Initial Calibration Subsequent


Calibration

Thermometers
(a) Reference liquid-in-glass Five (full calibration) Five
Check ice point immediately after initial
calibration then at least every six months
(b) Working liquid-in-glass* Five (full calibration) Five
Check ice point immediately after initial
calibration then at least every six months

or alternatively Inter-compare with reference


thermometer(s) at points in the working
range every six months. See IANZ
Technical Guide AS TG 3

(c) Electronic (sensors that are One (full calibration) One


thermocouples, thermistors or
other integrated circuit devices)*
(d) Resistance Five
Five (full calibration) or when the ice
point drift is more than five times the
uncertainty of calibration
Check at ice point before use or at least
every six months
Working hand-held resistance
thermometers can be checked using the
alternative procedure for glass
thermometers

Thread measurement cylinders Three Five

Thread measurement vee pieces Two Five

Time*, time interval, and frequency One But calibration interval dependent
standards* on equipment frequency type and
accuracy required. This may be
as frequently as daily if the
highest possible performance is
required (via TV line six). Audit
the data collection system every
two years

Transfer standards, ac-dc Five Maximum with annual self-check Five


for a standalone passive

25
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Equipment Recommended maximum period (years)


between successive calibrations

Initial Calibration Subsequent


Calibration

instrument. Two years active


devices

Volt ratio boxes Three Annual resistance checks Three

Volumetric glassware* Five Five

Watt-hour meters (electromechanical) One Inter-compare every three Two


months

Wattmeters and watt-hour meters One With regular inter-comparisons - Two


(electronic) intervals to be based on history
of performance

26
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Appendix 3
Approved Signatories and Other Staff
Supervisory staff in accredited organisations must be competent and experienced in the technical areas
covered by their accreditation. They must be able to oversee the operations and cope with any problems
that might arise in their work or that of their colleagues or those who report to them. Such staff members,
nominated by their organisations, may be granted signatory approval on the recommendation of the
assessment team. Approved Signatories may authorise technical procedures and the release of IANZ
endorsed work.

The qualifications and experience required of Approved Signatories and other technical staff members
cannot be rigidly specified but must be appropriate to the work in which they are engaged. Approved
Signatories would normally hold tertiary qualifications or equivalent professional recognition in the relevant
discipline. Organisations engaged in a restricted range of repetitive work may have that work controlled by
a Signatory with appropriate practical experience and specific training in that work but without formal
qualifications.

Approved Signatories
Approved Signatories are the knowledgeable staff members who, where relevant:
(a) Develop and implement new procedures
(b) Design quality control procedures, set action criteria and take corrective actions
(c) Identify and resolve problems
(d) Authorise the release of all IANZ endorsed reports
(e) Take responsibility for the validity of the results.

Every accredited organisation must have at least one Approved Signatory covering each class of test on its
scope of accreditation. Accreditation is automatically suspended for all or part of the scope if the only
signatory for that scope leaves the organisation or otherwise loses their approval for that part of the scope.

All IANZ endorsed calibration certificates or reports must be authorised by an Approved Signatory holding
approval in the relevant class(es) of test, who will take full responsibility for the validity of the work.
Authorisation can be by signing or by electronic signature with appropriate software safeguards covering
release of the report information.

Signatory approval is recognition of personal competence. However, it relates to the accreditation of the
employing organisation and is therefore not automatically transferable to another organisation. It lapses
when a Signatory leaves the accredited organisation or changes their role significantly within the accredited
organisation.

The following are considered when IANZ assesses the suitability of staff members as Approved Signatories:
(a) Relevant qualifications and/or experience. If the signatories do not have relevant tertiary qualifications
they must have sufficient relevant experience enabling them to comply with the requirements listed
below
(b) Position in the staff structure. Approved Signatories must be technical personnel closely involved in
the day to day operations of the accredited organisation
(c) Familiarity with procedures and awareness of any limitations of these procedures; appropriate
personal experience in the calibration procedures for which they hold approval, awareness of any
limitations of these procedures, understanding of the scientific basis of the procedures
(d) Ability to evaluate results critically and a position in the staff structure which makes them responsible
for the adequacy of results
(e) Knowledge of the management system procedures in operation and ability to take appropriate and
effective corrective action, when required
(f) Knowledge of and a commitment to the IANZ requirements for Signatories and for accreditation. This
will include being conversant with the principles of effective quality management embodied in ISO/IEC
17025 and relevant Specific Criteria
(g) Sufficient experience with the accredited organisation to address the above points. It is difficult to
specify an exact time a proposed Signatory should have spent in the organisation, as it is dependent
27
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

on their previous knowledge and experience and their current role in the accredited organisation. It is
unlikely that the time would be less than six months, but exceptional circumstances may apply.

Signatory approval is normally granted only to a staff member in charge, a section leader, a departmental
manager or a senior staff member who authorises the release of and reports/certificates who can also satisfy
the above requirements.

Staff members may be granted signatory approval for all of the measurements included in their
organisation’s scope of accreditation or for only specific measurements relating to their area of personal
expertise.

Signatory approval is available to a person engaged by an accredited organisation as a consultant, with


respect to work done within the scope of accreditation of that organisation, provided that there is a written
agreement between the parties setting out the extent of the authority and responsibility of the consultant in
relation to the services provided. The consultant’s position in the organisation must be such that they can
perform their role as a technical decision maker, as effectively as if they were an employee.

Staff members of the accredited organisation who are not engaged full time are also eligible for signatory
approval, provided that the circumstances in which they are called upon to exercise their signatory function
and their access to, and knowledge of, the technical operations are such that they are able to take full
responsibility for the results they authorise.

The position and function of an Approved Signatory are quite distinct from that of an Authorised
Representative. An organisation will normally have only one Authorised Representative who is appointed by
the organisation and is only the contact point for IANZ and need not have any particular professional or
technical expertise. The organisation may, however, have several Signatories approved by IANZ and with
their own individual areas of expertise.

An Authorised Representative who is not also an Approved Signatory may not authorise the release of IANZ
endorsed reports.

28
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Appendix 4
Examples: Evaluation of Uncertainty of Measurement
General
The uncertainty of a measurement defines its quality and is an aid to calculating risk in commercial decisions.
It enables the determination of compliance with manufacturing tolerances, minimum production weights,
and, therefore, the likelihood of distributing product out of specification. In the calibration environment an
uncertainty analysis also demonstrates an understanding of important effects. The most helpful uncertainty
statement is realistic, not conservative or optimistic.

Uncertainty calculations improve with experience. In addition, there is usually more than one way of
evaluating a contribution. Therefore, record your calculations and assumptions so that you and other staff
can follow what you’ve done, and perhaps later add improvements.

When you are calculating measurement uncertainty, keep in mind:


(a) Where known, errors must be corrected and not incorporated into the uncertainty
(b) The total uncertainty will usually be dominated by just one or two large contributions. Once they have
been identified, make the best use of your time by focusing your efforts on them
(c) Obtaining a model is an essential step in an uncertainty analysis. While this may appear difficult, in
most cases the model is simple with the various terms simply added together (for example, corrections
to thermometer or pressure gauge readings), so the sensitivity coefficients are +1 or -1
(d) However well known a calibration process is, there may still be unrecognised contributions that
become evident in a measurement audit, inter-laboratory trial, or in repeat calibrations. Wherever
possible, the source of these should be identified, the contribution evaluated, and the uncertainty
analysis updated
(e) The meanings of technical terms such as coverage factor (k value), effective degrees of freedom,
standard uncertainty, and correlation, are as defined in references 1, 2 and 3
(f) To prevent ‘round-off’ errors, carry at least two or three significant digits in values of the various terms
while you are doing the calculation. The final uncertainty should be rounded to one or at most two
significant digits. As a useful guide, the rounding should alter the uncertainty value by less than 10 %
(g) For many calibrations done in IANZ accredited calibration laboratories, type B determinations will
dominate the uncertainty calculation. These usually have high degrees of freedom associated with
their standard uncertainties so we can use k = 2 in most cases.

Example uncertainty evaluations are given here for the calibrations of a glass thermometer, a 200 g balance
and an external micrometre. For further examples, see the Technical Guides on the MSL website.

29
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Example 1: Calibration of a glass thermometer against a reference


platinum resistance thermometer in a stirred water bath
1 Identify the sources of uncertainty in the thermometer calibration
The largest sources of uncertainty in liquid-in-glass thermometers are: irregularities in the scale markings
and bore diameter; small random effects as the mercury sticks in the bore (stiction); and the slow expansion
and contraction of the glass with temperature, giving rise to hysteresis (the reading depending on previous
exposure to different temperatures). The mercury stiction is minimised by tapping the thermometer lightly,
e.g. with a pencil, before reading. The hysteresis is minimised by only measuring rising or falling
temperatures.

The simplest calibration assesses the errors over a narrow range of temperatures – say six readings
distributed over a few scale divisions above and below the temperature of interest. We apply a single
correction, calculated from the average error, to account for most of the errors, and use the standard
deviation to account for the remaining unpredictable variations. We will assume the reference thermometer
is an electronic platinum resistance thermometer and the thermometer under calibration is a mercury-in-
glass thermometer divided to 0.05 °C.

Type A Uncertainties
1 The standard deviation calculated from the six comparison measurements with the reference
thermometer samples most of the important effects: the irregularities in the bore and scale
markings, mercury stiction, and fluctuations in the temperature of the calibration bath. Because the
six comparison temperatures are chosen randomly and do not fall exactly on scale markings of the
thermometer, the standard deviation also includes effects due to the finite resolution of the
thermometer and the ‘readability’ effects arising from the operator having to interpolate between
scale markings.

Type B Uncertainties
2 The reference platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) is calibrated by the Measurement Standards
Laboratory of New Zealand at Industrial Research Limited. The calibration certificate gives the
uncertainty, the level of confidence, and coverage factor. We assume the electronic reference
thermometer is direct-reading in temperature.
3 Spatial non-uniformity of calibration bath temperature. This must be assessed beforehand (say
once every few years) to ensure it does not have a significant effect on the calibration and to define
the controlled volume of the bath.
4 As described here, there is no need to add a term for the resolution of the instrument. However, if
the six comparison readings are chosen to fall near the scale markings then a contribution due to
the resolution and the uncertainty in reading the scale of the thermometer should be included.
5 Uncertainty due to hysteresis of the thermometer. The hysteresis is minimised by calibrating (and
using) the thermometer only to measure rising temperatures (for T > 20 °C) or falling temperatures
(for T < 20 °C).
2 Corrections applied to readings
An ice-point check of the reference platinum resistance thermometer is regularly conducted, and a correction
determined for any shift in the ice-point reading, so the uncertainty due to drift is negligible.

Corrections to the reference thermometer, as reported in its calibration certificate, are applied.

In principle, large spatial errors in the calibration bath could be corrected, but it is better to ensure that they
are negligible by ensuring that the bath has low non-uniformity and the sensors of the two thermometers are
placed close together.

30
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

3 Determination of standard uncertainties


3.1 Repeatability of the thermometer under calibration
The standard deviation of the differences between the readings of the device under calibration (DUC) and
those of the PRT, for the six comparison temperatures, includes most of the important effects. The standard
deviation was found to be:

uduc  0.009 °C .

Since six readings are taken and a mean is calculated, the number of degrees of freedom associated with
the standard deviation is five. The distribution of the thermometer errors is assumed to be normal.
3.2 Uncertainty in the reference thermometer
The reference thermometer’s calibration certificate tells us that it has an uncertainty of 0.008 °C, given at a
level of confidence of 95 %, and the coverage factor is 2.13, corresponding to 15 degrees of freedom. The
standard uncertainty is found by dividing the expanded uncertainty by the coverage factor. If only the
effective degrees of freedom are quoted, we can find the k factor from the Student’s t tables. If neither the
coverage factor nor the degrees of freedom are given, we assume a coverage factor of k = 2 and divide the
expanded uncertainty by 2. In this case:

0.008
uref   0.0038 °C .
2.13
3.3 Variation with position in the calibration bath
Measurements of time and position variation in the bath temperature were made previously at several radial
positions about a central position, at several immersion depths, and at several temperatures e.g. the
minimum, maximum and a mid temperature. A number of measurements (ten or so) were taken at each
point. These measurements should be repeated every few years (no more than five), or if the bath is
modified.

The time variation of the bath temperature is assessed as the standard deviation of the ten or so
measurements made at each point. In a well-stirred bath, the standard deviations will be similar at different
positions at a given temperature. The worst-case variation normally occurs when the difference between the
bath and the room temperature is greatest. The standard deviation is not used directly in the uncertainty
analysis because the time variation will already contribute to the standard deviation in 3.1. However, this
term must be included in the calculation of the Calibration and Measurement Capability as it limits the
possible uncertainty in a calibration.

The spatial variations in the bath temperature can be assessed using the average of the measurements at
each point. They will affect a calibration but not contribute to the standard deviation in 3.1. Therefore, we
must add a term to account for the possible temperature gradients in the bath. Providing the thermometers
involved in the calibration are always kept within the assessed diameter and immersion depths, we can use
the maximum variation we have measured as the contribution to the uncertainty of calibration by considering
it to be a rectangular distribution.

In this case we find that so long as the thermometers are in the centre of the bath and within 100 mm of
each other, the maximum measured observed spatial difference is 0.01 °C. The standard uncertainty for this
contribution is determined by treating this difference as the range of a rectangular distribution (where, if
2a  0.01, the standard uncertainty is a 3 ):

0.005
ubath   0.0029 °C .
3
3.4 Resolution of the thermometer under calibration
The readability or resolution of liquid-in-glass thermometers varies according to the quality of the scale
markings on a thermometer. The scale is an analogue scale, so the quality of the markings affects how the

31
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

operator interpolates between the markings. The standard uncertainty due to reading errors ranges from
about 0.1 of a scale division for a high quality thermometer to 0.25 of a scale division for a very ordinary
thermometer. If the comparison points in the calibration are chosen randomly then the effects are included
in the standard deviation calculated in 3.1 and do not need to be included separately.
3.5 Hysteresis of the thermometer under calibration
The slow expansion and contraction of the glass introduces a small hysteresis effect (typically no more than
0.1 % of the temperature change) into the readings of the liquid-in-glass thermometer. The change can be
detected by doing an ice-point check at the beginning and the end of the calibration process. The difference
is taken as the range of a rectangular distribution and hence the standard uncertainty is estimated
(2a  0.02 °C) as:

0.01
uhys   0.0058 °C .
3
4 Combination of uncertainties
The uncertainties are combined using the root sum square method (in quadrature). The combined standard
uncertainty is, thus:

uc2  uduc
2
 uref
2
 ubath
2
 uhys
2

uc2  0.009  0.0038   0.0029   0.0058 


2 2 2 2

uc  0.0117 °C
5 Expanded uncertainty
To calculate the expanded uncertainty, U, we need the coverage factor, k, for a level of confidence of 95 %.

U  k uc .

If all the contributions have a large number of degrees of freedom, the value of k is 2. More typically in glass
thermometer calibrations, the value is between 2.1 and 2.5. Because the uncertainties are based on a few
measurements dominated by random effects, the uncertainty itself is only known to about 30 %, so using a
value of 2 and rounding up is often OK. In this case, we can expect U  0.024 °C to be close.

A more accurate value of the coverage factor can be determined by calculating the effective number of
degrees of freedom, eff, for the total uncertainty:

uc4
 eff  .
N
ui4

i 1 i

Using the values from the uncertainty table (below), we get:

(0.0117)4
 eff 
(0.009) 5+(0.0038) 15+ (0.0029)4  +(0.0058)4 
4 4

(0.0117)4

(0.009)4 5+(0.0038)4 15
 14.1.

Note that the terms with infinite degrees of freedom drop out of the calculation (in the spreadsheet calculation
we have used 1000 to approximate infinite degrees of freedom). This gives an effective number of degrees
of freedom of 14, so from the Student’s t tables we use k  2.14. The expanded uncertainty is, therefore:
32
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

U  2.14  0.0117 °C  0.025 °C ,


which gives a slightly different answer from before. Often, as in this case, such differences will be small
when compared with the ‘uncertainty’ in the estimate itself. However, that is not always the case.
6 A model and the uncertainty budget
The process described above is a way of assessing uncertainty based on experience and common sense.
The ISO Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (reference 2) has a much more structured
way to do this and describes how to prepare the uncertainty evaluation based on a ‘model’ of the
measurement.

The model is the mathematical relationship between the inputs to the calibration and the output(s). The
factors we have included as inputs – bath variation, repeatability, reference uncertainty and hysteresis – are
all directly related to the output (the correction at a given temperature). For many calibrations, the
mathematical model is a simple sum of readings and corrections. This greatly simplifies the propagation of
uncertainty equations as the sensitivity coefficients are all equal to +1 or –1. Our model for the correction to
the thermometer under calibration is:

T  Tref  Tduc  Tbath  Thys ,

where

T  The correction to be applied to the thermometer under calibration


Tref  The corrected reading of reference thermometer
Tduc  The reading of the thermometer under calibration
Tbath  Temperature correction due to bath non-uniformity
Thys  Temperature correction due to hysteresis in thermometer under calibration.

The correction is based on the average of the observed errors:

Correction  average (ΔT)  average (Tref – Tduc).

Note that the errors due to hysteresis and bath non-uniformity are assumed to average to zero. The equation
for the uncertainty has a form corresponding to the model except that all of the terms are summed as
squares:

uc2  uref
2
 uduc
2
 ubath
2
 uhys
2
.

Note also that we can convert models that involve division, multiplication and powers to a direct (or linear)
relationship between input and output by using relative uncertainties (or % values).
The easiest way to develop the structured uncertainty budget is to use a spreadsheet. We need the following:
(a) A description of the source of each contribution
(b) The type of each uncertainty estimate, Type A or Type B
(c) The estimated size of each contribution (standard uncertainty)
(d) The type of distribution assumed for each contribution e.g. normal, rectangular, triangular etc.
(e) The number of degrees of freedom for each Type A uncertainty and the number of degrees of freedom
for each Type B uncertainty
(f) The sensitivity coefficient for each uncertainty
(g) The combined uncertainty
(h) The effective degrees of freedom for the combined uncertainty, so we can calculate the coverage
factor, k
(i) The expanded uncertainty.

33
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

IANZ expects the uncertainty budgets in calibration laboratories to be prepared as shown in the example
below. A number of spreadsheets, including those developed by IRL, are already in this format.
7 Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC)
The CMC is calculated as the total uncertainty combining all sources attributable to the reference instruments
and the calibration procedure. This includes the spatial and temporal variations in the bath temperature, and
the uncertainties in the reference thermometer. If we use the standard uncertainties we have calculated for
the reference thermometer and the spatial variation in the bath and combine these with the time variation
(which we will assume is the same size as the spatial for this example), we get:

 0.0038   0.0038   0.0029 


2 2 2 2
ubmc

ubmc  0.0061 °C ,

which combine to give a CMC of ± 0.012 °C (95 % level of confidence with k = 2).

The spreadsheet for this example is shown below.

Uncertainty in Correction of Glass Thermometer


Symbol Source Type Units Value Distribution Divisor ci u i /C vi
u duc Repeatability A °C 0.009 Normal 1 1 0.0090 5
u ref Reference B °C 0.008 Normal 2.13 1 0.0038 15
u spatial Spatial variation B °C 0.005 Rectangular 1.73 1 0.0029 1000
u hyst Hysteresis B °C 0.010 Rectangular 1.73 1 0.0058 1000
Combined Uncertainty u c 0.0117 °C
v eff 14
k 2.14
Expanded Uncertainty U 0.025 °C

34
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Example 2: Calibration of a 200 g analytical balance


1 Sources of uncertainty in the balance calibration
The uncertainty we are looking for is the total uncertainty in the balance indication at a particular weight.
Traditionally the CSIRO document The Calibration of Balances by D B Prowse has been used in New
Zealand for balance calibration. This recommends calculating a parameter called the “Limit of Performance”
or “Best Accuracy” of the balance which includes uncorrected errors and type A uncertainties in the same
final figure. As balances are rarely corrected for linearity errors, there is some justification for continuing this
policy while acknowledging that the uncertainty is a different number. We will follow the current MSL policy,
which is covered in their training courses.

We will assume stainless steel integral masses of OIML class E2 are used as the reference weights. These
are calibrated at MSL and the certificate includes the actual mass values and the uncertainty at a level of
confidence of 95 % and k factor of 2.

The balance for this example has a maximum indication of 201 g and reads to 0.1 mg on the lowest range.

Type A Uncertainties
1 Repeatability is usually determined by making ten measurements at one or more representative
points across the range. For this example we will make measurements at the top of the lowest
range, i.e. 50 g.

Type B Uncertainties
2 Uncertainty in the masses. These are calibrated by the Measurement Standards Laboratory of New
Zealand of Industrial Research Limited. The actual value of each mass is reported along with the
uncertainty.
3 Resolution limitations in reading the scale or with a digital indication. The resolution or readability
of a balance is a source of uncertainty that needs to be taken into account as it may not be
adequately represented in the measured repeatability.
4 Uncertainty arising from drift in the mass values of the reference weights between calibrations.
5 Temperature effects on the scale sensitivity of the balance.
6 Off-centre loading of the balance is assessed but is not included as a component of uncertainty in
the balance calibration as it is assumed that the operator will load the weights so that this effect is
not significant.
2 Determination of standard uncertainties
2.1 Repeatability of the balance
The standard uncertainty arising from random variation in ten readings with a particular weight is taken as
the standard deviation of those readings. We shall assume a normal distribution with 9 degrees of freedom.

uR  0.00012 g
2.2 Uncertainty in the masses
The uncertainty in the 50 g reference mass is given in the calibration report as 0.000015 g. The k factor is 2
so we will assume 50 degrees of freedom. Hence the standard uncertainty in the 50 g reference weight is:

uref  0.0000075 g .

If several reference weights are used together, the standard uncertainty in the combination is simply the sum
of the individual standard uncertainties. The normal root sum square method for combining uncertainties
does not apply because the mass values for the reference weights are usually correlated.
2.3 Resolution of the balance
The balance reads to 0.1 mg on the 50 g range. Treating this as the full width of a rectangular distribution,
the standard uncertainty due to resolution is given by:

35
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

 0.0001
ures     2 g  0.0000408 g
 2 3 

with infinite degrees of freedom (approximated by 1000 in the spreadsheet). This is the uncertainty due to
resolution in the difference between a balance reading with a load and a balance reading with no load (hence
the factor of 2 ).
2.4 Change in the mass values of the reference weights between calibrations
The mass value of a reference weight will change after calibration, introducing some uncertainty in its value
in use. This change may be more than the calibration uncertainty and hence significant. The weight may
gain mass through contamination or lose mass through wear or damage. The uncertainty due to this
instability in the reference weight is difficult to estimate. Mass calibration reports from MSL include suggested
values for this uncertainty based on the history of the weight and experience with other similar weights.

A simple approach to estimating this uncertainty due to mass instability is to treat the change in mass
between the last two calibrations as the full width of a rectangular distribution. For this example, this change
is 15 g and hence:

0.000015
uinstability  g = 0.0000043 g
2 3
2.5 Change in balance sensitivity due to temperature
The balance reading is sensitive to temperature. For the 200 g analytical balance under calibration, the
relative sensitivity coefficient S is 2x10-6 g °C-1. An uncertainty can be estimated for this sensitivity at load M
from the change in temperature T of the balance during the calibration. Treating T as the full width of a
rectangular distribution gives:

T  S  M  2 C   2  106 C-1   50 g


usens    0.0000577 g
2 3 2 3

for a load of 50 g and a temperature change of 2 C during the balance calibration.


3 Combination of uncertainties
The uncertainties are combined using the root sum square method. The combined standard uncertainty is
given by:

uc2  uR2  uref


2
 ures
2
 uinstability
2
 usens
2

and hence:

 0.12   0.0075    0.0408    0.0043    0.0577   0.14 mg .


2 2 2 2 2
uc2 

4 Expanded uncertainty
To calculate the expanded uncertainty, U, we need the coverage factor k for a level of confidence of
approximately 95 %. In this case, the repeatability uncertainty - which has 9 degrees of freedom - is
dominant. Hence k  2.26 and the expanded uncertainty is approximately

U  2.26 0.14 mg  0.32 mg .

A more accurate calculation gives k = 2.12 and U = 0.30 mg (see the spreadsheet below). This is the
uncertainty in the indication of the balance at 50 g. The uncertainty will need to be evaluated at other points
in all the ranges of the balance as well. The limit of performance or best accuracy is found by adding the

36
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

worst linearity error to this value for the 50 g range. The worst error, L, is found to be 0.0001 g, making the
best accuracy, 0.00042 g or 0.42 mg. This best accuracy can be rounded to 0.4 mg.
5 A model and the uncertainty budget
The relevant model in this case is:

CM  Mref  Iref  I0   Csens

where

CM = Correction to balance reading at load Mref


Mref = the mass of the standard weights used
Iref = the balance indication at load Mref
I0 = the balance indication at no load (usually zero)
Csens = the correction due to sensitivity drift (usually assumed to be zero with an appropriate
uncertainty assigned).
6 Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC)
The CMC is calculated as the total uncertainty combining all sources attributable to the reference instruments
and the calibration procedure. This includes only the uncertainties uref and uinstability related to the reference
weights, which combine to give a CMC of ± 0.02 mg at 50 g (95 % level of confidence with k = 2).

The spreadsheet for this example is shown below.

Uncertainty in Indication of a 200 g capacity Analytical Balance at 50 g


Symbol Source Type Units Value Distribution Divisor ci u i /mg vi
ur Repeatability A mg 0.12 Normal 1.00 1 0.120 9
u ref Reference calibration B mg 0.015 Normal 2 1 0.008 50
u res Resolution B mg 0.07 Rectangular 1.73 1 0.041 1000
u stab Reference instability B mg 0.008 Rectangular 1.73 1 0.004 1000
u sens Sensitivity variation B °C 1 Rectangular 1.73 0.1 mg/C 0.058 1000
Combined Uncertainty u c 0.140 mg
v eff 16
k 2.12
Expanded Uncertainty U 0.30 mg

37
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Example 3: Calibration of an external micrometre against gauge blocks


1 Sources of uncertainty in the calibration
The calibration of a micrometre is carried out by using the micrometre to make measurements on calibrated
gauge blocks. The report will give the error of measurement, which is equal to the micrometre reading minus
the calibrated gauge block size. We assume here that a set of grade 2 gauge blocks is used to calibrate a
0 mm to 25 mm micrometre with a digital indicator. A full calibration of a micrometre would also include a
measurement of the flatness and parallelism of the measuring faces of the micrometre along with an
assessment of the uncertainty in these measurements. Here we will only consider the uncertainty in the error
of the measurement of the micrometre at 25 mm.

Type A Uncertainties
1 The repeatability of the micrometre is determined by making 10 measurements at 25 mm.

Type B Uncertainties
2 The reference gauge block set is calibrated by an accredited laboratory. These calibrations have
the uncertainty reported on the certificate at a level of confidence of 95 % with k = 2. We shall
assume 50 degrees of freedom for this value.
3 Temperature will affect both the gauge block and the micrometre. We assume that the micrometre
and gauge block have the same thermal expansion coefficient and are at the same temperature.
We shall also assume the measurements are being carried out in a temperature-controlled
laboratory and the gauge block and micrometre have come to thermal equilibrium.
4 Resolution limitations in the digital readout of the micrometre will be considered.
5 Drift in the gauge block lengths since their last calibration will be considered negligible for this
calibration.
2 Determination of standard uncertainties
2.1 Repeatability of the micrometre
The standard uncertainty arising from making ten measurements of a 25 mm gauge block is calculated from
the standard deviation of the measurements. We shall assume a normal distribution with 9 degrees of
freedom:

uduc  0.48 μm
2.2 Uncertainty in the gauge block length
The 25 µm on the calibration certificate. The k factor is given
as 2 so we will assume 50 degrees of freedom. Then:

0.06
uref  μm  0.03 μm
2
2.3 Resolution of the micrometre
The micrometre resolution is 1 µm. The standard uncertainty due to the resolution is given by:

1.0
ures  μm  0.289 μm
2 3
with infinite degrees of freedom (approximated by 1000 in the spreadsheet).
2.4 Uncertainty due to temperature effects on the gauge block and the micrometre
We assumed in Section 1 that the gauge block and micrometre had reached thermal equilibrium, that is their
temperature difference ∆T = 0, however the uncertainty in the temperature difference u(∆T) ≠ 0. The standard
uncertainty due to the temperature difference between the gauge block and micrometre is given by:

utemp  L  u  T 

where
38
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

L = the gauge block length


 = the thermal expansion coefficient of the gauge block
u  T  = the uncertainty in the temperature difference T between the gauge block and micrometre.

We assume u(∆T) to have a rectangular distribution with a half width of 0.2 °C.
0.2 C
utemp  (25mm)  (11.6  10-6 C-1 )   0.033 μm
3
3 Combination of uncertainties
The uncertainties are combined using the root sum square method. The combined standard uncertainty is
thus:

uc2  uduc
2
 uref
2
 ures
2
 utemp
2

 0.48   0.03    0.289    0.033   0.56 μm


2 2 2 2
uc 

4 Expanded uncertainty
To calculate the expanded uncertainty, U, we need the coverage factor k for a level of confidence of
approximately 95 %. In this case the repeatability uncertainty which has 9 degrees of freedom is dominant.
Hence k ≈ 2.26 and the expanded uncertainty is thus:

U  2.26 0.56 μm  1.27 μm

A more accurate calculation gives k = 2.12 and U = 1.19 µm (see the spreadsheet below). This is the
uncertainty in the error of measurement of the micrometre being calibrated at 25 mm. The uncertainty will
need to be evaluated at other points as well.
5 A model and the uncertainty budget
Cmicr  Lmicr  LGB  Ctemp
where

Cmicr = the error of measurement of the micrometre


Lmicr = indicated length of the gauge block
LGB = certified length of the gauge block
Ctemp = correction for temperature effects

6 Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC)


The CMC is calculated as the total uncertainty combining all sources attributable to the reference instruments
and the calibration procedure. This includes only Uref and Utemp which combine to give a CMC of ± 0.09 µm
(95 % level of confidence with k = 2).

The spreadsheet for this example is shown below.

39
Metrology and Calibration Laboratories

Uncertainty in Error of Measurement of an External Micrometer at L = 25 mm


Symbol Source Type Units Value Distribution Divisor ci u i /µm vi
ur Repeatability A µm 0.48 Normal 1 1 0.480 9
u ref Reference B µm 0.06 Normal 2 1 0.030 50
u res Resolution B µm 0.5 Rectangular 1.73 1 0.289 1000
u temp Temperature B °C 0.2 Rectangular 1.73 0.3 µm/C 0.033 1000
Combined Uncertainty u c 0.56 µm
v eff 17
k 2.12
Expanded Uncertainty U 1.19 µm

40