Está en la página 1de 36

Matter and its Properties

mitechlab.cmswiki.wikispaces.net
Objectives
1. Define matter;
2. Classify matter according to physical states and
composition; and
3. Recognize the difference between the following:
• Physical vs chemical properties
• Intensive vs extensive properties
• Physical vs chemical change
Chemistry Defined
• Chemistry is the science that studies MATTER
• The composition of materials and their
properties
• The changes that substances undergo
• The energy transformation that accompany
the changes
Matter
• The material of the universe
• Anything that OCCUPIES SPACE and has MASS
and VOLUME
• May be classified according to:
• Physical state: solid, liquid, gas
• Composition: pure substances and mixtures
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
Physical States of Matter
Physical States of Matter
• GAS
• Particles are separated from each
other
• Gaseous substances expand to assume
the shape and volume of its container

Chang, 2000
Physical States of Matter
• LIQUID
• Particles are closely spaced but
movement allows fluidity of the
substance
• Have definite volume and assumes the
shape of the container

Chang, 2000
Physical States of Matter
• SOLID
• Occupies a definite volume and
shape
• Particles are in fixed positions, often
in a highly organized arrangement

Chang, 2000
Classification of Matter

campbellms.typepad.com
Substances
• Have definite (constant) composition and
distinct properties
• Cannot be broken down further to simpler
substances by any physical means
• Types:
• Element
• Compound
Elements
• Substances that are composed of only one type
of atom
• Cannot be decomposed by any physical or
chemical means
Compounds
• Substances that are composed of atoms of two
or more elements chemically united in fixed
proportions
• Can be separated into its constituent elements
only by chemical means
Pure Substances

www.apsu.edu
Mixtures
• Combination of two or more substances in
variable compositions
• Individual substances retain their distinct
identities
• Can be separated into its components through
physical means
Types of Mixtures
• HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES
• Composition of the mixture is uniform and
definite
• Examples: sugar dissolved in water
commercially available vinegar
• HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES
• Composition is not uniform and phase
boundary exists
• Composition and properties vary from one
phase to another
Types of Mixtures
• HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES (Colloid &
Suspension)

Chang, 2000
Types of Colloidal System
Type Dispersed Particle Dispersing Medium
Liquid Aerosol Liquid Gas
Solid Aerosol Solid Gas
Sols and Gels Solid Liquid
Emulsion Liquid Liquid
Solid Emulsion Liquid Solid
Foam Gas Liquid
Solid Foam Gas Solid
Solid Sol Solid Solid
Chang, 2000
Classification of Matter

Element Element

Compound Mixture
SEPARATION OF MIXTURE
Filtration
• Separation of components
of a suspension through
the use of a filter.
Decantation and
Centrifugation
• Separation of components
of a suspension without
the use of a filter
• Utilizes gravitational force
or centrifugal force.
Magnetic
Separation
• Selective to materials that
have magnetic properties
Evaporation, Melting and
Sublimation
• Separation methods that involve phase changes
Distillation
• Separating substances with different boiling
points
• Evaporation and condensation
Chromatography
• Uses solubility of each component in a certain
solvent
• Migration rates are dependent on the attraction
of the component to the solvent
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Properties of Matter
• PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
• Properties that can be measured and
observed without changing the
composition or identity of the substance
• Examples:
 melting point, boiling point
 mass, volume, density
Properties of Matter
• CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
• Properties that can be observed only through
changing the composition or identity of the
substance
• Examples:
 Reactivity against other substances
 Heat of combustion
Properties of Matter
• EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES
• Properties that depend on the amount of
matter being considered
• Examples:
 Mass
 Volume
 Length
Properties of Matter
• INTENSIVE PROPERTIES
• Properties that does not depend on the
amount of matter being considered
• Examples:
 Density
 Boiling point
 Melting point
CHANGES IN MATTER
Changes in Matter
• PHYSICAL CHANGE
• Changes in any properties of a substance that
does not involve change in composition
Changes in Matter
PHYSICAL CHANGE
Changes in Matter
• CHEMICAL CHANGE
• Changes that involve transformation into a
chemically different substance
END OF CHAPTER 01