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]p-kv-X-I-w- \m-ev- / e-¡w- B-d-v/ 2007 Un-k-w-_À-- -/1428 ZpÂ-J-A-vZ-x-

9
a-X-hpw-
amÀ-Iv-kn-k-hpw
þD-kv-am³- ]m-e-¡m-gn
4 hm-b-\-¡m-cp-sS- kw-hm-Zw-
6 Xn-cp-sam-gn-
7 ]-{Xm-[-n-]À-¡v- ]-d-bm-\p-Å-Xv-
17 ]cnWmahmZw:- bpànhmZnIÄ Ccp-«n X¸p¶p-!
þA_p lw\, Imc¯qÀ
23 ]cn-ØnXn:- \mihpw \nÀa-mW
- hpw,-- CkvemanI ho-£-Ww-
þ_ioÀ ke-^n ]qf-s¸m-bnÂ
29 bYmÀY- -a-Xw
þA_q Aao\ _nem ^nen]vkv
35 hn-hm-l-w- C-kv-em-an-I- ho-£-W-¯nÂ-
þ\m-C-a- _n.- tdm-_À-«v-
45 sI¶-¯v.- F-kv.- sP³In³kv :- k`-bnÂ\n¶v k-aÀ-¸-W-¯n-te-¡v-
þapkvX^m X³hoÀ
46 bpàn-bpsS acWw
þs{]m^.- tUhnUv amIvsU-hÂ

Internet Edition: http://www.nicheoftruth.org/samvadam


Printed Published and owned by M.Mohammed Akbar. Printed at Screen Offset printers, Cochin-18. Published at Cochin-18.
Editor M.Mohammed Akbar, Niche of Truth, Kalabhavan Road, Cochin-18.

2007 Un-k-w-_À- 3
hm-b-\-¡m-cp-sS-
kw-hm-Zw-

UmÀ-hn-\n-k-¯n-s³d-- bs-a¶v t_m[y-s¸-«p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p¶ shdpw kn²m´w


N-Xn-¡-pg-n-IÄ- am{X-amb Cu Bi-bs¯ C¶pw NneÀ- ]qhn«p ]qPn-
¡p-¶Xv- A-Ûp-I-X-I-c-am-Wv.- UmÀ-hn-\n-k-¯nsâ
\-hw-_À- e-¡¯n-se- "{Ip-c-X-IÄ-¡v- I-s¿m-¸p- \Â- ssPhnI C-S-s]-S-ep-IÄ- a\-Ên-em-¡nb AhÀ AXnsâ
In-b- kn-²m-´w'- F-¶- te-J-\w- i-cn-¡pw- sR-«n-¡p-¶- kmaq-ln-I-X-e-¯n-epÅ CS-s]-S-ep-Isf a\-Ên-em-
Xm-bn-cp-¶p.- k-Xy-¯nÂ- \nÀ-tZm-j-am-b- H-cp- kn-²m-´- ¡msX t]mIp-¶p.- AtX kabw tkmjy UmÀhn-
am-W-X- v F-¶m-Wv- Rm³- [-cn-¨p-sh-¨n-cp-¶-Xv.- C-jv-S-ap- \n-k-¯nsâ bYmÀY- -ap-Js¯ Xncn-¨-dn-ªp-sIm-­p-
Å-hÀ-¡v- A-Xv- Aw-Ko-I-c-n-¡mw.- C-jv-S-an-Ãm-¯-hÀ-¡v- X- Xs¶ CXns\ ]n´p-W¡ - p-¶h- c- p-ap-­v. X§-fpsS Imcy-
Ån-¡-f-bmw.- F-´n-\m-Wv- A-Xn-sâ- t]-cnÂ- hm-Z-tIm-em- {]m-]vXn¡v D]-tbm-Kn-¡phm³ ]änb H¶mw-Xcw Bi-
l-e-§-fp-­m-¡p-¶-Xv- F-¶m-bn-cp-¶p- Rm³- Nn-´n-¨n- b-am-WnXv F¶-Xp-X-s¶-bm-Wn-Xn-\p-Im-c-Ww. F¶mÂ
cp-¶-Xv.- F-¶m-Â- C-{X-am-{Xw- A-]-I-Sw- ]-Xn-bn-cn-¡p-¶- _lp-`q-cn-]-£hpw CXnsâ Ccp­ apJs¯ a\-Ên-
Hcp- \-io-I-c-W- kn-²m-´-am-W-Xv- F-¶v- te-J-\w- hm-bn- em-¡m-¯-h-cmWv F¶-XmWv hkvXp-X. AXym-]-¡-
¨-t¸m-gm-Wv- t_m-[y-am-b-Xv.- chpw A _-²-P-Un-e-hp-amb tkmjy UmÀhn-\n-k-
\mw a\-Ên-em-¡nbXpt]mse AsÃ-¦n \mw ]Tn- amWv Ccp-]Xmw \qäm-­nse GI-O{- Xm-[n-]À¡v X§Ä
¸n-¡-s¸-«-Xp-t]mse UmÀhn-\nkw F¶Xv PothmÂ]- sNbvXp-sIm-­n-cp¶ {Iqc-X-IÄ¡v ssIsb-m¸v \ÂIn
¯n-sb-¡-p-dn¨pw AXnsâ ]cn-Wm-a-Zi-I-sf-¡-p-dn¨pw Bin- À h- Z n- ¨ Xv F¶v Xncn- ¨ - d n- b p- t ¼mÄ Cu
am{Xw ssIImcyw sN¿p¶ ]T-\-im-J-bà F¶pw- a\p- BZÀis¯ Adn-bm-sX-Xs¶ hen-s¨-dn-ªp-sIm-Åpw.
jysâ kmaq-lyþcmjv{Sob aÞ-e-§-fnepw Ncn-{X- Gähpw Npcp-§n-b-Xv, {Iqc-X-Ifpw AXn-{I-a-§fpw
¯nepw XpS§n Ahsâ IÀa-§-fpsS hnhn[ Xpd-I- sNbvXp-Iq-«-n-b-hÀ AXns\ "{]Ir-Xn-\n-b-a-amWv \½Ä
fn AXnsâ {]Xn-[z-\n-IÄ F¯n-t¨-cp-¶p F-¶-Xpw- sN¿p-¶Xv' F¶v ]d-ªp-sIm­v \ymbo-Ic- n-¡p-¶X - nÂ
]p-Xn-b- A-dn-hm-Wv.- \ns¶-¦nepw amdn-\n¡p-sa¶v {]Xo-£n-¡mw. Cu- h-
imkv{X-¯nsâ GtXXv am\-Z-Þ-§Ä D]-tbm-Kn- kv-Xp-X-IÄ- Xp-d-¶p-Im-«n-b- te-J-I-\pw- kw-hm-Z-¯n-\pw-
¨p-sIm­v Af-¶p-t\m-¡n-bmepw XnI¨pw Aim-kv{Xo- A-`n-\-µ-\-§Ä.-
þi-_m-\.- sI, aq-hm-äp-]p-g--

Ckv-em-apw- k-¼-¯pw-- hy-h-kv-Ytbm-Sv- In-S-]n-Sn-¡p-¶- a-säm-cp-


hy-h-kv-Y-bp-an-sÃ-¶-Xv- bm-YmÀ-Yy-am-Wv.
s¯- Nq-jW - w- sN-¿p-¶;- - \-io-Ic- W
- ¯
- n-
sâ- {]-Xy-b-im-kv-{X-am-Wv.- Nq-j-Ww- ap-
C-kv-em-an-I- km-¼-¯n-I- hy-h-kv-Y- X-em-fn-bp-sS- `m-K-¯p-\n-¶m-bm-epw- sXm-
sb- kw-£n-]vX - a- m-bn-«m-sW-¦n-epw- hy-à- ap-X-em-fn-¯-hpw- I-ayq-Wn-k-hp-a-S-¡-
am-bn- hn-i-Zo-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xm-bn-cp-¶p- \-hw- ap-Å- H-¶n-\pw- C-{X-bpw- i-à-hpw- kÀh- gn-em-fn-bp-sS- `m-K-¯p-\n-¶m-bm-epw- sX-
_À- e-¡-¯n-se- C-kv-em-an-I- km-¼- X-e- kv-]À-in-bpw- Nq-j-W-ap-à-hpw- {]m- sä-¶p- ]-Tn-¸n-¡p-¶- C-kv-em-sa-hn-sS,- I-
"

¯nI- {I-aw-'- F-¶- te-J-\w.- e-fn-X-am-b- tb-m-Kn-I-hp-am-b- km-¼-¯n-I- ho-£-Ww- ayq-Wn-k-sa-hn-sS!-


co-Xn-bnÂ- Im-cy-§Ä- A-hX - c- n-¸n-¨- teJ- k-aÀ-¸n-¡p-hm³- km-[n-¨n-«n-Ã.- C-¯-c-¯n-ep-Å- te-J-\-§Ä- C-\n-
I-\v- A-`n-\-µ-\-§Ä.- sXm-gn-em-fn-hÀ-Km-[n-]-Xy-¯n-sâ- bpw- {]-Xo-£n-¡p-¶p.-
tem-I-¯v- C-kv-em-an-I- km-¼-¯n-I- Iayq-Wn-kw- k-Xy-¯nÂ- ap-X-em-fn-hÀ-K- þ\n-kmÀ- A-lv-a-Zv,- A-t¯m-fn-

2007 Un-k-w-_À- 4
ac-Wm-\-´-c-Po-hn-Xw. Åbpw sImÅn-sh-¸p-ambn Agn-ªm-
Sp¶p NneÀ.- `-b-hn-lz-e-cmbn PohnXw
A-h-cpsS k¼¯v sImÅ-b-Sn-¨,- tkz-
Ñm-[n-]XnþA-bmÄ in£n-¡-s¸-Sp-¶Xv
acWw bmYmÀY-y-am-Wv.- hy-à-ambn Ign-¡p¶p ZpÀ_-eÀ.- C-h-scm-s¡bpw t]mIs« ac-W-tijw temI-t\-Xm-¡-
A\p-`-h-t`-Zya-m-Ip-¶Xv sIm­v Bcpw X¡-Xmb in£bpw AÀl-amb \oXn fpsS BZ-c-§Ä Gäp-hm§ns¡m­v
AXns\ \ntj-[n-¡m³ ss[cyw ImWn- bpw e`n-¡m-sXbmWv acn-¨p-t]m-Ip-¶X - v. HutZy-m-KnI _lp-a-Xn-I-tfmsS A-S-¡w-
¨n-«n-Ã.- A-Xn\v Nne apJ-§Ä NmÀ¯n- sN-¿-s¸-Sp-¶p;- hn-e-]n-Sn-¨- IÃ-dbnÂ.- H-
s¡m-Sp-¯n-«p-s­¶v am{Xw. acWm\- c­m-as¯ hnizmkw ]p\ÀP-·-am-
´cw F´v kw`-hn-¡p-¶p?- -hy-Xy-kvX- Wv.- ap-Ö-·-¯nsâ IÀa-^ew A\p-`- cm-bncw t]cpsS LmX-I\v Hcp h[-in-
amb aq¶p-ho-£W - §- fmWv \ne-hn-ep-Å- hn-¡m-\mbn asämcp Pohn-bmbn ]p\ÀP- £ -e-`n-¨m-embn. Imashdn \nan¯w
Xv. \n-¡p-¶p.- IÀa-Kp-Ww-sIm­v a\p-jy³ \nc-h[n I\y-I-I-fpsS Nmcn{Xyw Ih
a\p-jy-\mbn¯s¶ ]p\ÀP-·-sa-Sp-¡p- À¶,- [mcmfw {`qW-lXyIÄ \S-¯nb,-
H¶,-v ac-W-w- hy-àn-bp-sS- k-aq-e-\m- ¶p.- Kp-W-hy-Xym-k-a-\p-k-cn¨v ]p\ÀP- Nne-t¸mÄ CcIsf¯s¶ \njvT-q-c-
i-am-Wv.- ]n-¶o-sSm-¶p-an-Ã.- -A-Xp-sIm­v ·-¯n hÀW-hy-Xym-k-ap-­m-Ip-¶p.- ambn h[n-¨p-I-fª ]qPm-cnbpw ]ptcm-
BtcmSpw Hcp-¯-chpw t_m[n-¸n-t¡-­- hÀW-m-{i-a-[Àa-w acn-¨mepw Hgn-bm-_m- ln-X\pw kaq-l-¯n ssZhm-h-Xm-
Xn-Ã. Cu ho£W¯nsâ kw`m-h-\- [-bm-bn-¯p-S-cp-¶p-sh-¶ÀY-w. IÀa-tZm- chpw ssZh-¯nsâ- {]Xn]pcp-j-\p-ambn
bmWvþ a\p-jy-Po-hnXw kpJn-¡m-\p-Å- jw-sIm­v AXnsâ tXmX-\p-k-cn¨v hnekn ac-Wm-\-´chp-w ]qPn-¡-s¸-Sp-
XmWv; PohnXw ]c-am-h[n Bkz-Zn¨p a\p-jy³ a-\p-jy-t\m- aäp-Po-hn-Itfm I-bp-am-Wv.- C-§-s\-sb-{X-sb{X Ipä-hm-
kpJn-¡p-I.- BÀ¡pw Btcm-Sp-samcp¯ Bbn ]p\ÀP·-sa-Sp-¡p-¶p. fn-IÄ. ChÀ in£n-¡-s¸-tS-­-XtÃ?
c-hm-Zn--¯-hp-an-Ã; Ds­-¦n AXv kz´- Bcm-Wn-hsc in£n-¡pI? Chn-sS-
t¯mSv am{Xw. kz´w kpJ-¯n-\mbn Chn-sSbpw Nne tNmZy-§Ä kzm`m- bmWv ac-Wm-\-´-c-Po-hnXw {]k-à-am-
A\ysâ GX-Xncpw ewLn¡mw. ssZ-h- hn-I-ambpw DS-se-Sp-¡p-¶p.BZys¯ Ip-¶Xv.-
\n-tj-[n-Ifpw bpàn-hm-Zn-I-fp-amWv Cu a\p-jy³ F´v IÀa-KpWw sIm­mWv
hnizm-k-¯nsâ hàm-¡Ä. -bp-àn-bp- a\p-jy-\mbn P\n-¨Xv? BZys¯ arKw ssZhs¯ A\pkcn- ¡ p- I bpw
ambn Cu hnizmkw s]mcp-¯-s¸-«p-t]m- arK-am-hm\pw aäp Hmtcm Pohnbpw B Ahs\ Bcm-[n-¡p-Ibpw kaq-l¯ - nÂ
Iptamsb¶v ]cn-tim-[n-t¡-­-XmWv. Pohn-bm-Im\pw Imc-W-sa´v? ]m¼v \· am{Xw sN¿p-Ibpw AXn\v am{Xw
]m¼mbn P\n-¨-sX-´vsIm­v? ]«n ]«n- bXv\n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶h- À, Cu amÀK-
acWw bmYmÀY-y-am-sW-¦n F´m bmbn P\n-¨-sX-´p-sIm­v? knwlw ¯n ]e kpJ-ku-I-cy-§fDw XyPn-
Wv ac-Ww?- -tZ-lhpw tZlnbpw thÀ]n- knwl-ambn P\n-¡m³ Imc-W-sa´v? ¡p-Ibpw aäp-Å-h-cpsS aÀZ-\-§fpw
cn-bp-¶-XmWv AYhm PU-¯n \n¶v Npcp-¡-¯n Hmtcm Pohnbpw B Pohn- ]oU-\§fpw kln-¡p-Ibpw sNbvX-
Bßmhv thÀs]-Sp-¶-XmWv ac-Ww.- i- bmbn P\n-¡m³ F´mWv sNbvXXv? hÀ, BÀ¡pw Hcp D]-{Z-h-§Ä GÂ]-n-
co-c-¯nsâ Fhn-sS-sb-¦nepw AÂ]-w BZy-ambn arK-ambn P\n¨ arKhpw aäp ¡msX kam-[m\ PohnXw \bn-¨-hÀ,
Ne-\-tijn \ne-\n¡p-¶p-s­-¦n Pohnbpw ]p\ÀP-· -a-\p-jy-\m-hm³ \³a ]p\x- Ø m]n- ¡ p- I bpw Xn³a
Poh-\p-­v.- H-cn-S¯pw AXn-sÃ-¦n AXv F´v kÂIÀa-amWv sNbvX-Xv? AXn- \nÀamÀP\w sN¿pIbpw sN¿m³-
acn-¨p.- lr-Z-bm-Lm-X-amWv ]uc-kvXyÀ \pÅ {]tNm-Z-\-sa-´mWv? Dt±-i-]qÀ XymKw A\p-jvT-n-¨-hÀ, ]-cn-l-kn-¡-s¸-
ac-W-ambn K-Wn-¡p-¶-sX-¦n ]mÝm- ham- s W- ¦ n AsX- § s\bmWv «-hÀ, càk-m£n-I-fm-b-hÀ...- Cu KW-
Xy-cpsS ho£-W¯ - n akvXn-jvIm-Lm- AhÀ¡v a\-Ên-em-¡m³ Ign-ªXv? ¯nÂs]-«h-À¡v AÀl-amb {]Xn-^ew
X-amWv acWw. Bßmhv F¶p ]d-bp- CXm-cmWv Ahsc ]Tn-¸n-¡p-Ibpw ]cn- e`n-t¡-­-XtÃ? ]c-tem-I-¯-ÃmsX
¶-sX-´mWv? AsX-hn-sS-bmWv ØnXn io-en-¸n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXXv? kap-¶-X- asä-hnsS\n¶mWXv e`n-¡pI?
sN¿p- ¶ Xv ? F§s\- b mWXv \ne- amb Hcm-i-ZÀiw sh¨p-]p-eÀ¯n- XZ- a\p- j y\v ac- W m- \ - ´ cw Ah³
\n¡p-¶Xv? A-Xn-sâ- cq]-`m-h-§-sf- \p-km-c-apÅ k¡Àa-§-fp-\p-jvTn¨v {]hÀ¯n-¨X - nsâ tXmX-\p-kc- n¨v imiz-
´mWv? CsXm¶pw Hcp et_m-d-«-dn- al-¯mb e£y-¯n-se-¯m³ F§- Xam-b- \c-I-in-£tbm, im-iz-X-amb
bnepw ]co-£n¨v sXfn-bn-¡-s¸-«n-«n-Ã. - s\-bmWv Ahbv-¡v Ign-ªXv? kzÀK-tam BWv e`n-¡p-I.
asäm¶v,- PohXw sshhn-[y-ap-Å- aq¶m-as¯ hnizmkw ]p\ÀPo-hn-X- hnip-²-JpÀ-B³ am\-h-cm-insb
XmWv. FÃmhcp-sS-bpw PohnXw Xpey- amWv. F-Ãm-a-\p-jycpw acn-s¨m-Sp-§nb DWÀ¯p-¶p.-""X-§-fpsS c-£-n-Xm-hnÂ-
aÃ. Nn-eÀ kpJn-¡p-t¼mÄ Iptdt]À tijw \nÝn-X-amb Hc-h-[n¡v a\p- A-hn-iz-kn-¨-hÀ-¡m-Wv- \c-I-in-£-bp-
IjvS-s¸-Sp-¶p. Ipd¨m-fp-IÄ [\m-Vy- jy³ ]p\ÀPo- h n- ¸ n- ¡ - s ¸- S psa¶ Å-Xv...''- (67:6).-
sc¦n A[n-I-t]cpw Zcn-{Z-cm-Wv.-G- hnizmkw. `qan-bn hyXy-kvX- {]-hÀ¯-
Xm\pw t]À sIm«m-c-¯n hmgp-t¼mÄ ""XoÀ-¨-bm-bpw-X-§-fpsS c-£-n-Xmhn-
BImiw ta¡q-c-bm-¡n-b-hcpw [mcm- \-§Ä ImgvN-sh-¡p-¶-hÀ¡v ]c-tem- s\- AZr-iy-\n-e-bnÂ- `b-s¸-Sp-¶hcm-
f-ap-­v.- Nn-eÀ aÀZ--I-cm-sW-¦n aäp-Nn- I¯v c£m-in-£-IÄ e`n-¡p-¶-Xtà tcm- A-hÀ¡v ]m]-tam-N-\hpw al-¯m
eÀ aÀZ-nX - c- mWv.- Hcp `mK¯v e£-§sf \ymbw? AXtà _p²n-bp-sSbpw bpàn- b {]Xn-^-e-hp-ap-­v''- (67:12).-
\njvT-q-c-ambn aÀZ-n¨p sIms¶m-Xp¡nb bp-sSbpw XmÂ]cyw? þH.- Sn.- aplvbn±o³,

`c-W-IÀ¯m-¡Ä.- adp-`m-K¯v £p¯- A\y- \ m- S p- I - f n A[n- \ n- t hiw shfn-b-t¦m-Sv.

S-¡m-³ hI-bn-Ãm¯ `c-Wo-bÀ.-sIm- \S¯n e£-§sf Np«p-Nm-¼-em-¡nb,


2007 Un-k-w-_À- 5
Xn-cp-sam-gn-
A-_q-ap-^o-Zv-
tIm-]w- \m-i-tl-Xp-

A_qlp-d-bv-d(t)-bnÂ-\n-¶v- \n-thZ\w-.- \_n- (e)- ]dªp-: "Kpkv-


Xn-bnÂ- Pbn-¡p-¶h\Ã- iIv-X³.- adn-¨v,- tIm-]w- hcp-t¼mÄ-
a\Êns\ \n-b{´n-¡p-¶h\m-Wv- iIv-X³-'' (_pJm-cn,- ap-k-ven).--

tIm-]w.- Hcp-]m-Sv- Zp-c´§sf hn- ­v- \m-Sp-hn-«p-t]m-b kw-`hw- hn-hcn- Hcp- km-bm-lv\
- ¯nÂ- P\§tfm
fn-¨p-hcp-¯p-¶,- a\p-jy-s\ A\v-[ s¡ JpÀ-B\nÂ- C§s\ Im-Wmw.- Sv- {]kw-Kn-¨p-sIm-­n-cn-s¡ {]hm-NI
\pw- _[n-c\p-am-¡p-¶,- hy-Iv-Xn-Isf "At±lw- tIm-]n-jv-T\m-bn-t]m-b k ³- (e)- ]dªp:
bpw- Ip-Spw-_§sfbpw- kaq-l§sf µÀ-`w.-- \mw- Hcn-¡epw- At±l¯n\v- ""BZw- k´Xn-IÄ- hn-hn-[ Xc
bpw- cm-j{v- S§sfbpw-hsc \in-¸n-¡m sRcp-¡ap-­m-¡p-Ibn-söv- At± ¡m-cm-bm-Wv- kr-jS v- n-¡s¸«n-cn-¡p-¶
³- Im-cWam-tb¡m-hp-¶ Hcp- Zpx-kz- lw- [cn-¨p'- (21:87).- Xv.- Adn-bp-I.- km-h[m-\w- am-{Xw- tIm-
`m-hw.- tIm-]n-¡p-hm-\pw- Ign-h\p-kcn- AÃm-lp-hn-s³-d A\p-hm-Zw-In-«m- ]w- hcp-¶hcpw- thKw- AXv- ian-¡p-
¨v- A{Iaw- Im-Wn-¡p-hm-\pw- BÀ- sX P\§sf hn-t«¨p- -sIm-­p-t]m- ¶hcpw- Ahcn-ep-­v.- thKw- tZjyw-
¡pw- Ign-bpw.- F¶mÂ- tIm-]s¯ bXv- Hcp- {]hm-NI\v- tbm-Pn-¨Xm-bn- hcn-Ibpw- ian-¡p-Ibpw- sN¿p-¶hcp-
AS¡n-\nÀ-¯phm-\pw am-¸v- \Â-Im- cp-¶n-Ã.- AXn-\mÂ- AÃm-lp- At± ap-­v.- km-hIm-iw- tIm-]n-¡p-¶hcpw-
\pw- Ign-hp-ÅhÀ- hfsc hn-cfam-Wv.- ls¯ ]co-£W¯n-\v- hn-t[b\m- km-h[m-\w- AXv- ian-¡p-¶hcp-ap-
FXn-cm-fn-sb F´v- sN¿p-hm-\pw- ti ¡n.- I¸enÂ- Ibdn-b At±l¯n\v- ­v.- AXv- c­pw- A§s\ H¯p-t]m-
jn-bp-­m-bn-cn-s¡ tIm-]w- AS¡n- ISenÂ- Nm-tS­n-h¶p.- Hcp- aXvk- yw- Ipw.- F¶mÂ- Adn-bp-I; thKw- tIm-
\nÀ-¯m-\pw- am-¸v- \Â-Im-\pw- Ign-bp- At±ls¯ hn-gp-§p-Ibpw- GXm- ]n-¡p-¶hcpw- km-hIm-iw- ian-¡p-
¶h\m-Wv- bYmÀ-°¯nÂ- iIvX - ³.- \pw- Zn-hk§Ä-¡p-tijw- aXv-kyw- ¶hcpw- a\p-jy-\n-ep-­v.- AXn-\mÂ-
Ah\v- Po-hn-X¯nÂ- hn-Pbw- Is­ At±ls¯ Icbn-se¯n-¡p-Ibpw- Ahcn-teähpw- \ÃhÀ- km-h[m-\w-
¯m³- Ign-bpw.- thKw- tIm-]¯n-\v- sNbv-Xp.- C¯c¯n-ep-Å Hcp- sR tIm-]w- hcn-Ibpw- thKw- ian-¡p-I
ASn-as¸Sp-Ibpw- A{Iam-kIv-X\m- cp-¡¯n-epw- ]co-£W¯n-epw- A bpw-sN¿p-¶Xm-Wv.- Ffp-¸w- tIm-]n-
hp-Ibpw- sN¿p-¶h³- Zpx-Jn-t¡­n- t±lw- AIs¸Sm³- tlXp- At±lw- ¡p-Ibpw- sasà am-{Xw- ian-¡p-¶
hcpw.- Ahs³-d Po-hn-Xw- Zp-c´abam- tZjy-s¸«p-t]m-bXm-Wv.- hcp-am-Wv- Gähpw- sIm-Åcp-Xm-¯
bn-cn-¡pw.- hÀ.''--
Hcn-¡Â- HcmÄ- \_n- (e)-bp-sS
hn-ip-² JpÀ-B\nÂ- C§s\ Im- ASp-¡Â- h¶p-sIm-­v- F\n-¡v- Hcp- Kp-cp-Xcam-b `hn-jy-¯p-IÄ-¡v-
Wmw-: ""h³-]m-]§fpw- \o-NIr-Xy-§ D]tZiw- \Â-In-bm-epw- F¶v- ]d CShcp-¯p-¶ Hcp- Zpx-kz-`m-ham-W-v A
fpw- hn-«I¶v- \nÂ-¡p-¶hcpw- tIm]w- ªt¸mÄ- "\o- tIm-]n-jv-T\m-Icp-Xv'- \n-b{´n-Xam-b tIm-]w.- AXn-\mÂ-
h¶mÂ- am-¸v- \Â-Ip-¶hcpw- ({]Xn- F¶m-bn-cp-¶p- At±l¯n-\v- \Â-In- tIm-]s¯ AS¡n-\nÀ-¯m³- {ian-
^emÀ-lcm-Wv)''- (iq-dm- 37).- b D]tZiw.- AtX At]£ ]eX ¡p-I.- {i²n-¡p-I.- Zq-chym-]Iam-b
bq-\p-kv- \_n-(e)- Xs³-d {]t_m- hW BhÀ-¯n-¨t¸mgpw- "\o- tIm]n- {]Xym-Lm-X§fnÂ-\n-¶v- c£t\
[\w-sIm-­v- ^ew- Im-Wm-sX h¶ jv-T\m-Icp-Xv'- F¶m-bn-cp-¶p- \_n- SpI.-
t¸mÄ P\§tfm-Sv- tZjy-s¸«p-sIm- (e)- \Â-In-b D]tZiw.-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 6
]-{Xm-[n-]À-¡v- ]-d-bm-\p-Å-Xv-

{]am-W-§Ä; imkv{Xw;- -bp-àn

"Adnhv'- c­v hn[-ap­v; C{µn-b-Úm-\hpw B[ym-ßn-I-Úm-\hpw. ]t©-{µnb-


§Ä \ÂIp¶ "hn-h-c-§'-fmWv C{µnb Úm\-¯nsâ t{kmX-Êv. C{µn-b§fn-eqsS
hcp¶ hnh-c-§sf A]-{K-Yn-¨mWv akvXnjvIw hkvXp-¡-sfbpw hkvXp-X-I-sfbpw
Ipdn¨v a\-Ên-em-¡p-¶-Xv.- I-®n\pw ImXn\pw aq¡n-\pw \m¡n\pw Xz¡n-\p-saÃmw
Ah-bp-sSXmb ]cn-an-Xn-I-fp­v; Ch \ÂIp¶ "hnh-c'-§sf A]-{K-Yn¨v Adn-hm¡n-
¯oÀ¡p¶ akvXn-jvI-¯n-\p-ap­v ]cn-[nbpw ]cn-an-XnbpsaÃmw. ]ZmÀYs¯¡pdn¨
]T-\a- mWv akvXn-jI v ¯- nsâ taJe. ØeþIme ss\c-´cy(time-space continuum)
sa¶ NXpÀam\ temIs¯¡pdn¨ hnh-c-§Ä A]-{K-Yn-¡m³ ]äp¶ coXn-bn-emWv
AXv krjvSn-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv.- ]-ZmÀY-tem-I-¯n\¸p-ds¯ bmsXm-¶ns\¡pdn¨pw
hkvXp-\n-jvT-ambn ]Tn-¡p-hmt\m a\-Ên-em-¡p-hmt\m akvXn-jvI-¯n\v Ign-bn-Ã.
A§s\ hà Adnhpw Bh-iy-am-sW-¦n AXn\v C{µn-tb-X-c-amb t{kmX-Êp-Isf
B{i-bn-¡pI am{Xsa \nÀhm-la- p-Åp. Chn-sS-bmWv B[ym-ßn-IÚ - m\w {]k-àam-
Ip-¶Xv.
]ZmÀY-¯nsâ {kjvSmhv {]]-©-¯n-\-Xo-X-amb AkvXn-Xz-ap-Å-h-\mbn-cn-¡p-
sa¶v XoÀ¨bmWv.- A-hsâ Adnhpw Ign-hp-sam¶pw ]ZmÀY-tem-Is¯ am\ZÞ§fp-
]-tbm-Kn¨v a\-Ên-em-¡m³ Ign-bp-¶-h-b-Ã.- a-\p-jym-kvXn-Xz-¯nsâ `uXn-tI-X-c-amb
am\-§s- f-¡p-dn¨ Adnhpw \·-Xn·sb¡p-dn¨ BXy-´n-Ia- mb Úm\hpsaÃmw C§
s\-¯-s¶-bm-Wv.- akvXnjvI-hym-bma-§-fn-eqsS k¼m-Zn-¡m\mh-¯Xpw a\p-jysâ
\ne-\nÂ]n\pw c£¡p-am-h-iy-ambXpamb Adnhp \ÂIphm-\mWv {]hm-N-I-·mÀ
\ntbm-Kn-¡-s¸-«-Xv. a-\p-jy-k-aq-l-¯n\I¯p\n¶v {kjvSmhv Xs¶ Ah-sâ-Xmb
am\-Z-Þ-§-fp-]-tbm-Kn¨v {]hm-N-I-·msc sXc-sª-Sp-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p.- {]-hm-N-I·m-
cpsS \ntbm-K-ap-­m-Im¯ Hscmä kap-Zm-b-hp-an-söv JpÀ-B³(35:24) ]dbp-¶p.
Cu {]hm-NI - ·
- m-cm-b
- n-cp¶p AhÀ \ntbm-Kn-¡s- ¸« kap-Zm-b§- Ä¡pÅ B[ym-ßnI
t{kmX-Êv.
apl-½Zv \_n(e)tbmSpIqSn {]hm-N-I-Xz-¯nsâ irwJ-e¡v Ah-km\w Ipdn¡-
s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p (-JpÀ-B³ 33: 40); Ckvemw ]qÀ¯o-I-cn-¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-¡p¶p
(5:5). Ah-km\ \mfp-h-sc-bpÅ a\p-jyÀ¡pÅ B[ym-ßnI Úm\-¯nsâ t{km
XÊv apl-½Zv \_n(e)bmWv. At±-l¯ - n-eqsS Ah-Xc- n-¸n-¡s- ¸« ssZhn-I{- KÙamb
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 7
JpÀ-B\pw At±-l-¯nsâ Ccp-]-¯n-aq¶v hÀj¡mes¯ {]hm-N-I-Po-hn-X-hp-amWv
(sam-gn-Ifpw IÀa-§fpw A\p-hm-Z§ - f- p-sa-Ãmw) apgp-h³ a\p-jyÀ¡p-apÅ B[ymßnI
Úm\-¯nsâ t{kmX-Êv. {kjvSm-hn-s\bpw a\p-jy-Po-hn-X-¯nsâ e£ys¯bpw
{]kvXpX e£y-¯n-se-¯n-¨-cm-\pÅ amÀK-s¯bpw \·-Xn-·-I-sf-bp-saÃmw Ipdn¨
Adn-hp-\ÂIp¶ t{kmX-Êp-I-fmWv JpÀ-B\pw kp¶-¯pw. -C-h-b-ÃmsX asämcp
t{kmXÊpw C¡m-cy-¯n C¶v \ne-hn-en-sÃ-¶-XmWv bmYmÀY-yw.
B[ym-ßnI Úm\-¯nsâ t{kmX-Êp-If- mWv JpÀ-B\pw kp¶¯psa¶v ]dbp-
t¼mÄ Ah I®S¨v AwKo-I-cn-¡-W-sa-¶Ã AÀY-am-¡p-¶-Xv.- Hm-tcm-cp-¯À¡pw
Ah-ch- c- psS ssZhn-IX - s- b-¡p-dn¨v hnaÀi-\m-ßI - a- mbn¯s¶ ]cn-tim-[n-¡m-hp-¶Xm-
Wv.- a-\p-jy-cm-in-bpsS ssIh-i-apÅ GtXXv am\-Z-Þ-§-fp-]-tbm-Kn¨v ]cn-tim-[n¨m
epw JpÀ-B³ ssZhn-I-{K-Ù-am-sW¶pw apl-½-Zv(e) ssZh-Zq-X-\m-sW¶pw kpXcmw
hyà-amhpw, XoÀ¨. A§s\ hyà-ambn¡gnª HcmÄ¡v ]S-¨-h-s\bpw ]c-temI-
s¯bpw ]m]-]p-Wy-§-sfbpw Ipdn¨ Adn-hp-I-fpsS Imcy-¯n JpÀ-B\pw kp¶
¯pw \ÂIp¶ hnh-c-§-fm-bn-cn¡pw Ah-km-\-t¯-Xv. {]kvXp-X hnh-c-§sf A¸Sn
kzoI-cn-¡p-Ibmhpw apl-½Zv \_n(e)sb A´na {]hm-N-I-\mbn AwKo-I-cn-¨-hÀ
sN¿p-I.
akvXnjvI {]hÀ¯-\-§-fn-sem¶mWv bpàn-t_m-[w.- Xsâ Npäp-]m-Sp-I-fnÂ
\n¶pw ap³Km-an-I-fn \n¶pw BÀPn-s¨-Sp¯ Adnhpw A\p-`-h-hp-amWv Hcm-fpsS
bpàn-t_m-[s¯ cq]-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xv.- Xn-I¨pw `uXn-I-amb Imcy-§-fn Xs¶
HcmÄ¡v bpà-ambn tXm¶p-¶-Xv- a-säm-cmÄ-¡v- A-§-s\- tXm¶m-Xn-cn-¡m-hp-¶-XmWv.-
B[ym-ßn-I-Úm-\-am-Ip-t¼mÄ C¯cw hncp-²m-`n-{]m-b-§Ä¡pÅ km[yX Gsd-
bm-Wv.- hn-ip-²-JpÀB-\ns\bpw Xncp-kp-¶-¯n-s\bpw AwKo-I-cn-¡p-¶-hsc kw_-
Ôn-t¨-S-t¯mfw C¯cw ss[j-Wn-I-{]-Xn-k-Ôn-I-sfm¶pw Xs¶-bn-Ã.- B-[y-ßnI
Úm\-¯nsâ Imcy-¯n AhÀ¡pÅ Ah-km-\s¯ hm¡mWv JpÀ-B\pw kp¶-
¯pw. -Ch IrXy-ambn- ]dªp X¶ Imcy§Ä X§-fpsS bpàn¡v DÄs¡m-Åm³
Ign-ªmepw CsÃ-¦nepw AwKo-I-cn-¡p-¶-h-cm-W-hÀ.- \-·-þ-Xn-·-I-sf-¡p-dn¨ hyà-
amb t_m[-t¯m-Sp-IqSn ]m]-§-fn \n¶v Hgnªpw ]pWy-§-fn- hym]r-X-cmbpw
Pohn-¡p-hm³ AhÀ¡v XpW-bm-Ip-¶Xv {]am-W-§sf¡pdn¨ IrXy-amb Cu ImgvN-
¸m-Sm-Wv. imkv{Xhpw bpànbpw Npäp-]m-Sp-Å-hcpw F´v Xs¶ ]d-ªmepw JpÀ-
B\pw kp¶¯pw ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶-XmWv icn-sb¶ Ah-t_m-[-amWv Ahsc AN-©e-
ambn \ne-\nÀ¯p-¶-Xv.
JpÀ-B-\ntem kp¶-¯ntem ]d-bp¶ GsX-¦nepw Imcy-§Ä bpànt¡m _p
²nt¡m imkv{X-Úm\-¯nt\m FXn-cm-sW-¶Ã C¸-d-ª-Xn-\ÀYw. {]m-]-©nI
{]Xn-`m-k-§-sf-sbÃmw ]S-¨v ]cn-]m-en-¡p¶ X¼p-cm-\n \n¶pÅ hN-\-§-fntem
Ahsâ t_m[\w {]Imcw kwkm-cn¨ A´na {]hm-N-Isâ samgn-I-fntem Aim-
kv{Xo-b-ambn bmsXm-¶p-ap-­m-hnsöp-d-¸mWv; F¶m Ah-bn C¶v imkv{X
¯n\v a\-Ên-em-bn-«n-Ãm¯ Imcy-§-fp-­m-bn-¡q-sS-¶nÃtÃm.- A-tX-t]m-se-¯s¶
JpÀ-B-\ntem kp¶-¯ntem ]d-bp¶ GsX-¦n-ep-samcp Imcyw HcmÄ¡v Abp-à-
ambnt¯m¶p-¶Xv Abm-fp-sStbm AbmÄ Pohn-¡p¶ Ime-¯n-sâtbm ]cn-an-Xn-
IÄsIm-­m-hm-a-tÃm.- AXpsIm­v Xs¶ JpÀ-B\pw kp¶¯pw IrXy-ambn ]dª
Imcy-§-fn Ah Xs¶-bmWvþ bpàntbm imkv{Xtam AÃþ Hcp apkvenans\
kw_-Ôn-t¨-St- ¯mfw kzoIm-cy-am-bn-«p-ÅXv.- - kz´w bpàn-t_m-[s¯t¸mepw kÀh-
i-à\v kaÀ¸n-¡p-hm³ k¶-²-\m-WtÃm Ah³.
{]t_m-[-IÀ Gsd {i²-]-Xn-¸n-t¡­ taJ-e-bm-Wn-Xv.- {]-am-W-§sf Hmtcm-cp-
¯cpw X§-fpsS bpàn-¡-\p-k-cn¨v hymJym-\n-¡p-Ibpw hymJym-\-¯n\v hg-§m-
¯-hsb XÅn-¡-f-bp-Ibpw sN¿p¶ {]h-WX {]am-W-§-fpsS \ntj[w t]mse-
¯s¶ A]-I-S-I-c-amWv.kp-µ-c-amb ]pdwtamSn-IÄ¡-I¯v ]Xn-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv
CkvemanÂ\n¶v kzbw \njvIm-knX-am-hp¶ A]-IS- a- m-sW¶v- JpÀ-B\- n-s\bpw lZo-
YpI-sfbpw imkv{X-¯nsâ sNcp-¸n-\-\p-k-cn¨v apdn-¡m³ KthjW ]T-\-§Ä \S-
¯p-¶-hsc t_m[y-s¸-Sp-¯p-hm³ \ap¡v Ign-b-Ww. AÃmlp A\p-{K-ln-¡-s«þ
B-ao³.-
Bao³
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 8
a-X-hpw-
amÀ-Iv-kn-k-hpw--
D-kv-am³- ]m-e-¡m-gn--

H-cp- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äp-Im-c-\v- a-X-hn-izm-kn-bm-Ip-hm³- ]-äp-tam?- H-cp- a-X-hn-izm-kn-¡v- amÀ-Iv-knkv-


äp-Im-c\m-Ip-hm³- ]-äp-tam?- Cu-bn-sS-bm-bn- Cu- tNm-Zy-§Ä-¡v- Po-h³- sh-¡p-hm-\pw- NÀ-¨Ifpw-
kw-hm-Z-§-fpw- A-c-t§-dp-hm-\pw- Im-c-Ww- a-cn-¨pt]m-b- H-cp- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äv- t\-Xmhn\v- A-´y-
Iq-Zm-i- \Â-In-bn-cp-¶p- F-¶- sh-fn-s¸-Sp-¯em-Wv.- a- mÀ-Ivk - n-kw- X-IÀ-¨b - psS- A-hk - m-\- ]Sn-
bnÂ- F-¯n-\nÂ-¡p-¶- H-cp- A-{]m-tbm-Kn-I- {]-Xy-b-im-kv-{X-am-sW-¶v- A-\p-Zn-\w- sX-fn-ªp-
sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶- th-f-bnÂ- A-§-s\-b-sÃ-¶p- h-cp-¯n-¯oÀ-¡p-hm-\p-Å- Xo{h-{i-aw \S-¯n-
s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-I-bm-Wv- A-Xn-sâ- ssk-²m-´n-I-cpw- {]-hÀ-¯-I-cpw.--

a-X-t¯m-Sp-Å- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-sâ- \n-e-]m-sS-s´-¶v- I-r-Xy-am-bn- A-Xn-sâ- D-]-Úm-Xm-


¡Ä- tc-J-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-s­-¦n-epw- km-[m-c-W-¡m-cm-b- {]-hÀ-¯-IÀ-¡pw- A-\p-`m-hn-IÄ-
¡pw- AXv- A-Úm-X-am-Wv.- Cu- A-Ú-X-bm-Wv- H-c-f-hp-h-sc- C-´y-bnÂ- amÀ-I-vkn-kv-äv-
]mÀ-«n-sb- Xm§n-\nÀ-¯p-¶-Xv- F-¶-Xv- bm-YmÀ-Yy-am-Wv.- tI-c-f-¯n-se- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äv- ssk-
²m-´n-IÀ- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- a-X-¯n-s\-Xn-c-Ã- F-¶v- sX-fn-bn-¡m³- {]-kw-K-§-fn-eq-sS-bpw- teJ-
\-§-fn-eq-sS-bpw- {i-an-¨p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-I-bm-Wn-¶v.- a-X-t¯m-Sp-Å- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-sâ- \n-e-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 9
]m-sS-s´-¶v- ]-cn-tim-[n-¡mw.- - t\m-¡n-bmÂ- A-XnÂ- ap-X-em-fn-hÀ-K-hpw- \-´-]p-c-w,- 1997).-
sXm-gn-em-fn- hÀ-Kh- pw- D-ÅX - m- b
- n- Im-Wmw.- "`u-Xn-I-hm-Zw- im-k-v{X-o-b-am-b- tem-
hn-]-co-X- XmÂ-]-cy-t¯m-sS-bm-W-hÀ- {]-
ssh-cp-[ym-[n-jv-Tn-X- `u-X-n-I-hm-Zw-

ssh-cp-[-ym-[n-jv-Tn-X- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-am- I-ho-£-W-am-Wv.- a-\p-j-y-sâ- Xm-Xzn-I-þ


Wv- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-sâ- A-Sn-¯-d.- F-´m- hÀ-¯n-¡p-¶-Xv.- F-¦n-epw- H-cp- XmÂ-¡m- {]m-tbm-Kn-I- {]-hÀ-¯-\-¯n-sâ-bpw- im-
Wo- ssh-cp-[-ym-[n-jv-Tn-X- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-w?- en-I- sF-Iy-ap-­m-¡n- A-hÀ- {]-hÀ-¯n- kv{-X-¯n-sâ-bpw- Iq«p-Im-c-\m-W-Xv. A-
ssh-cp-[-ym-[n-jv-Tn-X- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-w F-¶v- ¡p-¶p.- C-Xp-t]m-se- X-s¶-bm-Wv- H-m-tcm- Xv- h-fÀ-¶p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-¶- im-kv-{X-am-
\m-gn-I-bv-¡p- \mÂ-]-Xp-h-«w- X-«n-hn-Sp-¶- h-kv-Xp-hn-epw- {]-Xn-`m-k¯-n-epw- hn-]-co- Wv. N-en-¡p-I-bpw- am-dn-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-I-
hÀ-¡p- t]m-epw- F-´m-W-¸-d-ª-Xn-sâ- X-§Ä- {]-hÀ-¯n-¡p-¶-Xv.- hn-]-co-X-§- bpw- sN-¿p-¶- ]-ZmÀ-Y-a-Ãm-sX- a-säm-¶pw-
f-p-sS- sF-Iy-hpw- k-a-c-hpw- H-cp-t]-m-se- Cu- tem-I-¯nÂ- im-iz-X-am-bn-«-n-Ã'-- þC-
AÀ-Ys- a-¶pw- D-t±-iy-sa-¶pw- A-dn-bn-Ã- F- Xp-S-cp--¶p'' (F-´m-Wv- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw,- t]- Xm-Wv- `u-Xn-I-hmZw- k-aÀ-Yn-¡p-¶-Xv.- ]-
¶-Xm-Wv- k-Xyw.- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äv- t\-Xm-hm- Pv- 21,-22,- {]-`m-Xv- _p-¡v- lu-kv-,- Xn-cp-h- c-tem-I-an-Ã,- kz-À-K-þ\-c-I-§-fn-Ã,- ssZ-h-
an-Ã,- B-ßm-hn-Ã-;- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-¯n-sâ- Zr-
jv-Sn-bnÂ.-
`u-Xn-I-hm-Z-hpw- ssh-cp-[y-hm-Z-hpw-
amÀ-Iv-kn-sâ-tbm- se\n-s³d-tbm- Fw-K-
Â-kn-s³-dt- bm- I-­p-]n-Sp-¯a- Ã.- 1724 Im-
e-L-«-¯nÂ- Po-hn-¨- C-½m-\p-hÂ- Imâ v-
PÀ-a³- ¢m-kn-¡Â- ZÀ-i-\-¯n-sâ- kv-Ym-
]-I\- m-bn- I-W¡ - m-¡s- ¸-Sp-¶- hy-àn-bm-
Wv.- `q-an-bpw- a-äp- tKm-f§-fpw- ssZ-h- kr-
jv-Sn-bm-sW-¶p- ]-d-bp-¶-Xv- i-cn-b-Ã-;- {]-
Ir-X-n-bp-sS- h-fÀ-¨-bp-sS- H-cp- {]-tXy-I-
L-«-¯nÂ- \-£-{X- k-aq-l-¯nÂ- \n-¶v-
D-­m-b-Xm-W-h- F-¶m-Wv- A-t±-lw- k-n-
²m-´n-¨-Xv.- A-tX-k-a-bw- ssZ-h-ap-s­-
bn-cp-¶- F³.- C.- _m-e-dmw- hn-i-Zo-I-cn- ¶v- A-t±-l-w- k-½-Xn-¡p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.-
¡p-¶-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:- -`u-Xn-I-hm-Z-hpw- B-ßo-b-hm-Zhpw- X-
`u-Xn-I-hm-Z-hpw- ssh-cp-[y-hm-Z-hpw- ½nÂ- H-cp- k-Ôn-bp-­m-¡p-I-bm-Wv-
""h-n-]-co-X-§-fp-sS- {]-hÀ-¯-\w- sIm- Im³dv- sN-b-vX-Xv- F-¶À-Yw.- ]n-¶o-Sv- PÀ-
­m-Wv- N-e-\w- A-sÃ-¦nÂ- hn-Im-kw- amÀ-Iv-kn-sâ-tbm- se\n-s³d-tbm-
a³-Im-c³- X-s¶-bm-b- sl-KÂ-(1770þ1831)-
D­m-Ip-¶-Xv.- {i-²n-¨p-t\m-¡n-bmÂ- F- FwK-Â-kn-s³-d-tbm- I-­p-]n-Sp-¯- -`u-Xn-I-hm-Z-hpw- ssh-cp-[-y-hm-Z-hpw- h-fÀ-
Ãm- cw-K-§-fn-epw- C-Xv- Im-Wmw.- K-Wn-X- aÃ.- 1724 Im-e-L-«-¯nÂ- Po-hn-¨- ¯n-sb-Sp-¡p-¶X - nÂ- h-en-b- ]-¦p- h- l-n¨- p.-
im-k{v- X-¯nÂ- Iq-«e- pw- In-gn-¡e- pw-,- b{´- C-.- sI.- \m-b-\mÀ- F-gp-Xp-¶p:- ""hn-]-co-
im-kv-{X-¯nÂ- B-Lm-X- {]-Xym-Lm-X- C-½m-\p-hÂ- Imâv- PÀ-a³- ¢m-kn- X-§-f-sS- k-a-c-am-Wv- h-fÀ-¨-bp-sS- D-d-hn-
§Ä-,- DuÀ-P-X-{´-¯nÂ- hn-Zyp-Ñ-Iv-X-n-bp- ¡Â- ZÀ-i-\-¯n-sâ- kv-Ym-]-I-\m- S-sa-¶pw- h-kv-Xp-¡Ä-¡pw- {]-Xn-`m-k-
sS- t]m-kn-äo-hpw- s\-K-äo-hpw,-- c-k-X-{´- bn- I-W-¡m-¡-s¸-Sp-¶- hy-àn-bm- §Ä-¡pap-Å- B-´-cn-I- ssh-cp-[y-§fm-
¯n ]-c-am-Wp-¡-fp-sS- kw-t-bm-P-\- hn- Wv- F-Ãm- N-e-\-¯n-s³-d-bpw- A-Sn-bn-ep-
tbm-P-\-§Ä,-- i-co-c-im-kv-{X-¯nÂ- a-kv- Wv.- `q-an-bpw- a-äp- tKm-f§-fpw- ssZ- Å-sX-¶pw- A-t±-l-w- ]-d-ªp.- A-X-nÂ-
Xn-jvI - ¯
- n-se-- kw-t£m-`h- n-t£m-`§ - Ä,- h- kr-jv-Sn-bm-sW-¶p- ]-d-bp-¶-Xv- H-¶pw- Iq-«n-t¨À-¡m³- amÀ-Iv-kn-t\-m- Fw-
km-aq-ly-im-kv-{X-¯nÂ- hÀ-K-k-a-c-§Ä- icn-b-Ã-;- {]-Ir-X-n-bp-sS- h-fÀ-¨-bp-sS- KÂ-kn-t\m- D-­m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã''- (amÀ-Iv-kn-
C-h-sb-Ãmw- \-S-¡p-¶-Xv- hn-cp-²-i-àn-I- kw- kn-²m-´-hpw- ssk-²m-´n-I-cpw,- t]-
fp-sS- {]-hÀ-¯-\w- a-q-e-am-Wv. Fw-KÂ-kv- H-cp- {]-tXy-I-L-«-¯nÂ- \-£-{X- P-v:- 6- 7,68,- t- I-cf- - `m-jm- C³-kvä- n-äyq-«v,- 2000).-
]-d-bp-¶-Xv- t\m-¡p-I-,- "H-cp- h-kv-Xp A- kaq-l-¯nÂ- \n-¶v- D-­m-b-Xm-W-h- `u-Xn-I-hm-Zw- D-bÀ-¯n-¸n-Sn-¨- a-säm-
Xm-bn-X-s¶- \n-e-\nÂ-¡p-¶p.- A-tX-k- F-¶m-Wv- A-t±-lw- k-n-²m-´n-¨-Xv.- cp- PÀ-a³- ZmÀ-i-\n-I-\m-W-v t^-m-bÀ-_m-
a-b¯p-X-s¶- A-Xv- C-S-hn-Sm-sX- am-dn- lv (1814þ1872).- sl-K-en-sâ-bpw- -t^-m-bÀ-
s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-I-bpw- sN-¿p-¶p.- am-ä-an-Ãm- A-tX-k-a-bw- ssZ-h-ap-s­-¶v- A-t±-
bv-a,- am-äw- F-¶o- c-­p-hn-cp-²- i-àn-I- _m-ln-sâ-bpw- ZÀ-i-\-§-sf D-]-Po-hn-¨-
l- w - k- ½ - X n- ¡ p- I - b pw- sN- b v - X p. m-Wv- amÀ-Iv-kv- X-sâ- ZÀ-i-\w- h-fÀ-¯n-
sf- A-Xv- DÄ-s¡m-Åp-¶p.- C-§-s\- B- `uXn-I-hm-Z-hpw- B-ßo-b-hm-Zhpw- s¡m-­p-h-¶-Xv.- t^m-bÀ-_m-ln-sâ- a-X-
h-kv-Xp-hnÂ- H-cp- ssh-cp-[-yw- A-S-§n-bn- hym-Jym-\s- ¯- ]p-\Àh-ym-Jym-\n-¡p-Ib - m-
cn-¡p-¶p'.-- X- ½ nÂ- H- c p- k- Ô n- b p- ­ m- ¡ p- I -
Wv- h-m-kv-X-h-¯nÂ- amÀ-I-vkpw- A-\p-bm-
Cu- hn-]c- o-X§- Ä- thÀ-Xn-cn-ªÃ- - \n- bmWv- Im³-dv- sN-b-vX-Xv- F-¶À-Yw.- bn-I-fpw sN-bv-Xn-cn-¡p-¶-Xv- F-¶v- -kv-]-
e-\nÂ-¡p-¶-Xv.- ap-X-em-fn-¯- k-ap-Zm-bw- jv-T-am-Wv:-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 10
""a-X-Nn-´-I-fp-sS- A-im-kv-{Xo-b-X- ª-Xn-§-s\-bm-Wv-:- ¨q-cn,- t]-Pv-:- 20,- 21,- ]-cn-`m-j-:- \m-cm-b-W³-
t^-mb - À-_m-lv- hy-àa- m-¡n.- ssZ-h¯ - nÂ- ""a-X]- c- a- m-b- t¢-iw,- H-tc-ka- b
- ¯
- v- b- sN-½-e-tÈ-cn-,- Nn-´- ]-_v-fn-tj-gv-kv- Xn-
{]-Ir-Xym-Xo-Xa- m-bn-s«m-¶p-an-sÃ-¶pw- a-\p- YmÀ-Y- t¢-i-¯n-s\-Xn-sc-bp-Å- {]-Xn-tj- cp-h-\-´-]p-cw,- 1993).-
jy³- kz-´w- {]-Xn-Om-bb - nÂ- ss-Zh- s- ¯- [-hp-am-Wv.- A-Sn-¨-aÀ-¯-s¸-«- a-\p-jy-Po- a-Xw- a-\p-jy-s\- a-b-¡p-¶- I-dp-¸m-
kr-jv-Sn-¡p-I-bm-W-p-­-mb-sX-¶pw- A-t±- hn-bp-sS- s\-Sp-hoÀ-]m-Wv- a-Xw;- B-ßm- Wv- F-¶p- ]-d-bp-¶-Xn-\p- ap-¼m-bn-,- A-Sn-
lw- Nq-­n-¡m-«n.- ssZ-h-an-Ãm-¯- H-cp- a- hn-Ãm-¯- A-h-kv-Y-bn-se- B-ßm-hm-Wv ¨-aÀ-¯-s¸-«- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-bp-sS- s\-Sp-
Xw- th-W-sa-¶m-Wv- t^-m-bÀ-_m-lv- ]-d- A-sX-¶-Xp-t]m-se- lr-Z-b-iq-\y-am-b- hoÀ-]v,- B-ßm-hn-Ãm-¯- A-h-kv-Y-bn-se-
ª-Xv.- AXn-\-t±-lw- kv-t\-l-¯n-sâ- a- tem-I-¯-n-s³-d- lr-Z-b-hp-am-W-Xv''- (sl- B-ßm-hv,- - lr-Z-b-iq-\y-am-b- tem-I-¯-n-
Xw- F-¶p- t]-cn-«p. t^-mb - À-_m-lv- ]-t£,- K-en-sâ- ^n-te-m-k-^n- Hm-^v- ssd-än-sâ- s³-d- lr-Z-bw- F-¶o- hn-ti-j-W-§-fm-
a-X-¯n-sâ- h-À-K-k-¯- a-\-Ên-em-¡n-bn- hn-aÀ-i-\w,- A-h-Xm-cn-I,- 1884)''.- (hÀ-Ko- Wv- amÀ-Iv-kv- C-hn-sS- a-X-¯n-\p- \Â-In-
Ã.- ssZ-h-¯n-epw- ]-c-tem-I-¯n-ep-ap-Å- b-X,- a-Xw-,- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw,- ko-Xm-dmw- sb- bn-«p-Å-Xv.- A-Sn-¨-aÀ-¯-s¸-«- a-\p-jy-Po-
hn-izm-k-¯n-sâ- ]n-¶n-se- km-aq-ly- Im-
c-W-§Ä- A-t±-lw- sh-fn-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-Ã.
A-Xp-sIm-­m-Wv- a-X-s¯- F-XnÀ-¡m-\p-
Å- ^-e{- ]-Za- m-b- h-gn Nq-­n-¡m-Wn-¡m³-
A-t±-l-¯n-\p- I-g-n-bm-sX- t]m-b-Xv''- (F-
´m-Wv- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw,- t]-Pv- 69,- {]-`m-Xv-
_p-¡v- lu-kv-,- Xn-cp-h-\-´-]p-c-w,- 1997).-- -
""X-\n-¡v- ]-c¼
- c- b
- m-bn-¡n-«n-b- B-ßo-
b-¨-§-e-sIm-­v- A-t±-lw- sI-«-s¸-«n-cp-
¶p''- F-¶-v t^m-bÀ-_m-ln-s\-¡p-dn-¨v-
Fw-KÂ-kv- F-gp-Xn-bn-«p-­v-,- A-t±-lw-- H-
cp- `u-Xn-Ih- m-Zn-bm-bn-cp-¶n-«p- t]m-epw.- "a-
X-s¯- F-XnÀ-¡m-\p-Å- ^-e-{]-Z-am-b- h-
gn Nq-­n-¡m-Wn-¡m³- A-t±-l-¯n-\p- I-
g-n-bm-sX- t]m-b-n'- F-¶Xv- t^m-bÀ-_m- hn-bp-sS- "B-izm-kw'-- F-¶p- t]-m-epw- ]-
ln-sâ- \yq-\-X-bm-bn- Im-Wp-¶-XnÂ-\n- d-bm-sX- "s\-Sp-hoÀ-]v'- F-¶p- {]-tbm-Kn-
¶p-X-s¶- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-sâ- a-X-t¯m- ""a-X-Nn-´-I-fp-sS- A-im-kv-{Xo-b-X- ¨-Xv a-X-s¯- ]-cn-l-kn-¡-tem- ]p-I-gv-¯-
Sp-Å- k-ao-]-\w- hy-à-am-W-tÃm.- - - - t^m-bÀ-_m-lv- hy-à-am-¡n.- ssZ-h- tem?- -"lr-Z-b-iq-\y-am-b- tem-I-¯-n-s³-d-
a-Xw- a-\p-jy-s\- a-b-¡p-¶- I-dp-¸v- lr-Z-bw-'- F-¶ {]-tbm-Kw- [z-\n-¸n-¡p-¶-
"a-Xw- a-\p-jy-s\- a-b-¡p-¶- I-dp-¸m- ¯nÂ- {]-Ir-Xym-Xo-Xa- m-bn-s«m-¶p-an-sÃ- Xv- "a-X-ap-Å- tem-I-¯v- lr-Z-b-an-Ã'- F-
Wv'F-¶v- amÀ-Iv-kv- ]-d-ªn-«p-t­m?- D- ¶pw- a-\p-jy³- kz-´w- {]-Xn-Om-bbn ¶-tÃ?- "B-ßm-hn-Ãm-¯- A-h-kv-Y-bn-se-
s­-¦nÂ- A-Xn-sâ- D-t±-iy-sa-´m-Wv?- B- Â- ss-Z-h-s¯- kr-jv-Sn-¡p-I-bm-Wp- B-ßm-hv'- F-¶-Xpw- ]-cn-lm-ky- tZym-X-
hm-¡nÂ- ap-g-¨p-Im-Wp-¶-Xv- a-X-t¯m-Sp- I-a-tÃ?- a-\p-jy-s\- a-b-¡p-¶- I-dp-¸v- F-
Å- kv-t\-l-tam- sh-dp-t¸m?- A-Xv- k-µÀ- ­-mb-sX-¶pw- A-t±-lw- Nq-­n-¡m-«n.- ¶- B-t£-]w- hym-P-hpw- XmÂ-¡m-en-I-
`-¯nÂ- \n-¶v- A-SÀ-¯n-sb-Sp-¯- D-²- ssZ-ha- n-Ãm-¯- H-cp- a-Xw- th-Ws- a-¶m- hp-am-b- B-izm-kw- F-¶-tÃ?- C-§-s\-
cWn-bm-Wv- F-¶v- Cu-bn-sS- tI-c-f-¯n- Wv- t^-m-bÀ-_m-lv- ]-d-ª-Xv.- AXn- sbm-¶pw- h-f-¨q-sI-«m-sX- X-s¶- amÀ-Iv-
se- H-cp- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äv- t\-Xm-hv- ]-d-ªp.- kn-kw- a-X-¯n-sâ- i-{Xp-hm-sW-¶v- hy-
\-t±-lw- kv-t\-l-¯n-sâ- a-Xw- F-¶p- à-am-¡n-b-Xm-bn- I-s­-¯p-hm³- {]-bm-
ap-¼v- ]-ec- pw- A-§s- \- ]-dª- n-«p-­v.- ko-
Xm-dmw- sb-¨q-cn F-gq-Xp-¶p-:- t]-cn-«p. t^-m-bÀ-_m-lv- ]-t£,- a-X- k-an-Ã.-
""A-¯-c-sam-cp- ]-cn-X-x-kv-Yn-Xn-bnÂ- a- ¯n-sâ- h-À-K-k-¯- a-\-Ên-em-¡n- sb-¨q-cn- Xp-S-cp-¶-p-:- ""a-X-¯n-\v- P-·w-
X-s¯-¡p-dn-¨p-Å- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äv- [m-c-W- bnÃ.- ssZ-h¯ - n-epw- ]-ct- em-I¯ - n-ep- \Â-Ip-¶- ]-cn-Xx-kv-Yn-Xn-I-sf-bm-Wv,- P-
sb- kw-_-Ôn-¨v- h-f-sctb-sd- hn-hm-Z- \-§Ä-¡p-ta-ep-Å- a-X¯ - n- s- â- kzm-[o-\w-
§Ä- F-Ãm-bvt- ]m-gpw- \n-e\- n-¶n-cp-¶p.- ""a- ap- Å - hn- i zm- k - ¯ n- s â- ]n- ¶ n- s e- kv-Yn-c-am-bn- \n-e-\nÀ-¯p-¶- ]-cn-Xx-kv-Yn-
Xw- a-\p-jy-s\- a-b-¡p-¶- I-dp-¸m-Wv''- F- kmaq-ly- Im-c-W-§Ä- A-t±-lw- sh- Xn-I-sf-bm-Wv- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- A-{I-an-¡p-
¶- k-µÀ-`-¯nÂ- \n-¶v- A-SÀ-¯n-sb-Sp- fn-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-Ã. A-Xp-sIm-­m-Wv- ¶-Xv.- a-X-¯n-\v- k-z-bw- D¬-a-bn-Ãm-¯-
¯- D-²-c-Wn-bm-Wv- s]m-Xp-hn-ep-Å- [mc- Xn-\mÂ- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- a-X-s¯- A-{I-an-
W-¡v- A-Sn-kYv- m-\w.- Cu- hm-¡p-IÄ- GXv- aX-s¯- F-XnÀ-¡m-\p-Å- ^-e{- ]-Za- m- ¡-p-¶n-Ã'' (t]-Pv-:-27).-
{]-k-vX-m-h-\-bnÂ- \n-¶m-tWm- F-Sp-¯n- b- h-gn Nq-­n-¡m-Wn-¡m³- A-t±-l- "a-X-¯n-\v- k-z-bw- D¬-a-bn-Ãm-¯-Xn-
«p-Å-Xv-,- B- {]-kv-Xm-h-\- H-cn¡-epw- ]qÀ- ¯n-\p- I-g-n-bm-sX- t]m-b-Xv ' .- \mÂ- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- a-X-s¯- A-{I-an-¡-p-
W-am-bn- D-²-cn-¡-s¸-Sm-dn-Ã.- amÀ-Iv-kv- ]d- ¶n-Ã'- F-¶- {]-kv-Xm-h-\- X-s¶- a-X-s¯-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 11
A-]-l-kn-¡-em-Wv.- D-Å- H-¶n-\v- F-§- k-u-Jyam-Wv.- A-§-s\-bp-Å- a-X-s¯- en-kvä- v- km-aq-ly-hy- h- k
- vY- n-Xn- \-S¸- n-ep-Å-
s\- D¬-a-bn-Ãm-Xn-cn-¡pw?- k-Xy-¯nÂ- C-Ãm-Xm-¡Ww.- F-¶m-te- P-\-§Ä-¡v- - - cm-jv{- S-§f- nÂ- kv{- Xo-]p-cp-j- ka-Xz- w- Hcp-
"amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-\v- k-z-bw- D¬-a-bn-Ã'- F- -b-YmÀ-Y- ku-Jyw- e-`n-¡p-I-bp-Åq'-. F- bm-YmÀ-Yy-am-bn-«p-s­-¶pw- P-\§ - s- f,- hn-
¶p- ]-d-bp-¶-Xm-Wv- i-cn.- Im-c-Ww- B- §-s\-bp-­v- amÀ-I-vkn-sâ- a-X-kv-t\-lw!- ti-jn-¨-v A-Sn-a-¯-¯nÂ- I-gn-bp-¶- kv-
Nm-cy-·mÀ- F-gp-Xn-sh-¨- B- {]-Xy-b-im- C-sXm-¶pw- I-­n-«-n-Ãm-¯- a-«nÂ;- A-sÃ- {Xo-Is- f- t_m-[y-s¸-Sp-t¯-­X - m-Wv.- km-
kv-{Xw- F-s¶-¦n-epw- F-hn-sS-sb-¦n-epw- ¦nÂ- P-\-§Ä- C-sXm-¶pw- A-dn-b-m³- aq-ly- ]p-tcm-K-Xn-bn-te-¡p-Å- H-cp- ImÂ-
i-cn-bm-b- co-Xn-bnÂ- {]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-bn-«n- t]m-Ip-¶n-sÃ-¶- a-«nÂ- -H-cp- t\-Xm-hv- F- h-bv¸- m-bn-cn-¡pw- A-Xv' - (amÀ-Ivk - n-kw- kn-
Ã.- -"amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- A-{I-an-¡p-¶-Xv- P-\- gp-Xp-¶-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:- ²m-´h- pw- ssk-²m-´n-Ic- pw,- t]-P:v- 1- 46,- C.-
§Ä-¡p-ta-ep-Å- a-X-¯-n-sâ- kzm-[o-\w ""I-ayq-Wn-kw- a-X-¯n-s\-X-n-c-sÃ-¶pw sI.- \m-b\- mÀ,-tI-cf- - `m-jm- C³-käv- n-äyq«v,-
kv-Yn-c-am-bn- \n-e-\nÀ-¯p-¶- ]-cn-Xx-kv-Yn- a-X-¯n-sâ- t]-cn-ep-Å- Nq-j-W-s¯-bm- 2000).
Xn-I-sf-bm-Wv-'- F-¶-Xn-se- A-]-I-Sw- Xn- Wv- A-Xv- F-XnÀ-¡p-¶-sX-¶pw- tkm-jy- C-k¯ - n-sâ- D-]Ú - m-Xm-hv- ]-db - p-¶p-
"a-X-s¯- C-Ãm-Xm-¡-W-'-sa-¶v. F-¶mÂ-
A-Xv- a-X-¯n-s\-Xn-c-sÃ-¶v- -\m-b-\mÀ- F-
gp-Xp-¶p-!- ssh-cp-[y-hm-Zn-I-fm-Ip-t¼mÄ-
A-§-s\- th-Ww.- se-\n-sâ- hm-¡p-IÄ-
Iq-Sn- Im-Wp-I-:-
""A-Ôhn-izm-k-§Ä-¡pw- A-\m-Nm-c-
§Ä-¡pw- F-Xn-cm-bn- \-S-t¯-­- k-a-c-
s¯-¡p-dn-¨v- se-\n³- ]-d-ª-Xv- HmÀ-¡p
I: "A-[zm-\n-¡p-¶- P-\-§-sf- A-\-´-am-
b- A-Sn-¨-aÀ-¯-en-\pw- ]-cp-¡³- s]-cp-am-
ä-¯n-\pw- hn-t[-b-am-¡p-¶- k-aq-l-¯nÂ-
a-X]- c- a- m-b- ap³-hn-[n-Is- f- Xn-I¨ - pw- {]Nm-
c-W-]-c-am-b- \-S-]-Sn-I-fn-eq-sS- C-Ãm-bv-a-
sN-¿mw- F-¶v- I-cp-Xp-¶-Xv- A-kw-_-Ô-
cn-¨d- n- b
- m-¯h- n-[w- hn-UvV - n-If- m-tWm- aX- am-Wv.- am-\-h-cm-in-bp-sS- I-gp-¯nÂ- Xq-
hn-izm-kn-IÄ?- C-\n-bpw- Im-Wp-I-:- §p-¶- a-X-]-c-am-b- \p-Iw- k-aq-l-¯n-\-
""a-X-s¯- t\-cn-«-Ã- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- B- "a-X-¯n-\v- k-z-bw- D¬-a-bn-Ãm-¯-Xn- I-s¯- km-¼-¯n-I-\p-I-¯n-sâ- {]-Xn-^-
{I-an-¡p-¶X - ;v- - a-Xs- ¯- kr-jSv- n-¡p-¶- km- e-\-hpw k-r-jv-Sn-bpw- -am-{X-am-sW-¶v- a-d-
\mÂ- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- a-X-s¯- A-{I-an- ¡p-¶-Xv- _pÀ-j-zm- k-¦p-Nn-X-X-z-am-bn-cn-
aq-ly-]-cn-Xx-kv-Yn-Xn-I-sf-bm-Wv.- A-Xn- ¡-p-¶n-Ã'- F-¶- {]-kv-Xm-h-\- X-s¶- ¡pw.- ap-X-em-fn-¯- i-àn-IÄ-sàn-cm-bn-
\mÂ- A-h-cp-sS- {]-hÀ-¯-\-Zn-i- G-sX- sXm-gn-em-fn-hÀ-Kw- kz-´-am-b- k-a-c-¯-n-
¶v- A-XnÂ-\n-¶v- hy-à-am-Ip-¶p.- a-mÀ-Iv- a-X-s¯- A-]-l-kn-¡-em-Wv.- D-Å- H
kv- ]-d-ª-t]m-se,- "P-\-§Ä-¡v- am-bm- eq-sS- A-dn-hv- t\-Sm-¯- ]-£w- e-Lp-te-
¶n-\-v F-§s- \- D¬-ab - n-Ãm-Xn-cn-¡pw?- J- {]-kn-²o-Ic- n-¨pw- {]-kw-Kw- - \-S¯ - n-bpw-
k-u-Jyw- \-Â-Ip-¶- a-X-s¯- C-Ãm-Xm-¡- k-Xy-¯nÂ- "amÀ-Ivk - n-k¯ - n-\v- k-zb- w- A-Xn-\v- t_m-[w-h-bv-¸n-¡m-\m-hn-Ã' - (amÀ-
n-bm-te,- A-hÀ-¡v- b-YmÀ-Y- ku-Jyw- e- Ivk- n-kw- kn-²m-´h- pw- ssk-²m-´n-Ic- pw,-
`n-¡p-I-bp-Åq.- A-Xn-sâ- ]-cn-Xx-kv-Yn-Xn- D¬-a-bn-Ã'- F-¶p- ]-d-bp-¶-Xm-Wv-
sb-¡p-dn¨p-Å- hym-tam-l-§Ä- D-t]-£n- t]-P-v:-146,- C-.- sI.- \m-b-\mÀ, -tI-c-f- `m-
icn.- Im-c-Ww- B-Nm-cy-·mÀ- F-gp-Xn- jm- C³-kv-än-äyq-«v,- 2000).
¡-W-sa-¶- B-h-iyw-,- hym-tam-l-§Ä- sh-¨- B- {]-Xy-b-im-kv-{Xw- F-s¶-¦n-
B-hi - y-am-¡n-¯oÀ-¡p-¶- ]-cn-Xx-kvY- n-Xn- a-X-¯n-s\-Xn-sc- t]m-cm-SÂ-

I-Ä- Dt]£n-¡W - s- a-¶- B-hi - yw- X-s¶- epw- F-hn-sS-sb-¦n-epw- i-cn-bm-b- coXn- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-sâ l-cn-{io-a-{´w

b-mW- v. A-Xn-\mÂ- a-Xs- ¯-¡p-dn-¨p-Å- hn- bnÂ- {]m-tbm-Kn-Ia- m-bn-«n-Ã.- "- amÀ-Ik v- n- ""amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-am-Wv.- B-
aÀ-i-\w-,- km-cmw-i-¯-nÂ- t¢-i-¯n-sâ- kw- A-{I-an-¡p-¶X - v- P-\§ - Ä-¡p-ta- AÀ-Y-¯nÂ- 18þmw- \q-äm-­n-se- F³-
(A-Xn-sâ- ]-cn-th-j-W-am-W-tÃm- a-Xw) ssk-Iv-tfm-]o-Un-kv-äp-I-fpw- t^m-bÀ-_m-
aq-Sp-]S- s- ¯-¡p-dn-¨p-Å- hn-aÀ-i\- w- X-s¶- ep-Å- a-X¯- n- s- â- kzm-[o-\w kvY - n-cam- ln-sâ- `u-Xn-I-hm-Zhpw- F-{X-I-­p- Xo-
bm-Wv.- -(sl-K-en-sâ- ^n-te-m-k-^n- Hm-^v- bn- \n-e-\nÀ-¯p-¶- ]-cn-Xx-kv-Yn-Xn-I- {h-am-bn- a-X-¯n-s\-Xn-cm-bn-cp-¶p-thm- A-
ssd-än-sâ- hn-aÀ-i\- w,- A-hX - m-cn-I)''.- (hÀ- sf-bm-Wv-' F-¶-Xn-se- A-]-I-Sw- Xn-cn tX- X-c-¯nÂ- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-hpw- a-X-¯n-
Ko-b-X,- a-Xw-,- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw,- ko-Xm-dmw- s\-Xn-cm-Wv.- k-w-i-bm-Xo-X-am-b- Im-cy-am-
sb-¨q-cn,- t]-Pv-:- 27,- 28,- ]-cn-`m-j-:- \m-cm-b- ¨-d-n-bm-¯-hn-[w- hn-Uv-Vn-I-fm-tWm- W-Xv.- F-¶mÂ- amÀ-Iv-k-n-sâ-bpw- Fw-KÂ-
W³- sN-½-e-tÈ-cn-,- Nn-´- ]-_v-fn-tj-gv-kv- aX-hn-izm-kn-IÄ? kn-sâ-bpw- `u-Xn-Ih- m-Zw- F³-ssk-Ivt- fm-
Xn-cp-h-\-´-]p-cw,- 1993). ]o-Un-kvä- p-Ifp-sS-bpw- t^m-bÀ-_m-ln- s- â-
"P-\-§Ä-¡v- a-Xw- \Â-Ip-¶-Xv- a-m-bm- bpw- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-¯n-\-¸p-dw- I-S-¶p-\nÂ-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 12
¡p-¶p.- F-´p-sIm-s­-¶mÂ- amÀ-Iv-kn- kn-kw- kn-²m-´-hpw- ssk-²m-´n-I-cpw,- bpw- s]m-Xp-hm-bp-]-tbm-Kn-¡m³- t]m-hp-
sâ-bpw- Fw-KÂ-kn-sâ-bpw- `u-Xn-I- X-¯z- t]-Pv-:1- 46,- C-.- sI.- \m-b\- mÀ, t- I-cf- - `mjm- I-bm-sW-¶- `m-h-¯nÂ- \-½p-sS- _qÀ-
im-kv{- Xw- N-cn{X-¯n-sâ-bpw- km-aq-ly-im- C³-kv-än-äyq-«v,- 2000).-- - jzm-IÄ- {]-I-Sn-¸n-¡p-¶- [m-À-an-I-tc-m-j-
kv-{X-§-fp-sS-bpw- ta-J-e-IÄ-¡p- km-[p- I-ayq-Wn-kv-äv- am-\n-s^-kv-säm- {]-k- s¯-¡mÄ- ]-cn-lm-ky-am-bn- a-säm-¶n-Ã.-
hm-Wv.- a-X-¯n-s\-Xn-sc- t]m-cm-Sp-I-þ C- àn,- {]m-[m-\yw- F-¶- kn.- `m-kv-I-c-sâ- kv-{Xo-I-fp-sS- taÂ- s]m-Xp- D-S-a- GÀ-s]-
Xm-Wv- F-Ãm- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-¯n-sâ-bpw-,- A- ]p-kv-X-I-¯nepw- Cu- hm-N-I-§Ä- Im- Sp-t¯-­- bm-sXm-cm-h-iy-hpw- I-ayq-Wn-
Xp-sIm­p-Xs- ¶- amÀ-Ivk - n-k¯ - n-sâ-bpw- Wm-w.- F-¶mÂ- A-Xn-\p- ap-¼pw- ti-jhp- kv-äp-ImÀ-¡n-Ã.- H-«p-ap-¡m-epw- A-\m-Zn-Im-
l-cn-{io-a-{´w.- F-¶mÂ- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- l- ap-Å- h-m-N-I-§Ä- b-YmÀ-Y- am-\n-s^-kv- ew- ap-XÂ-t¡- A-Xp- \n-e-\n-¶p-t]m-¶n-
cn-{io-bnÂ- \n-¶p-t]m-b H-cp `u-Xn-I-hm- täm-bnÂ- -\n-¶v- hm-bn-¡p-t¼mÄ- I-ayq-Wn- «p-­v.-
Z-a-Ã.- A-Xv- l-cn-{io-¡-¸p-dw- t]m-Ip-¶p.- k-¯nÂ- s]-®n-\p-Å- kvY-m-\w- hy-à- k-z´- w- Io-gn-ep-Å- sXm-gn-em-fn-If- p-sS-
"\mw- a-X-¯n-s\-Xn-sc- t]m-c-m-S-Ww;- A- am-Ipw-:- `m-cy-am-sc-bpw- a-¡s- f-bpw-sIm-­p- kw-Xr-
Xn-\p-th-­n- hn-izm-k¯ - n-sâ-bpw a-X¯ - n- ""t]m-sc-¦-nÂ,- I-ayq-Wn-kv-äp-ImÀ- kv- ]v-X-cm-hm-sX- þs]m-Xp-th-iy-I-fp-sS- Im-
s³-d-bpw- {]-`-h-tI-{µ-s¯-¡p-dn-¨v- P-\- {Xo-I-sf- ]-c-ky-am-bpw- Hu-tZym-Kn-I-am- cyw- t]m-I-s«-þ \-½p-sS- _qÀ-jzm-IÄ- A-
§Ä-¡n-S-bnÂ- `u-Xn-I-im-kv-{X- co-Xn hn- t\ym-\yw- `m-cy-am-sc- hy-`n-N-cn-¡p-¶-X-nÂ-
i-Zo-I-cn-¡-Ww' F-¶m-Wv- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- amÀ-Iv-kn-sâ-bpw- Fw-KÂ-kn-sâ-bpw- B-\-µw-sIm-Åp-¶p.-
A-\p-im-kn-¡p-¶-Xv.- a-X-¯n-s\-Xn-cm-b _qÀ-jzm- hn-hm-lw- hm-kv-X-h-¯nÂ-
t]m-cm-«-s¯- A-aqÀ-¯-am-b- {]-Xy-bim- `u-Xn-I- X-¯z-im-kv-{Xw- N-cn{X-¯n- `m-cy-am-sc- s]m-Xp-hnÂ- D-]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-
kv-{X- {]-Nm-c-W-¯nÂ- H-Xp-¡p-I- km-[y- sâ-bpw- km-aq-ly-im-k{-v X-§f- p-sS-bpw- H-cp- k-{¼-Zm-b-am-Wv.- A-t¸mÄ- I-]-S-\m-
a-Ã;- A-§-s\- sN-¿p-hm-\pw- ]m-Sn-Ã.- a-X- ta-Je- I- Ä-¡p- km-[p-hm-Wv.- a-X¯ - n- Sy-t¯m-sS- H-fn-¨p-sh-¨n-«p-Å,- - kv{- Xo-Is- f-
¯n-sâ- km-aq-ly-am-b- th-cp-IÄ- \-in-¸n- s]m-Xp-hm-bn- D-]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-Xn-sâ- kv-
¡p-¶X - nÂ- Zr-jvS- n-bq-¶p-¶- hÀ-K{- ]-kvY- m- s\-Xn-sc- t]m-cm-Sp-Iþ- C-Xm-Wv- F-Ãm- Ym-\-¯v- A-Xn-s\- ]-c-ky-am-bn- \n-b-a-hn-
\-¯n-sâ- k-aqÀ-¯- ]-cn-]m-Sn-bp-am-bn- B- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-¯n-sâ-bpw-,- A-Xp-sIm t[-b-am-¡m³- B-{K-ln-¡p-¶p- F-¶p- am-
t]-mc- m-«s- ¯- _-Ôn-¸n-¡W - w''- - (a-Xs- ¯- ­p-X-s¶- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-sâ-bpw- {X-sa- th-W-sa-¦nÂ- I-ayq-Wn-kv-äp-Im-sc-
]-än amÀ-Iv-kv- Fw-KÂ-kv- se-\n³- ,- t]- ¸-än- B-t£-]n-¡p-hm³- I-gn-bp-I-bp-Åq.-
Pv-:- 136,- t{]m-K-Êv- ]-»n-t¡-j³-kv,- tIm- lcn-{io-a{- ´w.- F-¶mÂ- amÀ-Ivk - n-kw- G-Xm-bm-epw- C-¶-s¯- D-Â-]m-Z-\-k-{¼-
gn-t¡m-Sv-).- l-cn-{io-bnÂ- \n-¶p-t]m-b H-cp `u-Xn- Zm-bw- A-h-km-\-n-¸n-¨mÂ-,- B- k{¼-Zm-
--
kv-{Xo-bpw- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-hpw- I-hm-Za- Ã- .- A-Xv- l-cn-{io-¡¸ - p-dw- t]m- b¯n-sâ- k-´-Xn-bm-b- kv-{Xo-I-sf- s]m-
ap-X-em-fn-¯- hy-h-kv-Y-bnÂ- kv-{Xo- Ip-¶p.- "\mw- a-X¯ - n-s\-Xn-sc- t]m-cm- Xp-hm-bn- D-]-tbm-Kn-¡-epw-þ A-Xm-b-Xv-
sh-dp-sam-cp- D-]-t`m-K- h-kv-Xp-hm-sW-¶- cl-ky-hpw- ]-c-ky-hp-am-b- h-y-`n-Nm-c-hpw-
XnÂ- kw-i-b-an-Ã.- F-¶mÂ- `u-Xn-I-hm- S-Ww;- A-Xn-\p-th-­n- hn-izm-k¯ - n-sâ- þ A-h-km-\n-¡p-sa-¶v- kz-bw- hy-à-am-
Z-¯n-te-m?- C-jv-S-ap-Å- kv-{Xo-bp-am-b-n- C- bpw a-X-¯n-s³-d-bpw- {]-`-h-tI-{µ Wv''- (amÀ-Iv-kv- Gw-KÂ-kv- I-ayq-Wn-kv-äv-
jv-S-ap-Å Im-et¯m-fw- C-jv-S-ap-Å \n- s¯-¡p-dn-¨v- P-\-§Ä-¡n-S-bnÂ- `u am-\n-s^-kv-säm,- a-e-bm-f- ]-cn-`m-j,- t]-
e-bv-¡p- Po-hn-¡p-I.- C-jv-S-t¡-Sp- Xp-S-§p- Pv-:- 63,- t{]m-{K-Êv- ]-»n-tj-gv-kv- 1981,- tkm-
t¼mÄ- emÂ-ke- mw- sNm-Ãn- ]n-cn-bp-I.- th- Xn-Ii- m-kv{- X- co-Xn hn-iZ- o-Ic- n-¡W - w' hn-b-äv- bq-Wn-b-\nÂ- A-¨-Sn-¨-Xv-).- -
sdm-cp-¯n-bp-am-bn- C-jv-S-w- Iq-Sp-I.- C-X- F-¶m-Wv- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- A-\p-im-kn- A-Sn- h- c- b
- n-«- hm-NI
- §
- Ä- {i-²n-¡p-I.-
tÃ- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-¯n-sâ C-jv-S-w?- `u-Xn- ¡p-¶-Xv.- "A-\m-Zn-Im-ew- ap-XÂ-t¡- kv-{Xo-I-fp-sS-
I-hm-Z¯n-sâ- I-®n-Â- hy-`n-Nm-cw- F-¶- taÂ- s]m-Xp- D-S-a- \n-e-\n-¶p-t]m-¶n-«p-
H-¶p-t­m?-- C-jvS- a- p-Å- c-­p- hy-IvX - n-IÄ
i-co-cw- ]-¦p-sh-¡p-¶-Xv- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z¯n-
sâ- Z-rj - vS- n-bnÂ- sX-äm-tWm?-- I-ayq-Wn-kväv-
am-\n-s^-kvt- äm-hnÂ- \n-¶v- \m-b\- mÀ- D²-
cn-¡p-¶p-:-
""kz-´w Io-gn-ep-Å- sXm-gn-em-fn-I-fp-
sS- `m-cy-am-sc-bpw- ]p-{Xn-Is- f-bpw- s- Im­v-
-a-Xn-bm-Im-sX-þsh-dpw- th-i-y-I-fp-sS- Im-
cyw- t]m-I-s«-þ\-½p-sS- _q-À-jzm-IÄ A-
t\ym-\yw- Hm-tcm-cp-¯-cp-sS-bpw- `m-cy-am-
sc-- h-io-I-cn-¡p-¶-XnÂ- A-t§-b-äw- B-
\-µw-sIm-Åp-¶p.- _qÀ-jzm- hy-hk - vY- - hm-
k-v-X-h-¯nÂ- `m-cy-am-sc- s]m-Xp-hp-S-a-bm-
¡n- h-bv-¡p-¶- k-{¼-Zm-b-am-Wv''- (amÀ-Iv-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 13
Å-Xn-\mÂ- s]m-Xp- D-S-a- GÀ-s]-Sp-t¯- a-Xw- A-h-tcm-Sp-]-tZ-in-¡p-¶-Xv.- Nq-j-I- s\-¶- \n-e-bnÂ- Po-hn-¡p-hm-\p-Å,- G-ä-
­- bm-sXm-cm-hi - y-hpw- I-ayq-Wn-kvä- p-ImÀ- ·mÀ- F-¶- \n-e-bnep-Å- A-h-cp-sS- \n-e- ¡p-d-¨n-tem-Sp-Iq-Sn-b,- kz-´w- B-h-iy-§-
¡n-Ã'.- - A-\m-Zn-Im-ew- ap-XÂ-t¡- kv-{Xo- \nÂ-]n-s\- \ym-bo-I-cn-¡m-\p-Å- hn-e-Ip- sf-bpw- A-XnÂ- ap-¡n-s¡m-Ãp-¶p''- (amÀ-
I-fp-sS- taÂ- s]m-Xp- D-S-a- \n-e-\n-¶p-t]m- d-ª- H-cp- amÀ-K-am-W-Xv.- kzÀ-K-¯n-te- Iv-kv- Fw-KÂ-kv- a-X-s¯- ]-än,- t]-Pv-:- 126,-
¶n-«n-sÃ-¦nÂ- A-Xv- GÀ-s]-Sp-t¯-­- B- ¡p- I-S-¡p-h-m-\p-Å hn-e-Ip-d-ª- H-cp- 127,- t{]m-K-Êv- ]-»n-t¡-j³-kv,- tIm-gn-
h-iyw- I-ayq-Wn-kv-äp-ImÀ¡p-­m-Ip-am-bn- Sn-¡-äv- C-¯-c-¯nÂ- a-Xw- A-hÀ-¡p- k- t¡m-Sv-).-
cp-¶p- F-¶À-Yw.- _pÀ-jz-IÄ- kv-{Xo-I- ½m-\n-¡p-¶p.- a-Xw- a-\p-jy-s\- a-b-¡p- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-hpw- \n-co-iz-c-hm-Z-hpw-
sf- \n-b-a-hn-cp-²-am-bn- s]m-Xp-hm-bn- D-]- ¶- I-dp-¸m-Wv.- B-ßo-b-am-b- H-cp- e--l-cn- se-\n-s³d- X-s¶- hm-¡p-IÄ- Im-Wp-
tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p.- F-¶mÂ- I-ayq-Wn-kv-äp- bm-Wv- a-Xw.- aq-e-[-\-¯n-sâ- A-Sn-a-I-fm- I-:- ""\-½p-sS- ]-cn-]m-Sn- ]-cn-]qÀ-W-am-bpw-
ImÀ- kv{- Xo-Is- f- \n-ba- h- n-t[-ba- m-¡n- s]m- b- B-fp-IÄ- kz-´w- am-\pjn-I- `m-h-\- im-kv-{Xo-b-am-b-,- {]-tXy-In-¨pw- `u-Xn-I-
Xp-hm-bn- D-]-tbm-Kn-¡pw-!- A-§-s\- th- I-sf- A-XnÂ- ap-¡n-s¡m-Ãp-¶p-.- a-\p-jy- hm-Z-]-c-am-b- tem-I-ho-£-W-¯nÂ- A-[n-
jv-Tn-X-am-Wv.- a-X-¯n-sâ- N-cn-{X-]-c-hpw-
km-¼¯ - n-Ih- p-am- b
- ,- aq-SÂ-aª
- p-IÄ- kr-
jv-¡p-hm-\p-Å- I-gn-hv- \-½p-sS- ]-cn-]m-Sn-
bnÂ- hn-i-Zo-I-cn-¡-s¸-tS-­-Xp-­v.- A-h-
iy-am-bpw- \n-co-izc-hm-Z-¯n-sâ- {]-Nm-c-
Ww- \-½q-sS- {]-kn-²o-I-c-W-§-fn-ep-­m-
Ipw.- G-Im-[n-]-Xy-]-c-hpw- P³-an-hÀ-K-
XmÂ-]c- y-§Ä - - kw-c£ - n-¡p-¶h- b - p-am-bn-
C-Xp-h-sc-bp-­m-Ip-¶- K-h¬-saâp-IÄ-
C-¯-c-¯n-ep-Å- im-kv-{X- km-ln-Xy- {]-
Nm-c-W-s¯- \n-tcm-[n-¨n-cn-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp-
¶p.- A-h- {]-kn-²o-Ic- n-¡p-¶h- s- c- in-£n-
¡p-Ib - m-bn-cp¶p.- \-½q-sS- - kw-LS- \- - ]mÀ-
«n- {]-h-À-¯-\-ta-J-e-bp-sS H-cp- ]p-X-n-b-
Ww- a-\p-jy-cm-bmÂ.- F-´pw- sN-¿mw.- ]- im-J- k-r-jv-Sn-t¡-­-Xp-­v.- H-cp- ]-t£,-
t£,- A-Xv- \n-b-a-hn-t[-b-am-bn-«-m-bn-cn-¡- Fw-KÂ-kv- PÀ-a³- tkm-jy-en-kvä- p-IÄ-¡v-
Ww.- - - H-cp-X-h-W- \Â-In-b- D-]-tZ-iw- \-½Ä- ]n-
a-X-hpw- Zm-\-hpw- " \-½p-sS- ]-cn-]m-Sn- ]-cn-]qÀ-W-am-bpw- ´p-S-tc-­n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p.- {^m³-kn-se- \-
a-\p-jyÀ-¡n-S-bn-se- km-¼-¯n-I- A- im-kv{- Xo-ba- m-b,- - {]-tXy-In-¨pw- `u-Xn-I- thm-°m-\-hm-Zn-I-fp-sS-bpw- \n-co-izc-hm-Zn-
k-a-Xzw- ssZ-h-¯n-sâ- ]-co-£-W-am-Wv.- hm-Z]- c- a- m-b- tem-Ih - o-£W- ¯- nÂ- A-
I-fp-sS-bpw- 18þmw- \q-äm-­n- s- e- km-ln-Xyw-
C-Ãm-¯-h³- B- A-h-kv-Y-bn-epw- sX-äm- XÀ-P-a- sN-bv-Xv- {]-N-cn-¸n-¡p-I- F-¶-Xm-
b- h-gn-bn-Â- k-©-cn-¡m-sXbpw- £-an-¨pw- [n-jv-Tn-X-am-Wv.- a-X-¯n-sâ- N-cn-{X-]- bn-cp-¶p- A-¶v- Fw-KÂ-kv- \Â-In-b- D-]-
kln-¨pw- D-Å-Xp-sIm-­v- Xr-]v-Xn-s¸-«pw- c-hpw- km-¼-¯n-I-hp-a-m-b,- aq-SÂ-a- tZ-iw''-- (amÀ-Iv-kv- Fw-KÂ-kv- se-\n³- aX
Po-hn-¡m³- {i-an-¡-Ww.- F-¶mÂ- k-aq- ªp-IÄ- kr-jv-¡p-hm-\p-Å- I-gn-hv-
-s¯- ]-än,- t]-Pv-:- 129,-127,- t{]m-K-Êv- ]-»n-
l-¯n-se- k-¼-¶À- Z-cn-{Z-sc- I-s­-¯p- t¡-j³-kv,- tIm-gn-t¡m-Sv-).-
I-bpw- A-h-sc- k-lm-bn-¡p-I-bpw- sN-¿- \-½p-sS- ]-cn-]m-Sn-bnÂ- hn-iZ- o-Ic- n-¡- Ip-«n-IÄ-¡m-bp-Å- "bp-do-¡'-bn-eq-sS-
Ww.- C-kv-emw- k-Im-¯v- k-{¼-Zm-b-hpw- s¸-tS-­-Xp-­v.- A-h-iy-am-bpw- \n-co- bpw- ]mÀ-«n- {]-kn-²o-Ic- W - §
- f- n-eq-sS-bpw-
Zm-\-[À-a-hpw- A-Xn-¶m-bn- \n-iv-N-bn-¨n-«p- izc-hm-Z¯ - n-sâ- {]-Nm-c-Ww- \-½q-sS- \n-co-izc-hm-Z- {]-Nm-c-Ww- \-S-¯p-¶-Xv-
­v.- C- X
- n- s- \- I-fn-bm-¡n-s¡-m­- v- - se-\n³- CXn-sâ- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-¯n-em-sW-¶p- hy-
]-d-bp-¶p-:- {]-kn-²o-I-c-W-§-fn-ep-­m-Ipw.- G àw.-
" Po-hn-Xm-hi - y-§Ä- t-\S- m³- a-Xw- a\p- Im-[n-]X - y-]c- h
- pw- P³-an-hÀ-K- XmÂ]- se-\n³-:- ""tkm-jyÂ- sU-tam-{I-kn-
jy-s\- ]-Tn-¸n-¡p-¶- H-cp- ]m-T-ap-­v.- A- cy-§-Ä- kw-c-£n-¡p-¶-h-bp-am-bn- A-Xn-sâ- ]-cn-]qÀ-W- tem-I-ho-£-W-¯n-
Sn-a-I-fm-bn-cn-¡p-I- F-¶-Xm-WXn-sâ- km- CXp-h-sc-bp-­m-Ip-¶- K-h¬-saâp- sâ- B-[m-c-in-e-bm-bn- Im-Wp-¶-Xv- i-cn-
cw.- kzÀ-K-¯nÂ- In-«p-¶- H-cp- k-½m-\- bm-b- tkm-jy-en-k-s¯-bm-Wv.- A-Xm-b-
¯nÂ- kw-Xr-]v-Xn- I-s­-¯m-\pw- A-hÀ- IÄ- C-¯c- ¯ - n-ep-Å- im-k{v- X- km-ln- Xv- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-s¯- amÀ-I-vkp-w- Fw-KÂ-
DÂ-t_m-[n-¸n-¡p-¶p.- ]-t£,- a-äp-Å-h-cp- Xy- {]-Nm-c-W-s¯- \n-tcm-[n-¨n-cn-¡p- kpw- B-hÀ-¯n-¨m-hÀ-¯n-¨v- {]-Jym-]n-¨n-
sS- A-[zm-\-¯nÂ- Po-hn-¡p-¶-h-tcm-Sv- a- I-bm-bn-cp-¶p''-.- «p-Å-Xpt]-m-se amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-sâ- Xm-
Xw- D-]-tZ-in-¡p-¶Xv- th-sdm-cp- Im-cy-am- X-zn-Im-Sn-kv-Ym-\w- ss-h-cp-[-ym-ß-I `u-Xn-
Wv.- `q-an-bn-se- Po-hn-X-¯nÂ- Z-bm-]qÀ-W- I-hm-Z-am-Wv.- Cu- ss-h-cp-[-ym-ß-I `u-Xn-
am-b kw-`m-h-\-IÄ- \Â-Ip-I- F-¶m-Wv- I-hm-Z-am-I-s«-,- 18þmw- \q-äm-­n-se- {^m³-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 14
kn-se- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-¯n-sâ-bpw- PÀ-a-\n- 2004 Pq¬).- \-§-fn-epw- A-Ô-hn-izm-k-§-fn-epw- I-Sn-
bn-se- t^m-bÀ-_m-ln-sâ- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z- Im-dÂ- amÀ-Iv-kpw- a-X-hpw -- - ¨-pX
- q-§p-¶- hn-th-Ii - q-\y-am-b- h-gn-bm-Wv-
¯n-sâ-bpw- N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b- ]m-c-¼-cy-§- amÀ-Iv-kn-sâ- a-X-]-c-am-b- A-dn-hv- Pq- amÀ-I-vkv- kzo-I-cn-¨-sX-¶p- hy-à-am-Wv.-
sf- DÄ-sIm-Åp-¶-Xm-Wv.- Cu- `u-Xn-Ih- m- X-\m-bn- P-\n-¨v- s{]m-«-kv-ä³-dv- a-X-¯n-te- a-X-s¯- A-h-a-Xn-¡m-\p-Å- F-fp-¸- h-gn-
Zw- ]-cn-]qÀ-W-am-bpw- \n-co-izc-hm-Z-]-c-am- ¡v- ]-cn-hÀ-¯-\w- sN-bv-X- X-sâ- ]n-Xm- A-Xm-W-tÃm.-
Wv.- {In-bm-]-c-am-bn-¯-s¶- C-Xv- F-Ãm- a- hn-sâ- A-dn-hn-sâ- ]-iv-Nm-¯-e-¯n-ep-Å- bp-àn-cm- l - n-Xy-am-Wv- ssZ-hm-kvX - n-Iy-
X-§Ä-¡pw- F-Xn-cm-Wv''- (a-X-s¯- ]-än Xm-bn-cp-¶p.- H-cp- ZÀ-i-\-s¯- hn-aÀ-in-¡p- ¯n-sâ- sX-fn-sh-¶m-Wv- A-t±-lw- I-­-
amÀ-Iv-kv- Fw-KÂ-kv- se-\n³-,- t]-Pv-:- 131,- t¼mÄ- A-Xn-sâ- hn-izm-k-{]-am-W-§-sf- H-cp- \yq-\-X.- {]-Ir-Xn-¡pw- bp-àn-bn-e-
t{]m- K - Ê v - ]- » n- t ¡- j ³- k v , - tIm- g n- bpw- B-[n-Im-cn-I- {K-Ù-§-sf-bpw- A-h- [n-jvT- n-Xa- m-b- \n-ba- §
- Ä-¡pw- A-Xo-Xa- m-
t¡mSv).- - ew-_n-¡p-¶-Xn-\p- ]I-cw- A-Xn-s³d- A- b- A-t\-Iw- Im-cy-§Ä- - {]-]-©-¯nÂ-
""H-cp- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äv- H-cp- `u-Xn-I-hm- \p-bm-bn-I-sf- {K-kn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶- hy-Xn-bm- \-S-¶p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-¶p-­v.- A-h-sb-¡p-
Zn-bm-bn-cn-¡-W-sa-¶-XnÂ- XÀ-¡-an-Ã-;- A-
Xm-b-Xv- A-bmÄ- a-X-¯n-sâ- H-cp- i-{Xp-
hm-Wv.- ]-t£,- ssh-cp-[ym-[n-jv-Tn-X-am-b-
Nn-e- hn-iz-m-k-§-fn-eq-sS- a-X-¯n-t\m-Sv-
i{Xp-X- ]p-eÀ-¯p-¶- H-cp-h-\m-Wv- A-
bmÄ.- C-§-s\- ]-d-bp-¶-Xn-sâ- AÀ-Yw-
]-e-Xm-Wv.- H-cp- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äv- a-X-¯n-s\-
Xn-cm-b k-a-cw- \-S-¯p-¶-Xv- A-aqÀ-¯-am-
b- cq-]-¯n-e-Ã.- tI-h-ew- X-¯z-im-kv-{X-
]-c-am-b-,- H-cn-¡-epw- am-ä-an-Ãm-¯- cq-]-¯n-
ep-aÃ- .- a-X¯- n-s\-Xn-cm-b- amÀ-Ivk - n-k¯
- n-
sâ- k-a-cw- k-aqÀ-¯-am-Wv''- (a-X-s¯- ]-
än amÀ-Iv-kv- Fw-KÂ-kv- se-\n³-,- t]-Pv-:-
139,- t{]m-K-Êv- ]-»n-t¡-j³-kv,- tIm-gn-
t¡m-Sv-).- - dn-s¨m-¶pw- a-\p-jyÀ-¡v- A-dn-hn-Ã.- H-cp-
""a-mÀ-Iv-kn-kw- `u-X-n-I-hm-Z-am-Wv.- A- \m-fpw- A-dn-bm³- Ign-bm-¯- Im-cy-§Ä.-
Xv- hn-«p-ho-gv-N-bn-Ãm-sX- a-X-¯-n-\v- F-Xn- A-dn-bp-t´m-dpw- Iq-Sp-XÂ- Iq-Sp-XÂ- hn-
cm-Wv.- C-Xv- XÀ-¡-a-ä- Im-cy-am-Wv.- \mw- a- i-m-e-am-sW-¶p- hy-à-am-Ip-¶- F-s´-
""....- A - X m- b - X v - amÀ- I v - k n- k - s ¯- Ãmw- Im-cy-§Ä-!- {]-]-©-¯n-se- F-Ãm-
X-t¯m-Sv- G-äp-ap-«-Ww.- F-§-s\- G-äp-ap- amÀIvk - p-w- Fw-KÂ-kpw- B-hÀ-¯n-¨m- än-epw- F-s´m-cp- Xm-f-s¸m-cp-¯w-!- hy-h-
«-W-sa-¶v- \-ap-¡v- A-dn-ªn-cn-¡-Ww-. a- kvY- m-]n-XXzw-!- C-sX-§s- \- Xm-s\-bp-­m-
X-¯n-sâ- km-aq-ly-th-cp-IÄ- ]n-gp-Xp-I- hÀ-¯n-¨v- {]-Jym-]n-¨n-«p-ÅX - pt]-ms- e
f-b-em-Wv- Cu- {]-hÀ-¯-\-¯n-sâ- D-t±- Ipw?- C-¡m-cy-§Ä- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äv- ssk-
amÀ-Ivk - n-k¯ - n-sâ- Xm-Xz- n-Im-Sn-kvY - m- ²m-´n-I-\m-bn-cp-¶- C.- Fw.- F-kv- X-s¶-
iyw''- (C.- Fw.- F-kv,- kmw-kv-Im-cn-I-hn- \w- ss-hc- p-[y- m-- ßI- `u-Xn-Ih - m-Za- m-Wv.- Xp-d-¶p- ]-d-bp-¶-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:-
¹-hw- a-Xw- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw,- t]-Pv-:- 59,- Nn-´-
]-»n-t¡-j³-kv).- - Cu- ss-hc- p-[-ym-- ß-I `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-am-I- ""F-¶mÂ- A-\p-`-h-¯-n-eq-sS- {]-]-©-
""tem-I-¯m-I-am-\w- a-X-¯n-sâ- kv-Yn- s«-,- 18þmw- \q-äm-­n-se- {^m³-kn-se- bm-YmÀ-Yyw- a-\-Ên-e-m-¡m-\pw- `u-Xn-I- ]-
Xn-¡v- a-§-teÂ-]n-¡m³- im-kv-{X-¯n-\v- ZmÀ-Y-§-sf- F-Sp-¯p-s]-cp-am-dm-\pw- a-\p-
`u-Xn-Ih - m-Z¯
- n-sâ-bpw- PÀ-a\ - n-bn-se- jy-\p-Å- I-gn-hv- ]-cn-an-X-am-Wv.- hn-hn-[-
I-gn-ªn-«p-­v.- F-¦nÂ- a-Xw- th-c-äp-t]m- t^m-bÀ-_m-ln-sâ- `u-Xn-I-hm-Z-¯n- im-k{v- X-im-JI
- Ä- F-{X- ]p-tcm-Ka- n-¨m-epw-
Ip-¶-Xn-\v- I-ayq-Wn-kw- \-S-¸m-¡m-sX- X- A-h-bn-eq-sS- a-\p-jy³- t\-Sp-¶- Úm-
c-an-Ã'' (Nn-´- 17þ2 84).- sâ-bpw- N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b- ]m-c-¼-cy-§-
\-¯n-\v- hy-à-am-b- ]-cn-an-Xn-I-fp-­v.- X-
""G-Xv- amÀ-Iv-kn-kv-äv- ]mÀ-«n-bpw- B- sf- DÄ-sIm-Åp-¶-Xm-Wv.- Cu- `u-Xn- \n-¡v- a-\-Ên-em-¡m³- I-gn-bp-¶-Xn-s\-
[m-c-am-¡-p-¶-Xv- ssh-cp-[ym-[n-jv-Tn-X- `u- I-hm-Zw- ]-cn-]qÀ-Wa- m-bpw- \n-co-izc-hm- ¡mÄ- F-{X-tb-m- Iq-Sp-XÂ- Im-cy-§Ä- C-
Xn-IX - b- m-Wv.- Cu-iz-c\- n- Ã- m-¯X
- p-sIm-­v- Z-]-c-am-Wv.- {In-bm-]-c-am-bn-¯-s¶- \n-bpw- a-\-Ên-em-¡m-sX-bp-­v.- _-ln-cm-
hy-àn-IÄ-¡v- Cu-iz-ch- n-izm-kw- - B-hi - y- Im-i-t¯-¡v- ]-d-¶p-sN-Ãp-hm-\pw- a-äp-
an-sÃ-¶-m-Wv- B- ZÀ-i-\-¯n-sâ- I-s­- CXv- F-Ãm- a-X§ - Ä-¡pw- F-Xn-cm-Wv ' - tKm-f§-fn-epw- {K-l-§-fn-epw- \-S-¡p-¶-
¯Â.- A-Xn-\p-th-­n-bm-Wv- I-ayq-Wn-kv- sX-s´-¶v- a-\-Ên-em-¡m-\pw- a-äpw- a-\p-
äv- ]mÀ-«n- {]-hÀ-¯n-¡p-¶-Xv.- A-X-n-\mÂ- jy-\p-Å- I-gn-hv- A-\ym-Zr-i-am-bn- h-fÀ-
A-Xn-se- Aw-K-§Ä- a-X-hn-izm-kn-I-fm-I- ¶p-I-gn-ª- Cu- A-Xp-\m-Xp-\- bp-K-
cp-Xv''-(hn.- F-kv-.- A-Nyp-Xm-\µ³,- Nn-´- ¯nÂ- t]m-epw- a-\p-jy-sâ- hn-Úm-\-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 15
¯n-sâ- ]-cn-[n-¡-¸p-dw- hn-i-m-e-am-sbm-cp- an-I-hpw- B-ßo-b-hp-am-b- hn-Im-k-¯n-eq- m-¡n- XoÀ-¡p-sa-¶- h-kv-Xp-X- X-Ån-¡-f-
A-Úm-X- tem-Iw- ]-c-¶p-In-S-¡p-¶p- sS- `u-Xn-I-hpw- B-ßo-b-hp-am-b- tam-N- b-m-\m-h-n-Ã. k-¦oÀ-W-am-b- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-
­v''(amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-s³d- -_m-e-]m-Tw,- \-¯n-\v- A-h-s\- {]m-]v-X-\m-¡p-I-bpw- X-s¯- km-aq-ly-am-b- AÀ-Y-¯nÂ- {I-
t]-Pv-:- 13,- C.-Fw.-F-kv- \-¼q-Xn-cn-¸-m-Sv-,- Nn- sN-¿p-¶p.- ao-I-cn-¡p-¶- H-cp- km-t¦-Xn-I-hn-Zy-sb-¶-
´- ]-»n-tj-gv-kv).- C-SX- p-]£
- - _p-²n-Po-hn-bm-b- sI.- C.- \n-eb - nÂ- "a-X¯- n-\v'- \n-Xy-Po-hn-X¯- nep-
hy-h-kv-Ym-]n-X-am-b- {]m-]-©n-I- hy- F³- a-X-¯n-sâ- \n-e-\nÂ-]-n-s³d-- B-h- Å- ]-¦v- ]-c-a-{]-[m-\-am-Wv.- F-Ãmw- \-jv-
h-kvY- - G-I\- m-b- ssZ-h¯ - n-sâ- A-\n-tj- iy-I-X k-½-Xn-¡p-¶-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:- - S-s¸-Sp-t¼m-gpw- \n-e-\nÂ-¡m³- I-cp-¯v-
[y-am-b- sX-fn-hp-If- m-sW-¶m-Wv- C-kev- mw- ""B-kv-X-n-Iyw,- ssZ-h-`-bw- Xp-S-§n-b- ]-I-cp-¶,- \n-tj-[n-¡-s¸-Sp-¶- \o-Xn-¡pw-
Nq-­n-¡m-«p-¶Xv-.- {]m-]-©n-I- hy-h-kv-Y- a-X-hn-izm-k- kw-_-Ôn-bm-b- Im-cy-§Ä- in-Yn-e-am-Ip-¶- _-Ô-§Ä-¡pw- I-¯n-
Xn-I-¨pw- D-t±-iy-m-[n-jv-Tn-X-am-sW-¶v- hn- hy-àn-bp-sS- Po-hn-X-s¯- Xn-f-¡-apÅ-X- ¯o-cp-¶- kz-]\v- § - Ä-¡p-an-Sb - n-epw- \n-hÀ-
¶p- \nÂ-¡m³- a-\p-jy-sc- \n-c-´-cw-
{]m]v-X-am-¡p-¶- H-cp- {]-Xy-b-im-k-{v X-
s¯- "I-dp-¸v- a-b-¡p-a-cp-¶v'- F-¶p- am-{Xw-
ap-{Z-Ip-¯p-¶-Xv- k-aqÀ-¯-am-b- H-cp- {]-
Xn-`m-k-s¯- A-]-{K-Yn-¡m-sX- D-t]-
¡£-n¡ - p-¶X - n-\p- Xp-ey-am-bn-cn-¡pw'- '- (A-
h-Xm-cn-I,- a-X-s¯-¸-än amÀ-I-vkv- Fw-KÂ-
kv- se-\n³).-
A-h-ew-_-§Ä-:-

1)- F-´m-Wv- amÀ-Ivk - n-kw,- {]-`m-Xv- _p-


¡v- lu-kv-,- Xn-cp-h-\-´-]p-c-w,- 1997).-
2)- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- kn-²m-´-hpw- ssk-
²m-´n-I-cpw,- -tI-c-f- `m-jm- C³-kv-än-äyq-
«v,- 2000.-
ip-²- JpÀ-B-³- A-dn-bn-¡p-¶p-:- 3)- hÀ-Ko-b-X,- a-Xw-,- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw,- ko-
Xm-dmw- sb-¨q-cn,- ]-cn-`m-j-:- \m-cm-b-W³-
""B-Im-i-hpw- `q-an-b-pw- A-h-bv-¡n-S-bn- sN-½-e-tÈ-cn-,- Nn-´- ]-_v-fn-tj-gv-kv- Xn-
ep-Å-Xpw- \mw- \n-cÀ-Y-I-am-bn- k-r-jv-Sn- cp-h-\-´-]p-cw,- 1993.-
¨-X-Ã.- k-Xy-\n-tj-[n-I-fp-sS- [m-c-W-b- 4)- a-X-s¯- ]-än amÀ-Iv-kv- Fw-KÂ-kv-
s{X- A-Xv...''- (38:-27).- am-\-h-Xm-hm-Z-am-Wv- X-§-fp-tS-Xv- F- se-\n³-,- t{]m-KÊ - v- ]-»n-t¡-j³-kv,- tIm-
am-\-h-Xm-hm-Z-am-Wv- X-§-fp-tS-Xv- F- ¶m-Wv- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- D-Â-tLm-jn-¡p- gn-t¡m-Sv-.-
¶m-Wv- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw- D-Â-tLm-jn-¡p-¶- 5)- amÀ-Iv-kv- Gw-KÂ-kv- I-ayq-Wn-kv-äv-
Xv-;- ap-X-em-fn-¯-¯n-s\-Xn-sc-bp-Å- am-\- ¶-X;v- - ap-Xe- m-fn-¯¯ - n-s\-Xn-sc-bp-Å- am-\n-s^-kv-säm,- a-e-bm-f- ]-cn-`m-j,- t{]m-
h-Xm-hm-Zw.- F-Ãm- a-\p-jy-sc-bpw- DÄ- am-\h- X - m-hm-Zw.- F-Ãm- a-\p-jy-sc-bpw- {K-Êv- ]-»n-tj-gv-kv- 1981,- tkm-hn-b-äv- bq-
s¡m-Åm³- amÀ-Iv-kn-k¯n-\p- km-[y-a- DÄ-s¡m-Åm³- amÀ-Iv-kn-k¯n-\p- Wn-b-\nÂ- A-¨-Sn-¨-Xv-.-
sÃ-¶À-Yw.- a-\p-jy-sâ- [mÀ-an-I-aq-ey-§- 6)- C.- Fw.- F-kv,- kmw-kv-Im-cn-I-hn-
sf-bpw- am-\-h-Xm-hm-Z-s¯-bpw- amÀ-Iv-kn- km-[y-as- Ã-¶À-Yw.- a-\p-jy-sâ- [mÀ-an-
k-hpw- C-kve- m-apw- hn-iZ- o-Ic- n-¡p-¶X - v- hy- I-aq-ey-§-sf-bpw- am-\-h-Xm-hm-Z-s¯- ¹-hw- a-Xw- amÀ-Iv-kn-kw,- Nn-´- ]-»n-t¡-
Xy-kvX - - am-\Z-Þ§-fp-]t- bm-Kn-¨m-Wv.- c- j³-kv.-
bpw- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-hpw- C-kv-em-apw- hn- 7)- hn.- F-kv-.- A-Nyp-Xm-\µ³,- Nn-´-
­pw- hn-`n-¶-am-Wv.- G-I-ssZ-h-hn-izm-k-
¯n-e-[n-jv-Tn-X-am-b- C-kv-em-an-I- a-m-\- i-Zo-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xv- hy-Xy-kv-X- am-\Z- 2004 Pq¬.-
hXm-hm-Zw- A-dn-hn-te-¡p-b-cp-t¼mÄ- amÀ- Þ§-fp-]t- bm-Kn-¨m-Wv.- c-­pw- hn-`n- 8)- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-¯n-s³d- -_m-e-]m-Tw,-
Iv-kn-kv-äv- am-\-h-Xm-hm-Zw- DÂ-]m-Z-\-¯n- ¶-am-Wv.- G-Is- sZ-hh - n-izm-k¯
- n-e[
- n- C.- Fw.- F-kv- \-¼q-Xn-cn-¸-m-Sv-,- Nn-´- ]-
te-¡v- Np-cp-§p-¶p.- F-¶mÂ- `u-Xn-It- em- »n-tj-gv-kv.-
I-¯n-\\- y-am-b- H-cm-ib - a- Ã- - C-kve- mw.- \o- jv-Tn-X-am-b- C-kv-em-an-I- a-m-\-hXm-hm- 9)- I-ayq-Wn-kv-äv- am-\n-s^-kv-sä-m- {]-
Xn-bp-sS- {]m-[m-\y-s¯- A-Xv- A-t§-b- Zw- A-dn-hn-te-¡p-b-cp-t¼mÄ- amÀ-Iv- k-àn- {]m-[m-\yw,- kn.- `m-kv-I-c³-,- Nn-
äw- D-b-À-¯n-¡-m-«p-¶p-­v.- km-¼-¯n-I- kn-kvä- v- am-\h- X- m-hm-Zw- DÂ-]m-Z\
- ¯
- n- ´- ]-»n-tj-gv-kv.-
hpw- km-aq-ln-I-hp-am-b- ]p-tcm-K-Xn- A-Xv- te-¡v- Np-cp-§p-¶p.- 10)- se-\n³- amÀ-Iv-kn-k-s¯-¸-än,- k-
\n-tj-[n-¡p-¶n-Ã.- C-Xv- Zm-cn-{Zy-¯-nÂ-\n- ¼m-Z-I-:- skz-Xv-em-\- amÀ-«n³- Np-¡v,- D-a-
¶pw- A-\ym-b-am-b- hn-th-N-\-¯nÂ- \n- ]-»n-t¡-j³-kv,- a-Zn-cm-in,- 1987.--
¶pw- a-\p-jy-s\- tam-Nn-¸n-¡p-I-bpw- [mÀ-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 16
]cnWmahmZw:-
bpànhmZnIÄ Ccp-«n X¸p¶p-!
A_p lw\, Imc¯qÀ

2007 Pq¬- e-¡w- "kv-t\-l-kw-hm-Z'--¯nÂ- ]-cn-Wm-a-hm-Z-s¯-¡p-dn-¨v-


A-_q-lw-\- F-gp-Xn-b- te-J-\-s¯ hn-aÀ-in-¨p-sIm-­v- "bp-àn-tc-J-'
am-kn-I- Fgp-Xn-b te-J-\-¯-n-\p-Å- a-dp-]-Sn.--

"kvt\l kwhmZw'- 2007 Pq¬ e¡ {]iwk\obw F¶p- ]dbmsX IgnbnÃ. IÄ \ÂIns¡m­pw teJ\¯nÂ
¯nse "]cnWmahmZw ayq-knb¯nte bpàntcJbnse adp]Sn kwhmZ¯n tUm. cmam\p-P³ \S¯nb ae¡w adn
¡v'- F¶ teJ\w hmbn¨, \ncoizchm se,- XnI¨pw imkv{Xmhew_nbmb ¨nepIÄ hyàam¡ns¡m­pw adp]Sn
Znsb¶v kzbw ]cnNbs¸Sp¯m³ teJ\¯n\p-Å JÞ\ambn«nà F¶ \ÂImw.
Gsd BÀP-hw ImWn¡p-¶ {io. sI. Xv ktlmZc³ kn_n¡v c­pw tNÀ kvt\l kwhmZ¯nse teJ\¯n
kn_n F\n¡b¨p X¶ Fgp¯pw ¯psh¨v hmbn¨m Xs¶ a\Ênem  ssa¡Â dn¨mÀUvk¬, tUm.- s
AtXmsSm¸apÅ "bpàntcJ'- HtÎm ¡m-hp-¶tXbpÅq. Uâ³, tUm.- Kmhn³ _oÀ XpS§nb
_À e¡hpw In«n. \ne¼qcnÂ- \n¶p-w F¦nepw, Hcp- {]XnÚm_²\mb hcp- s S kzX{´amb ]T\§fpsS
Xncp-h\´]pcw hsc t]mbn tUm. kXymt\zjnbmWv {io. kn_n F¶v shfn¨¯nÂÿsXfnhpIÄ klnXw
F³. cmam\p-Ps\ I­v Xsâ kwibw tXm¶nbXn\m {]kvXpX hnjb¯n AhÀ \ÂInb hkvXpXIsf bpàn
XoÀ¡m³ {ian¨ AÀ¸W t_m[s¯ Â- imkv{Xobamb Ip-tdIqSn sXfnhp tcJ Hcp- A`n{]mb {]IS\w F¶
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 17
coXnbn kao]n¡p-Ibpw B kphy t]mepw hyàamWv. hyXymk§Ä Wv. hnhn[ shÀ«nt{_äv ¢mÊpIfnse
à sXfnhpIsf JÞn¡m³ 1892  IqSpX {it²bamIp-¶Xv {`qW cq]m {`qWhfÀ¨bpsS {]mcw` L«§fnÂ
sI. C. thm¬ s_bdnsâ kn²m´w ´cW¯nsâ ASp¯ {][m\ L«¯n t]mepw henb hyXymkw D­v. AXn
AhXcn¸n¡p-IbpamWv sNbvXncn¡p- ÂþKmkv{Sptej³þÿBWv. Cu {]{In \m ]qÀW- hfÀ¨sb¯nb shÀ«n
¶Xv! thm¬ s_bdnsâ kn²m´w bÿA\p-_ÔtImi§fpsS AXnk¦o t{_äbpsS Ahbh§fnepw LS\bn
AwKoIcn¡s¸«XmsW¶Xn kwi ÀW-amb hnKXnIÄ DÄs¡mÅp¶p-. epsaÃmw ImWp-¶ kmayX ]cnKWnIp-
banÃ. Fsâ teJ\¯n "{`qWimkv AhnsS »mÌpebnse tImi§Ä t¼mÄ Xs¶ Ah cq]saSp¯Xv Htc
{X kw_Ônbmb Nne hkvXpXIÄ'- kzbw {IaoIcn¡s¸SpIbpw Ahkm tImi§fn \nt¶m taJ-eIfn \n
F¶ Xes¡«n AXnsâ B[p\nI \w »mÌ-pebpsS k¦oÀW- {]mYanI t¶m BsW¶v ]dbphmt\m A§s\
]T\§Ä {]Imcw Dcp-¯ncnª Imcy {`qW cq]amb Kmkv{Spebmbn ]cnWan ]n³XpSÀ¶v I­¯pht\m km[yaÃ
§Ä ]dbp¶p-ap­v. F¶m germ ¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶p-. Cu {]mYanI {`qW F¶Xn kwibtaXpanÃ. asämcp-hn[
layers (enoderm, mesoderm, ectod ¯nÂ, NÀahpw \mUo hyhØbpw ¯n ]dªm kmayX ]peÀ¯p¶
erm)IfpsS DÛhhpw thÀXncnbepw, DSseSp¡p-¶ GIvtämtUw,- t]inIfpw LS\IÄ cq]saSp¯Xv hyXykvX§
Htcm ]mfnIfnsebpw tImi§fpsS AØnIeIfpw DSseSp¡p¶ aotkm fmb hgnIfneqsSbmW''- (Evolution: A
\nbXnbnepw (fate) {]ISamb hyXym tUw,- A¶Ip-eybpsS BhcWw;- AXp Theory in Crisis, Michael Denton, 1985,
kap­v F¶mWv tUm. sUâ³ sXfn t]mse Icfpw IqSmsX ]m³{Inbmkpw P 145- 6).
hpIÄ klnXw kaÀYn¨n«pÅXv.ÿ DSseSp¡p¶ FtâmtUw F¶o aq¶v LS\m]camb kmayX ]peÀ¯p
sUâ³ \ÂInb Nn{Xhpw ]dª ASnØm\ {]`h tImi ]mfnIÄ ¶ Ahbh§Ä (homologous struct
hm¡p-Ifpw ]cntim[n¡p-I:ÿÿ (germ cell layers) BWv DÅXv. FÃm ures) cq]saSp¯ tImi§fpw taJe
bpw hyXykvXamsW¶ sUâsâ hm
¡p-IÄ shdpsX D²cn¡p-Ibmbncp-¶n
à kwhmZ¯nÂ;- adn¨v Htc kv]ojo
kn t]mepw Ah {`qW¯nsâ hnhn[
CS§fn \n¶msW¶p-ÅXn\vÿD`b
PohnIfpsSbpw aäv shÀ«nt{_äIfpsS
bpw bqdnäÀ cq]oIrXamIp-¶ coXnbpw,
c­pXcw XhfIfnse (Rana fusca &
Rana esculents) se³knsâ hnj
bhpw Hmtcm \s«ÃpÅ Pohn hÀK-¯n
sâbpw kam\X ]peÀ¯p¶ ssIIÄ
hyXykvX icoc JÞ§fn \n¶p-
amWv cq]saSp¡p-¶sX¶p-apÅÿUn
_odnsâ (Gavin R. de Beer) ]T\s¯
D²-cn¨v sUâ³ ]dbp¶Xv \Â-IpI
bmbncp-¶p-. (kv-t\-l- kwhmZw Pq¬
e¡w t]Pv 12 ImWp-I). F¶mÂ
CsXm¶p-w ]cnKWn¡msX D`b Pohn
IfptSbpw DcK§fpsSbpw kkvX\nI
fpsSbpw AÞ¯nse tbm¡nsâ Af
hnepw hn\ymk¯nepapÅ hyXymkw
sIm­msW¶ adp]SnbmWv bpàn
Evolution: A Theory in crisis, Michael Denton, 1985.P.115, Hildebrand tcJ \ÂIp-¶Xv! Un. _oÀ XhfIfnÂ
""D`b PohnIfnepw DcK§fnepw \s«ÃpÅ Pohn hÀK§fnepw, Kmkv \S¯nb ]T\w kwhmZwÿ\ÂInb DZm
kkvX\nIfnepwÿAÞtImiw »m {Spebpw Kmkv{Sptej\pw A\p-cq] lcW§fnsem¶mWv. (kwhmZw Pq¬
Ìpe Bbn hfcp-¶ BZy hn`P\ L« amsW¶XnÂÿBÀ¡p-w kwibanà e¡w t]Pv 12).ÿRana fuscabpw- Rana
§fmWv Nn{X¯n sImSp¯n«pÅXv. F¦nepw Kmkv{Spe cq]oIrXamIp-¶ esculents Dw c­v D`- b PohnIfmb
Nn{X¯n ImWn¨ncn¡-p-¶ PohnIfp coXnbpw hninjym germ layers D­m XhfIÄ Xs¶bmsW¶p-Å kXyw
sS {`qWhfÀ¨bpsS »mÌpe (knàm Ip-¶ »mkv-ä-pebnse tImi§fpsS t]mepw IW¡nseSp¡m³ Xsâ Adn
Þ hfÀ¨bpsS c­mw L«w)bnemI Øm\w, Kmkv{Spebmbn amdpt¼mgpÅ hnepÅ AanXab Bßhnizmkhpw
s« XpSÀ L«§fnteXnse¦nepamIs« AhbpsS kw{IaW coXnIÄ F¶nh [mcWIÄ XIÀ¶p-t]mIp-sa¶ `-b
kmayX Xoscbnà F¶Xv Hcp- ]cnNb bnseÃmw hnhn[ \s«ÃpÅ PohnhÀK- hpw teJIs\ A\p-hZn¡p-¶nÃ.ÿÿÿ
k¼¶\Ãm¯ P´pimkv{XImc\p- §fn {]ISamb hyXymkw Zriyam CtX hnjb¯n AXmbXv \s«
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 18
ÃpÅ PohnIfn kam\X ]peÀ¯p kv]ojokn emÀhbpsS icoc¯n\I Xamb D±o]IþD±o]\ {]{Inbsb thÀ
¶ Ahbh§fpsS hyXykvX hgnIfn ¯p \n¶pamWv trunk hfcp-¶sX¦n Xncn¡p-¶ BthK§Ä F¶nhtbmSm
eqsSbpÅ cq]oIcWw IqSpX DZm asämcp- kv]ojokn emÀhbpsS icoc Wv''-ÿ(Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, Micha
lcW§tfmsS hnebncp-¯s¸«n«p ¯n\v shfnbn Hcp- hnct]mse ]pd el Denton, 1985, p 147, citing: Homology:
ÅXvÿImWqI:ÿÿ t¯¡v Xq§n¡nS¡p-¶ AhØbnem An Unsolved Problem, G. De Beer, 1971)  
1. A¶]Y cq]h¡cWw
WpÅXv. Cu c­p kv]ojnkpIfpsS C§s\ A\h[n sXfnhpIÄ \nc
(Forma tion of Alimentary canal) bpw ]qÀW- hfÀ¨ {]m]n¨ hncIÄ X ¯nbmWv Bt±lw kZribmhbh§
{kmhpIfn {`qW¯nsâ K«v Im ½n ImgvNbn hyXymk§tfXpanÃ. fpsS Cu cq]h¡cW coXnIÄ
hnänbpsS taÂX«n \n¶p-w, emw{_nI ]qÀW- hfÀ¨sb¯pt¼mÄ GXm hyXykvX§fmbXn\m Ah kam\
fn ASn`mK¯p \n¶p-w, XhfIfn ­v kam\X ]peÀ¯p¶ Nne Mollus Pohn-IfpsS \nb{´W¯neeà DÅ
taÂX«n \n¶p-w Xmgv `mK¯p\n¶pw, ca (I¡IÄ, \ocmfn, IWh XpS§nb sX¶p-w BbXn\m Xs¶ P\nXI
]£nIfnepw DcK§fnepw Fw{_n h DÄs¡mÅp¶ Ip-Spw_w) kv]ojo amb ]c¼cytam s]mXp ]nXmal\nÂ
tbmWnIv UnkvInsâ Xmsg ]mfnbnÂ- kpIfnepw CtX coXnbnepÅ hfÀ¨m \n¶p-cp-¯ncnbp¶ ]m-c¼cy kz`-mh
\n-¶pw- »mtÌmtUa-n \n¶pamWv A coXnIÄ ZÀin¡m³ IgnªXmbpw ssIamäsat¶m ]dbm\mInà F¶`n
¶]Yw D­mIp-¶Xv (Evolution: A The At±lw ]dbp¶p-.ÿ {]mbs¸Sp¶Xv.
ory in Crisis, Michael Denton, 1985, p 146, Un _odn- s â ]T\§Ä kam\ s]mXp ]nXmals\¡p-dn¨v (comm
citing: Homology: An Un solved Problem, Ahbh§Ä cq]saSp¡p-¶Xv hnhn[ on ancestor) ]cnWma hmZnIÄ ]dbp
G. De Beer, 1971, p13). PohnhÀK§fn {`-qW¯nsâ hnhn[ ¶nà F¶v bpàn tcJ ]dbp¶p-sh¦n
2. hr¡IfpsS cq]h¡cWw CS§fn \n¶msW¶ hnjbs¯ epw ]cnWmahmZnIÄ¡nSbn F¶pw
(Formation of Kidney) am{Xw ASnØ\am¡nbmbncp-¶nÃ. {`q \ne\n¶p-t]mcp-¶ hmZamWXv F¶
kZriymhbh§Ä DSseSp¯Xv W IeIsf hnthNn¡p-¶ t{]cI§ XmWv kXyw. _tbmP\nänIv kn²m
kam\ {`qW IeIfn \n¶msW¶p- sfbpw (organizer) At±lw ]T\ hnt[ ´w Xs¶ Cu ss]XrI Ncn{Xw Nn{Xo
Å Dul¯n\v \ÂIp-¶ asämcp- shÃp bam¡n.ÿ Icn¡m³ IqSnbpÅXmWtÃm!-
hnfnbmWv \s«ÃpÅ PohnIfpsS H]vänIv I¸ns\ BhcWw sN¿p¶ Un _oÀ ]dbp¶p-: ""AÞ¯nsâ
hr¡IfpsS cq]h¡cWw. aÕy§ F¸nUÀankn (]pdwsXmen) \n¶p-am Htc `mK¯p \nt¶m, {`qW¯nse tIm
fnenepw D`bPohnIfnepw hr¡IÄ Wv \s«ÃpÅ PohnIfqsS I®nsâ i§fpsS Htc Øm\¯p\nt¶m AÃ
D­mIp-¶Xv aotkm s\t{^mkpIÄ se³kv D­mIp-¶Xv. ChnsS H]vänIv (PohnIfpsS) kZriyXbmÀ¶ Ahb
F¶ {`qWmhbh¯n \n¶p-w t\sc I¸v AXns\ BhcWw sN¿p¶ F¸n h§Ä DSseSp¡p-¶Xv F¦n Ah
bmW-v. F¶m DcK§fnepw kkvX UÀankns\ Dt¯Pn¸n¨v se³kmbn kam\ Po\p-IfpsS \nb{´W¯neÃ
\nIfnepw aotkm s\t{^mkpIÄ {`q hfcp-hm\p-Å t{]cIam-bn,- AYhm DÅXv . AXpsIm­pXs¶ Ah¡v
W hfÀ¨bpsS A´yt¯msS \in¨p {]tbmàmhmbn (organizer)kzbw hÀ P\nXIambn bmsXmcp- _ÔhpanÃ.
t]mIp-¶p-. am{XaÃÿhfÀ¨sb¯nb ¯n¡p-IbmWv sN¿p¶Xv.Cu organ P\nXI _ÔanÃm¯h Htc ]qÀh-
PohnbpsS hr¡bpsS cq]oIcW¯n izer Bb H]vänIv I¸v Ranafusca bn ]nXmal\n \n¶v cq]m´cW§fn
 bmsXmcp-ÿ]¦p-w hln¡p-¶p-anÃ. \n¶p-w apdn¨p amänbt¸mgmWv se³kv eqsS XeapdIfmbn ]cnWan¨hbpaÃ''.
adn¨v AXv cq]wsImÅp¶Xv aotkm hfcmXncn¡p- I bpw F¶m Rana ""P\nXI tImUpIfneqsS Po\p-I
s\t{^mkn \n¶p-w kzX{´ambn esculents  hfcp-Ibpw sNbvXXv.ÿ Ä PohnIfpsS icocmhbh§fpsS km
D­mIp-¶ antkmtUÀanse hn`n¶am CXv Hscmäs¸« DZmlcWaà F¶v [mcW LS\Isfbpw sshhn[y§sf
b tKmfmIrXnbnepÅ IeIÄ AYhm ]dªpsIm­v At±lw ho­pw sX bpw cq]oIcn¡m³ th­ t{]m«o\p-I
saäm s\t{^mkpIfn \n¶p- a m fnhv \nc¯p¶p-:ÿ sf DÂ-]mZn¸n¡p-¶ cmkmánIsf (en
Wv.ÿD`b PohnIfnteXn\v kam\X ""CXv Hscmäs¸« DZmlcWaÃ. zymes) tImUv sN¿p¶p- F¶Xv kXy
]peÀ¯p¶, hr¡Ifn \n¶p-w aq{Xw bYmÀY- \s«ÃpÅ PohnIfn kpjp amsW¦nÂ, Htc Po\p-Ifm \nb{´n
aq{Xk©nbnte¡v sIm­phcp-¶ Ip- av\bpw akvXnjvIhpw D­mIp-¶Xv _- ¡s¸SmXncp¶n«pw kam\XIfpw LS
gepIÄ t]mepw DcK§fnepw kkvX Ô-s¸-«- Hcp-ÿorganizer sâÿ kzm[o\w \m kZriyhpapÅ Ahbh§Ä DSse
\nIfnepw XoÀ¯pw hyXyXamb coXn aqeamWv. F¶m shÀ«nt{_äIsf Sp¡s¸Sp¶Xv GXv sa¡m-\nk¯neq
IfnemWv cq]wsImÅp¶Xv''- (Evoluti t]mse "kpjpav\'-bpÅ äqWnt¡äI sSbmWv-? Rm³ 1938 apXÂ tNmZn¨ph
on: A Theory in Crisis, Michael Denton,
fpsS "hmÂam{In emÀh'-Ifn AXv Hcp- cp-¶ Cu tNmZy¯n\nt¶mfw D¯cw
1985, p 146).-
organizer CÃmsXbmWv Dcp-¯ncnªp e`n¨n«nà (de Beer, Gavin (1971). Hom
''-

3. Polygordius F¶ hncbpsS
hcp-¶Xv. CsXÃmw hyàam¡p-¶Xv ology: An Unsolved Problem. London:
trunk sâ hfÀ¨ kam\ Ahbh§Ä, AhbpsS kZr Oxford University Press. )
Polygordius ( Phulum:Annelida. iys¯ Is¿mgn¡msX Xs¶, ISs¸«n Cu- teJI\v a\p-jy klP-amb
Class: Archiannelida) hncbpsS Hcp- cn¡p-¶Xv AhbpsS DÛhw, hyXykv t\m«¸niIp-aqewÿkw`hn¨ Hcp- \nÊm
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 19
c `mjm´c¯nsâ {]iv\w (vertebrate Im³ Nn{Xhpw hniZoIcWhpw ho­pw (d) frog (direct -developing anuran
=- FÃpÅ Pohn) s]m¡n¸nSn¨v hnhc \ÂIs«. (Pq¬ e¡¯n Nn{X¯n\p- amphibian Eleutherodactylus) which
tZmjambn Nn{XoIcn¡m³ kabw Xmsgbmbn hniZoIcW§Ä Npcp-¡n has hind-limb buds at the tail-bud stage
Is­¯nb tUmÎÀ ]t£,- imkv{X \ÂInbXv hmb\¡mÀ¡v efnXamIm and only two pairs of aortic arches;
temI¯n\nt¶mfw D¯cw \ÂIm³ ³ th­nbmbncp-¶p.-ÿF¦nepw sXän² "X-h-f- (t\À hfÀ¨ {]m]n¡p-¶
Ignªn«nà F¶p-]dªpsIm­v Ah cn¸n¡s¸Sm³ ImcWambXn tJZn (emh-bnÃmsX) A\yp-d³ (hmenÃm¯)
Xcn¸n¨ imkv{XImcsâ tNmZys¯ ¡-p-¶p-) D`-bPohn þ FeÿXotdmUmIvssäekv)
kw_Ô¨v Hcp-ÿhm¡p-t]mepw ]dbp
¶nÃ! X§fpsS [mcW¡p-w \ncoizc
Nn´¡p-w FXncmb kXy§Ä imkv
{X kXyambm t]mepw I®S¨p If
bpI F¶ \bamWv s]mXphn bp
ànhmZnIÄ kzoIcn¨p t]m¶n«pÅXv.
kwhmZ¯nse teJ\w \ÂInb tbm
¡v km¡ns\¡p-dn¨pÅ hniZoIcW
§sfbpw At±lw kv]Àin¡mXncp-
¶Xnsâ ImcWhpw asäm¶Ã. shdp
sX AXp icnbÃÿF¶ {]XnIcWw
imkv{X t_m[apÅhcn \n¶p-w im
kv{XIpXpInIÄ {]Xo£n¡p-¶ H¶Ã
Fs¶¦nepw At±lw kbpàw Nn´n
¡Wambncp-¶p-.-ÿ
KnÃpIfpw D`-b PohnIfpw

hmÂam{Inbpw

kwhmZ¯nse teJ\¯n KnÃp Drawings of Michael Richardson of selected embryos shown at the
Isf¡p-dn¨v {]Xn]mZn¨ `mKw icn¡pw “phylotypic” stage.
hmbn¡msX Hcp-ÿ Ggmw ¢mÊpImc\p-
t]mepw Adnbmhp¶ Imcyw sXämb (a) Sea lamprey (jawless cyclosto CXn\v ]n³ImepIfpsS apIp-f§fpw
hoIvjWt¯msS AhXcn¸n¨p F¶p- me fish, Petroyzon) with nearly iden Hcp- tPmUn aortic arches Dw am-{Xw'-
]dªv "bpàntcJ'-ÿkNn{Xw hnhcn tical pharyngeal pouches and heart that (*KnÃpIÄ CÃ).
¡p-¶Xv ImWmw. (bpàntcJ,- HtÎm_ is caudal to the pharynx; (e) Pond turtle (chelonian reptile,
À 2007.- t]Pv 33). F¶m kwhmZw "ISen ImWp-¶ emw{_n (XmSn Emys) where there is no craniocaudal
]Xn\memw t]Pn Nn{X¯n\v apI sbÃnÃm¯ sskt¢mtÌmw aÕyw þ rotation (torsion) to the embryo,
fnembpÅ JÞnIbn C§s\ hm s]t{Smssatkm¬) GXm­v kam\ whereas the same stage of the chick
bn¡mw:ÿhmÂam{In t]msebpÅ Nne amb Kf AdIfpw Kf¯n\v Ahkm\ (avian) embryo (f) shows pronounced
emÀhIÄs¡mgnsI asämcp-ÿPohn¡pw `-mK¯mbn ImWp-¶ lrZbhpw'-.ÿ torsion;
(shÀ«nt{_äv) Kn Hcp hfÀ¨mL«
¯nepw D­mIp-¶nà Xs¶.ÿ aÕy§ Ipfbma (IotemWnb³ DcKw þ
(b) Electric ray (cartilagenous
fnse Imcyw Nn{X¯neqsS hyàam¡n Fankv) ChbpsS {`-qW¯n\v akvXn
chondrichthes fish, Torpedo) with
bn«p­v. jvI IhN¯nsâ `-mK¯pw hm `mK
nearly identical pharyngeal pouches

At¸mÄ Nn{X¯n\p- Xmsg "(d) ¯pw DÅ hfhv (torsion) ImWp-¶nÃ.


and a pronounced hindbrain/midbrain

Xhfþ D`b Pohnþ IÄ¡v ImepIfpsS


flexure; F¶m AtX L«¯nse tImgnbpsS
apIp-f§fpw lrZb `mK§fpsS (aortic "sshZyp-X Xnc­n (Xcp-WmkvY-n (]dh) {`-qW¯nÂ(f) IrXyamb hfhv
arches) hfÀ¨bpw am{Xw. KnÃpIÄ
aÕywþtSmÀ]ntUm) akvXnjI¯nsâ Im¶p-'-.ÿ
CÃ'- F¶v FgpXnbsX´psIm­v Ahkm\ `-mKhpw a[y`-mKhpw hf (g) brush-tailed possum (marsupial
F¶ tNmZyw Dbcp-¶p-. tUm.- cmam\pP ªncn¡p-¶ AhØtbmsS'-.ÿ mammal, Trichosurus) where there is
s\t¸mse _tbmfPn Adnbp¶ Hcp- (c) sterlet (bony Osteichthyes fish, (in contrast to the cartilagenous fishes)
hyàn¡v Adnbmhp¶ ImcyamWv Acipenser) where the pharyngeal large maxillary and mandibular pro
emÀhm L«wÿ (larval stage).- IqSmsX pouches have not yet formed; cesses
t\cn«v hfÀ¨ {]m]n¡p-¶ D`b Pohn "sÌÀeäv (AØnbpÅ aÕyw "{_jv t]mse hmepÅ t]mÊw
IÄ þ Xhf t]mepwþ D­v F¶Xpw.- þAkns]³kÀ ) C\nbpw Kf AdIÄ (amgvkq¸nb³ kkvX\n þ {Snt¡mk

F¦nepw hnjbw IqSpX hyàam cq]s¸«nÃ'.- ) Chbv¡v (Xcp-WmØn aÕy§fp


dkv

2007 Un-k-w-_À- 20
sSXn\v- hncp²ambn) henb apIÄ þ
IogvXmSnsbÃpIfpsS LS\IfmWp-
ÅXv'.-
(h) In the cat (eutherian mammal,
Felis) there is a similar size difference
between the anterior and posterior
pouches, although their appearance
differs from that of the marsupials.
(Richardson, 1997.) (From left: Petromyzon marinus, Acipenser ruthenus, Bufo bufo, Erinaceus
europaeus, Felis catus, Manis javanica, Canis familiaris.)
]q¨bn (bqXocnb³ kkvX\n þ
"

s^enkv )amgv k q¸nb³ kkv X \n ]pkvXI§fpsS A©mas¯ FUnj 5th Edition of the Elephant book has been
Ifn \n¶p-w ImgvN¡v hyXykvXX \n XmsgImWp-¶ Nn{Xw Ip-dn¸v published with an accurate drawing of the
]peÀ¯p¶Xp t]mseÿap³þ ]n³ klnXw \ÂIp-Ibp­mbn. embryos made from detailed photomicrogr
`mK§fnse AdIÄ X½n hen¸ aphs. We have also rewritten page 283 of
¯n hyXmkw D­v'- (Richardson, ed it.“So,Joewhat have we done? Well, we fix
Levine and I (Kenneth Miller) the 5th edition to better reflect the scientific
1997). have now revised the drawings that appear evidence regarding the similarities of early
* Xhfbn KnÃpIÄ ImWp-¶nà on these pages of our textbooks, and the development:” by Kenneth Miller, Author
F¶p-ÿ]dªXv hmÂam{In F¶ emÀ
h IqSmsX direct development \S¯p
¶ kv]ojnkpIfmWv Dt±iyw. am{Xa
à apIfn sImSp¯ {`-qW§Ä X½n
epÅ {]ISamb aäv hyXymk§fpw
{i²n¡p-I.ÿ
dn¨mÀUvk¬ \ÂInb aäv {`qW
§fpsS t^mt«mIÄ IqSn ]cntim[n
¡p-I:-
\s«ÃpÅ PohnIfpsS {`-qW§Ä
X½n ImgvNbnepw hfÀ¨m coXnbn
epw Ahbh hfˬbnepw cq]oIcW
¯nepsaÃmw ImWp-¶ hyXymk§Ä
C§s\ DZmlcW klnXw kaÀ°n
¡s¸«Xns\ JÞn¨psIm­v sXfnhp
klnXw Bsc¦nepw hà B[nImcnI
]T\hpw kaÀ¸n¨n«ps­¦n AXv
]dbpIbmWv kXy¯n bpàntcJ
sNt¿­nbncp-¶Xv.
F¶m kXyw AwKoIcn¡m³
Xb-mdpÅhÀ Ahcp-sS cN\Ifn am
äw hcp-¯n¡gnªXmbpw \ap¡p- Im
Wmw. _tbmfPnÌpw A[ym]I\p-w
Bdp _tbmfPn ]pkvXI§fpw Ht«
sd teJ\-§fpw FgpXnb kvIqÄ,-
tImtfPv _tbmfPn ]pkvXI cNbn
XmhpIqSnbmb tPmenssh³ Xsâ
]pkvXI§fnseÃmw 2000 hsc \ÂIn
bncp-¶Xv ssl¡ensâ {`-qW XmcX
ay ]T\ Nn{X§fmbncp-¶p-. F¶mÂ
Xsâ Lion Book (BIOLOGY - The Living
Science þt]- P v - 223)- , Elephant Book
(BIOLOGY by Kenneth Miller and Joe
Levine þt]-Pv- 283)- F¶o _tbmfPn
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 21
ssl¡ensâ ÿcN\bpw bYmÀY- (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., "{]]t©mÂ]¯nbpw AXpt]mse
Nn{X§fpw XmcXay]T\¯n\mbn 1965), p. 241. ¯s¶ arK k¼¯n _lp`qcn`mK
H¶p-IqSn \ÂIs«:ÿ 4. Ehrlich and Holm: “This generalizati ¯nsâ DXv]¯nbpw C\nbpw Adnb
ssl¡ensâ Nn{X§Ä icnbm on was originally called the biogenetic law s¸SmsX InS¡p-¶p'--.ÿ
by Haeckel and is often stated as `ontogeny
sW¶v tIcf¯nse bpànhmZnIÄ recapitulates phylogeny.’ This crude
A´co£¯n HmIv k nP³
am{XamWv hmZn¨psIm­ncn¡p-¶Xv interpretation of embryological sequences F§s\ D­mbn Ft¶m, ]iphnsâ
F¶XmWv kXyw. {]kvXpX Nn{X will not stand close examination, however. Bamib¯nse§s\ knw_tbm«nIv
cN\sb¡pdn¨v temI¯pS\ofap­m Its shortcomings have been almost univer _mIväocnb hs¶¯n Ft¶m- B-bncp-
b imkv { XImc·mcp- s S A`n{]mb sally pointed out by modern authors, but ¶nà Fsâ tNmZy§fpsS Dt±iyw.
{]IS\§Ä- D-²-cn-¡m³- [m-cm-f-ap-­v.- the idea still has a prominent place in biol adn¨v Cu ]mckv]cyw, IrXyamb hyh
NneXv am-{Xw- Xmsg sImSp¡p-¶p-:ÿÿ ogical mythology.” Paul R. Ehrlich and Ric Øm]nXXzw F§s\ kzbw cq]s¸«p
1. Stephen Jay Gould: “... it has fascina hard W. Holm, The Process of Evolution Asæn kzbw`-qhmbn-Asæn F
ted me ever since the New York City public (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963), p. 66.
Ãmw BIkvanIambn icns¸«phcp-¶p-
F¶p- ]dbp¶Xnse bpàn AXmbncp-
¶p AhnsS tNmZyw sN¿s¸«Xv. AÃm
sX bpàntcJ sNbvXXpt]mse Hcp-
]¯mw Xc¡mcsâ Adnhv ]IÀ¶p-
\ÂIp-I F¶Xmbncp-¶nà .ÿ
X§fpsS [mcWIfpw \ncoizchmZ
Nn´Ifpw XIÀ¶p-t]mIp-tam F¶ `-
b¯m a\ÊnW§p¶Xp am{Xw
AwKoIcn¨v Imew Ign¡p-IbmWv
\½psS \m«nse \ncoizcþ bpànhmZþ
\nÀa-X Iq«psI«pImÀ. BbXpsIm­m
Wv ]pXnb imkv{X kXy§sf X§fp
sS ]gabpsS ]n³hmXneneqsS hen
s¨dnbm³ AhÀ ]mSps]Sp¶Xv.
hkvXpXIsf Xpd¶ a\tÊmsS
AwKoIcn¡m³ Xb-mdmhp-I F¶Xm
Wv imkv{XtemI¯nsâbpw am\hnI
apIfnse hcnbn ssl¡ensâ Ir{Xna Nn{XoIcWw,

XbpsSbpw {InbmßIamb hfÀ¨¡pw


Xmsg hcnbn bYmÀY- t^mt«mIÄ.

(Down From left: Salmo salar, Cryptobranchus allegheniensis, Emys


orbicularis, Gallus gallus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Homo sapiens). \ne\n¸n\p-a\p-t]£Wobambn«p
ÅX.-v ]cnip² JpÀB\nse Hcp- hN
schools taught me Haeckel’s doctrine, that 5. Frings: “... we no longer believe we \w D²cn¨psIm­v XÂ-Imew Ahkm
ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, fifty can simply read in the embryonic devel \n¸n¡s«.ÿÿÿ
years after it, had been abandoned by sci
ence.” (Ontogeny and phylogeny, Stephen
opment of a species its exact evolutionary
history.” Hubert Frings and Marie Frings,
""ZpÀaqÀ¯nsb þAXns\ Bcm[n
Jay Gould, ISBN 0-674-63940-5, 1977, p1 Concepts of Zoology (Toronto: Macmillan ¡p¶Xvþ hÀP-n¡pIbpw, AÃmlphn
2. Milner: “When critics brought charg Publishing Co., 1970), p. 267. te¡v hn\bt¯msS aS§pIbpw
es of extensive retouching and outrageous FÃm A`-n{]mb§fpsSbpw ]Zm\p- sNbvXhcmtcm AhÀ¡mWv kt´mj
`fudging’ in his famous embryo illustratio ]Z XÀPp-a¡v apXncp-¶nÃ. tUm.- cmam hmÀ¯. AXn\m Fsâ Zmk³amÀ¡v
ns, Haeckel replied he was only trying to \p-Ps\t¸mse _tbmfPnbn Adnhp \o kt´mjhmÀ¯ Adnbn¡pI.
make them more accurate than the faulty
ÅhÀ¡mbn CXv {]tXyIw kaÀ¸n¡p- AXmbXv hm¡v {i²n¨p tIÄ¡pI
specimens on which they were based.” (Enc
¶p-.ÿ bpw AXn Gähpw \ÃXv ]n³]äp
yclopedia of Evolution, R. Milner, 1990,
p 206) F¶m 1998  tUm: ^njÀ ]d Ibpw sN¿p¶hÀ¡v. A¡q«À¡mIp
ªXv Cu hnjb¯n\v IqSpXÂ hy ¶p AÃmlp amÀKZÀi\w \ÂInbn
3. G.G. Simpson and W. Beck “It is now
firmly established that ontogeny does not àX \ÂIp-¶p-: «pÅXv. AhÀ Xs¶bmIp¶p _p²nam
repeat phylogeny.” [emphasis in original] Dr. A.G. Fisher said in 1998: “Both the
³amÀ''-ÿ(39:17,18).-
George Gaylord Simpson and William S. origin of life and the origin of the major
Beck, Life: An Introduction to Biology groups of animals remain unknown.”

2007 Un-k-w-_À- 22
]cn-ØnXn:- \mihpw \nÀa-m-Whpw
CkvemanI ho-£-Ww-
_ioÀ ke-^n ]qf-s¸m-bnÂ
{]Ir-Xn-bn kzX-{´-ambn CS-s]-Sm³ Ign-bp¶ `qan-bnse
{]Ir-Xn-bn kzX-{´-ambn CS-s]-Sm³ Ign-bp¶ `qan- Htc-sbmcp Pohn a\p-jy\m-Wv. {]-Ir-Xn-bp-am-bpÅ Ahsâ
bnse Htc-sbmcp Pohna\p-jy\m-Wv. {]-Ir-Xn-bp-am- CS-s]-S-ep-I-fn \nÀa-mWm-ß-I-X-sb-¶-t]mse kwlm-
bpÅ Ahsâ CS-s]-S-ep-I-fn \nÀa-mWm-ß- cm-ß-I-Xbpw DÄtNÀ¶n-cn-¡p-¶p.- a-\p-jy-{]-hÀ¯-\-§-
fn AS-§nb Cu kwlm-cm-ß-I- Kp-W-§-fmWv Ah¶p-
I-X-sb-¶ t]mse kwlm-cm-ß-I-Xbpw DÄtNÀ¶n-cn- ta \nb-ahpw \nb-{´Whpw A\n-hm-cy-am-¡n-¯oÀ¡p-
¡p-¶p.- a-\p-jy-{]-hÀ¯-\§ - f- n AS-§nb Cu ¶-Xv.- a-\p-jy\v taepÅ aX-¯nsâ \nb-a-§Ä [mÀa-n-I-
kwlm-cm-ßI - - Kp-W§
- f- mWv Ah¶p-ta \nb-ahpw X-bn-e-[n-jvTn-X-am-Wv.- Xn-·-sb¶v s]mXpsh AwKo-I-cn-¡-
s¸« hnj-b-§sf Du¶n-bmWv aX-¯nsâ hne-¡p-Ifpw
\nb-{´Whpw A\n-hm-cy-am-¡n-¯oÀ¡p-¶-Xv.- \nb-{´-W-§-fp-saÃmw \nÝ-bn-¡-s¸-«-Xv. -a-Zy-¯nsâbpw
a-\p-jy\v taepÅ aX-¯nsâ \nb-a-§Ä [mÀa-n-I-X- el-cn-]-ZmÀY-§fpsSbpw D]-tbmKw,]-eni t]mepÅ
bn-e[- n-jvTn-Xa- mWv. km¼-¯nI cwKs¯ Nqj-W-§Ä, hy`n-Nmcw XpS-§nb
Ip¯-gnª ssewKn-I-ssh-Ir-X-§Ä, sIm-Å-IÄ, sIm-
e-]m-XI- §- Ä XpS-§nb Xn·-Isf CÃm-Xm-¡m-\m-hi - y-amb
ià-amb \nb-a-§fpw hne-¡p-Ifpw \nb-{´-W-§fpw aX-
¯nsâ Ahn-`mPyLS-§-fm-Wv. Cu hne-¡p-I-sfbpw \nb-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 23
{´-W§- s- fbpw hne-aX
- n-¨p-sIm­v kZm- P\-hm-k-apÅ Hcp `q{]-tZ-i-¯nsâ
Nm-chpw kwkvIm-chpw [mÀan-I-Xbpw \miw AhnsS Pohn-¡p¶ a\p-jy-cpsS
]n´p-S-c-s¸-Sp¶ Hcp kmaq-ly {Ia-¯n ZpjvsN-bvXn-I-fp-ambn _Ô-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-
 am{Xsa Ømbn-bmb kzØ-Xbpw ¶p.- BÀ`m-V-§-fnepw BVw-_-c-§-
kam-[m-\hpw \ne-\n¡p-I-bp-Åp. fnepw aXn-a-d¶,-v e£y-t_m[w \jvS-
Cu hne¡pI-sfbpw \nb-{´-W-§- s¸«v,- ssZhn-I-amÀK--ZÀi-\-§sf ]msS
sfbpw XInSw adn-¡m³ a\p-jy³ {ian- \ncm-I-cn¨v apt¶m«v t]mIp-t¼mÄ A
¡p-t¼mÄ AXn-sâ-Xmb Zpjv^-e-§Ä ¯cw kaq-l-§Ä¡v `qan-bn \ne-
kaq-l-¯n {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp-sa¶Xn¶v \n¡m-\pÅ Ah-Imiw \jvS-s¸-Sp-
C¶p-hsc-bpÅ a\p-jy-Nc- n{Xw sXfn-hp- Ibpw AhÀ¡v ta Nne kÀh-\m-i-
IÄ \ÂIp-¶p-­v. Im-c-W-§Ä C-d-¡-s¸-SpI-bpw sN¿p-sa-
¶p-ÅXv {]Ir-Xn-bpsS Hcp \nb-X-amb
`qI-¼-§fpw kp\m-an-Ifpw
{]hm-N-I-·mÀ aptJ\ h¶p-In-«nb \nb- aambn {kjvSmhv \nÝ-bn-¨-ncn-¡p-
IÀa-Zq-jy-¯nsâ Xncn-¨-Sn-IÄ

h¼n¨ Npgens¡mSp-¦m-äp-I ¶p-


amÀKZÀi-\-§sf XÅn-¡-f-bp-Ibpw sâ s]mcpÄ. F¶- XmWv D]-cn-kq-NnX kqà-¯n
fpw D]-cn-tem-I¯v \n¶v Cd- X§-fpsS Zpjn¨ sNbvXn-I-fn Dd¨v
§p¶ tLmc A«-lm-k§ - fpw \n¶v Al-¦m-cn-I-fm-hp-Ibpw sNbvX {]Ir-Xn-Zp-c-´-§-fpsS

CSn-hm-fp-Ifpw XpS-§nb,- ]qÀ ]qÀhk-aq-l-§Ä¡p-­mb `mKn-Itam `uXnI h¡-c-Ww

h-k-aq-l-§-fpsS kÀh-\m-i- kaq-etam Bb \mi-§Ä hnip-²-JpÀ- `qI-¼-§fpw kp\m-an-Ifpw h¼n¨


B³ ]n³X-e-ap-d-¡pÅ Ncn-{X-]m-T-§- Npgens¡mSp-¦m-äp-Ifpw D]-cn-tem-I¯v
§-fpsS tlXp-hm-bn«pÅXpw fmbn FSp¯v ]d-bp-¶p-­v.- a-\p-jy-cp- \n¶v Cd-§p¶ tLmc A«-lm-k-§fpw
Ime-{]-hm-l¯ - n CS-¡nsS sS Pohn-X-e-£yhpw ImgvN-¸m-Sp-Ifpw CSn-hm-fp-Ifpw XpS-§nb,- ]qÀh-k-aq-l-
BhÀ¯n-¡-s¸«v I­p-sIm Ab-YmÀY-am-hp-Ibpw Ah-cn IÀa-Zq- §-fpsS kÀh-\m-i-§-fpsS tlXp-hm-
­n- c n- ¡ p¶Xpamb C¯cw jy-§Ä s]cp-Ip-Ibpw sN¿p-t¼mÄ bn«pÅXpw Ime-{]-hm-l-¯n CS-¡n
ap³N-cn-{X-§Ä Ah-cn ho­pw BhÀ sS BhÀ¯n-¡-s¸«v I­p-sIm­n-cn-
kw`-hh - n-Im-k§
- s- fbpw {]Ir ¯n-¡-s¸-Sm-Xn-cn-¡n-Ã. ¡p¶Xpamb C¯cw kw`-hh- n-Im-k§ - -
Xn {]Xn-`m-k-§-sfbpw tI ""a\p-jy-cpsS ssIIÄ {]hÀ¯n-¨- sfbpw {]IrXn {]Xn-`m-k-§-sfbpw tI
hew {]IrbpsS hnIr-Xnsb¶v Xp-\n-an¯w Ic-bnepw IS-enepw Ipg¸w hew {]IrbpsS hnIr-Xnsb¶v am{Xw
am{Xw ]d-sªm-gn-bp-¶Xpw shfn-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p.-A-hÀ {]hÀ¯n-¨- ]d-sªm-gn-bp-¶Xpw tIh-es- amcp `uXn-
tIh-e-samcp `uXn-I-hn-j-b- Xnsâ ^ew AhÀ¡v Bkz-Zn-¸n-¡p-¶- I-hn-j-b-ambn am{Xw hymJym-\n-¡p-
Xn\v th­n-bs{X AXv..-A-hÀ Hcp-thf ¶Xpw {]Ir-Xn-bp-ambn am{Xw AXns\
ambn am{Xw hymJym-\n-¡p-¶ aS-§ntb-¡mw''- (JpÀB³- 30:41).- _Ôn-¸n-¡m³ {ian-¡p-¶Xpw AÀY-h-
Xpw {]Ir-Xn-bp-ambn am{Xw a\p-jyÀ sNbvXp-Iq-«p¶ A[mÀa-n- ¯mb kao-]\a-Ã-.- a\p-jy³ a\p-jy-
AXns\ _Ôn-¸n-¡m³ {ian- I-XI - Ä kIe \nb-{´-§s- fbpw t`Zn¨v s\¶ \ne-bn Cu `qan-bn \nÀh-ln-
¡p-¶Xpw AÀY-h¯ - mb kao- apt¶m«v t]mIp-t¼mÄ A¯cw kaq-l- t¡­ IÀa- [Àa-§-fn \n¶v ]n´n-cn-
]\a-Ã-. §Ä¡v t\sc AZr-iy-cq-t]W A{]-Xo- bp-Ibpw D¯-c-hm-Zn-¯-§Ä hnkva-cn-
£nX ka-b¯v a\p-jysâ kIe t\«- ¡p-Ibpw Ah-cn IÀa-Zq-jy-§Ä hf-
§-sfbpw iàn-sbbpw \njv{]-`-am-¡n- cp-Ibpw hnfbpIbpw sN¿p-¶-Xnsâ
s¡m­v Nne \nb-{´-W-§Ä Ic-bn-eq- A\n-hm-cy-amb A\-´-c-^ew IqSn-bm
sStbm IS-en-eq-sStbm BImiw hgn W-sX-¶pÄs¡m-Åp-I-bmWv th­-Xv.- a-
tbm {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp-I Xs¶ sN¿p-sa- \p-jy-IÀa-Zq-jy-§sf Ahsâ \mi-
¶-XmWv a\p-jysâ kmaq-ln-I,- -\m-K- ¯n\v tlXp-hm-Ip¶ hn]-¯p-I-fp-ambn
cnI Ncn-{X-§Ä sXfn-bn-¨n-«p-Å-Xv. _Ôn-¸n-¡m-hp¶ imkv{Xob tcJ-IÄ
""GsX-¦nepw Hcp cmPyw \mw \in- apt¶m«v sh¡m³ km[y-am-In-sÃ-¦nepw
¸n-¡m-\p-t±-in-¨m AhnSs¯ kpJ- JpÀ-B³ \ÂIp¶ kmaqly]mT-§Ä
tem-ep-]-·mÀ¡v \mw BÚ-IÄ \ AXn-te-¡pÅ At\z-j-W-§-sfbpw
Ipw (AXv hI-sh-¡msX) AhnsS Xm ]T-\-§-sfbpw km[p-hm-¡p-¶p-­v.
t´m-¶n¯w \S¯pw ( in£sb ]n³]- {]Ir-Xn-{]-Xn-`m-k-§Äs¡Ãmw im
än-bpÅ ) hm¡v A§s\ AXnsâ (cm- kv{X-¯n-sâbpw `uXn-I-XbpsSbpw am
Py-¯n-sâ) Imcy-¯n Ønc-s¸-Sp- {Xw Bh-c-W-§Ä \ÂIn hymJym-\-§
Ibpw \mw AXns\ \ntÈjw XIÀ¡p- Ä Na-bv¡p¶ kao-]\w C¶s¯ im
Ibpw sN¿p-¶-Xm-Wv''-(17:16).- kv{X-bp-K-¯n kÀhkm-[m-c-W-am-Wv.-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 24
1980þIfpsS XpS-¡¯ - n tIc-f¯ - n Zriy-amb Hcp {]Xn`mk-am-bn-cp¶p
ssZÀLy-ta-dnb th\epw ISp¯ hcĨbpw.- 83þ CXv AXnsâ aqÀ[\ymh
Ø {]m]n-¨p.- P-e-t{km-X-Êp-IÄ an¡-hmdpw hän-hc- ­p. ImÀjn-Ih - n-fI
- fpw
aäpw DW-§n-¡c- nªp.-tI-cf- o-bc- psS {i²bpw NÀ¨-bpsaÃmw hcĨsb¡p
dn¨v am{X-ambn. ]-{X-am-[y-a§
- f- n s\Sp-\o-f³ teJ-\§
- fpw Nˬ-Ifpw ]c-
s¶m-gp-In. {- ]-IrXnkvt\ln-IÄ¡pw Ihn-IÄ¡pw hcĨ {][m\ CXn-hr¯
-am-bn.- FÃmw tI{µo-I-cn-¨Xv ImSn-t·-em-bn-cp-¶p.

A-Xn-hr-jvSnbpw ag-¡p-dhpw ssZÀLy- \-in-¸n-¡p-¶-h-scbpw acw apdn-¡p-¶-h- bpsS Imc-W-sa-´m-bn-cn¡pw? AXn-


ta-dnb th\epw NqSnsâ {Iam-X-o-X-amb scbpw P\w sIme-]m-X-In-Isft¸mse s\bpw \ap¡v ImSp-ambn _Ôn-¸n-¡m-
hÀ[-\hpw ]cn-lmcw \nÀtZ-in-¡m-\n- t\m¡n-¡-­p. -tI-c-f-\n-b-a-k-`-bn \m-Iptam? F¬]-Xp-IÄ¡v tijw tIc-
Ãm¯ ]p¯³tcm-K-§-fpsS {]th-i- {]iv\-s¯-kw-_-Ôn¨v NqtS-dnb NÀ¨- f-¯n h\ hnkvXrXn IqSn-bn-«pt­m?
\hpw Imem-h-Øm-hy-Xn-bm-\§fpw IÄ \S-¶p.- K-h¬sa-sâ v kmaq-lnI h\-hn-kvXrXn IqSn-b-XmWv C¶s¯
XpS-§n-b-h-sbÃmw `uXn-I-amb Hcp h\-h¡-cWw Hcp t]mfn-kn-bmbn G AXn-hr-jvSn¡v Imc-W-sa¶v Hcp imkv
Imc-Wh- p-ambn _Ôn-¸n-¡m-\pÅ {iaw sä-Sp-¡p-Ibpw tdmUvssk-Up-I-fnepw {X-Ú\pw ]cn-Øn-Xn-hm-Znbpw CtX-
imkv{Xm-t- \z-jW - §
- f- psS kzm`m-hn-Ic- o- kÀ¡mÀ `qan-I-fnepw At¡-jybpw hsc Ah-Im-i-s¸-«n-«nsö-XmWv hkv
Xn-bm-sW-¦nepw FÃm {]m]-©nI {]Xn- bq¡m-enbpw \«v hfÀ¯p-Ib - pw- sN-bvXp. Xp-X. F¦n ag-¡p-d-hn-s\bpw hcĨ-
`m- k - § - s fbpw `uXn- I - h ¡- c n¨v I
- meN{Iw ]ns¶bpw Id§n. Cu ac§ sbbpw h\hpw ac-hp-ambn am{Xw _Ôn-
hymJym-\-§Ä \ÂIp-I-sb¶ `uXn-I- Ä krjvSn-¡p¶ ]cn-ØnXn {]iv\-§- ¸n¨v hymJym-\n-¨Xv A_-²-am-bn-cp-¶
hm-Zn-If- psS {ia-§f- n hnizmk¯nsâ fm-bn-cp¶p ]n¶oSv NÀ¨! h³tXmXn tÃm? CXmWv Hcp \njv]-£- \n-co-£-
{]k-àn-sb tNmZyw sN¿p-Isb¶ Hfn- shÅw hen-s¨-Sp¯v _mjv]o-Ic- n-¡p¶ I-\n-ep-W-cp¶ tNmZyw.
bm-i-b-§Ä- ]Xnbncn-¡p-¶p-­v. Cu ac-§Ä Xs¶ hcĨ¡v B¡w a\p-jysâ k¦Â]-§Ä¡pw IW
F¶m Nne {]Xn-`m-k-§Ä¡v Iq«ps-a¶- mbn ]cn-Øn-Xn-hm-Zn-If- p-sSbpw ¡v Iq«-ep-IÄ¡p-a-¸p-d-¯v Ahsâ ]T-
C{]-Imcw \ÂI-s¸« ]e -hym-Jym-\- imkv{X-km-ln-Xy-]-cn-j-¯p-Im-cp-sSbpw \-§Ä¡v hg-§msX hgp-Xn-am-dp¶ Nne-
§fpw ]n¶oSv Xncp-t¯­n hcn-Itbm Is­-¯Â. A-§s\ hcĨbpw AXn {]-Xn-`m-k-§Ä Cu {]]-©-¯nepw a\p-
AsÃ-¦n AtX-¡p-dn¨v au\w Zo£n sâ Imc-W-§Ä tXSn-bpÅ At\z-j-W- jysâ I¬ap-¼n Xs¶bpw \S-¶p-
t¡­nhcn-Itbm sNt¿­nh¶ Ht«sd §fpw Ah-km\w AÔ³ B\sb¡ sIm-­ncn¡p¶p-­v. -Im-c-W-§Ä \nÀ
A\p-`-h-§Ä a\p-jyÀ¡v ap¼n-ep-­v. ­ ]cp-h-¯n-em-bn. [mcWw sN¿m³ Ign-bmsX ChnsS
1980 IfpsS XpS-¡-¯n tIc-f-¯n hcĨ-sbbpw ag-¡p-d-hn-s\bpw Im a\p-jy³ Ipg-§p-I-bmWv. Cu AZr-iy-
 Zriy-amb Hcp {]Xn`mk-am-bn-cp¶p Sp-ambn am{Xw _Ôn-¸n-¨p-sIm-­pÅ amb \nb-{´-W-§sf imkv{Xm-X-o-X-
ssZÀLy-ta-dnb th\epw ISp¯ hcÄ NÀ¨sb JÞn¨v sIm­v A¡m-e¯v ambn AwKo-I-cn-¡m³ Ign-bm-¯-XmWv
¨bpw.- 83þ CXv AXnsâ aqÀ[-\ymh \nb-a-k-`bn Hcp cmjv{Sob t\Xmhv a\pjy ho£-W-¯n h¶ Gähpw
Ø {]m]n-¨p.- P-e-t{km-X-Êp-IÄ an¡- tNmZn-¨p.- F-¦n IS-en ags]¿p-¶Xv henb A_-²w.
hmdpw hän-h-c­p. ImÀjn-I-hn-f-Ifpw ImSp-­m-bn-«mtWm? imkv{X-t_m-[-ap-f- AävemânIv kap-{Z-¯n ^vtfm
aäpw DW-§n-¡-cnªp.-tI-c-fo-b-cpsS f-hs- c-¶`- n-am-\n-¡p-¶h- À A¶-Xns\ B dnU, ]yqÀt«m-dnt¡m, s_ÀapU F¶o
{i²bpw NÀ¨-bp-saÃmw hcĨsb¡p bncw XhW ]gn-¨p-sh-¦nepw B tNmZy- Øe-§Ä¡n-S-bn 39 e£w NXp-{i-
dn¨v am{X-ambn. ]-{X-am-[y-a§
- f- n s\Sp- ¯n A\n-hm-cy-amb Nne Nn´-IfS-§n- In-tem-ao-äÀ hnkvXr-Xn-bn kv-Yn-Xn-
\o-f³ teJ-\-§fpw NÀ¨-Ifpw ]c- bn-«p-s­¶v C¶s¯ kml-Ncyw \s½ sN¿p¶ Hcp XrtIm-W-ta-J-e-bp-­v.
s¶m-gp-In. -{]-IrXnkvt\ln-IÄ¡pw t_m[y-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p-­v. s_ÀaqU {Sbm-¦nÄ F¶ t]cn-em-WnXv
Ihn-IÄ¡pw hcĨ {][m\ CXn-hr- F¬]-¯n-aq¶n-se- A-h-kv-Y- ]n¶o Adn-bs- ¸-Sp-¶X
- v. Cu {]tZ-it- ¯¡v IS-
¯-am-bn.- FÃmw tI{µo-I-cn-¨Xv ImSn- Sv C¶p-hs- cbpw BhÀ¯n-¡s- ¸-«p-I­ - n- ¡p¶ I¸-ep-IÄ¡v tdUntbm kná-ep-
t·-em-bn-cp-¶p.- h-\-\-io-I-c-W-amWv ag Ã.- Pq-Wn Bcw-`n-t¡­ Ime-hÀjw I-f-b-¡m³ Ign-bmsX \nKq-V-ambn
sb AI-än-b-Xv,- h\ hÂ-¡c-W-amWv hfsc t\cs¯ Bcw-`n-¡p-Ibpw kok A{]-Xy-£-am-IpI-bmWv ]Xn-hv.1968 Â
GI]cn-lmcw F-¶n-§s\ ImSp-I-b- ¬ Ign-ªn«pw Ah-km-\n-¡msX XpS- Ata-cn-¡³ \yqIvfn-bÀ A´Àhmln-\n
dnb hymJym-\§ - fpw ]cn-lm-c\- nÀtZ-§- cp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶-XmWv tIc-fo-b-cpsS (kvtImÀ¸n-b³) C{]-Imcw Xntcm-`-hn-
fpwsIm­v apJ-cn-X-amb Hch-Ø. ImSp- Ct¸m-gs¯ {]iv\w. Cu AXn-hr-jvSn- ¨-t¸m-gmWv _ÀaqUm {XntImWw {it²-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 25
b-am-b-Xv. 1945  ]cn-io-e-\¸d-¡-en\v Ø- a mbn \ne- \ n¡m- \ m- h - i y- a mb
t]mb A©v t_mw_À- hnam-\-§fpw k´p-e\hyhØ {]_-©-L-S-\¡pw
CtX coXn-bn A{]-Xy£ambn.- B-bn- Pohn-b-tem-I-¯n\pw {kjvSmhv kwhn-
c-¯n-e-[n-Iw- a-\p-jyÀ-¡v- CtX coXn- [m-\n¨v \ÂIn-bn-«p-­v.-i-co-c-¯nÂ
bn A-hnsS Poh-lm\n kw`-hn-¨X - mbn incÊv thÀs¸-Sp-¯n-bm acWw A\n-
IW-¡m¡s¸-Sp-¶p.- F´p-sIm­m-Wv hm-cy-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶p-sh¶ ]c-a-kXyw
Cu taJ-e-bn I¸-ep-IÄ¡v kná-ep- t]mse {]]-©-¯n-sebpw ssPh-tem-
IÄ Ab-¡m³ Ign-bm-¯Xv? I-¯n-sebpw k´p-en-X-hy-h-Ø¡v
I¸-ep-I-sfbpw hnam-\-§-sft¸mepw \nÝ-bn-¡-s¸« \nb-X-amb Imc-W-
]nSn¨v hngp§n¡f-bp¶ Cu AÚm- §Ä¡v t\sc Ah-bpsS \ne-\n¸ns\
X -{]-Xn-`mk¯nsâ \nKq-V-X-I-fpsS XInSw adn-¡p¶ hn[-¯n-epÅ CS-s]-
_mIvS-cobI-f-S¡apÅ,- A Npcp-f-gn-¡mt\m Xr]vXn-I-c-amb Hcp- S-ep-IÄ ]cn-Øn-Xn-bpsS k´p-en-Xm-
Ãm-lp-hnsâ krjvSn-I-sfÃmw ¯cw \ÂImt\m imkv{X¯n\v Ct¶m hØsb Xmdp-am-dm-¡mt\m A«n-a-dn-¡-
`qan-bn \nÝnX-amb Nne [À fw Ign-ªn-«n-Ã.- C-{]-Imcw a\p-jysâ s¸-Sm-t\m DÅ km[yX \ne-\n¡p-
I¬ap-¼n-epÅ F{X-sb{X {]iv\-§- ¶p-­v.
a-§Ä \nÀh-ln-¡p-¶-Xn¶v fn a\p-jy\v Npcp-f-gn-¡m³ Ign-bm¯ {]Ir-Xn-bp-sSbpw Poh-Pm-e-§-fp-sS
th­n-bmWv krjvSn-¡-s¸-«n-cn- \nKq-V-X-IÄ \n¡p-¶p.- a-\pjysâ bpw kzm`m-hn-I-amb PohÂ{]-{In-b-bnÂ
¡p-¶X - .v {- ]-]© - h- y-hØ
- b- n ImgvN-IÄ¡-¸p-d-apÅ C¯cw ImWm- Akzm-`m-hn-Ihpw A\n-b-{´-X-hp-ambn
Hmtcm Pohnbpw AXn-sâ-Xmb ¡m-gvN-IÄ {]IrXn hyh-Ø-bn a\p- CS-s]-Sp-¶Xpw IS-¶p-I-b-dp-¶Xpw a\p-
jysc kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw AZr-iy- jyÀ X-s¶-bm-Wv.- a\p-jy³ Xsâ
]¦v \nÀh-ln-¡p-¶p-­v. k - rjv amb Nne \nb-{´-W-§fps­¶Xnte- PohnXw IqSp-XÂ kuI-cy-{]-Zam-Im\pw
Sn hyhØ - b - nse A\yq\- X-bpw- ¡sà hnc Nq­p-¶-Xv?- -kÀh-\m-i-Im- t\«-§Ä BÀPn-¡p¶-Xn\pw Dt±-in-¨p-
k´p-en-XX - zhpw \ne-\n¡p- cn-I-fmb {]IrXn Zpc-´-§-sf a\p-jy\v sIm-­m-Wv C{]-Imcw CS-s]-Sp-¶-sX-
taepÅ ssZhn-I-\n-Ý-b-§-fn-te¡pw ¦nepw ]e-t¸mgpw a\p-jysâ \nb-{´-
¶Xv A{]-Im-c-am-Wv.-kr-jvSn- \nb-{´-W-§-fn-te¡papÅ kqN-I-§- W-¯n\v hg-§m¯ hn[-apÅ {]Xym-
kw-hn-[m-\¯ - nse Cu Hcp k fmbn ZÀin-¡p¶Xn F´-]m-I-X-bm- Lm-X-§-fmWv CXp-hgn h¶p-tN-cp-
´p- e n- X - m - h - Ø - b nte¡pÅ Wp-ÅXv? ¶Xs{X.
kqN\ X¶- b tà ""BIm- i krjvSn-hy-h-Øbpw ]cn-Øn-Xnbpw- lcn-X-hn-¹-h-¯nsâ `mK-ambn a\p-
a\p-jycp-sS- IÀa-Zq-jy-§Ä Ah- jy³ \S-¸m-¡nb ImÀjn-I- ]-cn-jvIm-c-
s¯ Ah³ krjvSn-¡p-Ibpw cpsS ta AZr-iy-amb hn[-¯n §sf DZm-l-c-W-am-sb-Sp-¡mw.- ssP-h-h-
(FÃm Imcy-§-fpw Xq¡n¡ ssZhn-I-amb \nb-{´-W-§Ä¡pw CS- f-§Ä¡v ]Icw Ir{Xna cmk-h-f-§fpw
W¡m¡m-\pÅ) Xpemkv (ao- s]- S - e p- I Ä¡pw \nan- ¯ - a m- I p- ¶ Xv a®n\pw Imem-h-Ø-¡p-an-W-§nb ]mc-
t]mse¯s¶ a\p-jy³ Xsâ Npäp-]m- ¼cyhn-¯p-IÄ¡v ]Icw ]co-£-W-im-
km³) Ah³ Øm]n- ¡ p- Sn-t\mSpw {]Ir-Xn-tbmSpw sXämbn CS- e-bn hnI-kn-¸n-s¨-Sp¯ k¦-c-bn\w
Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶p''- F¶ s]-Sp-¶-XneqsS kIm-c-W-amb Xncn-¨-Sn- hn¯p-Ifpw ]-c-¼-cm-K-X-amb IoS-\n-b-
JpÀ- B \nI kqà- ¯ nsâ Ifpw a\p-jy\v kw`-hn-¡m-dp-­v.- i-co-c- {´W D]m-[n-IÄ¡v ]Icw amc-I-amb
¯n apdn-th¸n-¨m cà-sam-gp-Ip- cmk-Io-S\- m-in-\n-Ifpw {]N-cn-¸n-¡s- ¸-«p.-
(55: 7) s]mcpÄ? sa- ¶ Xpw DS- e nÂ\n¶v inc- Ê - n s\ XÂ^-e-ambn D±n-jvS-e£yw s]s«¶v
thÀs]-Sp-¯n-bm acWw kw`-hn-¡p-sa- km[n-X-amsb-¦n-epw- Cu ]cn-jvI-c-W-
¶-Xpw- Imcy-Im-c-W-_-Ô-apÅ {]Ir-Xn- §Ä krjvSn-Pm-e-§Ä¡pw ]cn-Øn-Xn
\n-b-a-am-Wv.- {]-Ir-Xn-bpsS \nb-X-amb ¡pta¸n¨ BLm-X-§Ä alm-am-cn-
]mcn-Øn-Xn-I-k-´p-e\ hyh-Ø-bn Ifpw Zpcn-X-§-fp-ambn C¶v a\p-jysâ
\S-¡p¶ sXämb CS-s]-S a\p-jy\pw ta s]bvXp-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-I-bm-Wv.
Ahsâ Npäp-]m-Sn\pw BLm-X-ta¸n- IoS-§fpw aäp £p{Z-Po-hn-Ifpw
¡p-sa-¶p-ÅXv {]mtbm-Kn-I-ambn sXfn- A\n-b-{´n-X-ambn s]cp-ImsX k´p-en-
b-¡-s¸« kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. Cu hkvXp-X- Xm-ambn \ne-\nÀ¯p-¶-Xn\v {]Ir-Xn-hy-
IfmWv ]cn-ØnXn kwc£Wsa¶ h-Ø¡v \nb-X-amb Nne \nb-{´-W
A\n-hm-cy- Nn-´-bn-te¡v hgn-sX-fn-bn- amÀK--§Ä {kjvSmhv krjvSn-¨n-«n-«p-­v.-
¨Xv. Hcp Pohn asämcp Pohn¡v Blm-c-ambn
`qan¡pw `uam-´c- o-£¯ - n\pw AXn- ¯ocp-amdv ]c-kv]-cm-{i-b-¯nsâ Hcp
e-[n-h-kn-¡p¶ Poh-Pm-e-§Ä¡pw kz `£yir-wJe \ne-\n¡p-¶-Xn-eqsS
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 26
{]Ir-Xn-bp-sSbpw Poh-Pm-e-§-fp-sSbpw kzm`m-hn-I-amb PohÂ{]-{In-b-
bn Akzm-`m-hn-Ihpw A\n-b-{´-X-hp-ambn CS-s]-Sp-¶Xpw IS-¶p-I-b-
dp-¶Xpw a\p-jyÀ X-s¶-bm-Wv.- a\p-jy³ Xsâ PohnXw IqSp-XÂ kuI-
cy-{]-Zam-Im\pw t\«-§Ä BÀPn-¡p¶-Xn\pw Dt±-in-¨p-sIm-­m-Wv C{]-
Imcw CS-s]-Sp-¶s- X-¦nepw ]e-t¸mgpw a\p-jysâ \nb-{´-W-¯n\v hg-
§m¯ hn[-apÅ {]Xym-Lm-X-§-fmWv CXp-hgn h¶p-tN-cp-¶Xs{X.

bmWv Cu \nb-{´Ww km[y-am-Ip-¶- kÀ¡mÀ am³ kwc-£-W-tI-{µ-ambn \nb-{´W kwhn-[m-\§


- Ä F{X Bkq-
Xv. Cu {]IrXn X¯-zs¯ ]msS Ah- {]Jym-]n-¨p.- Xm-a-kn-bmsX am\ns\ {XnXw! F´v am{Xw bpàn `{Zw!
K-Wn¨p- sIm­v Irjn¡v tZmj-Ic- a- mbn `£n-¡p¶ {Iqc-ar-K-§-sfsbÃw sIm krjvSn-hy-h-Ø-bnse k´p-e\w
_m[n-¡p-¶ kI-e -Io-S-§-sfbpw hnj- s¶m-Sp-¡n.- A-§s\ am\p-IÄ {Iam-X-o-
{]-tbm-K-¯n-eqsS sIms¶m-Sp¡n IqSp- X-ambn hÀ[-n¨p XpS§n. 1923 Bb-t¸m-
JpÀ-B-\nÂ

XÂ BZmbw t\Sm-sa-¶pÅ a\p-jysâ tg¡pw 2000Â \n¶v Hcp e£-ambn am\p- _mIvSc- obI-fS- ¡apÅ,- AÃm-lp-hn
AXymÀ¯-n C¶v- F¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv IfpsS F®w s]cpIn.- ]ns¶bpw aq¶p- sâ krjvSn-I-sfÃmw `qan-bn \nÝnX-
IuXp-II - c- a- mb Nne bmYmÀY-y§ - f- n-em hÀjw ]n¶n-«-t¸mÄ `£-W-ZuÀ_-ey- amb Nne [Àa-§Ä \nÀh-ln-¡p-¶X - n¶v
Wv. 1960 IfpsS Bcw-`-¯n Btdm ¯m Ah £oWn¨v saen-bm³ XpS- th­n-bmWv krjvSn-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv.
Gtgm X-cw- IoS-§-fpsS ieyw am{X-am §n.- A-tXmsS tcmK-§fpw ]SÀ¶p.- Xm- -{]-]-©-hy-h-Ø-bn Hmtcm Pohnbpw
Wv ]cp-¯n-¡Àj-Isc Ae-«n-bn-cp-¶-Xv.- a-kn-bmsX Ah N¯p-ho-gm³ XpS-§n.- AXn-sâ-Xmb ]¦v \nÀh-ln-¡p-¶p-­v. -
B- IÀj-IÀ- C¶v bp²w sN¿p-¶Xv `q-an-bnse Pohn-I-fpsS k´p-en-Xamb krjvSn hyh-Ø-bnse A\yq-\X-bpw-
120 Hmfw IoS-§-tfm-SmWv. A-h-bn F \ne-\nÂ]-n¶v apJy-]¦ - m-fn-If- mb amwk- k´p-en-XX - zhpw \ne-\n¡p-¶Xv A{]-
gp-]-Xp-Xcw Gähpw hn\m-i-Im-cn-I-fmbn `p-¡p-I-fmb {Iqc-Po-hn-I-fpsS \io-I-c- Im-ca- m-Wv.k
- r-jvSn-kw-hn-[m-\¯- nse Cu
hfÀ¶n-cn-¡p-¶p.- _n.-Sn.-hn-¯p-IÄ Ir W-amWv am\p-I-fpsS Iq«-\m-i-¯n Hcp k´p-en-X-m-h-Ø-bnte¡pÅ kqN
jn sNbvX-Xp-aqew Nne sNdp-Io-S-§Ä Iem-in-¨-Xv''- (hn-Úm\ IuXp-Iw).- \ X¶- b tà ""BIm- i s¯ Ah³
{]Xn-tcm-[-iàn t\Sn h³hn-\m-i-Im-cn- Poho-b-tem-I¯v DÂ]-m-Z-IÀ, D-]- krjvSn-¡p-Ibpw (FÃm Imcy-§-fpw
I-fmbn amdn.- D-Zm-l-c-Wambn ]©m-_n t`m-àm-¡Ä,- hn-Lm-S-IÀ F-¶n-§s\ Xq¡n¡W¡m¡m-\pÅ) Xpemkv (ao-
 s]s«-s¶-¯nb Nn-e- ]pgp-¡Ä ]cp- ap¶p LS-§-fp-­v.- ]-cn-k-c¯v \n¶v km³) Ah³ Øm]n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-
¯n-¸m-S-§Ä \in-¸n-¨p.- C-hsb Xpc- ImÀ_¬ssU HmIvsskUpw Pehpw cn-¡p-¶p''- F¶ JpÀ-B\nI kqà-¯n
¯m³ IÀj-IÀ sNe-hn-«Xv 500 tImSn kzoI-cn¨v {]Im-i-kw-tÇ-jWw \S¯n sâ (55: 7) s]mcpÄ?
cq]bpw (-am-Xr-`qan,- Hm-KÌv 27).- Pohn-IÄ¡m-h-iy-amb `£Ww DÂ]-m- A\-´-tImSn \£-{X-§fpw {Kl-
s\Â]m-S-§-fnepw Irjn-t¯m-«-§- Zn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv DÂ]-m-Z-I-cmb sNSn-I-fm- §fpw D]-{K-l-§fpw AXn-sâ-Xmb
fnepw aäpw Ignª \mev ]Xn-äm­pI Wv. sNSn-IÄ \nÀa-n-¡p¶ `£Ww D]- k©m-c-]-Y-¯neqsS Ncn-¨p-sIm-­n-cn-
Ä¡nS-bn hoX-s¸« S¬I-W-¡n\v tbm-Kn-¡p¶ Pohn-I-fmWv D]-t`m-àm- ¡p-¶p. -Iq-«n-ap-«tem Xmf-`w-Ktam CÃm
amc-I-amb IoS-\m-in-\n-IÄ FÃm IoS- ¡Ä. C-h-bpsS hnkÀPy-§fpw arX-tZ- sX Ah-sbÃmw A{]-Imcw \ne-\n¶v
§-sfbpw ]qÀW-ambpw D·p-e\w sN¿m l-§fpw hnL-Sn-¸n¨v ]cn-k-ct¯mSv t]mcp-¶Xv Ahbv-s¡Ãm IrXy-am-sbm
³ am{Xw aXn-bm-b-Xm-bn-cp-¶p.- ]t£, tNÀ¡p¶ _mIvSo-cn-b-Ifpw ^wK-kp- cp ao-km³ AYhm k´p-e\ hyhØ
Io-S-§Ä IqSp-X {]l-c-ti-jn-tbmsS IfpamWv Pohob kaq-l-¯nse hnLm- \nÝ-bn-¡-s¸-«Xv sIm­m-Wv.
]Xn³a-S§v hÀ[-n¡ - p-¶X
- mWv C¶v \mw S-I³amÀ.-Po-hn-If- psS D]-t`mKw hgn ]cn- -B-Im-i-§-fn-se-¶-t]mse `qan-bn
ImWp-¶Xv! a\p-jysâ icn-bÃ- m¯ CS- k-c-¯n\v \jvS-am-Ip¶sXÃmw hnLm- epw `uam-´-co-£-¯nepw Cu k´p-e-
s]-SÂ hgn kw`-hn-¨n-«pÅ Ak-´p-en- S-I-cpsS hnLm-S\ {]In-b-bn-eqsS {]Ir- \hpw Xmf-{I-ahpw \nÝ-bn-¡s- ¸-«n-«p-­v.
Xm-h-Ø-bmWv IuXp-I-I-c-amb Cu Xn-bn Xs¶ Xncn-s¨-¯p-¶p. -C-§-s\- AXn-s\-bmWv \mw ]cn-Øn-Xn-sb¶v
]cn-W-Xn-bn-se-¯n-¨-Xv. bm-Wv {]IrXn k´p-e\w km[y-am-Ip- hnfn-¡p-¶-Xv. ""-`q-an-bn-ep-Å-sXÃmw Ah
""am\p-Ifpw sN½-cn-bm-Sp-Ifpw aä ¶-Xv.(-I-S-¸mSv: hnÚm\ IuXp-Iw,- ]p- ³ \n§Ä¡mbn krjvSn-¨n-cn-¡p¶p (2:-
t\Iw {Iqc-ar-K-§fpw Hcp-an¨v ]mÀ¯n- dw 95).- 29). `q-an-bn-epÅ kI-e-h-kvXp-¡fpw
cp¶ Ata-cn-¡-bnse Acn-tkm-\-bn-ep {]Ir-Xn-bpsS k´p-enX \ne-\nÂ]n a\p-jy-sâ D]-tbm-K¯ - n\pw kzØ-amb
Å ssI_m_v F¶ {]tZiw 1906  ¶v krjvSn-IÀ¯mhv \nÝ-bn-¨n-«pÅ \ne-\nÂ]-n¶pw D]-bp-à-amb hn[-¯n-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 27
emWv krjvSn-¡-s¸-«Xv F¶mWv CXn aXw hne-¡nb kwK-Xn-IÄs¡Ãmw §-sfÃmw DÄs¡m-Åp-¶p-­v.- A-Ãm-lp-
 \n¶v DÄs¡m-Åm-\m-hp-I. -`q-an-bnse a\p-jy-Po-hn-X-¯n Ime-tZ-i-]-cn-[n- shbpw dkq-en-s\bpw A\p-k-cn-¡p-¶-
Nne-hk - vXp-¡s- fbpw a\p-jy\v {]Xy-£- ¡Ä¡-Xo-X-amb \nXy-{]-k-àn-bp-­v.- XneqsS aX-¯nsâ ASn-Øm\ imk\-
ambn Xs¶ {]tbm-P-s¸-Sp-t¼mÄ aäp-Nn- A-Xn-\m A´y-\mÄ hsc Ahbv-¡v Ifpw \nÀtZ-i-§fpw ]qÀW-ambn ]men-
eXv ]tcm-£-ambn a\pjy\ne-\nÂ]n t`Z-K-Xn-I-fm-h-iy-an-Ã. ¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.- A-t¸mÄ ]ns¶ imk-\m[n-
¶v klm-b-am-Ip-¶-Xm-Wv. F¶m a\p-jy³ Imem-Im-e-§- Im-c-ap-Å-hÀ¡v aX-]-c-amb hnj-b-¯n
]cn-Øn-Xsb¡pdn-¨pÅ Cu ASn- fn A`n-ap-Jo-Ic- n-¨p-hc- p¶ euIn-Ihpw  ]pXnb \nb-a-§Ä \nÀa-n-¡p-hmt\m
Øm\ hnh-c-amWv AXns\ kwc-£n- ]mcn-Øn-Xn-I-hp-amb {]iv\-§fpsS am \ne-hn-ep-Å-XnÂ- t`Z-KXn hcp-¯p-hm
¡p¶-Xn-\m-h-iy-amb \nb-a§Ä- Xs¶ \-§Ä Øe-Ime ka-b-t`-Z-§Ä¡-\p- t\m A[n-Im-c-an-söv a\-Ên-em-¡mw.
\nÀa-n-¡p-¶-Xn\v C¶s¯ `c-W-IqS§ k-cn¨v hyXykvX kz`mhw ]peÀ¯p¶- \n-e-hn-epÅ \nb-a-§sf ]men-¡epw
sf t{]cn-¸n¨p sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv.- ]-cn- Xn\m A¯cw Imcy-§Ä¡v Hcp \n \S-¸m-¡-ep-amWv Ah-cpsS Npa-X-e.- A-
Øn-Xn-bpsS kwc-£-W-sa-¶m a\p- ÝnX\nbaw t\cs¯ D­m-bn-cn-¡p-I- tX-b-h-kcw a\p-jy-kaqlw A`n-ap-Jo-
jysâ kwc-£-W-amsW¶ Xncn-¨-dn- sb-¶Xv A{]m-tbm-Kn-Ihpw A\m-h-iy- I-cn-¡p¶ ]cn-Øn-Xn-{]-iv\-§Ä t]m
hmWv AXn-¶v \nZm-\w. hp-am-Wv.- A-tX-b-h-kcw C¯cw Imcy- se-bpÅ euIn-Ihpw Im-en-Ihpamb
kwc-£Ww aX-Iob ImgvN-¸m-Sn §fn a\p-jy-cpsS kzØ-amb \ne- {]iv\-§-fn {]am-W-§-fn \n¶v a\-
krjvSn-hy-h-Ø-bnse A\yq-\X \nÂ]-n¶v `oj-Wn-bm-sW-¶v imkv{Xo- Ên-em-¡p¶ s]mXp X¯z§Ä¡\p-k-
bpw krjvSn-Pm-e-§Ä X½n-epÅ ]mc- b-ambpw hkvXp-\n-jvTa- mbpw sXfn-bn-¡- cn¨v Ah-iy-amb amÀK-\nÀtZ-i-§Ä
kv]-cyhpw k´p-en-X-Xzhpw hyà-amb s¸« GsXmcp hnj-b¯ - nepw ImtemNn- P\-§Ä¡v \Â-Ie- pw- AXp-hgn P\\·
Hcp imkv{X kXy-am-Wv. -{]-IrXn hyh- Xamb \nb-ah- pw \nb-{´-W§fpw D­m- Dd-¸m-¡epw Ah-cpsS IÀ¯-hy-as{X.
Ø-bn a\p-jysâ sXämb CS-s]-S Im³ `c-W-Ip-S-§Ä¡v Ckvemw A\p- `qan Na-bn-s¨m-cp-¡-s¸-«Xv Xs¶
AXnsâ Xmf-`w-K-¯n\v Imc-W-am-Ip-sa- hm-Zhpw Ah-Im-ihpw \ÂIp-¶p-­v.- A- a\p-jy\v th­n-bm-sW¶v hcp-t¼mÄ
¶-Xpw AXv a\p-jysâ kzØ-amb \ne- {]-Imcw a\p-jysâ kzØ-amb \ne-\n AXn a\p-jyâ CS-s]-S hgntbm
\nÂ]-n¶v Xs¶ lm\n-I-c-am-bn-¯o-cp- Â]-ns\- ap³\n-dp¯n D¯-ch- m-Zs- ¸« `c- atäm D­m-tb-¡m-hp¶ hn\m-i-§sf
sa-¶Xpw Hcp hkvXp-X-bm-Wv.- kr-jvSn- W-Iq-S-§Ä \ÂIp¶ \nÀtZ-i-§fpw sNdp-¡m\pw \nb-{´n-¡m\pw hyàn-]-
hy-h-Ø-bnse Cu k´p-e-\s¯¡pdn \b-a§ - fpw am\n-¡p-hm³ Hmtcm apkven- c-ambn¯s¶ Hmtcm-cp-¯À¡pw _m[y-
¨v JpÀ-B-³ Xs¶ kqN-\-IÄ \ÂIp apw- _m[y-Ø-\-m-Wv. X-bp-­v. Cu kwc-£-W-¨p-a-Xe imk-
¶p-ap­v.- a-\pjysâ PohnX-hy-h-lm-c- ""kXy-hn-izm-kn-Itf,- \n§Ä AÃm- \m-[n-Im-cn-I-fpsS t\Xr-Xz-]-c-amb D¯-
§-fn-seÃmw aX-Io-b-amb \nb-a-§fpw lp-shbpw {]hm-N-I-s\bpw A\p-k-cn- cm-h-Zn-Xzhpw.
a\p-jy-{]-hÀ¯-\-§sf DZm-¯o-I-cn- ¡pI.- \n§-fnse imk-\m-[n-Im-ca- p-ff- h- hyXy-kvX-§-fmb Ime-§-fn a\p-
¡p¶ \nÀtZ-i§ - fpapff ØnXn¡v ]cn- scbpw(D-ep Awdv) A\p-k-cn-¡p-I''- jyÀ¡`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-t¡­n hcp¶ FÃm
ØnXn {]iv\-§Ä t]mse-bpÅ a\p F¶ JpÀ-B³ kqà-¯nse imk-\m- ]pXnb{]iv\-§-fpsSbpw aX-Iob ]cn-
jyPohÂ{]iv\-§-fn aXw F´mWv [n-Im-c-ap-Å-hsc A\p-k-cn-¡m-\p-Å- lm-c-§-fp-sS coXnimkv{Xw C{]-Imcw
\nÀtZin-¡p-¶sX¶v tNmZn-¡p-¶-h- Blzm\¯n C¯cw euIn-I-hn-j-b- Xs¶.
cp­v.
hnizm-k-Im-cy-§-fnse hne-¡p-IÄ
¡v ]pdsa aX-\n-b-a-§Ä {][m-\-ambpw
Du¶p-¶Xv a\p-jyâ \nXyPohn-X-¯n
se D]-tbm-K§ - f- nepw D]-t`m-K§ - f- nepw
Ah³ ]men-t¡­ [mÀa-nI - X- bpw AXp-
t]mse kmaq-ly-Po-hn-X-¯n kl-Po-
hn-I-tfmSv ImWn-t¡­ _m[y-X-bn-ep-
am-Wv.- a-\p-jyâ hyàn-K-Xhpw kmaq-
ln-I-hp-amb kzØ-Po-hn-X-¯n\v `wKw
h-cn-kw-Jy-
hcp-¯p¶ Imcy-§-fmWv aX-Io-b-amb H-cp- hÀ-jw- þ 120 cq-]-
hne-¡p-II - f- p-sSbpw \ntcm-[§
B[mcw. a-Zy-]m\w hyàn-Po-hn-X-s¯
- f- p-sSbpw B-dv- am-kw- þ 60 cq-]-
bpw sIme-]m-X-Ihpw km¼-¯n-I- Ip-ä- H-ä- {]-Xn- þ 10 cq-]-
Ir-Xy-§fpw kaq-l-s¯-bp-amWv {][m-
\-ambpw _m[n-¡p-¶X - v. A
- X- vsIm-­mWv P.B. No. 1981, Vyttila, Kochi- 682 019
Ah-sbÃmw \nbaw aqew \ntcm-[n-¡-
s¸-«-Xpw. Tel: 0484- 2301275

2007 Un-k-w-_À- 28
bYmÀY- -a-Xw
A_q Aao\ _nem ^nen]vkv

Ckvemw Hcp hÀK-¯nsâ t]cn-ep-a-Ã.- Ckvemw bYmÀY-¯nÂ- ssZ-h


¯nsâ- aX-am-Wv.- A-Ãm-lp-hnsâ bYmÀY- a-X-¯nsâ AXn-{]-[m-\-amb
X-¯zs¯bs{X B t]cpÄs¡m-Åp-¶X- v.- A-Ãm-lp-hnsâ XmÂ]-cy-¯n\v
]cn-]qÀWambpw kzbw AÀ¸n-¡pI F¶-Xs{X B t]cpÄs¡m-Åp¶
Bibw. A-d_n- `m-j-bn Ckvemw F¶ ]Z-¯n\v "AÀ¸Ww',- "Iosgm-
Xp-§Â'- Fs¶ms¡-bm-WÀY-w.

Ckvemw aXw ¯nsâ t]cnem-W-dn-b-s¸-Sp-¶Xv;- F-


Ckvemans\¸än BZy-ambn HcmÄ ¶m Ckvemw Hcp hÀK-¯nsâ t]cn-
Adn-ªn-cn-t¡-­Xpw \Ã-t]mse a\- ep-a-Ã.- Ckvemw bYmÀY-¯nÂ- ssZ-h-
Ên- e m- ¡ n- b n- c n- t ¡- ­ Xpw F´mWv ¯n-sâ- aX-am-Wv.- A-Ãm-lp-hnsâ bYm
"Ckvemw'- F¶ ]Z-¯nsâ AÀY-w ÀY- a-X-¯nsâ AXn-{]-[m-\-amb X-¯-z-
F¶-Xm-Wv.- tb-ip-{In-kvXp-hn-\p-tijw s¯bs{X B t]cpÄs¡m-Åp-¶X - v.- A-
{InkvXp-a-X-sa¶pw Ku-X-a-_p-²-\p- Ãm-lp-hnsâ XmÂ]-cy-¯n\v ]cn-]qÀW-
tijw _p²-a-X-sa¶pw I¬^yq-jn-b- ambpw kzbw AÀ¸n-¡pI F¶-Xs{X
Ên\v tijw I¬^yq-jn-b-\n-k-sa¶pw, B t]cpÄs¡m-Åp¶ Bibw. A-d-_n-
Im-d am-Ivkn-\p-tijw amÀIvkn-k- `m-jb- n Ckvemw F¶ ]Z-¯n\v "AÀ
sa¶pw Adn-b-s¸-Sp-¶Xv t]mse Hcp ¸Ww',- "Iosgm-Xp-§Â'- Fs¶m-s¡-bm-
hyàn-bpsS t]cn-eà Ckvemw aXw WÀY-w. H-cmÄ Xsâ FÃm XmÂ]-cy-
Adn-b-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. PqX-aXw PqX-hÀK- §fpw Bcm-[-\-¡Àl-\mb GI-\mb
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 29
AÃm-lp-hnsâ ap¼n ]cn-]qÀW-ambpw \ÂIn-«pÅ t]cs{X AXv.- A-Ãmlp X {]Imcw {]mÀY-n-¡m³ ]Tn-¸n-¨n-«p-­v. ""-
AÀ¸n-¡pI F¶-XmWv Ckvemw.- A- sâ A´n-a-k-tµ-i-amb hnip-²-JpÀ-B- \nsâ lnXw BIm-i-¯n-teXv t]mse
§s\ kÀh-kzhpw AÃm-lp-hn-\p-th \n-eqsS C{]-Imcw {]kvXm-hn-¨n-cn- `qan-bnepw \nÀh-ln-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p''-.
­n ]cn-]qÀW-am-bpw Dgn-ªp-sh-¡p¶ ¡p¶p:- Ckvemansâ ktµ-iw
hyàn-¡mWv "apkven-w'- F¶p ]d-bp-¶- ""C¶v \n§Ä¡v \n§-fpsS aXw HcmÄ Xsâ kÀ-h-hn-[- XmÂ]-cy-§
Xv . - A- à m- l p- h nsâ XmÂ]--c y- ¯ n\v ]qÀ¯o-bm-¡n-¯-¶n-cn-¡p-¶p.- Fsâ fpw ]qÀW-am- bpw AÃm-lp-hnsâ ap¼nÂ
]cn]qÀW-a-mbn Pohn-Xs¯ kaÀ¸n-¡p- A\p-{Klw \n§Ä¡v \mw ]qÀW-am-¡n- kaÀ¸n-¡p-I F - ¶
- X
- mWv Bcm-[\- b
- psS
t¼mÄ e`y-am-Ip¶ "im´n',- "kam-[m ¯-cn-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶p. -a-Xambn A´-ʯ. A-Ãm-lp-hnsâ ]cn-ip-²- a-
\w'- F¶ Bi-bs¯bpw Ckvemw Ckvemans\ \n§Ä¡v \mw Xr]vXn- X-amb Ckvemansâ auen-I-amb ktµ
F¶ ]Z-apÄs¡m-Åp-¶p. -A-t¸mÄ s¸«p Xcn-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶p''- (5:85).- iw AÃm-lp-hns\ am{Xw Bcm-[n-¡pI
Atd-_y-bn Ggmw \qäm-­n {]hm- ""Bsc-¦nepw Ckvemw aX-a-Ãm-¯- F¶Xpw AÃm-lp-h-Ãm¯ GsX-¦nepw
N-I-\mb apl-½Zv (e) ]pXp-Xmbn sIm Xns\ aX-ambn tXSp-¶]- £w AXv Ah- hyàntbm Øetam hkvXpthm e£y-
­p-h¶ Hcp ]pXnbaX-aà Ckvemw. \n \n¶v kzoI-cn-¡-s¸-SpIXs¶-bnà am¡n \S-¯-s¸-Sp¶ FÃm Bcm-[-
adn¨v AÃm-lp-hnsâ bYmÀY- -a-X-¯n Xs¶''- (3:- 85).- \bpw ssIsh-Sn-bpI F¶-Xp-a-s{X.-
sâ ]p\-cm-hn-jvI-cn-¡-s¸« A´n-a-cq-]- FÃm hkvXp-¡-fp-sSbpw {kjvSmhv
amb Htc Hcp aX-as{X AXv. ""C_v-d-mlow blq-Zntbm IrkvXym-
\ntbm Bbncp-¶n-Ã.F¶m Ah³ AÃm-lp-hm-Wv.- A-Ãm-lp-h-Ãm¯ FÃm
BZnaa\p-jy\-pw {]Y-a {- ]-hm-NI - \- p ip²-a\- k - vI\pw apkven-apw Bbn-cp-¶p''- hkvXp-¡fpw AÃm-lp-hnsâ krjvSn-I-
amb BZw(-u ) apX a\p-jy-hÀK- (3:- - -67).- fp-am-Wv. -B-Ibm Bcm-[-\-I-sfÃmw
¯nsâ \·-¡mbn \ntbm-Kn-¡-s¸« F AÃm-lp-hn\v am-{X-sa- AÀ¸n-¡m-hq.- kr-
Ãm {]hm-N-I-·mÀ¡pw \ÂI-s¸« aX-a aqkm \_n(-u )bpsS P\-§-tfm jvSn-IÄ¡mÀ¡pw Xs¶ Bcm-[-\-I-
s{X Ckvemw.- ]n³X-e-ap-d-¡m-cmb aXm- sSm, A-h-cpsS ]n³Km-an-I-tfm-sSm A-h- fÀ¸n-¨p-Iq-Sm.- C-XmWv Ckvemw {]t_m-
\p-bm-bn-I-fm Xocp-am-\n-¡-s¸« Hcp cpsS aXw PqX-a-X-am-sW-t¶m, {InkvXp [\w sN¿p¶ X¯-zw. -B-cm-[-\-¡À
t]cà Ckvemw. AÃm-lp-hnsâ aX- aXm-\p-bm-bn-I-tfmSv Ah-cpsS aXw {In- lX {kjvSm-hmb AÃm-lp-hn\v am{X-
¯n\v AÃmlp Xs¶ sXc-sª-Sp-¯p kvXp-a-X-am-sWt¶m A-Ãm-lp- ]d-ª- am-Wp-ÅX - v.- {]mÀY-\¡- p-¯cw \ÂIp-¶-
Xmbn ss__n-fn Fhn-sSbpw \n§Ä h\pw Ah³ am{X-amWv.
¡v ImWm³ km[y-a-Ã.- b-YmÀY-¯nÂ
{InkvXp-hnsâ t]À {In-kvXp-sht¶m, Po- HcmÄ Hcp hr£-t¯mSv {]mÀYn-¡p-
kkv Ft¶m AÃ.- ]oU-n-X³ F¶ÀYw Ibpw AbmÄ {]mÀYn¨ Imcyw t\Sn
A-§s\ kÀh-kzhpw AÃm-lp-hn-\p- hcp¶ {IntÌmkv(CHRISTOS) F¶ F¶p-an-cn-¡s« . F-¦n t]mepw B
{Ko¡v ]Z-¯nÂ\n-¶mWv CHRIST ({In hr£aà bYmÀY-¯n {]mÀY-\-¡p-
th­n ]cn-]qÀW-am-bpw Dgn-ªp-sh- kvXp-)- F¶-hm-¡nsâ DÂ`hw. lo-{_p ¯cw \ÂIn-bn-«p-Å-Xv. -A-Ãmlp \Â
¡p¶ hyàn-¡mWv "apkven-w'- F¶p `mj-bnse MESSIAH (sa-kn-bm-) F¶ Inb kml-N-cy-¯n-en-cp-¶m-WtÃm A
]d-bp-¶-Xv.- A-Ãm-lp-hnsâ XmÂ]--cy- ]Z-¯nsâ {Ko¡v XÀP-a-bmWv ({In- bmÄ AÃm-lp-th-Xc- t- cmSv {]mÀYn-¡p-¶-
kvXp) F¶Xv.- Pokkv (JESES) F-¶- Xv. -CXv hfsc hyà-atà F¶v \n§Ä
¯n\v ]cn]qÀW-a-mbn Pohn-Xs¯ t]-cv- lo-{_p-t]-cmb (ESAU) tb-ip- tNmZn-t¨-¡pw.- F-¶m Hcp hr£m-cm-
kaÀ¸n-¡p-t¼mÄ e`y-am-Ip¶ "im´n',- (Cu-tim)-F¶ t]cnsâ emän-\o-Ir-X-cq- [-I³ AXp k½-Xn-¡p-I-bn-Ã.-tb-ip-
"kam-[m\w'- F¶ Bi-bs¯bpw ]-am-Wv. thmtSm, _p-²-t\m-tSm,- Ir-j-t\mtSm,-
Cukm(u) \_nsb AYhm tbip sksâ v {InÌ-^-tdmtSm,- skâ v PqtU-
Ckvemw F¶ ]Z-apÄs¡m-Åp-¶p. - {]hm-N-Is\ Rm\n-XnÂ- Pokkv F¶p tbmtSm,- apl-½Zv \_n-tbmSv Xs¶tbm
A-t¸mÄ Atd-_y-bn Ggmw \qäm- hnfn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv F-fp-¸-¯n-\p-th-­n {]mÀYn-¡p-¶-h-cpsS ØnXnbpw CÆn-[-
­n {]hm-NI - \
- mb apl-½Zv (e) bpw At±-l-¯nsâ A\p-bm-bn-IfmÂ- a-s{X.
At±lw hnfn-¡-s¸-«n-cp-¶Xv A{]-Im-c- tbip Hcn-¡epw Xs¶ Bcm-[n-¡-
]pXp-Xmbn sIm­p-h¶ Hcp am-bn-cp¶p F¶Xv sIm­p-am-Wv. W-sa¶v Xsâ A\p-bm-bn-I-tfmSv ]d
]pXnbaX-aà Ckvemw. adn¨v AÃm- At±lw Xsâ ap³Km-an-I-fmb {] ªn-«n-Ã.- A-Ãm-lp-hns\ am{Xw Bcm-
lp-hnsâ bYmÀY- -a-X-¯nsâ ]p\-cm- hm-N-I-·msct¸mse¯s¶ Xsâ P\- [n-¡m-\m-W-t±lw Ah-tcmSp Iev]n-¨p-
§sf X§-fpsS FÃm XmÂ]-cy-§fpw sIm-­n-cp-¶Xv. C-¡mcyw hnip-²-JpÀ-
hn-jvI-cn-¡-s¸« A´n-a-cq-]-amb B\n-eqsS AÃmlp kaÀY-n-¡p-¶p-­v.-
Htc Hcp aX-as{X AXv. AÃm-lp-hn\v kaÀ¸n-¡m\pw(A-XmWv
Ckvemw)-a-\p-jy-k-¦Â]§-fmb FÃm ""A-Ãmlp ]dª kµÀ`w HmÀ¡p-
anYym-ssZ-h-§-sfbpw I-s¿m-gn-¡m-\pam- I. A- t- Ãmb aÀb-ansâ aI-\mb Cukm,-
Wv- {]t_m-[\w sNbvXXpw Xm¡oXv \n-bmtWm P\-§tfmSp ]ª-Xv;- F-s¶
sNbvX-Xpw.-]p-Xnb \nb-a-{]-Imcw Pok bpw Fsâ D½-sbbpw AÃm-lp-hn\v
kv Xsâ A\p-bm-bn-Isf Xmsg¸dbpw ]pdsa Bcm[y·m-cm-¡n-s¡m-Åp-hn³
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 30
F¶v? At±lw ]dªp: \o alm-]c- nip- lp-hn-s\- Bcm-[n-¡Ww,- ZpÀa-q-À¯n-I krjvS-n-IÄ GXp hn[-¯nepw Bcm-[n-
²³ Xs¶.- F\n-s¡m-c-h-Im-i-hp-an-Ãm sf- ssI-sh-Sn-bWw'- F¶ ktµ-i-hp-am ¡-s¸-Sm-Xn-cn-¡p-hm-\p-as{X bm-YÀY-
¯Xv ]d-bp-hm³ F\n¡p ]mSn-ÃtÃm''- bn- \mw {]hm-N-I·m-sc- Ab¨n-«p­vv''- ¯nÂ- AÃm-lp-hnsâ aXw hyà-ambpw
(5:116).- (16:36).- Blz-m\w sN¿p¶-Xv.- C - Xp Xs¶b-s{X
Xs¶ aäp-Å-hÀ Bcm-[n-¨-t¸mÄ a\p-jy-\nÀan-X-amb _nw_-§sf- Ckvemansâ ap{Zm-h-m-Iy-am-b- ""A-Ãm-lp-
t]mepw At±lw AÃm-lpsh am-{X-am- F´n-\mWv \n§Ä B-cm-[n-¡p-¶-sX h-Ãm-sX a-säm-cm-cm-[y-\p-an-Ã''- F¶-Xp-
Wv- B-cm-[n-¨-Xv.- X-s¶-- B-cm-[n-¡-cp-sX- ¶-v _nw_m-cm-[I - t- c-mSv tN-mZ- n-¡s- ¸-«m- Â sIm-­v AÀ-Y-am-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. Cu hm
¶pw- A-Ãm-lp-sh- am{Xsa Bcm-[n-¡m Ah-cn \n¶v- e`-n¡p¶- amä-an-ÃmsX Iyw BhÀ¯n-¡epw XZ-\p-kr-X-amb
hq F¶pw Cukm(u)- ]d-bp-I-bp-­m- adp-]Sn "R§Ä bYmÀY-¯n IÂ{]- \njvI-f-¦-amb hnizm-k-hp-amWv Hcp hn-
bn. Cu ASn-Øm-\ X-¯zw JpÀ-B\n- XnaIsf-bà A-h-bn IpSn-bn-cn-¡p¶ izm-knsb kzÀKm-h-Im-in-bm-¡n-¯oÀ
sâ {]Yam[-ym-b-amb kqdx-^mX-n-l- ssZh-s¯-bmWv B-cm-[-n-¡p-¶Xv'- F ¡p-¶-Xv.
bpsS \memw hmIy¯n-eqsS {]Xn-^en- ¶m-bn-cn-¡pw-.- IÂ{]-Xna bYmÀY-¯n  Ckvemw aX-¯nsâ A´n-a-Z-q-X-\m-
¸n-¡-s¸-«n-«p-­v:- ""\ns¶ am{Xw R§Ä ssZh-söpw ssZh-¯-nsâ kmcmwiw b- apl-½-Zv(-e) {]h-Nn-¨-Xmbn A_q-ZÀ
Bcm-[n-¡p-¶p. \- n-t¶mSv am{Xw R§Ä IpSn-sIm-Åp¶ shdpsamcp tI{µ-_n-µp- dp Kn^m-cn(-y)hn \n¶v _pJm-cnbpw
klmbw tXSp-Ibpw sN¿-¶p''-. -JpÀ-B hm-sW-¶p-amW-h-cpsS hmZw.- GsX-¦n apkven-apw D²cn¨ Hcp Xncp-h-N\w C{]-
\n asäm-cn-S¯v AÃmlp C{]-Imcw epw cq]¯n ssZhw krãn-I-fn Im-ca- m-Wv:- ""A-ÃmlphÃmsX asäm-cm-[y-
]d-ªn-cn-¡p-¶p. ""(tl a\p-jytc) \n Ah-X-cn-¡p¶p F¶ hnizmkw sh¨p \-anà F¶v HcmÄ {]Jy-]n-¡p-Ibpw B
§-fpsS dºv ]d-bp¶p;- \n§Ä Fs¶ ]peÀ¯p-¶hÀ-¡v- Cu hnw_m-cm-[-\m- hnizmkw apdpsI ]nSn¨psIm­v acn-¡p-
hnfn¨p tXSp-hn³.- Rm³ \n§Ä¡v hmZw Aw-Ko-I-cn-¡m³ IS-¸mSp-­m-bn-cn- Ibpw sNbvXm Ah³ kzÀK-¯nÂ
D¯cw \ÂIpw''- (40:60).- ¡pw.- F-¶mÂ--Ckvemansâ ASn-Øm-\- {]th-in¨p Ign-ªp''.- A-Ãm-lp-hnsâ
hfsc {][m-\-s¸« Hcp Im-cyw Chn X-¯z-§fpw hni-Zo-I-c-§fpw a\-Ên-em- FÃm IÂ]-\bpw A\p-k-cn¨p-sIm­v
sS DWÀ¯-s¸-tS-­X - p-­v. A
- Ã- mlphpw ¡nb HcmÄ¡v _nw_m-cm-[\ AtXXv Ah¶-p Iogvs]«v- Pohn-¡p-¶t- Xm-sSm¸w
Ahsâ krjv-Sn-I-fpw hyà-ambpw ]c- cq]-¯n-em-bn-cp-¶mepw F§-s\- \ym-bo- FÃm _lp-ssZ-hm-cm-[-\-I-sfbpw \n
kv]cw hyXy-kvX-amb AkvXn-Xz-§fm I-cn-¡-s¸-«mepw AwKo-I-cn-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡m tj-[n-¡pI F¶-Xpw AÃmlpsh GI-
sW¶p-ÅX - mWv Ckvemansâ ASn-Øm- ³ km[y-a-Ã.- Im-em-Im-e-§-fnÄ kzbw ssZ-ha- mbn AwKo-Ic- n¡p¶Xn DÄs¸-
\- kn-²m´w. A-Ãmlp Ah-sâ krjvSn- Zohy-Xz-w Ah-Im-is- ¸-Sp-¶h- À X§-fpsS -Sp-¶p.
tbm krjvSn-I-fpsS `mKtam AÃ. -A- hnizm-k¯ - n-¶m-[m-ca- mbn kzoI-cn-¡p-¶ hymP-aX ktµiw
{]-Imcw Xs¶ krjvSn-IÄ AÃm-lp- Xv ssZhw a\p-jy-\n Ah-X-cn-¡p¶p temI-¯nÂ- ]e hÀK-§fpw kwkv
shm A-Ãm-lp-hnsâ `mKtam AÃ.- CXv F¶ sXämb Nn´m-K-Xn-bm-Wv. Ah-cp
hfsc hyI-X-amb Hcp Imcy-am-Wv. ] sS Cu sXämb hnizm-k-a-\p-k-cn¨v ssZ
t£, a\p-jy-cn ]ecpw {kjvSm-hns\ hw -F-Ã-m-h-cnepw Ah-X-cn-¡p-¶p-sh-¦n
Bcm-[n-¡p-¶-Xn\v ]Icw krjvSn-Isf  asä-Ã-m-h-sc-¡m-fp-ap-]cn X§-f-n X
Bcm-[n-¡p-¶Xv Hcp henb Af-thmfw s¶ ssZhw- Ah-X-cn-¡p-sa¶v AhÀ¡p-
Cu hkvXpX a\-Ên-em-¡m-¯Xn-sâ d-¸n-¡m-hp-¶XmWv. -A-Xm-bXv AhÀ GsX-¦nepw cq]¯n ssZhw
^e-am-bm-Wv.- A-Ãm-lp-h-nsâ kmcmwiw Xs¶ ssZh-ambn- Ah-X-cn-¨n-cn-¡p¶p krãn-I-fn Ah-X-cn-¡p¶p F¶
Ahsâ krjvSn-I-fn FÃmbnS-¯pap F¶ \nebvt- ¡m,- ssZhw Ah-cn Ah-
­v Ft¶m AsÃ-¦n Nne krjvSn-Ifn X-cn-¨n-«p-s­¶ \nebv-t¡m X§-fpsS hnizmkw sh¨p ]peÀ¯p-¶hÀ-¡v-
 Ahsâ km¶n[yw Ds­t¶m DÅ kÀh--XmÂ]-cy-§fpw Ah-cpsS ap¼n Cu _-nw_m-cm-[\ - m-hmZw Aw-Ko-Ic- n-
hnizm-k-amWv krjvSn-I-sf Bcm-[n-¡p- AÀ¸n-¨p-sIm­v Ahsc Bcm-[n-¡s- W- ¡m³ IS-¸mSp-­m-bn-cn-¡pw.-
¶-Xn-\pÅ \ymb-ambn Fgp¶Ån-¡s- ¸- ¶-h-Im-i-s¸-Sp-I-bm-Wp-­m-b-Xv.- A-§
Sm-dp-Å-Xv.- kr-jvSn-IÄ aptJ\ AÃm-lp- s\ aäp-Å-h-cpsS acWm\-´cw Ah-cn F-¶mÂ- C-kvemansâ ASn-Øm-\-X-
hn-\pÅ Bcm-[-\-bmbn A¯cw Bcm-  ZnhyXzw- AwKo-Ic- n-¨h- À a\p-jy-\n ¯z-§fpw hni-Zo-Ic- § - fpw a\-Ên-em-
[-\sb hnti-jn-¸n-¡-s¸-Sm-dp-ap-­v.- F- ssZhw Ah-X-cn-¡p-¶p-sh¶ sXämb ¡nb HcmÄ¡v _nw_m-cm-[\
§-s\-bm-bmepw Ckvemansâ ktµiw hni-zmkw sh¨p ]peÀ¯p-¶-hÀ¡-n-S-bn
{]hm-N-I³amÀ ]Tn-¸n-¨-X-\p-k-cn¨v A Â \Ã ^e-k-¼p-jv-S-amb a®mWv I AtXXv cq]-¯n-em-bn-cp-¶mepw
Ãm-lp-hns\ am{Xw Bcm[n-¡pI F¶ s­-¯n-b-Xv. F§-s\- \ym-bo-I-cn-¡-s¸-«mepw
Xpw AÃmlp-hnsâ krjvSnIsf t\cn- Ckvemansâ ASn-Øm\ kµ-i-§-
t«m A- Ã- msXtbm Bcm-[n-¡m-Xn-cn-¡pI AwKo-Ic- n-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡m³ km[y-aÃ- .-
F¶-Xp-am-Wv. fpw kn²-m-´-§fpw DÄs¡m-­ Hcp hy
àn¡v Hcn-¡ep-w Hcp kml-Nc- y-¯nepw
AÃmlp JpÀ-B-\n³ hyà-ambn Hcp a\p-jys\ Bcm-[n-¡pI F¶Xv
{]kvXm-hn-¡p¶p-:- ""XoÀ-¨-bmbpw FÃ-m AwKo-I-cn-¡m³ km[y-ta-b-Ã. -kr-jvSn-
Hmtcm kam-Z-b-¯nepw "\n§Ä- AÃm- IÀ¯m-hns\ am{Xw Bcm-[-n-¡p-hm\-pw
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 31
Im-c-§fpw aX-§fpw {]Xy-b-im-kv{X- Npcp-¡-¯n ssZhw Xsâ krjvSn- Sm-dp-­v. a-dp-]Sn H¶p-am-{X-ta-bp-Åp.- G-
§fpw {]Øm-\-§-fpw \ne-hn-ep-­v.- I-fpsS cq]-¯n Bcm-[n-¡-s¸-SpI ähpw henb ]m]-amb krjvSn-]q-Pb - s{X
Ah Hmtcm-¶pw Ah-Im-i-s¸-Sp-¶Xv F¶-XmWv hymP-aXktµ-i-§-fpsS FÃm hymP-a-X-§fpw ]Tn-¸n-¨p-sIm-­n-
icn-b-mb amÀKw X§-fptS-Xm-sWt¶m, ASn-Ø-\-sa¶v ]d-bm-hp-¶-Xm-Wv.- kr- cn-¡p-¶Xv F¶-Xm-WXv. -a-\p-jys\
A-Ãm-lp-hn-¦-te-¡pÅ kXyamb amÀ jvSn-I-sftbm, kr-jvSn-I-fpsS Nne cq]- krjvSn-¨n-«pÅXnsâ Dt±-iy- -e-£y§
Kw X§-fptSXv am{Xam-sWt¶m BWv.- `mh-§-sftbm ssZh-ambn k¦-ev]n- Ä¡v XnI¨pw IS-I-hn-cp-²-amb Gähpw
G-XmWv icn-sb¶v HcmÄ¡v F-§s\ ¡pI hgn krjvSn]qP-bn-te-¡mWv hym- henb alm-]m-]-as{X krjvSn-]q-P-bn-eq
Xocp-am-\n-¡m³ Ignbpw? AsÃ-¦n P- a - X - § - Ä Hmtcm¶pw a\p- j ys\ sS a\p-jy³ sN-¿p-¶-Xv.- A-Ãm-lp-sh-
Ah- s bÃmw bYmÀY- ¯ n icn- b m £Wn¨v sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. -D-Zm-l-c-W- am-{Xw- B-cm-[n-¡p-hm-\m-Wv- a-\p-jy³-
tWm? D¯cw I­-¯m³ Htcsbmcp ambn,- {]hm-N-I³ tbip AÃm-lp-hns\ krjvSn-¡-s¸-«n-«p-ÅXv F¶v ]cn-ip-²-
t]mwh-gn-bm-Wp-ÅXv.- ]-c-a-amb kXy- am{Xw Bcm-[n-¡m-\mWv Xsâ A\p-bm- JpÀ-B-\n AÃmlp hyà-ambn {]kv
¯nsâ-Xmbn, Hm-tcm-cp-¯cpw Ah-Im-i- bn-Isf apgp-h³ £Wn¨-Xv.- F-¶m Xm-hn-¨n-«p-­v:-
s¸-Sp¶ X¯-z-kw-ln-X-I-fpsS D]cn-Xe At±-l-¯nsâ A\p-bm-bn-IÄ F¶v ""Pn¶p-Is- fbpw a\p-jy-scbpw AhÀ
hyXym-k§ - Ä a\-Ên-em-¡p-Ibpw Hmtcm- Ah-Im-i-s¸-Sp-¶-hÀ C¶v tbip-hns\ Fs¶ am{Xw Bcm-[n-¡p-¶X - n\v th­n
cp-¯cpw t\cnt«m AÃm-sXtbm hnfn¨p ¯s¶ ssZh-am-¡n-s¡m­v At±-l- b-ÃmsX Rm³- krjvSn-¨n-Ã''- (51:56).-
{]mÀY-n-¡p¶ apJy Bcm-[y-hkvXp s¯ Bcm-[n-¡p-I-bmWv sNbvXp-sIm- AXp-sIm­mWv _nw_m-cm-[-\-bp
GXm- s W¶p aÊn- e m- ¡ p- I bpas{X ­n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. sS kmcmw-ia- mb krjvSn-]qP Hcn-¡epw
AXv.- FÃm hymP-aX-§Ä¡pw AÃm- {io_p-²³ `mc-XobcpsS aX-¯n- s]mdp-¡-s¸-Sm¯ alm-]m-]-ambn KWn-
lpsh kw_-Ôn¨ s]mXp-hmb Hc-Sn- te¡v [mcmfw am\p-jnI aqey-§-f-S- ¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv.-krjvSn]qP-bn-embns¡m
Øm\ k¦-ev]-ap-­v.- NneÀ FÃm a\p- §p¶ X¯-z§ - Ä Iq«nt¨À¯v ]cn-jvI- ­v HcmÄ acn-¨p-t]m-bm ASp¯ Pohn-
jycpw ssZh-§fmWsW¶v k¦-ev]n- cWw hcp-¯nb Hcp ]cn-jvIÀ¯m-hm- X-¯nse Abm-fpsS ZpÀh-[n ap{ZWw
¡p-¶p.- NneÀ {]IrXnbmWv ssZh-sa- bn-cp¶p. At±lw kzbw ZnhyXzw Ah- sN¿-s¸«p Ign-ªp.- CXv shdp-sam-c-`n-
\\v k¦-ev]n-¡p-¶p. -thsd Nne-cm-I-s« Im-i-s¸-S-p-Itbm, Xsâ A\p-bm-bn-I- {]m-b-a-Ã.- a-dn¨v AÃmlp a\p-jyÀ¡v
NneÀ sI«n-¨-a-¨-Xns\ ssZh-am-bn k¦- tfmSv Xs¶ Bcm-[y-h-kvXp-hm-¡m³ \ÂInb A´n-a-sh-fn-]m-Smb JpÀ-B-
ev]n-¡p-¶p. D]-tZ-in-¡p-Itbm sNbvXn«nÃ.- F-¶m \n AÃmlp t\cn-«-cp-fn-bn-«pÅ kXy-
`mc-¯nsâ ]pd¯v I­p-h-cp¶ _p²- a-s{X:-
a-Xm-\p-bm-bn-If- n-e[- n-Ihpw {io_p-²s\ ""-\n-Ýb
- a- mbpw AÃm-lp-hn-t\mSv ]¦v
Bcm-[y-h-kvXp-¡sf Xncn-¨-dn-bp¶-Xn- ssZh-am-¡p-Ibp-w At±-l-¯nsâ {]Xn- tNÀ¡p-¶Xv Ah³- s]mdp-¡p-I-bn-Ã.-
\pÅ X¯-z§ - Ä {]mtbm-Kn-I-am-¡p- a-I-fp-­m-¡n Ah-bv-¡p-ap-¼n kmjv A-Xn\p ]pdsabpÅXv Ah-\p-t±-in-¡p-
SmwKw \an-¨psIm-­n-cn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p- ¶-hÀ¡v Ah³ s]mdp-¯p-sIm-Sp-¡pw''-
¶-tXmsS hymP-a-X-§-fpsS ad \o¡- ¶p.-A-t±-l-¯nsâ {]oXn Ic-Ø-am-¡m- (4:48,116)
s¸-Sp-Ibpw Ah-bpsS DÛ-h¯ - nsâ \mWsX¶mWhcpsS [mcW. Ckvemansâ kmÀh-{Xn-I-Xzw

Bkq-{XnX kz`mhw shfn-¡p-hc- n- Bcm-[y-h-kvXp-¡sf Xncn-¨-dn-bp¶- hymP-a-X-§-fpsS A\-´-c-^-e-§-Ä


Ibpw sN¿pw.- A-Ãmlp ]d-bp¶p: Xn-\pÅ X¯-z-§Ä {]mtbm-Kn-I-am-¡p- AXy´w `bm-\-I-am-Wv.- A-Xn-\mÂ
¶-tXmsS hymP-aX - §- f- psS ad \o¡-s¸- AÃm-lp-hnsâ kXy-aXw kmÀh-{Xn-I-
" \n§-fpw \n§-fpsS ]nXm-¡fpw Sp-Ibpw Ah-bpsS DÛ-h-¯nsâ Bkq- ambn kp{Km-lyhpw kpkm-[y-hp-am-bn-cn-
kzbw \ma-Ic- Ww sNbvX Nnesc {XnX kz`mhw shfn-¡p-h-cn-Ibpw sN t¡-­-Xm-Wv.- G-sX-¦nepw Hcp {]tXyI
am{X-amWv \n§Ä Bcm-[n-¡p-¶-Xv.- ¿pw.- A-Ãmlp ]d-bp¶p: ""\n§-fpw P\-hn-`m-K-¯nt\m, {]-tZ-i-¯n-t\m,- Im-
\n§-fpsS ]nXm-¡fpw kzbw \ma-I- e-L-«-¯n-t\m am-{X-am-bn-«p-Å-Xm-bncn
AXv kw_-Ôn¨v bmsXmcp tcJbpw cWw sNbvX Nnesc am{X-amWv \n§Ä ¡m\pw ]mSn-Ã.- Hcp kXy-hn-izmknbpsS
AÃmlp Cd-¡n-bn-«n-Ã.- B Xo-cp- Bcm-[n-¡p-¶-Xv.- AXv kw_-Ôn¨v kzÀK-{]-th-i-\-¯n\p Úm\-kv\m-\-
am\w AÃm-lp-hn\v am{X-am-Wp-Å-Xv.- bmsXmcp tcJbpw AÃmlp Cd-¡n-bn- IÀa-tam, G-sX-¦nepw Hcp a\p-jys\
«n-Ã.- B Xo-cp-am\w AÃm-lp-hn\v am{X- c£-I-\mbn AwKo-I-cn-¡pI F¶tXm
A-h-s\-b-ÃmsX \n§Ä Bcm-[n-¡- am-Wp-Å-Xv.- A-h-s\-b-ÃmsX \n§Ä t]mse-bpÅ bmsXmcp \n_-Ô-\bpw
cp-sX¶v Ah³ Iev]n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶p.- Bcm-[n-¡-cp-sX¶v Ah³ Iev]n-¨n-cn- XS-Ê-am-bn-cn-¡q-Sm-¯p-am-Wv.- Ckveman
A-XmWv sNmÆmb aXw. ]t£, ¡p-¶p.- A-XmWv sNmÆmb aXw. ]t£, sâ ASn-Øm-\-X-¯-z-§-fnepw kÀh-kz
A-[nIP-\hpw Adn-bp-¶n-Ã''-(12:40).-- hpw AÃm-lp-hn-¶À¸n-¡p¶p F¶ Ckv-
A[nIP-\hpw Adn-bp-¶n-Ã' .- FÃm aX-§fpw ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶Xv \à e-m-ansâ \nÀh--N-\-¯n Xs¶bpw
Imcy-§fmWtÃm, F´n-\mWv GsX-¦n AXnsâ kmÀh-{Xn-I-Xz-¯nsâ ASn-th-
epw Hcp aXw Xs¶ \mw ]n´p-S-c-W- cp-IÄ DÄs¡m-­n-«p­v. A-Ãmlp GI-
sa¶Xv ]-d-bp-¶-Xv- F¶v tNmZn-¡-s¸- \m-sW¶pw Ah³ Xsâ krjvSn-I-fnÂ
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 32
\n¶v XnI¨pw hn`n-¶-\m-sW¶pw hniz- h-cp-sS- k-´m-\-§-sf- -]p-d-¯p-sIm-­p- Ah-cpsS- Ipªp-§Ä AX-Xnsâ {]Ir-
kn-¡pIbpw Xsâ kÀh--kzhpw AÃm- h-cn-Ib- pw- A
- h- c- p-sS- Im-cy-¯nÂ- Ahsc X-¯n\v Xs¶ P·w \ÂIp-¶Xv t]m
lp-hn¶pth­n AÀ¸n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p- ¯-s¶- A-h³- km-£n-\nÀ-¯p-Ib - pw- sN- se GsX-¦nepw arK-¡pªv h{I {]Ir-
¶-tXmsS HcmÄ imco-cn-I-ambpw am\- bv-X k-µÀ-`hp-w- (HmÀ-¡p-I)-.- (A-Ãmlp Xn-tbmsS P\n¨p hogp-¶Xv \n§Ä
kn-I-ambpw apkv-en-am-bn-¯o-cp-Ibpw Ah-tcmSv tNmZn¨p:-)- ""Rm³ \n§-fpsS I­n-«pt­m?''- (_p-Jm-cnbp-w apkven-apw
kzÀKv¯-n-¶-h-Im-in-bm-bn-¯o-cp-Ibpw ssZh-a-Ãtbm?''- A-hÀ- ]-d-ªp-:- ""AsX,- D²-cn-¨-Xv).-
sN¿p-I-bm-Wv. -A-t¸mÄ GsXm-cmÄ R-§Ä- km£yw hln-¨n-cn-¡p-¶p''-.- AÃmlp {]Ir-Xn-bn \nÝ-bn-¨n-«p
¡pw Ft¸mÄ thW-sa-¦nepw temI-¯n F-´n-\mWv a\p-jyhÀKs¯ H¶- Å {]IrXn \nb-a-§Ä¡v imco-cn-I-
se GXp hnZqctZi¯v sh¨pw apkven- S¦w Hcp-an-¨p-Iq-«n AÃm-lp-hmWv Ah- ambn Hcp Ip«n hnt[-b-am-Ip-¶p-sh-¦nÂ
am-Im³ Ign-bpw;- ssZhn-I-a-X-amb Ckv cpsS {kjvSm-sh¶pw Ah³ am{X-amWv A{]-Imcw Xs¶ AÃm-lp-hmWv Xsâ
emansâ A\p-bm-bn-bm-Im³ Ign-bpw.- Ah-cpsS Bcm-[-\-¡Àl-s\¶pw Ah- {kjvSmhpw c£n-Xm-hp-sa¶ hkvXp-
krjvSn]qP ssIshSn-bp-Ibpw AÃm-lp- sc-s¡m­v km£y-s¸-Sp-¯n-¨-Xv F-¶v X¡v am\-kn-Iambpw Ah³ hnt[-b-am-
hn-t\mSv am{Xw hnt[-bXzw ]peÀ¯p- AÃmlp XpSÀ¶v hnh-cn-¡p-¶p:- tI-­Xv kzm`m-hnIw am{X-am-Wv.- ]t£,-
Ibpw thW-sa¶p am{Xw. ChnsS c­p- ""Xo-¨b- m-bpw- R§Ä CXns\¸än {i- Ip«nbpsS c£n-Xm-¡Ä {ian-¡p-¶Xv
Imcyw HmÀan-t¡-­-Xp-­v.- A-Ãm-lp- ²-bn-Ãm-¯-h-cm-bn-cp-¶p-''- -F¶v D-bnÀ- Ah³ X§-fpsS Xs¶ ]mc-¼-cy-§sf
hns\ a\-Ên-em-¡p-Ibpw Ah¶p ap¼n s¯-gp-t¶Â-]n-sâ- \mfn \n§Ä ]d- ]n´p-S-cm-\m-bn-cn¡pw. F-¶m Ip«n¡v
 kÀh-kzhpw AÀ¸n-¡p-Ibpw sN-¿p- tª-¡pw- F-¶-Xn-\m-em-W-v (A-§-s\- Ahsâ hfÀ¨-bpsS BZy-L-«-§-fnÂ
¶Xv kXyhpw Ak-Xyhpw X½n hI sN-bv-X-Xv).''- Xsâ c£n-Xm-¡-fpsS CwKn-Xs¯
Xncn¨p sXc-sª-Sp-¡p¶Xn\v t{]c-I- -A-Xm-bXv AÃm-lpth,- \o R§-fp sNdp¯p \n¡mt\m FXnÀ¡mt\m
am-Ip-¶p.- C-¯-c-¯n-epÅ Hcp sXc- sS ssZh-am-sW¶v- R§Ä¡-dn-hn-Ãm-bn- DÅ {XmWn th­{X D­m-bn-cn-¡p-I-
sª- S p¸v D¯- c - h m- Z n- X z- s ¯bmWv cp-¶p. -\n-s¶ -am-{X-amWv Bcm-[n-t¡-­- bn-Ã. Cu Ah-Ø-bn Ip«n kzoI-cn-
kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv.- C-{]-Imcw D¯-c-hm-Zn- sX¶v- R§-tfmSm-cpw- ]d-ªn-cp-¶nà ¡p-¶Xv BNm-chpw hfÀ¯p-io-e-§-fp-
Xz-t¯m-Sp-IqSn sXc-sª-Sp¸v \S-¯p¶ F¶v \n§Ä ]d-bm-Xn-cn-¡m³ F¶v am-bn-cn-¡pw.- A-t¸m-gs¯ Ahs³d- aXw
HcmÄ Xsâ Ign-hnsâ ]c-am-h[n \·- kmcw.- A-Ãmlp XpSÀ¶v ]d-bp-¶p:- AÃmlp IW-¡n-se-Sp-¡p-Itbm AXn
sN-¿m\pw Xn· shSn-bm\pw {ian-t¡- sâ t]cn AÃmlp Ahs\ in£n-
­-Xm-Wv. ""A-sÃ-¦n "ap¼v Xs¶ R§fp-sS- £n-¡p-Itbm CÃ.
AÃm-lp-hns\ am{Xw Bcm-[n-¡p-I- ]qÀ-h-]nXm-¡Ä A-Ãm-lp-th-m-Sv- ]-¦p- bYmÀY-¯n ssZhw Ht¶-bpÅp
bmWv ]c-a-amb \·.- A-Ãm-lp-hn-t\m- tNÀ-¯n-cp-¶p.- R - § - Ä Ah-À¡ - p- ti-jw-
sSm-¸tam Ah-\p-]-I-c-amtbm krjvSn- k´Xn-]-c-¼-c-I-fm-bn- h-¶-hÀ- am{X-
Isf Bcm-[n-¡pI F¶Xv ]c-a-amb amWv. F-¶n-cn-s¡- B Ak-Xy-hm-Zn-IÄ-
{]-hÀ-¯n-¨-Xn-s³d- -t]-cnÂ- \o R§sf hyXykvX kml-Nc- y-§f- nepw hnhn[
Xn·-bp-a-s{X.- \in-¸n-¡p-I-bmtWm'- F¶v- \n§Ä- ]d- kaq-l-§-fnepw hn`n-¶ -kw-kvIm-c-§-
AÃm-lpsh Xncn-¨-dn-b tª-¡pw- F-¶-Xn-\mÂ''-. fnepw IgnªpIqSp¶ FÃm a\p-jy
hyXykvX kml-N-cy-§-fnepw hnhn At¸mÄ GsXmcp Ipªpw P\n¨v
[ kaq-l-§-fnepw hn`n-¶ -kw-kvIm-c- hogp-¶Xv kl-P-amb ssZh-hn-izm-k- cpw IqSn AÃm-lp-hn hniz-kn-¡p-
§-fnepw IgnªpIqSp¶ FÃm a\p-jy t¯mSv IqSnbpw A-Ãm-lp-hn-s\ am{Xw sa¶v F§s\ {]Xym-in¡mw
cpw IqSn AÃm-lp-hn hniz-kn-¡p-sa¶v Bcm-[n-¡p¶-Xn-\pÅ A\p-Iqe{]Ir- Fs¶mcp tNmZyw ChnsS DbÀ¶p-h-
F§s\ {]Xym-in¡mw Fs¶mcp tNm Xn-tbm-Sp- IqSn-bp-a-s{X. CXn\v Ad-_n- cp-¶p-­v.- FÃm a\p-jycpw AÃm-lp-
Zyw ChnsS DbÀ¶p-h-cp-¶p-­v.- FÃm `m-j-bn ]d-bp-¶Xv ^nXzvdXv AYhm
a\p-jycpw AÃm-lp-hns\ Bcm-[n-¡m³ ip²-{]-Ir-Xn F¶m-Wv. hns\ Bcm-[n-¡m³ IS-s¸-«h - s- c-¶
IS-s¸-«h- s- c-¶ \nebv¡ - v AÃm-lp-hns\ Hcp Ip«nsb X\nsb hnSp¶ ]£w \nebv¡- v AÃm-lp-hns\¡pdn¨v a\-
¡pdn¨v a\-Ên-em-¡n-bn-cn-¡Â A\n-hm- Ah³ Xsâ-Xmb coXn-bn AÃm-lp Ên-em-¡n-bn-cn-¡Â A\n-hm-cy-a-s{X.
cy-a-s{X. FÃm -a-\p-jy-hn-`m-K-¯nepw sh Is­-¯n-s¡m-Åpw. H- mtcm Ip«nbpw
AÃm-lpsh¡pdn-¨pÅ ss\kÀK-n-I- Ah-\-hsâ Npäp-apÅ Zriyhpw AZr- FÃm -a-\p-jy-hn-`m-K-¯nepw AÃm-
t_m[w \ne-\n¡p-¶p-s­¶pw AX- iy-hp-amb Imcy-§f- m kzm[o-\n-¡s- ¸- lpsh¡pdn-¨pÅ ss\kÀK-nI - -
hÀ krjvSn-¡-s¸« ip²-{]-Ir-Xn-bpsS Sp-I-bm-Wv. t_m[w \ne-\n¡p-¶p-s­¶pw
t\«-am-sW-¶p-amWv JpÀ-B³ DÂtLm- \-_n-Xn-cp-ta-\n(-e) ]-dª - p-:- ""G-sXm
jn-¡p-¶-Xv. AX-hÀ krjvSn-¡s- ¸« ip²-{]-Ir-Xn-
cp iniphpw ^nXzvdx- F¶ ip²-{]-Ir-
JpÀ-B³- 7:172,173 kqà-§-fn Xn-bn-emWv P\n-¡p¶Xv.- ]n-¶oSv Ah bpsS t\«-am-sW-¶p-amWv JpÀ-B³
AÃm-lp- hn-hc- n-¡p-¶X - n-{]-Im-ca- m-Wv:"- "\n- sâ amXm-]n-Xm-¡-fmWv Ahs\ PqX- DÂtLm-jn-¡p-¶X - v.
s³d- c-£n-Xm-hv- BZw- k-´-Xn-I-fnÂ- t\m, {In-kvXym-\ntbm, skucmjv{S-a-X-
\n¶v,- A-h-cp-sS- ap-Xp-Ip-I-fnÂ- \n-¶v- A- Ø-t\m B¡n-¯oÀ¡p-¶-Xv.- ar-K-§Ä
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 33
IqSp¶ {]mIrXhÀK¡m-cmb Hcp P\X Xbpw t{]mÕm-ln-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn-\p-th­n
Ah-cpsS apJy-hn-{K-l-amb kvIzm«ns\ FÃm tZi-§-fn-epw kap-Zm-b-§-fnepw
bYmÀY-¯n ssZhw Ht¶-bpÅp {]Xn-jT-n-¡p-¶-Xn¶-mbn Hcp ]pXnb ap¼v \mw ]d-ª-t]mse {]hm-N-I-·mÀ
sh-¶v- t_m[yw hc-¯¡ - h®w IpSn ]Wn-Xp. k - Àh-kr-jvSn-Pm-e§- fp \ntbm-Kn-¡s- ¸-«n«p­v.- A-{]-Imcw Xs¶
sSbpw ]c-ta-iz-cs\ {]Xn-\n-[m\w Znhy-k-Xy-§sf {]_-e-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn-
a\p-jy-sâ P\\w apXÂ acWw sN¿p-¶-Xm-bn-cp¶p B hn{K-lw. -A-Sp- \p-th-­n-bpÅ ZrjvSm-´§ - Ä AÃmlp
hscbpÅ Hmtcm L«-§fnepw `qan- ¯-Zn-hkw Hcp sNdp-¸-¡m-c³ ssZh shfn-s¸-Sp-¯n-s¡m-­n-cp-¶n-«pap­v.- F-
bpsS A\Xn hnZq-ct- a-Je- I
- f- nepw s¯ {]W-an-¡p-¶X - n-\mbn B IpSn-en ¦nepw an¡ {]hm-N-I-·m-cp-sSbpw in£-
{]th-in-¨p.- hn-{K-l-\nÀa-m-Xmhpw ]qPm- W-§Ä an¡-t¸mgpw hnIr-X-am-¡-s¸-Sp-
Ah-cpsS kz´w Bßm-¡f- nepw cnbpw ]Tn-¸n¨ {]Imcw sNdp-¸-¡m-c³ I-bmWp­m-b-Xv.- i-cn-bpw sXäpw Nq­n-
[mcmfw ZrjvSm-´§ - Ä a\p-jyÀ¡v [ym\-¯n apgp-In-bn-cn-¡sh sNmdn ¡m-Wn¨psIm­v Npcp¡w Nne `mK-
ZÀin-¡p-hm³ Ign-bpw.- a-\p-jyÀ Ah- ]nSn¨v sNÅv Ibdnb Hcp Ing-h³ ]«n §Ä C¶pw \ne-\n¡p-¶p-ap-­v.- Xu-
IpSn-en-te-¡v Ibdnh-¶p.- sN-dp-¸¡- m-c³ dm-¯nse ]¯p-I-ev]-\-IÄ, kp-hn-ti-
cpsS kz´-t¯mSv \oXn ]peÀ¯p- apJ-ap-bÀ¯n t\m¡n-b-t¸mÄ ]«n ]n³ j-§-fnse (C©oÂ) Ah-bpsS Ønco-
Ibpw anYym-ssZ-h-§-sf-sbÃmw Xnc- Im-ep-bÀ¯n hn{K-l-¯n\p apI-fn I-c-W-§Â, hy`nNmcw,- sIm-e,-tam-
kvI-cn-¡p-Ibpw AÃm-lpsh I-s­- aq{X-sam-gn-¡p-¶-XmWv I­-Xv. A]-am- jWw F¶o Ipä-Ir-Xy-§Äs¡-Xnsc
\n-X-\mb sNdp-¸-¡m-c³ ]«nsb tZhm- an¡ kaq- l - § - f nepw C¶v \ne-
¯p-Ib - pw sN¿p-I-bm-sW-¦n hgn e-b-¯n \n¶pw ]pd-¯m-¡n.- ]t£, \n¡p¶ in£m-\n-b-a-§Ä F¶nh
hfsc Ffp-¸-am-bn-«-hÀ¡\p` A-hsâ tcmjw sI«-S-§n-b-tXmsS Hcp DZm-l-c-W-§-f-s{X.
hs¸Spw. -a-dn¨v AÃm-lp-hnsâ Imcyw Ah¶p t_m[y-s¸-«p. Cu hn{K AXn-\m AÃm-lp-hn hniz-kn-
lw Hcn-¡epw {]]-©\- m-Y\- m-Im³ sIm ¡phm\pw Ahsâ Xmev]cy§Ä¡p
ZrjvSm-´§ - sf XpSÀ¨bmbn AhÀ Åp-I-bn-sÃ-¶v;- A-Ãmlp asä-hn-sStbm th­n Xsâ kÀh-kzhpw AÀ¸n-¨p-sIm
XÅn-¡-f-bp-Ibpw krjvSn-Isf BWp-Å-sX¶v.- C-t¸mfh¶v c­n-sem ­v Ckvemw aXw kzoI-cn-¡p-hm\pw
Bcm-[n-¡p-¶Xv XpSÀ¶p sIm­n-cn- ¶v sXc-sª-Sp-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv.- kz´w FÃm-hcpw IS-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-I-bm-Wv.
A\p-`-h-¯n \n¶v a\-Ên-em¡nb-X- atlm-¶-X\mb AÃmlp \ap¡v
¡p-I-bp-am-sW-¦n AhÀ¡v c£- \p-k-cn¨v {]hÀ¯n-¡p-Ibpw AÃm-lp
sh I-s­-¯p-I-bpw- sN¿p-I.- A-sÃ- ImWn¨p X¶n«pÅ t\cmb amÀK-¯n-
s¸-Sm³ hfsctbsd hnj-an-t¡­n eqsS \s½ \bn¡phm\pw Ahsâ ]c-
hcpw ¦n Im]-Sy-t¯msS Xsâ {]mIrX hÀ a-amb Imcp-Wy-¯n\v \s½ AÀl-cm-
K-¯nsâ AÔ-hn-izm-k-¯n Xs¶ ¡n-¯oÀ¡p-hm\pw \mw Ah-t\mSv {]mÀ
XpSÀ¶p t]mhp-I. A - XnhnNn-{X-amb B Y-n-¡p-¶p. -A-h³ ]c-a-Im-cp-Wn-I-\-s{X.-
Zriyw B sNdp-¸-¡m-c-\p-th­n AÃm kÀh-kvXp-Xnbpw \µnbpw AÃm-lp-hn-
lp GÀs¸-Sp-¯nb Hcp ZrjvSm-´-am-bn- ¶p-am{Xw. kÀh-tem-I-¯nsâbpw c£n-
sh¶v t_m[yw hc-¯-¡h®w a\p-jy- cp-¶p.- A-h³ CXphsc Bcm-[n-¨p-sIm- Xmhv Ah\-s{X.- A-hsâ al-¯mb
sâ P\\w apXÂ acWw hscbpÅ ­n-cp-¶Xv- anYysbbmbn-cp-¶p-sh-¶pÅ Icp-Wbpw c£bpw apl-½Zv \_n(-e)
Hmtcm L«-§fnepw `qan-bpsS A\Xn Znhy-amb amÀK-ZÀi\w AXn AS- Xncp-ta-\n-bnepw Ahn-Sps¯ IpSpw-_§ - -
hnZq-c-ta-J-e-I-fnepw Ah-cpsS kz´w §nbn«p-­v. fnepw Ahn-Sps¯ A\p-N-c-·m-cnepw
Bßm-¡-fnepw [mcmfw ZrjvSm-´-§Ä a\p-jy-\n {]IrXymXs¶ IpSn- A´y-Zn\w hsc Ahsc ]n³]än-sIm
a\p-jyÀ¡v ZÀin-¡p-hm³ Ign-bpw.- a-\p- sIm-Åp¶ ssZh-hn-izm-khpw Ahs\ ­v kXy-k-Ô-ambn Pohn-¡p-¶-h-cnepw
jyÀ Ah-cpsS kz´-t¯mSv \oXn ]pe Bcm-[n-¡m-\pÅ P·-kn-²-amb {]h-W- D­m-bn-cn-¡-s«. Bao³.
À¯p-Ibpw anYym-ssZ-h-§-sf-sbÃmw
Xnc-kvI-cn-¡p-Ibpw AÃm-lpsh I-s­-
¯p-I-bpw sN¿p-I-bm-sW-¦n hgn hf
sc Ffp-¸a- m-bn-«h- À¡\p`hs¸Spw. a- d- n¨v ""AhÀ `-qanbneqsS k©cn¨n«v X§fpsS ap¼pÅhcpsS ]cyh

AÃm-lp-hnsâ ZrjvSm-´-§sf XpSÀ¨ km\w F§s\bmbncp¶p F¶v t\m¡p¶ntÃ? AhÀ Chtc¡m

bmbn AhÀ XÅn-¡-f-bp-Ibpw krjvSn- Ä IqSpXÂ iIvXnbpÅhcmbncp¶p. AhÀ `qan DgpXpadn¡pI

Isf Bcm-[n-¡p-¶Xv XpSÀ¶p sIm­n- bpw, ChÀ A[nhmkapd¸n¨Xns\¡mÄ IqSpX AXn A[n

cn-¡p-I-bp-am-sW-¦n AhÀ¡v c£-s¸- hmkapd¸n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. \½psS ZqX³amÀ hyIvXamb sXfn

Sm³ hfsctbsd hnj-an-t¡­n hcpw. hpIfpw sIm­v- AhcpsS ASp¯v sNÃpIbp­-mbn. F¶mÂ

DZm-l-c-W-ambn Hcp kw`hw hni-Zo-I- AÃmlp AhtcmSv A{Iaw sN¿pIbp­-mbn«nÃ. ]s£, AhÀ

cn-¡mw.- sXt¡ Ata-cn-¡bn {_ko- X§tfmSv Xs¶ A{Iaw sN¿pIbmbncp¶p''- (JpÀ-B³- 30:-9).-
ense Ba-tkm¬ h\m-´-c-§-fnse
sX¡v Ing-¡³ taJ-e-bn Ignªp
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 34
k-aÀ-¸W
- ¯
- n-s³-d- cm-P]- m-Xb- n-te-¡v-
B-ß-o-b-am-b- sh-fn-¨w- tX-Sn- A-e-bp-I-bpw- H-Sp-hnÂ- C-kv-eman-s³-d- im-
Zz-e- Xo-c¯n-te-¡v- h-s¶-¯p-I-bpw- sN-bv-X- ]m-iv-Nm-Xy-cm-b- Ip-sd- h-\n-
X-I-fp-sS- A-\p-`-h-§Ä- hn-h-cn-¡p-I-bm-Wv- -A-h-cnÂ- s]-«- H-cm-fmb- \m-
C-a- _n.- tdm-_À-«v.-

hn-hm-l-w- C-kv-em-an-I- ho-£-W-¯nÂ-


\m-C-a- _n.- tdm-_À-«v-

ilmZ¯v {]Jym]\hpw CkvemanImtÇjhpw Ign


ªv GXm­v H³]Xv amkw Ignªt¸mÄ Fsâ
{]Wbhpw hnhmlhpw \S¶pþ apkvenwÿcoXnbnÂ.
aX]chpw euInIhpamb CS]mSpIsf Kzn\nbbnseÿXmakm\´cw hnhmlw F¶ hnjbw
Fsâ a\Ên ambmsX \n¶ncp¶p. km{µbpsS
IWniambn kwXpe\w sNbvX apkvenw ASp¡fbn sh¨v AtX¡pdn¨pÅ NÀ¨IÄ aWn
]ucpj¯nsâ DZm¯ amXrIbmWt±lw. ¡qdpIÄ \ofpambncp¶p. CkvemanI hnhml¯nsâ
asämcp \nebv¡
- v, apkvenwIsf AhcqsS Zo³ B[mcineIÄ, AXv ssIamdp¶ AhImi§fpw
_m[yXIfpw, ktlmZc·mcpambpÅ k¼À¡§Ä
]Tn¸n¨psIm­v, AhcpsS {]iv\ - §fn F{]ImcamImw, tNmZy§Ä GXphn[amImw, AYhm
CSs]«p sIm­v, AhÀ¡nSbn hn[n¨psIm­v, AbmÄ "{]iv\§Ä' Bcw`n¨m F´p sN¿pwþ XpS
Znhy shfn]mSpIÄ kzoIcn¡p¶tXmsSm¸w §nbhsbÃmw XnIª acymZtbmsS, BßmÀYambn
H¸w iÐapJcnXamb s]m«n¨ncnItfmsS \S¶ B
Xsâ \akvImc§fn IcbpIbpw, Imen NÀ¨Ifn DÄs¡m­ncp¶p.ÿÿÿ
\oÀsI«n hoÀ¡pthmfwÿcm{Xn apgph³ R§sfÃmhcpw A¶v AhnhmlnXcmbncp¶p.
\akvIcn¡pIbpw sN¿pambncp¶p AhnSp¶v. BbXpsIm­pXs¶ {]Xo£-nt¡­sXs´¶v k
Xy¯n AdnbnÃmbncp¶p. F¶m hnPbIcaÃm
¯ GXm\pw IqSn¡mgvNIÄ¡p tijw Rm³ k
tlmZc·mcn \n¶pw ]cn]qÀWambn hn«p\n¡m³
Xocpam\n¨p. hnhml¯n\v {]Ya ]cnKW\ \ÂIpI
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 35
bnsö i]Yt¯msS temI k©mc¯n\pÅ IWn \n§fn \n¶v Xs¶ \n§Ä¡v CWIsf krjvSn¡p
iX IqSm¯ ]²XnIÄ¡v cq]w \ÂIm³ XpS§n. Ibpw \n§Ä¡nSbn kvt\lhpw ImcpWyhpw D­m
At¶cwÿbqWnthgvknänbnse Hcp kplr¯n \n¶pw ¡pIbpw sNbvXXpw Ahsâ ZrjvSm´§fn s]«X
hnhml¯n\v Xb-msdSp¡p¶ Hcp ktlmZcs\¡pdn¨v s{X. XoÀ¨bmbpw AXn Nn´n¡p¶ P\§Ä¡v ZrjvSm
Adnbm³ Ignªp. hniZoIcn¡s¸«X\pkcn¨v þ ´§fp­v''- (30: 21).-
A\pjvTm\§fpÅ B{^n¡³ BtÇjnX ktlmZc³, \½psS kaql¯nÂ, hnhml]qÀh-ambpw BIkvanI
XmSnbp­v, amXmhnsâ IS \S¯p¶p, hnZymk¼¶³, ]cnNb§fmbpw klXmakambpw GIcm{Xn- CS]mSm
At£m`y³, D¯chmZn¯ t_m[apÅh³þ Rm³ bpsaÃmw \nÀtem`w e`n¡p¶ H¶mWv imcocnI _Ô
]cnNbs¸«hcntehsc¡mfpw A\ptbmPy\mbn tXm¶n. §Ä F¶Xn\mÂÿhnhmlw A\nhmcyam¡p¶ D¯c
At±lhpambn {]Ya h« NÀ¨IÄ \S¯nb Fsâ c£m hmZn¯§sf XmcXayw sN¿pt¼mÄ AXv \ÂIp¶
[nImcn(h-en-¿v)-bmb doPâ vkv ]mÀ¡v ]Ånbnse Cam KpWKW§ÄÿXptemw IpdhmsW¶mWv C¶v an¡hcpw
apwÿAt±lhpw X½nepÅ Hcp IqSn¡mgvN¡v Rm³ k½ hnizkn¡p¶Xv. apkvenan\v A§s\bÃ. ]e\nebv-
Xw \ÂIn. kkt´mjw At±lw c­mw L«¯nte¡v ¡pwÿhnhmlnXcmIpI F¶Xv \s½ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯m
hnPbw t\Sn. Fsâ tPmenØet¯¡v t^m¬ sNbvXv fwÿHcpXcw kzmX{´ys¯bmWv {]\n\n[m\w sN¿p¶
\nÝbn¨ hn[w asämcp kv{XobpsS km¶n[-y¯n ]Ån Xv. Hcn¡Â hne¡s¸«ncp¶ ]eXpw hnhml¯neqsS
bnÂsh¨v R§fpsS I­pap«Â \S¶p. aq¶p \mÄ Ign A\phZ\obhpw t{]mÕmlP\Ihpambn¯ocp¶p.
ªv At±lhpambn Fsâ hnhmlw \S¡m\ncn¡p¶p bphXobphm¡Ä F¶ \nebv-¡v Ct¸mÄ \n§Ä¡v
F¶p Rm\dnªp.ÿÿÿÿÿ ]ckv]cw CS]gImwþkzX{´ambn AXnÀhc¼pIfnÃm
hnhmls¯-¡p-dn-¨v- C-kv-emw- sX. \n§fpsS ]cnN Agn¨psh¡mw.- lnPm_v amänsh
{]hmNI³ (e) ]dªp : ""Hcp ssZh Zmk³ hnhmln bv¡mw.- Nncnbpw _lfhpamImw.- ]pd¯pt]mIpItbm
X\mIpt¼mÄ Ah³ aX¯nsâ ]IpXn ]qÀ¯oIcn¡p ho«nencn¡pItbm sN¿mw. Npcp¡¯n Cu khntij
¶p. ]ns¶ Ah³ AÃmlphns\ `b¡pIbpw hW§pI hyànbpambn \n§Äs¡Ãmw ]¦nSmw. \nÝbambpw,
bpw sN¿p¶tXmsSm¸w Xsâ CWsb BZcn¡pIbpw CkvemanI hnhml¯nsâ BhnjvIrX Dt±iy§fnsem
sN¿s«'-' (Xz_vdm\n D²-cn¨ lk\mb lZoYv).- ¶v, Hcp \nebv-¡v hnizmknIÄ¡v AhcpsS B{Kl
Kzn\nbbnse Fsâ {]hmk PohnXw apXÂ hnhmlw k^eoIcW¯n\pÅ A\phmZw \ÂIpI F¶XmWv.
F¶Xv CkvemanI PohnX coXnbnse Hchn`mPy LS AXn\p]pdsa CltemI PohnX¯n B\µambpw
IamsW¶v Rm³ a\Ênem¡n. ap¼-v ]dªXp t]mse k´m\§fmbpw ]mcntXmjnI§Ä IcØam¡m\pw
]cnNbs¸« Ghcpw Fs¶ X§fdnbp¶ BcpsSsb¦n ]ctemI PohnX¯n ssZhn-I k½m\w t\Sm\papÅ
epw CWbm¡n amäm³ ]cn{ian¡pIbmbncq¶p. AsX A\phZ\obamb (lemÂ) Hcp thZn \ÂIÂ IqSnbm
´ptIm­mbncp¶psh¶v Hcp \nebv-¡v F\n¡v a\Ên WXv.
embncp-¶p. Npänepw Rm³ I­p; `mcym `À¯m¡·mÀ, A\\phZ\ob§fnÂ\n¶pw,ÿCOm`wKw h¶ ssew-
Ip«nIÄ ap¯¨·mÀ,- ap¯ÈnamÀ, A½mh·mÀ, acpa KnImkànIfn \nt¶m cXnsshIrX§fn \nt¶m
¡Äþ IpSpw_ _Ô¯m FÃmhcpw tImÀ¯nW¡ DSseSp¡p¶ hnhn[§fmb A[mÀa-nIXIfn \n¶p-w
s¸«ncn¡p¶p.ÿ hyànsb kpc£nXam¡p- w hn[amWv hnhmlw
AXnsâsbÃmw Gähpw {][m\ ASnØm\§fnsem cq]IÂ]\ sN¿s¸«n«pÅXv.
¶v hnhmlamsW¶v Rm\t¸mÄ Xncn¨dnªp. AXneqsS CXc hnizmk§fn \n¶pw hyXykvXambn Ckv
_ÔpXbm IpSpw_§Ä CW¡s¸Sp¶p, ]pXnb eman {_ÒNcy¯n\v t{ijvTXamb ]ZhnÿIÂ]n¡p¶
IpSpw_§Ä cq]oIrXamIp¶p, Hcp ]pXnb Xeapd ]cn HchØbpanÃ. `m-cy-bp-ambpÅ ssewKnI_Ôapt]£n
t]mjn¡s¸Sp¶p, ]gb Xeapd ]cnNcn¡s¸Sp¶p. ¨v IqSpXÂ `ànt\Sm³ B{Kln¨ hyànsb {]hmNI
shfp¸n\v \akvImc¯n\mbn hnfn¨pWÀ¯m³, t\m¼p ³ (e) imkn¨-Xv- "hnhmlw Fsâ kp¶¯mWv. Bsc¦n
Xpd¡m³, {]bmka\p`hn¡pt¼mÄ AÃmlphns\¡pdn epw Fsâ kp¶¯v ]n³]äp¶nÃtbm Ah³ F¶nÂ
t¨mÀa-s¸Sp¯m³, Hcp apkvenw IpSpw_s¯ hfÀ¯nsb s]«h\Ã' F-¶m-Wv.-
Sp¡p¶Xnse kt´mj§fpw hyYIfpw ]¦nSm³ÿIqsS BbXn\m hnhmlsa¶Xv F\n¡pt]£n¡m\mIp
BcpanÃmsX Häs¡mcnkvemanI PohnXw \bn¡m³ {ian ¶ H¶Ã F¶Xv hfsc hyàamWv. AXmbncp¶nà F
¡pI F¶Xv F{XI­v GIm´ambncn¡pw Fs¶\n¡v sâ B{Klwþ Fsâ AhØbpw.- Zo\pw PohnXhpw
IrXyambn k¦Â]n¡m³ Ignbpw. ]¦nSm\mIp¶ Hcmsf Is­¯m\mIptam F¶ Bi
hyàn Xe¯n hnhmlw _Ô\apàamb {]Wb ¦bmWv F\n¡p­mbncp¶Xv.
hpw kvt\lhpw kulrZhpw Xg¨phfcp¶ Hc¯mWn A{]Xo£nXambXns\ {]Xo£n¨v

\ÂIp¶p. Cu DZm¯amb amXrIsb¡pdn¨mWv AÃm Fsâ CkvemamtÇj¯nsâ {]mcw` Zn\§fnÂ,


lp kwkmcn¡p¶Xv: Rm³ hyàambn HmÀ¡p¶p, R§fnemcpwXs¶ "A\p
ÿ""\n§Ä¡v kam[m\]qÀh-w H¯ptNtc­Xn\mbn jvTm\§fn IWni¡mc\mb' Hcp apkvenans\ hnhm
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 36
""\Ãh®w Zo\pÅ, ]Tn¡m³ XmÂ-]cyap Zo³ ]Tn¸n¨psIm­v, AhcpsS {]iv-\§fn CSs]«p
Å, ]T\thZnIfn ]s¦Sp¡p¶ sIm­v, AhÀ¡nSbn hn[n¨psIm­v, Znhy shfn]mSp
IÄ kzoIcn¡p¶tXmsSm¸w Xsâ \akvImc§fn Ic
Hcmsfþ HcnkvemanI IpSpw_ bpIbpw, Imen \oÀsI«n hoÀ¡pthmfwÿcm{Xn apgph³
kwØm]\¯n\v Ignhpä hyànXzs¯ \akvIcn¡pIbpw sN¿pambncp¶p AhnSp¶v. Xm³ ]mÂ
b-mWv Rm³ At\zjn¨ncp¶Xv. Zo\n\v IpSn¡sh tIm¸bnse§s\bmbncp¶p AhnSp¶v Xsâ
Np­pIÄ sh¨ncp¶Xv, Ahsc{]ImcamWv Ifnbmbn
{]Ya ]cnKW\ \ÂIp¶ Hcp IpSpw_w. Hm«aÕcw \S¯nbXv, ]ckv]cw Ahsc§s\bmWv
AhnsS Ckvemw kwkmc¯ntem Hcp Ifn XamiIÄ ]dªXv F¶n§s\ÿ{]nb ]Xv\n BC-
shÅnbmgvNbntem Aà {]hr¯n i (t)bn \n¶v D²-cn¡s¸Sp¶ lZoYn At±lw
hnhcn¡s]« coXnbpw F\nt¡sd lrZyambn. IpSp_
]Y¯n D­mbncn¡Ww. Ckv-e-mw Hcp s¯ tkhn¨pw ho«pImcy§fn klIcn¨pw kz´w
PohnX amÀK-ZÀi\amWv F¶Xn\m sNcn¸v \¶m¡nbpsaÃmw At±lw hfsc kuayhm\p-w
AXmWv Rm\m{Kln¡p¶Xv.- Hcnkvem £amine\pambn«m-bn-cp¶p I-gn-ªn-cp-¶-Xv- F¶v Rm³
a\Ênem¡n.
anI PohnX{Iaw. F\n¡v Pohnt¡­Xv Xsâ c£nXmhns\ Znt\\ A©pt\cw {]Wan¡p¶
CkvemanIambn«mWv'-'.- hn\bm\znX\mb Hcp apkvenans\, al¯camb Ckv
emanI hyànXz¯nsâ BZÀi§sf km£mXvIcn¡p
¶ Hcmsf hnhmlw Ign¡pI F¶ Bib¯n Rm\
lw sN¿m³ Cãs¸«ncp¶nÃ.- "F´v?, F¶n«bmÄ FÃmw \pcàbmbn. At±lw kXykÔ\qw alma\kvI\pw
ldmw (\njn²w) F¶v Ft¸mgpsat¶mSv ]dbmt\m? XoÀ Zbmephpw D¯chmZn¯ t_m[apÅh\pamIWw F¶
¨bmbpw th­!'.- "Fsâ hnlmlw F´mbmepw icn¡pw Xmbncp¶p Fsâ {]Xo£. Hfnhnepw sXfnhnepw AÃm
Hcp ldmw BIm³ t]mIp¶p!' XpS§nb {]kvXmh\IÄ lphns\ `bs¸Sp¶, Xsâ sXäpIsf AwKoIcn¡m³
]Xnhmbn tI«psIm­ncp¶ Zn\§fmbncp¶p AXv. Ignbp¶, aäpÅhcn \n¶pwÿhninjym `mcybn \n
B¬ þ s]¬ thÀXncnhv IqSmsX, h[p icnbmw hn[w ¶pw D]tZiw sNhnsImÅp¶ HcmfmIWsa¶Xmbncq
icocw ad¡msX, henb kZybpw Ghcpw "Ce{ÎnIv ¶p Fsâ XmÂ-]cyw!
ssÉUpambn' sX¶n \o§p¶ AhØbmWv AXÀY- A§s\, Ckveman\v ap¼v- R§Ä¡dnbpambncp¶
am¡nbncp¶Xv! CXv R§fpsSÿA¡mes¯ CkvemanI "t¹ t_mbvkv's\¡mfpsaÃmw F{Xtbm kap¶X\mb,
t_m[s¯ {]Xn^en¸n¡p-¶p. IqSpXÂ ]Tn¡pIbpw kaÀY-\mb Hcp ]¦mfnsb¡pdn¨pÅ Fsâ {]Xo£I
Bßobambn {]XnÚm_²amIpI-bpw sNbvXt¸mÄ sfÃmw ]e\nebv¡p-w hfsc DbÀ¶Xmbncq¶p. hnhmlw
R§fpsS XmÂ-]cy§fn amäap­mbn. ]n¶oSv R§Ä Ign¡m³ KuchXcambn XÂ-]ccmbncp¶ ktlmZc·m
Zo\n ASnbpd¨, IqSpX ]Tn¡m\pw {]hÀ¯n¡m\pw cne[nIhpw lnPm_p [cn¡p¶ ktlmZcnamsc am{Xam
R§sf t{]mÕmln¸n¡p¶, R§sft¸mse "Ckvem Wv At\zjn¨ncq¶Xv F¶ Imcyw XnI¨pw AizmkI
anI PohnXw'Cãs¸Sp¶ HcmsfbmWv B{Kln¨ncp¶Xv. camWv!
D½p apl½Zv ]dªp: ""\Ãh®w Zo\pÅ, ]Tn¡m³ lmPÀ ]dªXn§ns\bmWv:""Fsâ "apkvenw hnhm
XmÂ-]cyapÅ, ]T\thZnIfn ]s¦Sp¡p¶ Hcmsfþ Hcn l'-s¯ kw_Ôn¨v DbÀ¶ {]Xo£-IfmWv F\n¡p
kvemanI IpSpw_ kwØm]\¯n\v Ignhpä hyànXz ­mbncp¶Xv. Fsâ `À¯mhpambpÅ IqSn¡mgvN¡v
s¯bmWv Rm³ At\zjn¨ncp¶Xv. Zo\n\v {]Ya ]cnK Rm³ t]mbXv c­c t]Pv tNmZy§fpambn«mbncp¶p.
W\ \ÂIp¶ Hcp IpSpw_w. AhnsS Ckvemw kwkmc AXn\v ap¼-phsc At±lw At\zjW§fpsS tLmj
¯ntem Hcp shÅnbmgvNbntem AÃ {]hr¯n ]Y¯n bm{Xbnembncp¶pþ B kwKa thZnbnte¡v hcpt¼mÄ
 D­mbncn¡Ww. Ckv-e-mw Hcp PohnX amÀK- ZÀi\am t]mepw''-.-
Wv F¶Xn\m AXmWv Rm\m{Kln¡p¶Xv.- Hcnkvem
anI PohnX {Iaw. F\n¡v Pohnt¡­Xv CkvemanIam A¶ ZmXmhv F¶ \nebnepw Fsâ `À¯mhv Xsâ
bn«mWv'-'.- [Àa-w \ndthäp¶h\mIWw F¶pw Rm-\m{Kln¨ncp¶p.
an¡ apkvenwIsfbpw t]mse Rm\pw Hcp¯a\mb `À¯mhv Blcn¡p¶Xpt]mse Du«s¸SpIbpw hkv{Xw
apkvenw `À¯mhns\ Ipdn¨pÅ Bib§Ä¡v ASn [cn¡p¶Xpt]mse AWnbn¡s¸SpIbpw Xmakn¡p¶
Øm\am¡nbXv {]hmNI³ (e) sb Xs¶bmbncp¶p. Xp t]mse ]mÀ¸n¡s¸SpIbpw sN¿pI F¶Xv kv{Xo
ap¼-v kqNn¸n¨ncp¶Xpt]mse, apl½Zv (e) F¶ IpSpw bpsS AhImiamWv F¶v \_n(e) ]dªn-«p-­v.
_ \mY³ Fs¶ hÃmsX hioIcn¨ncp¶p. hnhmlw Ign¡phm\pÅ B{Klw hfcpt¼mgpw
aX]chpw euInIhpamb CS]mSpIsf IWniambn hyàn]camb Fsâ A`nemj§Ä¡v a§teänÃ. Iu
kwXpe\w sNbvX apkvenw ]ucpj¯nsâ DZm¯ amXr amc¯ne{Xbpw, lcmscbpsS {]m´{]tZi¯pÅ "hen
IbmWt±lw. asämcp \nebv-¡v, apkvenwIsf AhcqsS b ho«nse' Fsâ PohnX L«¯nÂ, kz´amsbmcp GÀ
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 37
]mSp­mIphm\pw `À¯hns\m¸tam AXnep]cntbm ¯mhnsâ ISabm¡n \nÝbn¡s¸«ncn¡p¶p. Cu Bi
k¼mZn¡m\pambncp¶p Rm³ B{Kln¨ncp¶Xv. Ct¸m bXe¯n \n§Ä \nb{´WtaÀs¸Sp¯pt¼mÄ At±
Ä apkvenambn Ignªn«pw (B cwK¯v, AsX§s\ l¯nsâ ]pcpjXzamWv CIgv¯s¸Sp¶Xv. AÃmlp
sb¶v F\n¡pd¸p­mbncp¶nà F¦nepw) kz´ambn AhcnteÂ]n¨ NpaXesb hneIpd¡emWXv''.-
]Wap­m¡m³ Rm³ XmÂ-]cys¸«p. F¶m AÃm F¶m Fsâ Hcp `mKw, kwibanà ZpÈmT-yamÀ¶
lphnsâ \nba {]Imcwÿkm¼¯nIambpw AÃmsXbpw Hcp `mKw, Hcp "\à apkvenans\' hnhmlw Ign¡p¶Xv
kv{Xosb kwc£nt¡­Xv ]pcpjsâ ISabmWv F¶v hn«phogvNbmbn KWn¡pIbpw AXnÂÿhnapJX {]IS¸n
F\n¡dnbpIbpw sN¿mw. Hcp kv{Xo F¶ \nebv-¡v F ¡pIbpw sNbvXp. "Cu Bcm[\¡pw `àn¡psam¸w
sâ k¼mZy§sfÃmw F\n¡v kz´ambn kq£n¡m F´p­mIpsa¶mWv \o \n\bv-¡p¶Xv? \akvImchpw
sa¶pw amän hbv¡msa¶pw sNehgn¡msa¶papÅ Xncn {hXhpapÅ \Ãh\mb Hcp ]pcpjs\ \n\¡v e`n¡pw.-
¨dnhv hnhml¯nsâ B\pIqey§sf kw_Ôn¨pÅ ]t£-, AbmÄ XnIª hnck\mIpsa¶Xn kwiban
Zr-V-t_m[yw \ÂIpIbp­mbn. B AhØ icn¡pw Ã'- F¶mbncp¶p Fsâ BßKXw.
KpWZmbIw Xs¶ F¶p Rm\dnªp.ÿ Cu Bibw FhnsS\n¶pcp¯ncnªp F¶v F\n¡
AÃmlp F\n¡\phZn¨p X¶Xn Ipdª H¶n dnbnÃ. ]t£, \njvTbpÅ apkvenw ]pcpjs\ kw_Ôn
te¡v IpSntbdpI Hcn¡epw Fsâ XmÂ-]cyambncp¶nÃ. ¨v IWni¡mc\pw ]g©\pw \Àa-t_m[anÃm¯h\psa
kz´amb XmÂ-]cy§Ä¡v ]Icw \n¡p¶h Xs¶ ¶ cq]amWv F\n¡p­mbncp¶Xv. Abmsft¶mSv
bmIWw AXv. Rm\pw CXc apkvenwIsft¸mse Hcp AÃmlpsh `bs¸SWsa¶v CSXShnÃmsX ]dªpsIm
IpSpw_w \ne\nÀ¯p¶ hyànbpambpÅ hnhmlamWv ­ncn¡ptam? NncnIfnIÄ \nÀ¯m³ ]dbptam? AXp
{]Xo£n¨ncp¶Xv.ÿIp«nIÄ D­mIpI F¶Xv Zo³ ià anXpsaÃmw ldmw (\njn²w)- F¶p ]dbptam? ]mÝmXy
ambn Du¶Â \ÂIp¶ H¶mWv F¶Xn\m \njvT _Ô§fn D­v F¶v ]Tn¸n¡s¸«ncp¶ tIfohnemk
bpÅ Hcp apkvenw ]pcpj³ ]nXmhmIpI F¶ D¯c §Ä¡pw {]Wb¯n\psaÃmw CkvemanI Zm¼Xy¯nÂ
hmZn¯¯n \n¶pw eÖtbmsS ]n³hm§p¶h\Ã. bmsXmcp Øm\hpanà F¶v F§s\tbm Rm³ IcpXn
HutZymKnI ]Zhn¡mWv aps¼-Ãmw Rm³ {]Ya ]cn t¸m¶p.
KW\ \ÂInbncp¶Xv. Fsâ tPmen XpSÀ¶psIm­p Fsâ {]Xo£Ifn IqSpX tamiamb, Ccp­ Hcp
t]mIm\mIpwhn[w k´m\ ]cn]me\¯n\v Hcp the `mKap­mbncp¶p. `oIc IYIÄ ]dªv t]Sn¸n¡p¶
¡mcnsbtbm atäm \nban¡mw F¶mbncp¶p Nn´. Hcp apkvenw `À¯mhmIptam F\n¡v e`n¡pI F¶v
F¶m CXn \n¶pw hyXykvXambn, `mcy, amXmhv B `mKw `bs¸«ncp¶p.- Fs¶ hÃmsX `bs¸Sp¯nbncp
F¶n§s\bpÅ Fsâ `mhn [Àa-s¯¡pdn¨v Ckvemw ¶p. Fs¶ ho«n Xf¨nSp¶, Iq«pImscbpw _Ôp¡
Fs¶ t_m[hXnbm¡n. Ip«nIsf kzbw hfÀ¯Ww sfbpw ImWp¶Xn \n¶v hne¡p¶, F{]ImcamI
F¶p Xs¶ Rm³ \nÝbn¨p. DtZymKØIfmb aät\ Wsa¶v AbmÄ IcpXp¶pthm A{]ImcapÅ Hcp `mcy
Iw A½amsct¸mse inip]cn]me\hpw Krl]cn]me bm¡n Nhn«n saXn¡p¶ Hcp `oIc kXzambn Abmsf
\hpw tPmenbpsaÃmw DbÀ¯p¶ BhiyIXIÄ Ft¶ Rm³ `b¶p. kwc£Whpw kpc£bpsaÃmw Hcp ssI
bpw £oWnXbm¡psa¶v F\n¡dnbmambncp¶p. At\ sIm­v \ÂImsa¶ hmKvZm\w \ÂIn adpssIsIm­v
Iw D¯chmZn¯§fpw [Àa-§fpambn A½m\aSm³ Fsâ kzXzhpw hyànXzhpw aäpÅhtcmsSm¸w Pohn¨p
Rm\nãs¸«nÃ. Fsâ Ipªpamsbm«n¡nS¶v, BZy Nph hfcm\pÅ kzmX{´yhpw IhÀs¶Sp¡p¶ Hcp hnhm
SpIÄ I­v, BZym£c§Ä tI«v, Ahsâ kz`mh§Â ls¡Wnbn Rm\Is¸«pt]mIptam F¶ \Sp¡w.
sa\ªv Ignbp¶ B hneaXn¡m\mIm¯ \nanj§sf \n§Ä hnhmlnXbmbXv
\ãs¸Sp¯m³ Rms\mcp¡aÃmbncp¶p. Fsâ Ipªn Hcp IqSn¡mgvN¡v tijtam?
\v amXrXz¯nsâ iàamb {]`mhw ho«n Øncambn Hcn¡Â km{µbpw l\mbpw Rm\pw hnhmlw Ign
e`nt¡­ Ahkcw kwPmXamIpt¼mÄ kzbw amXr ¡s¸Sp¶Xns\ kw_Ôn¨v KuchXcamb NÀ¨ \S
Xz¯nsâ Dĸc¸nte¡v hen¨dnbs¸Sm³ Rm³ sImXn ¯pIbp­mbn. CkvemanI "t{]am`yÀY-\' Bbncp¶p
¨ncp¶p. hoSn\p shfnbnse sXmgnen \n¶pw F\n¡v icn¡padnbm\m{Kln¨ hnjbw. Hcp ktlmZcnsb
sIm­phcm\mIp¶ A[nI k¼mZys¯¡mÄ F´p ImWpIbpw Xsâ kplr¯nsâ `mcyaptJ\ "ktlmZcn
sIm­pw aqeyh¯mWnsXÃmsa¶v Rm³ a\Ênem¡n. hnhmlnXbmIm³ XÂ-]cbmtWm' F¶t\zjn¡p¶Xv
]pdwtemIs¯ Nne XmÂ-]-cy§Ä \ne\nÀ¯p¶tXm Hcp ktlmZcs\ kw_Ôn¨v Akm[mcWaÃ. {]Xn{ip
sSm¸w Hcp]t£,- F\n¡v A[nIambn hÃXpw k¼mZn X hc³ A\ptbmPys\¦n ]ns¶ Hfnt\m«§fpw
¡m\mIpw F¦nepw, ]pcpj³ ]pd¯pt]mbn A[zm\n kzcanSdepw apJ¯v eÖmcpWnabpsaÃmw kzm`mhnIw.
¡pI,- kv{Xo Krlþk´m\ ]cn]me\§fpambn IgnbpI {]kvXpX hyàn Xs¶bmWv "]cnKW\ob³' F¶v
F¶ÿCkvemanse ]c¼cmKX coXn F\n¡mIÀjIam a\ÊnemIpt¼mÄ am{XamWv Imcy§Ä C{Xbpw Kuc
bn tXm¶n.ÿ hXcambn ]cnKWn¡s¸«ncp¶Xv. ]ns¶ hnhml
ico^ ]dªp: ""]cn]qÀW-ambn ]cnc£n¡s¸SpI kw_Ôamb {KÙ§Ä a\¸mTam¡epw tNmZymhen
F¶Xv Rm³ {]Xo£n¨XÃ. ]t£, Zo\n AXv `À IÄ Xb-mdm¡epw "]cnNb k¼¶cnÂ' \n¶pw D]tZ
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 38
hs¯ kw_Ôn¨v [mcW e`n¡m³ AbmfpsS "kzm
At¸mÄ, ]mÝmXy ]Ým¯e¯n `mhnI Npäp]mSpIÄ' \nco£n¡m³ XpS§pw. Abmsf
\njvTbpÅ c­v apkvenwIÄ¡v ]ckv Adnbp¶hcn \n¶pw hnhc§Ä tiJcn¡pw.
]capÅ IqSn¡mgv-Nbpw A\´capÅ _Ôs¸« hnjb§sfÃmw ]cntim[\¡v hnt[b
am¡s¸«p Ignªm s]¬Ip«nbpsS ]nXmthm c£n
hnhmlhpw IrXyambn F§s\ km[y Xmthm hcs\tbm amXm]nXm¡sftbm kao]n¡p¶p.
amIpw? X\n¡v hnhmlnXbmIm\pÅ hc\v XmÂ-]cyap­mbncn¡pIbpw c£nXm¡fpw
AhØ kwPmXambncn¡p¶p F¶v Hcp IpSpw_hpw kwXr]vXcmIpIbpw sNbvXm {]Xn{ipX
kv{Xo kzbw {]Jym]n¡pIbmWv h[qhc·mÀ¡v IqSn¡mgvNbmImw. apkvenwIfpw hnhm
l¯n\v cq]{]IrXnIqSn ]cnKWn¡p¶p­v F¶Xn
km[mcW ]XnhpÅXv. ]n¶oShÄ \m Cu IqSn¡mgvN AhÀ¡v ]ckv]cw BIrãcm
amXm]nXm¡tfmSpw _Ôpan{Xm[n tWm F¶dnbm\pÅ kmlNcyw \ÂIp¶p. am{XaÃ
ItfmSpw Xsâ hnhml XmÂ-]cyw AhÀ¡ncphÀ¡pw {]m[m\ytadnb hnjb§Ä NÀ¨
sN¿m\pw Fs´¦nepw tNmZy§Ä tNmZn¡phm\pw CXv
]dbpIbpw AhfpsS hyhØIÄ NÀ¨ Ahkcsamcp¡p¶p. hnhml¯n\v ap¼v-v A[nIw IqSn
sN¿s¸SpIbpw sN¿p¶p.ÿÿÿ ¡mgvNIÄ Hgnhm¡m\mWv apkvenwIÄ km[mcW
D]tZin¡s¸SmdpÅXv. AXn\v X¡Xmb ImcW§fpap
­v. CkvemanI \nba{]Imcw Ahcnt¸mgpw ]ckv]cw
i§Â tXSepsaÃmw XpS§pIbmbn. lem (A\phZ\obw) Aà F¶XmWv Ahbnsem¶m
as¯ ImcWw. Ahcncphcpw X\n¨mIpItbm Hcpan¨v
At¸mÄ, ]mÝmXy ]Ým¯e¯n \njvTbpÅ kabw sNehnSpItbm AcpXv. HutZymKnIambn Ahcn
c­v apkvenwIÄ¡v ]ckv]capÅ IqSn¡mgv-Nbpw A\ t¸mgpw _ÔpXbnÃm¯ km[mcW apkvenw kv{Xoþ
´capÅ hnhmlhpw IrXyambn F§s\ km[yamIpw? ]pcpj·msc t]mse¯s¶bmWv.ÿBimkyaÃm¯
X\n¡v hnhmlnXbmIm\pÅ AhØ kwPmXambncn s]cpamä§Ä¡pÅ km[yX CÃmsXbm¡m³ \nb{´n
¡p¶p F¶v Hcp kv{Xo kzbw {]Jym]n¡pIbmWv ¡s¸tS­ LSIamb CS]gIepIfnÂÿIqSn¡mgvNIÄ
km[mcW ]XnhpÅXv. ]n¶oShÄ amXm]nXm¡tfmSpw \S¡pt¼mÄ kpXmcyXbp­mIpsa¶Xv hyàamWv.
_Ôpan{Xm[nItfmSpw Xsâ hnhml XmÂ-]cyw ]dbp km[mcW \nebn \njv-T-IfpÅ Z¼XnamÀ¡nSbnÂ
Ibpw AhfpsS hyhØIÄ NÀ¨sN¿s¸SpIbpw sN¿p IqSpXembn CS]gpIm\pÅ km[yXIÄ {]tem`\§fn
¶p.ÿÿÿÿ te¡v \bn¡pI aqew h-gn-hn-«- _-Ô-¯n-te¡v hoWp
AhfpsS hyhØIÄ {]Yaambn DÄs¡mtÅ­Xv t]mIp¶ Imcyw A]cnNnXamb H¶Ã. A¯cw \nan
hcsâ Zo\nsâ \nebmWv. kzm`mh coXnbpw hyànXzhpw j§fn hnImc§Ä \nb{´WtasäSp¡pIbpw FÃm
cq] `mhhpw At±l¯nsâ hnZym`ymk]chpw kmwkv hn[nhne¡pIfpw ap¶dnbn¸pIfpw {]XymLmX§fpw
ImcnIhpambn Xsâ IpSpw_¯n\v klmbIsa¶v Ah hnkvacn¡s¸SpIbpw sN¿p¶p. A\pjvTm\§fpÅ Hcp
fpw Iq«pImcpw IcpXp¶ F´pw Xsâ hcsâ A\ptbm apkvenapw Ahsâtbm AhfpsStbm \nb{´Ww AÆn[w
PyXbn DÄs¸Sp¯mw. kv{Xo ]pcpj·mtcmSv {]hmN IfªpIqSm.
I³ (e) D]tZin¨n«pÅXv aXapÅ, iàamb Ckveman \n§fpsS AbmtfmSpÅ sshImcnI {]XnIcWtam
I kzm[o\apÅ CWsb At\zjn¡phm\mWv. CXÀY- Asæn AhfpsS Ipäaä cq]hpw aäpÅhcnse A`n
am¡p¶Xv aX \njvTbpÅ Hcp apkvenw kv{Xo kÂ- aXhpw ASnØm\am¡nbmWv CWIsf sXcsªSp¡m
kz`mhnbpw D¯a\pw Zbmephpw alma\kvI\pw £am dpÅXv. {]Wbw,- Imaw XpS§nb hnImc§Ä¡v Nn{X
ioe\pw AÃmlphns\ `bs¸Sp¶h-\pw- \akvIcn¡p cN\ t]mse, {`amßIhpw anYymt_m[amÀ¶Xpamb Hcp
Ibpw {hXa\pjv-Tn¡pIbpw clky¯nepw ]cky¯n coXnbmWpÅXv. \n§Ä {]Wb¯nemIp¶ ]pcpj³
epw Xsâ c£nXmhns\ A\pkcn¡pI-bpw- sN-¿p-¶h A{X kXykÔt\m, hnizmk tbmKyt\m, Zbmepthm
\pamb Hcp ]pcpjs\ At\zjn¡Wsa¶mWv. D¯chmZn¯ t_m[apÅht\m BIWsa¶nÃ.
F¶m BfpIÄ¡v \nÀtZ-in¡m\pÅXv kaÀY- am{XaÃÿsshhmlnI PohnX¯n\v Xs¶ tNÀ¶h\m
\mb ]¦mfnIsfbmbncn¡pw.- Asæn A¯cw At\z InÃ. At¸mÄ, hnImcs¯ amän\nÀ¯n hnNmc]chpw
jW§fmbncn¡pw Bcw`n¡p¶Xv. Asæn s]¬ bpàn]chpambn Hcp hyànsb Af¡m³ IgnªmÂ
Ip«nbpsS ktlmZcsâ Hcp kplrt¯m AhfpsS Iq«p \·þXn·Isf IrXyambn a\Ênem¡phm\pw A§s\
ImcnbpsS ktlmZct\m A\pcq]\mbn \nÀtZ-in¡ _p²n]camb sXscsªSp¸v \S¯phm\pw BÀ¡pw
s¸Smw. Hct\zjW ]c¼cbpsS CSthf¡p tijamWv Ignbp¶XmWv. F¶m Nnet¸msgÃmw, \n§Ä¡dnbm
km[mcWbmbn Cu AhØbp­mIp¶Xv. s]¬Ip«n hp¶Xp t]mse, kXy¯n asämcp IqSn¡mgvN t]mIs«
¡pth­n _Ôp¡fpw kplr¯pIfpw {]kvXpX sNdp AXnsâ Hcp kv^penwKw t]mepwÿ\n§fpsS ]cnKW\
¡³ aäpÅhcpambnSs]Sp¶ coXnsb B[mcam¡n kz`m bnep­mIpIbnÃ!-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 39
hnhmlmt\zjW thfbn Iq«¯n Gähpw sN¿pw. Fsâ ]nXmhv {i²n¡psa¶Xn\m A¯cw
\ÃXns\bmWv In«nbXv F¶Xn Fsâ Iq«pImcpw Imcy§fn Rms\mcn¡epw thhemXns¸«ncp¶nÃ. F
Rm\pw `mKyhXnIfmWv. ktlmZc·mcpambpÅ A`n s¶ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw NÀ¨sN¿m\p­mbncp¶Xv
apJoIcW¯n R§fhsc CÑm\pkmcw AwKoIcn At±l¯nsâ Zo³, hyànXzw, `mhn ]cn]mSnIÄ XpS
¡pItbm aS¡n Ab¡pItbm sNbvXp. \nÝbn¨p \S §nb hnjb§fmbncp¶p. IpSpw_¯n \n¶pw hfsc
¡p¶ hnhml§fnte¡v XÅn hnSs¸Sp¶ Hcp ]c¼ \à ]n´pW e`n¨Xn Rm³ `mKyhXnbmWv. ktlm
cmKX apkvenw s]¬Ip«nbpsS AhØbn \n¶pw XnI Zc·msc A`napJoIcn¡m³ Ignbp¶hfmbncq¶nÃ
¨pw hyXykvXambncp¶p CXv.ÿ Rm³ am{Xaà s]mSp¶s\ Zpx-Jn¡p¶hfpambncp¶p.
BtÇjnXÀ F¶ \nebv-¡v R§Ä Iptd¡qSn kzX Ahcn NneÀ¡v Fsâ ]nXmhn\p ap¼-n ]nSn¨p \nÂ
{´ambmWv {]h¯n¨ncp¶Xv F¶XmWv AXn\pÅ `mKn ¡m³ t]mepambnÃ'-'.-
Iamb ImcWw.ÿkm{µ¡pw F\n¡pw Htc c£m[nImcn Xsâ At]£Isc hfsc IWniambn ]cntim[\
bmWv D­mbncp¶sX¦nepw, At±lw R§fpsS IpSpw \S¯nb ]nXmhnsâ coXn Ahsf Atemkcs¸Sp¯n
_ _ÔphÃmXncp¶Xn\m R§Ä¡v t_m[yambXv tbm F¶dnbm³ Rm\m{Kln¨p. B tNmZyw Ahsf h
{]hÀ¯n¡p¶Xn \n¶pw XSbmt\m \nÀ_Ôn¡mt\m ÃmsX BÝcys¸Sp¯nbXpt]mse tXm¶n. Nncn¨p
AbmÄ¡v IgnªnÃ. am{XaÃ, R§Ä¡v IpSpw_§fn sIm­v AhÄ ]dªp: ""Zo\n ]pXnbXmbn IS¶ph¶,
 \n¶pÅ iàamb kzm[o\§sfm¶pw CÃmXncp¶Xn {]XymiIsfm¶panÃm¯ sXmgn clnX\mb Hcp
\m R§fpsS CS]mSpIÄ XnI¨pw kzbw`cW coXnbn ktlmZc³, IpSpw_t¯msSm¸w Xmakn¡p¶p. CXnÂ
epÅXmbncp¶p. AsXmcp \à coXnbmsW¶mbncp¶p henb Imcysam¶panà F¶bmÄ a\Ênem¡nbn«p­m
Fsâ Nn´.- \n§Ä¡dnbptam, kzX{´bmb bphXn Ipw! ImcWw Fsâ ]nXmhnsâ BZy tNmZyw "Xm¦Ä¡v
AhfpsS kz´w hgn Is­¯p¶p. XnIª kzbw `c tPmenbpt­m? Fsâ aIsf F§s\bmWv ]cnc£n
W§Ä `bm\Iamw hn[w sXänte¡v t]mb DZmlcW ¡m³ t]mIp¶Xv?' F¶msW¶v AbmÄ¡dnbmw. B
§Ä ImWp¶Xphsc Rm³ A§s\bmbncp¶p. Rm³ tNmZy§Ä¡v D¯cw \ÂIm³ Ignbp¶ hyànbmbn
sNs¶¯nb kaql¯nse `qcn`mKw s]¬Ip«nIfpsS cp¶p F\n¡v th­Xv''.-
bpw IpSpw_§Ä, AhcpsS Xocpam\§fn CSs]Sp Nne kwkvImc§fnse ÿ\nÝbn¨pd¸n¡p-¶ hnhm
¶hcmbncp¶nÃ. AXpsIm­vÿktlmZcnamcpsS icn lw (arranged marriage) t]mse KÀ`]m{X¯nembncn¡
bmb ]cntim[\IqSmsXbp-Å- hn-hm-l-§Ä-¡v F\n¡v sh Xocpam\n¡s¸«tXm, apds¨dp¡\pamtbm DÅ
ZrIv-km£nbmtI­n h¶n«p­v. AhÀ cq]emhWy¯n hnhmlambncp¶nà FtâXv. kaql¯nsâ s]mXp [mc
 BIrãcmbnt¸mIp¶Xmbn Rm³ I­p. X§fpsS Wbn \n¶pw hn`n¶ambncp¶p Fsâ "\nÀW-nX hnhm
AhImi§sfs´¶ Adnhv (Asæn ssØcyw) lw'. AXv F¶n ASnt¨Â]-n¡s¸«tXm Fsâ CSs]
CÃmXncp¶Xn\m AXn\mbn iTn¡msXÿBhiys¸« S CÃm¯tXm Bbncp¶nÃ. lnPm_v [cn¨psIm­p
kv{Xo[\¯n\pw Icmdn\pw \ne]mSn\pambn Ahsb Xs¶ Rm³ Fsâ `mhn hcs\bpw At±lw Fs¶bpw
Dt]£n¡p¶ ktlmZcnamsc Rm³ I­p. CkvemanI ImWpIbp­mbn. R§Ä hnhn[ hnjb§Ä NÀ¨sNbv-
hnhml¯n IpSpw_¯n\pÅ ]¦ns\¡pdn¨pw X-§ Xp.- A§s\ ]ckv]cw Hcnãhpw hnhmlnXcmIm\pÅ
sf kwc£n¡p¶Xn F{X \¶mbn AXn\v {]hÀ¯n B{Klhpw DSseSp¡pIbmbncp¶p.ÿÿ
¡msa¶Xns\¡pdn¨pw Fs¶ KuchXcambn Nn´n¸n ÿkmwkv-ImcnIamb coXnbn \nÝbn¡p¶ hnh-ml-
¨Xv AXmWv. §sfbpw CkvemanI hnhml§sfbpw thÀXncn¡p¶
]mÝmXyÀ¡v ]pd¯pÅ FÃm kaql§fnepw hnhm {][m\ LSIw hcW kzmX{´yamWv. Ncn{X]cambn
lsa¶Xv F¶pw hyàn]cw F¶Xnep]cn IpSpw_ temI¯mIam\w Ip«nIÄ ]ckv]cw a\ÊaXw sN¿
]camb HtcÀ]mSmWv. AXmbXv X§fpsS a¡Ä¡v s¸SpIbpw Nnet¸mÄ P·\mÂXs¶, ]n¶oSv BtLmj
A\ptbmPyamb CWsb Is­¯m³ klmbn¡p¶ §Ä¡v tijw hnhml cm{Xnbn am{Xw I­pap«pIbpw
XnÂÿIpSpw_§Ä {InbmßIamb ]¦phln¡p¶p sN¿p¶ AhØbmWp­mbncp¶Xv. knwlmk\§fpd
F¶ÀY-w. AXp Xs¶btà icn? kÀth-m]cn, hnhml ¸n¡phm\pw {]_e IpSpw_§sf tImÀ¯nW¡phm\pw
sa¶Xv c­p hyànIsf CWtNÀ¡p¶tXmsSm¸w c­p hwi]c¼c Du«nbpd¸n¡phm\pw IpSpw_ _Ô§sf
IpSpw_§sfbpw tImÀ¯nW¡p¶p­v. AXpsIm­v sa¨s¸Sp¯m\pw kv{Xo[\w IpSpw_¯n\v Xs¶ \ÂI
"hnhmlmt\zjWw' F¶ hnjbw CkvemanI IpSpw_ s¸Sm\psaÃmw Bbncp¶p hnhml IcmdpIÄ D­m¡
Npäp]mSpÅ Hcmfpambnþ Fsâ Iq«pImcn dm_nbbp s¸«ncp¶Xv. CXnseÃmw Xs¶,ÿIpSpw_ Xocpam\§
ambnþ NÀ¨sN¿m\mWvÿRm\nãs¸«Xv.ÿÿÿÿÿ Ä¡v IosgmXp§nbncp¶ {]kvXpX bphm¡Ä henb
Ahsft¶mSv ]dªp:""F\ns¡sâ IpSpw_¯nsâ Hcp Ifnbnse ImemÄ am{Xambncp¶p. C¡me¯p
A[nI klmbap­mbncp¶p. hc³ apgph\mbpw ]cn t]mepw Gjybnepw aäv Øe§fnepw \nÝbn¨v \S
tim[n¡s¸Spsa¶v F\n¡dnbmambncp¶p. At±l¯n\v ¯p¶ hnhml§sfÃmwÿ\nÀ_ÔnX hnhml¯n\v
GXm\pw \n_Ô\IÄ k^eoIcn¡pIbpw kzbw D¯ kam\ambh Xs¶bmWv. IpSpw_¯nsâbpw kaql¯n
chmZn¯ t_m[apÅhs\¶v sXfnbnt¡­nhcnIbpw sâbpw k½ÀZ-¯n Ip«nIÄ amXm]nXm¡Ä sXsc
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 40
¡pIbpw AÂ]w Ahnizmkhpw Akqbbpw IeÀ¶
CkvemanI coXnbn Hcp `À¯mhns\ kzct¯msS C§s\ tNmZn¡pIbpw sN¿pw: ""Hcn¡epw
At\zjn¡p¶Xn Ht«sd B\pIqey \o Abmfpambn X\n¨mbn«nà Ft¶m? B Ic§Ä ]nSn
¨n«nà Ft¶m? ]cnNbs¸«v aq¶p \mÄ Ignªt¸mÄ
§fpÅXmbn Rms\t¸mgpw HmÀ¡m hnhmlnXbmIm³ Xb-mdmbn Ft¶m?''-
dp­v. Hcp\mÄ Xncnªp \n¶v ""NpaX CkvemanI ssienbn hnhmlw Ign¡p¶Xnse
eIÄ GsäSp¡m³ Xb-mdÃ'' F¶v KpWs¯¡pdn¨v Rm³ lmPdnt\mSv tNmZn¡pIbp­m
]dbp¶ÿHcp a\pjy\pambpÅ _Ôw bn. AhÄ ]dªp: ""amen\y§fqsS k¼qÀ-W- D·qe\w!
\n§Ä Btcm BsW¶ `mh¯nÂ, Bsctbm B\
]WnXpbÀ¯m³ hÀj§tfmfw ]mSp µn¸n¡m³, AhcpsS {]Xo£IÄ¡\pkcn¨v Pohn¡m³
s]« GsXmcmÄ¡pw XnI¨pw hyXy ImWn¡p¶ kIe hr¯nsI« I]S\mSy§fpsSbpw
kvXambn,ÿhnhml¯n\v XmÂ-]cys¸ XnckvImcw''.-
Sp¶psh¦n \n§sf kao]n¡p¶, adn CW-sb- sX-c-sª-Sp-¡p-¶-XnÂ- AXnsâXmb {]iv\
§fpw {]tXyIXIfpw CÃ F¶v ]dbm³ IgnbnÃ. h-r-
s¨¦n amdnt¸mIp¶ HcmfpsS EPphm ¯n-sI-«,- hcpwhcmbvIIsf ]cnKWn¡m¯,- \n§fpsS
b kao]\¯nsâ emfnXys¯ {]iwkn PohnXw \in¸n¡p-¶ aÀ¡S apãn¡mc³- Bbncn¡sh
¡mXncn¡m³ IgnbnÃ. HcmÄ kzbwÿ`b`ànbpw ssZh`bapÅh\pambn \Sn
¨vÿI]Samb {]XnÑmb XoÀ¡m\pÅ km[yX hncfaÃ!
\nÝbambpw \n§Ä¡pw IpSpw_¯n\pw kaÀY-cmb
sªSp¡p¶ CWsb tNmZyw sN¿msX AwKoIcn¡p¶ `À¯mhnsâbpw IpSpw_¯nsâbpw ]Ým¯es¯¡p
ØnXnhntijamWpÅXv.ÿ dn¨pÅ A-t\z-j-Ww- {iaIcamb H¶p Xs¶bmWv.
\nÝbn¡s¸«v \S¯p¶ hnhml§fpsS icnbmb hyhØIsfÃmw k^eoIrXambXn\v tijhpw,
CkvemanI cq]w XnI¨pw hyXykvXamWv. {]hmNIs³d- cq]`wKnbpsS hnjb¯n ]pcpj³ A\pcp]\Ãm¯
(e) kp¶¯\pkcn¨v ]pcpjsâbpw kv{XobpsSbpw AhØbpw D­mImw. imcocnIamb lrZyX Hcp {][m\
k½XanÃmsX \S¡p¶ hnhml§Ä {]mamWnIambn am\ZÞambn ]cnKWn¡s¸Spt¼mÄ AXv henb
AwKoIcn¡m³ Ignbp¶hbÃ. am{XaÃÿXsâ k´m\ AkzØX¡v tlXphmImw!
¯n\pth­n hnhml¡cmdnteÀs¸Sm\pÅ \nbam\pkr kz^vh ]dªp: ""Fsâ henb thhemXnIfnsem¶v
Xamb AhImiw HcmÄ¡panÃ. Z¼XnIÄ ]ckv]cw At±lw ImgvNs¡§s\bncn¡pw F¶Xmbncp¶p.-
Cãs¸Sp¶psh¦n AhÀ¡v X½n ImWpIbpw sN F\n¡bmsf CãamIptam? F\n¡nW§p¶h\mIp
¿mw. alÀ (Dowry) F¶Xv ]pcpj³ Xsâ h[phn\v tam? At±lw F\n¡\pcq]\mIptam?- Cu- hnjb¯nÂ
hnhml¯nsâ `mKambn \ÂIp¶ k½m\amWv. aät\ Rm³ icn¡pw AkzØbmbncp¶p''.-
Iw kwkvImc§fn \n¶pw hyXykvXambn, Cu k½m icoA¯n AÃmlp \½psS a-X-]-c-hpw- euInI]
\w AhfpsS IpSpw_¯n\Ã, AhÄ¡v AhImis¸ chpamb FÃm CS]mSpIÄ¡pw Bhiyamb \nba§fpw
«XmWv. amÀK ZÀi\hpw \ÂInbn«p­v. AXpsIm­pXs¶, Ckv
AXn\mÂ, icnbmb CkvemanI \nÝb hnhmlw emanI coXnbn Hcp \à `À¯mhns\ Asæn `mcy
F¶Xv \nb{´nXhpw X{´]chpamb \nÀ_Ô hnhml sb F§s\ At\zjn¡mw F¶Xn\pÅ am-ÀK- \nÀtZ-
§Ä¡pw kzX{´ IqSn¡ecÂ, sUbvänwKv Z¼XnIsf ihpap­v. Xmsg ]dbp¶ amÀK \nÀtZ-i§Ä ico¯nÂ
t¸msebpÅ klhmkw F¶nhbv¡ - psaÃmw ]mXnhgnbn kaoIcn¡s¸«h am{XaÃ, ]cntim[n¡s¸SpIbpw {]mh
emWp-ÅXv . À¯nIam¡s¸SpIbpw sNbvXhbmWv. Fsâbpw ktlm
CkvemanI coXnbn Hcp `À¯mhns\ At\zjn¡p ZcnamcpsSbpw A\p`h§sf B[mcam¡nbpÅh
¶Xn Ht«sd B\pIqey§fpÅXmbn Rms\t¸mgpw bpamWv.
HmÀ¡mdp­v. Hcp\mÄ Xncnªp \n¶v ""NpaXeIÄ Gsä *If¦aä Dt±iyap­mbncn¡pI. AÃmlphn\pth­n,
Sp¡m³ Xb-mdÃ'' F¶v ]dbp¶ÿHcp a\pjy\pambpÅ Ahsâ IÂ]\IÄ \ndthäm³, Ahs\ A[nIambn
_Ôw ]WnXpbÀ¯m³ hÀj§tfmfw ]mSps]« Bcm[n¡m³ th­nbpÅ Dt±iy-t¯msS hnhmlnX
GsXmcmÄ¡pw XnI¨pw hyXykvXambn,ÿhnhml¯n\v cmIm³ \nÝbn¡pI. {_n«ojv ]mkvt]mÀ«n\mtbm,
XmÂ-]cys¸Sp¶psh¦n \n§sf kao]n¡p¶, adn Bscsb¦nepw \m«nse¯n¡m³ th­ntbm, BcpsS
s¨¦n amdnt¸mIp¶ HcmfpsS EPphmb kao]\¯nsâ sb¦nepw hnhmlw XIÀ¡mt\m atäm DÅ XmÂ-]cy§
emfnXys¯ {]iwkn¡mXncn¡m³ IgnbnÃ. Ä¡pth­nbmWv F¦n \n§fpsS _Ô¯n AÃm
Fsâ "\nÝbn¨p \S¯s¸«' hnhmls¯¡pdn¨v lphnsâ A\p{Klw {]Xo£nt¡­XnÃ!
BfpItfmSv ]dbpt¼msgÃmw AhÀ AXnibw {]ISn¸n * \n§fpsS AhImi§fpw D¯chmZn¯§fpw
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 41
a\ÊnemIpI. Hcp apkvenw F¶ \nebv-¡v \n§fpsS fnãs¸Sp¶psh¦n AXpw ]dbpI. sXämb tXm¶ep
Htcm sNbvXnb-pw BZyta ]T\hnt[bamt¡­Xp­v.- IfpsS ASnØm\¯nemWv \n§Ä hnhmlnXcmIp¶
CkvemanI hnhmlsas´¶pw \n§fn AX\nhmcy sX¦n ]n¶oSXv ]e Akzmcky§Ä-¡pw ImcW
am¡p¶sXs´Ãmsa¶pw AdnhpÅhcmtWm \n§sf¶v amImw.
Dd¸p hcp¯pI. \n§fptSbpw AbmfptSbpw AhIm *kzbw hneIpd¨v ImWmXncn¡pI. \n§fpsS hnhm
i§Ä a\Ênem¡pIbpwÿAh \ndthäm³, am\kn l¡cmdns\¡pdn¨pw saldns\¡pdn¨pw bmYmÀYyt_m
Iambn- XbmsdSp¡pIbpw sN¿pI! [apÅhfmbncn¡pI. Ckv e manI \nbam\pkmcap
* \n§fpsS IpSpw_s¯ IqsS \nÀ¯pI. \n§fpsS ÅÿhyhØIÄ \n§fptSXmbn IcmdnepÄs¸Sp¯m³
IpSpw_s¯ (AhÀ apkvenwIfà F¦n Xs¶bpw) XmÂ-]cys¸Sp¶psh¦n AXn eÖnt¡­XnÃ.
AIän \nÀ¯mXncn¡pI. AhcpsS ]n´pW hfsc Xm§m\Im¯ alÀ Bhiys¸SmXncn¡pI. F¶mÂ
{][m\amWv. sXscsªSp¸v L«¯n AhÀ¡v `mK`m- kzbw \nÊmchXvIcnt¡­XpanÃ. alÀ \n§fpsS Ah
¡mIm³ Ignªnsænepw hnhmlmtLmj thfbnepw ImiaWv. BÀ¡pw \nb{´WtaÀs¸Sp¯mhp¶ H¶Ã.
aähkc§fnepw \n§Ä¡v km[yamIpw hn[w Ahsc \n§sf t\Sm³ ]pcpj\v thZ\tbmsS hnbÀs¸mgp
]s¦Sp¸nt¡­Xp­v. iàamb Hcp IpSpw_w ]n¶n t¡­ H¶mIcpXv AXv.
ep­mIpI F¶Xv, ktlmZc\v Imcy§sfbJnew * Hcp Xocpam\saSp¡p¶Xn AÃmlphnsâ klm
kKuchw ]cnKWn¡m\pw \n§fpsS Xocpam\-§sf bw e`n¡phm³ \nÀtZ-in¡s¸« {]mÀY-\bmb "CkvXn
_lpam\n¡m\papÅ A[nI {]tN-mZ\ambncn¡pw. Jmd¯v'-ÿ\nÀh-ln¡pI. Hcp Xocpam\¯nse¯n¡gn
* ho«ptPmenIÄ sN¿pI. hnhmlw Hcp \nt£]am- ªm c­v dIv-A¯v (\akvImc¯nsâ GIIw) \akv
sW¶v IcpXpI. Hcp Øm-]\¯n \nt£]n¡m³ Icn¨v \n§fqsS sXscsªSp¯ amÀKw A\pKpWam
\n§fpsS I¿n 10,000 ]u­v D­mbncp¶psh¦n ¡phm³ AÃmlphnt\mSv hn\oXambn CkvXnJmd¯v
AXnsâ \nÀh-mlIsc¡pdn¨pw tcJIsf¡pdn¨pw _lp \S¯pI. \n§Ä¡pw Zo\n\pw KpWIcaà hnhmlsa
aXnsb kw_Ôn¨pw s]mXpA`n{]mbs¯ ]änbpsaÃmw ¦n \n§fpsS hgnbn XS椀 hcnIbpw AbmÄ
KthjWw \S¯patÃm. A{]Imcw Hcmsf hnhmlw A\ptbmPy\à F¶v \n§Ä¡v Xncn¨dnbpamdmIpIbpw
Ign¡m³ apXncpt¼mÄ kzbw DÅXne[nIcn¡msXÿHcp sN¿pw.
aqey \nÀW-bw \S¯pI. ktlmZcs\¡pdn¨v icn¡pw Fsâ `À¯mhns\ hnhmlw Ign¡msa¶v Xocpam\n
a\Ênem¡m\mhiyamb kmhImiw FSp¡pI. Npäpw ¨t¸mÄ (At±ls¯ ]cnNbs¸«v aq¶v Zn\§Ä¡v
At\zjn¡pI.- \n§fpsS kplr¯pIsf AXn\mbn tijw!) Rm³ kzem¯p CkvXnJmd¯v \akvIcn¡p
\ntbmKn¡pI.- Bt±l¯nsâ Iq«pImtcmSpw A[ym] Ibpw Fs´¦nepw ASbmf¯n\mbn Im¯ncn¡pbpw
ItcmSpw At±lhpambnS]gIp¶htcmSpsaÃmw At\zjn sNbvXp. ASp¯ Znhkw Fsâ XmÂ-]cyadnbn¡m³
¡pI þ CXns\Ãmw Gsd kabsaSp¯mepw icn. C¯c Rm³ÿA½bv¡v t^m¬ sNbvXp. Ccp]¯ntbgp XnI
samcp hnjb¯nseÿXocpam\¯n Hcn¡epw [rXns¸ bmsX hnhmls¯¡pdn¨v F\n¡v tIÄt¡­XnÃ
SmhXÃ. F¶v A½ ]dbpambncp¶p. F\n¡msW¦n Ccp]¯n
* AXv ]cnip²ambn kwc£n¡pI. hnhmtlXc ct­ Bbncp¶pÅq F¶Xn\m F\n¡msI `bambn
ssewKnI _Ôs¯ kao]n¨pt]mImXncn¡m³ {]tXy cp¶p. F¶m Ahsct¶mSv ]dªp:- ""F´pthWsa¶v
Iw kq£n¡pI. t^mWn aWn¡pdpIÄ ]mgm¡mXncn \n\¡dnbpatÃm? F´psIms­¶dnbnÃ, F\n¡nXv
¡pI.- At±lhpambpÅÿclky IqSn¡mgvN Hgnhm¡p \¶mbn tXm¶p¶p''.- Rm\nXns\ Hcp \Ã e£Wambn
I. AX\phZ\obaà F¶Xn\p ]pdsa, \n§Ä¡nS I­p. F¡mea{Xbpw I­ \à H¶v !ÿ
bnse ckX{´w IqSpX hocyh¯mIpt¼mÄ kzbw * AÃmlphn- hnizmkaÀ¸n¡pI. AdnbpI, \n§Ä
Hcp hn«phogvNm `mh¯nte¡v amdp¶Xmbn \n§Ä¡v kXykÔcpw AÃmlpsh A\pkcn¡p¶hcpw Ahsâ
ImWmw! IÂ]\IÄ ]men¡p¶hcpamsW¦n AÃmlp \n§sf
* kXykÔX ]peÀ¯pI. \n§fpsS hmKvZm\§fpw A\p{Kln¡pIbpw sshhmlnI PohnX¯n hnPbw
`À¯mhn \n¶pÅ \n§fpsS {]Xo£Ifpw kXy \ÂIpIbpw sN¿pw. F´p kw`hn¡pw.- `mhnbnse´m
kÔambn ]dbpI. Xsâ {]Xo£IÄ \nÀhymP-w ]¦p Ipw F¶n§s\bpÅ AanX hymIpeXIÄ shSnbpI.
sh¡m³ At±ls¯ t{]mÕmln¸n¡pI. At±l¯n\v AÃmlp \n§sf kwc£n¡psa¶v hnizkn¡pIbpw kv-
temIw Npäm\nãamWv, hmcm´y§Ä- hnetbdnb tlm« acWIfneqsS, {]mÀY-\IfneqsS kÂ-IÀa§fneqsS
epIfn sNehnSm³ XmÂ-]cyap­vþ Asæn AXn Ah\pambn ASp¸w \ne\nÀ¯pIbpw sN¿pI.
sem¶pw Xs¶ XÂ-]c\à F¶n§s\ shdpsX Duln Fsâ ktlmZcnamcn alm`qcn]£hpw CkvemanI
¡cpXv. apkvenw ]pcpj·-mscÃmw kam\cÃm¯Xp coXnbn "\nÝb hnhmlw' \S¯pIbpw aäpÅhsb
t]mse kv{XoIfpw hyXykvXcmWv. kZm ho«nencn¡m³ kw_Ôn¨v A\nãIcamb A`n{]mbt¯msS Pohn¡p
XmÂ-]cyapÅ kv{XobmWv \n§sf¦n AXv Xpd¶v Ibpw sNbvXhcmWv. D½p Xkv\ow Xsâ `À¯mhns\
hyàam¡pI. tPmensN¿mt\m ]T\w XpScmt\m \n§ I­pap«n HcmgvNs¯ CSthf¡ptijw hnhmlnXbmbn.
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 42
A§s\ IqSn¡mgvN Ahkm\n¡sh sSbpw ]pkvXI§fneqsSbpw kwKoX¯neqsSbpw
asämcp ]pcpjsâ k´m\s¯ kwc£n {]Ncn¡s¸« AXn\nÊ-mcamb Bibas{X "{]WbamWv
temIs¯ Id¡p¶Xv' F¶Xv. sNdp{]mb¯n Xs¶,
¡p¶XnepÅ AbmfpsS at\mKXnsb at\mlcamb IYIfneqsSbpw aäv _meyIme A\p`h
s´¶v Ahfmcmªp. AhÄ tIÄ¡m §fneqsSbpw Hcp s]¬Ip«n ]Tn¸n¡s¸Sp¶Xv "PohnX
\m{Kln¨ B hm¡pIÄ, Hcp ]pcpj ¯nse {]Wb¯n\mbn' XbmsdSp¡phm\mWv. Hcp thf
"{]Ya Zrãnbnse {]Wb¯nepw' ]ns¶ "{]Wbw FÃmw
\pw ]dbmXncp¶ hm¡pIfmWv AbmÄ IogS¡p¶p' F¶pw, \n§fpsS bYmÀY- "{]Wb `mP\'-
]dªXv. lZoYn tcJs¸Sp¯nb, Hc s¯ Is­¯p¶Xnsâ {]m[m\y¯nepsaÃmw R§sf
\mYsb kwc£n¡p¶h³ {]hmNI Ãmw hnizkn¨ncp¶p. ]mÝmXym temIImgvN¸mSnÂ
GsX¦nepw ImeL«¯nse t]m¸v kwKoX¯nsâ ]«nI
t\m-sSm¸w kzÀK-¯n ASp¯mbncn bneqsSbpÅ Xnc¡n« Hcp t\m«w t]mepw {]Wb¯nsâ
¡pw F¶ hm¡pIÄ. AhfpsS lrZb kncmtI{µambn kvY-ncoIcn¡s¸Smw. At¸mÄ HcmÄ
aenbn¨ hm¡pIfmbncp¶p Ah. aämsc Ckvemante¡v hcpt¼mÄ kvt\ls¯¡pdn¨pw t{]a
¦nepw AXp ]dªncps¶¦n kw`hn s¯¡pdn¨pw F´p ]dbm³?
arZpeX, irwKmcw, {]Wbw XpS§nb ss\kÀK-nI
¡mambncp ¶Xpt]mse AhÄ At±l hnImc§sf AXv ]¦psh¡p¶psh¦nepw, Ckvemanse
s¯ hnhmlw Ign¡m³ Hcp¡sa¶v B {]Wbsa¶Xv Ckveman\v ap³]pÅ AÚm\Imes¯
\nanjw Xocpam\n¡pIbmbncp¶p. AYhm Pmlnen¿-¯nse t{]ahpambn Xptemw hyXykv
XamWv. kmcmwi¯nÂ, CkvemanI kvt\lsa¶Xv
AÃmlphn\pth­nbpÅ CãamWv. AÃmlp HcmfnÂ
AhcpsS IY apkvenwIÄ¡v F¡mehpw kt´mj¯n\v Cãs¸Sp¶ AbmfpsS hn-iz-m-kw, kaÀ¸Ww, kq-£v-a-
X, CkvemanI acymZIÄ, kÂ-kz`mhw F¶nhsbsbÃmw
-

CS \ÂIp¶Xpw AapkvenwIsf AXnibn¸n¡p¶Xp


ASnØm\am¡nbpÅ kvt\lamWXv AÀY-am¡p¶Xv.
-

amb H¶mWv. At¸mghcpsS ]qÀh-hnhml¯nse aIÄ


¡v BdphbÊmbncp¶p. A\ptbmPycÃm¯ Ipsd ]p-cp- ]ZmÀY-nIhpw euIn-Ihpamb KpW§sf¡mÄ hyàn
j-·mcpambpÅ hnPbIcaÃm¯ IqSn¡mgvNIÄ¡p bpsS Cu `mhXe¯n\mWXv {]mapJyw \ÂIp¶Xv.ÿ
tijw FÃmw Dt]£n¡m\ncn¡shbmWv kapZmb¯n NÀ¨bpsSbpw Ip-äk½X¯nsâbpw s]m«n¨ncnbpsS
se asämcm-sf¡-pdn¨pÅ hnhcw e`n¨Xv. hnhmlmt\zj bpsaÃmw hnImc \nÀ`cambÿsshIp-t¶cw K\n¿x-
Whpambn h¶ A-bmÄ- CkvemanI kÀh-Iemimebnse Ft¶mSv ]dbpIbp­mbn: ""Ckv-e-mansebpw Pmlnen¿-
hnZymÀY-nbpw Hcp I¨hS Øm]\apÅ am\y\mb hyàn ¯nsebpw kvt\l¯nsâ hyXymksas´¶m Ckv-
bp-am- bncp¶p. A`n{]mbmt\zjW§sfÃmw Xnf¡amÀ¶ e-man \n§Ä kvt\ln¡p-¶Xv AÃmlphn¶p- th­n
Xmbncp¶p F¶Xn\m At±ls¯ IWm³ Xs¶ bmWv. F¶m Pmlnen-¿-¯nse kvt\lw hyànKX
Xocpam\n¡pIbmbncp¶p. A§s\ IqSn¡mgvN Ah amW.-v ImcWw \n§fpsS lrZbhpw B{Kl§fpw B
km\n¡sh asämcp ]pcpjsâ k´m\s¯ kwc£n¡p hyànbn BIrãamWv''.-
¶XnepÅ AbmfpsS at\mKXnsbs´¶v Ahfmcmªp. kmd ]dªp: ""Pmlnen-¿-¯ns³-d- FÃm Xc¯nepap
AhÄ tIÄ¡m\m{Kln¨ B hm¡pIÄ, Hcp ]pcpj\pw Å LSI§fpw \n§sf kzm[o\n¨n-cp-¶p-þ amXm]nXm¡
]dbmXncp¶ hm¡pIfmWv AbmÄ ]dªXv. lZoYn fpsS A`nemj§Ä, hfÀ¯s¸« aqey§Ä FÃmw. F
tcJs¸Sp¯nb, Hc\mYsb kwc£n¡p¶h³ {]hmNI sâ Imcy¯n AXv hnZym`ymk tbmKyX, \à DtZymK
t\m-sSm¸w kzÀK-¯n ASp¯mbncn¡pw F¶ hm¡pI {]Xo£IÄ, Hcp- ]t£,- F´nse¦nepapÅ _u²nItam
Ä. AhfpsS lrZbaenbn¨ hm¡pIfmbncp¶p Ah. hnZym]ctam Bb ]cnioe\w, XpS§n icn¡p-w D]
aämsc¦nepw AXp ]dªncps¶¦n kw`hn¡mambncp cn¹hambncp-¶p-. BZyambn A\p-jv-T-m\§fmcw`n¨ thf
¶Xpt]mse AhÄ At±ls¯ hnhmlw Ign¡m³ bn A¯cw Nn´mKXnIfn \n¶p-w ]pd¯pIS¡m³
Hcp¡sa¶v B \nanjw Xocpam\n¡pIbmbncp¶p. F\n¡v Ignªncp-¶nÃ. Ckv-e-manIamb Adnhpw hnizm
amXmhv- I­pap«nb asäÃmhscbpw Cãs¸SmXncp¶ khpw IqSnhcp-wtXmdpw FÃmw AÃmlphn `ctaÂ-
AhfpsS aIÄ Ct±ls¯ hnhmlw Ign¡phm³ Ahsf ]n¡m³ Rm³ ]Tn¨p. cq]`wKnbnepw `mh§fnepsaÃmap
t{]cn¸n¡pIbmbncp¶p. Å A`n\nthiw Ahkm\n¸n¡p-Ibpw Hcp-ÿ hyànbn
XpeyXbnÃm¯ kvt\lw
se kuµcyw F¶Xv AÃmlphnepÅ AbmfpsS kaÀ
R§Ä Ckvemante¡v IS¶ph¶t¸mÄ hfÀ¯s¸ ¸W¯nsâ AfhmWv F¶v Rm³ Xncn¨dnbpIbpw
« BZÀi§fn \n¶pw ]mc¼cy§fn \n¶pw an¡ sNbvXp. Fsâ `À¯mhpambn BZyw I­pap«nbt¸mÄ
hcpw kzbw hnaeoIcn¡s¸«ncp¶nÃ. ]mÝmXy kwkv Pmlnen- ¿ - ¯ n Rm\t\zjn¨ncp- ¶ H¶p- w Xs¶
Imc¯nse hym]Ihpw kpk½Xhpamb, kn\naIfneq At±l¯n ImWm\mbnÃ. F¶m AÃmlphnsâ
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 43
Cã§sf kvt\ln¡m³ ]Tn¨ÿF\n¡v IqSpX tN [m\y§fpw t\À¯ \of³ ¥mÊn Hmd©v \ocp-w. B
tXmlcambncp-¶ Ht«sd aqey§fpw kz`mh kwkv Znhk¯n\mbn D­m¡nb Im¡n \nd¯nepÅ ]pXnb
Imc§fpw At±l¯nep­mbncp-¶p''.-ÿÿÿÿÿ A_mbtbmsSm¸w am´fnÀ \nd¯nepÅ Nn{X¸WnI
kzmÀY-amb XmÂ-]cy§Ä¡mbn aäpÅhsc kvt\ tfmSp IqSnb ssN\mkn¡nsâ hoXntbdnb kvImÀ^pw
ln¡p-¶Xns\¡mÄ ]e\nebv¡ - pw- AÃmlphns\ kvt\ Rm\Wnªp. ]c¼cmKXamb apkv-e-nw hnhm§sf Xmc
ln¡p-¶Xv Xs¶bmWv kap¶Xw. H¶maXmbn, AÃm Xayw sN¿pt¼mÄ ipjv-Iambncp-¶p-ÿFsâ hnhmlw.
lphn\mbpÅ kvt\lw \n§fpsS Nm]ey§Ät¡m HcmgvN ap³]v ssaem©n Hcp- kpUm\o ktlmZcn Fsâ
B{Kl§Ät¡m A\p-krXambn Nm©mSpIbnà þ AXv ssIImepIfn ssaem©nbpsS Ccp-­ Nn{Xme¦mc§
kpØncamWv, asä hyànbpw AÃmlphnsâ {]oXn¡m Ä XoÀ¯p. _pJqÀ ]pI¨v aWn¡qdpIÄ XpSÀ¨bmbn
bn DZyan¡p-¶nSt¯mfw. c­maXmbn, Xsâ ]¦mfn¡v, AXnencn¡p-Itbm, Ìow _mt¯m, ssIImepIfnse
AhÀ¡v {]tXyIambn A§s\ tXm¶nbnsænepw, tcmaw Ifbm³ ]©kmc ]pc«tem, _rl¯mbÿIp-Spw
Ahcp-sS AhImi§Ä \ÂIm³ Hcmsf \nÀ_ÔnX\m _ kwKa§tfm, henb sN¼pIfn `£Ww ]mIw
¡p-¶ khntijamsbmcp- {]WbamWXv. sN¿tem, Cw¥­nsâ \m\m`mK¯p \n¶p- a - p Å
AÃmlp ]dbp¶Xpt]mse:ÿ""AhtcmSv \n§Ä acym _Ôpan{Xm[nItfm bmsXm¶p-anÃ. im´hpw efnXhp
ZtbmsS klhÀ¯nt¡­Xp­v. C\n \n§Ä¡htcmSv amb Hcp-ÿIÀa-ambncp-¶p- AXv. Hcp-ÿ Ckv-e-manI {KÙm
shdp¸v tXm¶p¶ ]£w (\n§Ä a\Ênem¡pI) \n§ eb¯n sh¨vÿkzlolv _pJmcnbpsS hmfy§Ä¡pw
sfmcp Imcyw shdp¡pIbpw AtX Imcy¯n AÃmlp I¼yq-«dn\p-w CSbn sRcnªaÀ¶v Rms\sâ `À
[mcmfw \³a \nivNbn¡pIbpw sNbvsX¶v hcmw.ÿ(4:19). ¯mhns\ hcn¡p-Ibmbncp-¶p-. AXmbncp-¶p-ÿFsâ hn-
K\n¿x- Ft¶mSv ]dªp: ""At±lw AÃmlpsh `b hm-l-w-.
s¸Sp¶p-sh¦nÂ, IÂ-]n-¡s¸« hn[w AÃmlpsh Bcm hnhml hncp-¶v

[n¡p-¶p-sh¦nÂ, \n§fpw At±lhpw AÃmlphnsâ apkv-e-nw hnhml¯nsâ HutZymKnIam-b- efnXamb


ASnasb-¶- t_m[t¯msS \n§fpambn \Ã\nebn NS§mWv \nI-mlv. hc\p-w kv{XobpsS c£nXm¡fpw
Xs¶ hÀ¯n¡p-¶h\mbncn¡p-w. AhnsS k¶nlnXcmbncn¡p-w. IqsS h[phpw Nnet¸mÄ
ÿ\nÝbn¨pd¸n¡p-¶ hnhml§sfbpw t{]ahnhml aäv _Ôpan{Xm[nIfpw D­mIp-w. hnhml IcmÀ kaÀ
§sfbpw ]ckv]cw hn]coX§Ä F¶ \nebv-¡mWv ¸n¡s¸SpIbpw km£ys¸Sp¯pIbpw sN¿pw. A{]
BfqIÄ ]Xnhmbn KWn¡p-¶Xv. hnhml¯nsâ ASp Imcw alÀ F{Xsb¶v {]Jym]n¡p-Ibpw tcJs¸Sp¯p
s¯¯nbt¸mgmWv A§s\bà Imcysa¶v Rm³ Ibpw sN¿pw-. A{Xam{Xw.
a\Ênem¡nbXv. A[nIt]cp-w hnizkn¡p-¶Xv H¶n¨v ]c¼cmKXamb ]mÝmXy hnhml k¡mc-§tfmSv
kabw sNehgn¡Â, imcocnI _Ôw XpS§n ]¦p-sh Xpe\w sN¿pt¼mÄ Ckv-e-manse \n¡mln Npcp-§n
¡s¸Sp¶ XmÂ-]cy§fn \n¶mWv {]Wbw hfcp- bXpw sNehpÿIp-dªXpamb k¡mcamWp-ÅXv.
¶sX¶mWv. kvt\lw hÀ[-n¡p-¶Xn\v Ch klmbIw
Xs¶sb-¦nepw apkv-e-nwIÄ F¶ \nebv-¡v R§Ä alÀ F¶Xv kv{XobpsS ho«pImÀ¡Ã h[phn\mWv
hnizkn¡p-¶Xv kvt\lw Hcp-ÿhn¯p t]msebmsW¶m k½m\n¡s¸Sp¶Xv F¶sXmgn¨m aäv kwkvImc§fn
Wv. AÂ hZqZv (kvt\l \n[n) Bb AÃmlp lrZb¯n se kv{Xo[\w, "semt_mf' XpS§nbXnt\mSv kam\am
 hnXdp-¶ hn¯v. lrZb§sf X½nenW¡p-Ibpw Wv. AXv F{XbmImsa¶v (Asæn Ip-dªXv) F{X
AXn kvt\lw \nd¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶Xv AÃmlphmWv. sb¶v AhfpsS XmÂ-]cym\p-kmcw k¼¯n-Iamsbm
B kvt\lw hfcm³ _mlyambn \msam¶p-w sNbvXnà AÃmsXtbm hyhØ sN¿mhp¶XmWv. JpÀB\nse
F¶Xpt]msebmWv \ap¡\p-`hs¸SpI. F¶mÂ, FÃm Asæn Zo\nse atäsX¦nepw {]mamWnIambÿAdnhv
kwip²amb Dt±iy§fpw, k]vXmwK {]Wma¯nse (AXhÄ¡v ]Tn¸n¡s¸SWw), ]Ww, kzÀW-w, B`c
a{´§fpw, AÃmlpsh A\p-kcn¡m\p-Å ]ckv]c Ww, ]pkvXI§Ä, hkv{X§Ä, ho«p]IcW§Ä XpS
aÕc§fpw, AXnarZpeamb kv]Ài\w t]mepw Z-¼- §nbh aldnsâ GXm\p-w DZmlcW§fmWv. D½p Xkv
XnamÀ-¡nSbn kvt\l¯nsâ A\p-{Klw sIm­phcp- \oansâ hnjb¯n AhfpsS aldnsâ Hcp-`mKw Dwd
¶ kwKXnIfmWv.ÿ F¶ eLp XoÀY-mS\¯n\v a-¡-bnte¡p-Å bm{Xbmbn
Fsâ \nI-mlv cp-¶p-.
Xo-b-XnbpsS apt¶m«pw ]nt¶m«papÅ Ip-sd bm{Xbv- \nI-mlv km[mcWKXnbn im´hpw kzImcyhpam
¡p-ÿ tijw þ BZyw daZm³, ]ns¶ k]vXw_À, ]ns¶ sW¦nepw AtX XpSÀ¶p-Å h-c³- \Â-Ip-¶- heoa F¶
BKkvXv, ]ns¶ G{]nÂ, ]ns¶ Ahkm\w s^{_phcnþ hnhml kÂImcw AXn\v t\Àhn]coXamWv. c­pt]À
Fsâ \nI-mlnsâ (IeymW Zn\¯nsâ)- {]`mX¯n hnhmlnXcmbn¡gnªpsh¶v kaql as[-y hnfw_cw
]pfIamÀ¶ DÂIWvTtbmsS Rm\p-WÀ¶p-. ^vfmänse sN¿pIbpw k¡m¯nsâbpw kt´mj¯nsâbpw
{]nb¦cnbmb klImcn lbm F\n¡mbn Hcp- khnti thfbmWnsX¶v Adnbn¡p-IbpamWv CXnsâ Dt±iyw.
j {]mX Hcp-¡nbncp-¶p.-ÿ]p¯³ kvt{Sm_dnbn«
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 44
]cn-Nbw

sI¶-¯v.- F-kv.- sP³In³kv


k`-bnÂ\n¶v k-aÀ-¸-W-¯n-te-¡v-
apkvX^m X³hoÀ

]Sn-ªm-dnsâ Duj-c-Xsb shSn ss__n ]Þn-X\mhp-Ibpw Hcp aX  amÀK-§-sfm-¶p-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã.


ªv Ckvemansâ im´n-Xo-c-¯-W-ª- {]Nm-cI- sâ Ip¸m-ba- W - n-bp-Ibpw sNbv ]Ån-bp-sSbpw ]ptcm-ln-X-·-m-cp-sS
Xnsâ IY ]d-bm-\pÅ {InkvXp-aX ]p Xp. -kp-hn-ti-j-{]-kw-K-¯nsâ \mfp-I- bpw DÅ-d-I-fn-te¡v {]th-i\w e`n-¨-
tcm-ln-X-cn-sem-cm-fmWv sI¶-¯v.- F-kv.- fm-bn-cp¶p ]n¶o-Sv.- s]-´-t¡mkvXv tXmSp IqSn {In-kvXp-hnsâ t]cn kw
sP³In³kv.]- p-tcm-ln-Xa- X- §
- fpw `uXn- kn²-m-´-§sf Hcp tUmÜ t]mse km-cn-¡p-¶-hsc aqSn¡gn-ª- PoÀW--X-
I-ZÀi-\-§fpw XoÀ¡p¶ XS-h-d-Isf sIm­p-\-S¶ At±-l-¯n\v CXcaX- IÄ sI¶-¯ns\ Atem-k-cs¸Sp¯m-
t`Zn¨v {]Imiw sNmcn-bp¶ Znhyktµ- §Ä F¶-Ã, {-In-kvXp-a-X-¯n-\-Is¯ \m-cw-`n-¨p.- ssZ-hk- t- µiw tLmc-tLmcw
i-¯n\v km£n-I-fmb At\-Im-bn-c-§- CXc Ahm-´c hn`m-K§ - Ä t]mepw \c- {]kw-Kn¨v Imiv F®nhm§p¶ Øe
fn-sem-cmÄ ! I-{]-th-i-\-¯n\v Imc-W-am-Ipsa¶ Im s¯ {][m\ Znhy-·mÀ km¼-¯n-I`- {- ZX
aX-]-c-amb A´-co-£-¯nemWv cyw XoÀ¯pw Dd-¸m-bn-cp-¶p. ssIh-cn-¨n-«n-Ãm¯ NÀ¨p-I-fn ss_
Ata-cn-¡-¡m-c-\mb sI¶¯v P\n-¨ P\-§Ä¡v ap¼n aXw {]kw-Kn- _nÄ ¢mskS-p¡ - c- p-sX¶v "Xncn-¨d- nª'-
Xpw hfÀ¶Xpw. A-Sn-bp-d¨ s]´-t¡m ¡p-t¼mgpw aX-¯nsâ ASn-Øm-\X - ¯zw kaÀY-³amÀ,- InS-a-Õcw Ac-§p-hm-gp
kvXv auen-I-hm-Zn-bm-bn-cp¶ ap¯-Èn-bp k¼qÀW-am-bn X\n¡v a\-Ên-embncp¶n ¶ ]ptcm-ln-Xm-[n-Im-c-t{iWn,- ab-¡p-
sS in£Ww ImcWw sNdp¸w apXte söv sI¶¯v km£y-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p.- a-cp-¶nepw kzhÀK-c-Xn-bnepw IpªmSp-
]Ånbpw ]Ån-¡m-cy§fpw Pohn-X-¯n ]n-Xmhpw ]p{X\pw ]cn-ip-²m-ßmhpw tbip I-fnse s]¬a-¡-fnepw hnImcw ian-¸n-
sâ Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-§-fmbn amdn.- ssZ-h- Xs¶-bm-sW¶v At±lw Dd-¨p-hnizkn ¡p¶ A¨-·mÀ.......-F-Ãm-än\pw ]pdsa
`-ànbpw \·-IÄ¡v kzÀK-w {]Xn-^-e- ¡p-Ibpw hnizm-kn-Isf ]dªp ]Tn¸n- ss__n-fn NnX-dn-¡n-S-¡p¶ sshcp-
ambn \ÂI-s¸-Sp-sa-¶ {]Xym-ibpw Ipä- ¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]t£,- k¼qÀWam [-y-§sf hni-Zo-I-cn-¡m-\m-ImsX Ipg-
hm-fn-IÄ¡v \cIw hn[n-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p- bn AXnsâ Bibw {Kln-¡m³ Ignbp- §p¶ ]Þn-X-·mÀ! sI¶¯v Hcp am
¶p-sh¶ Xnc-¨-dnhpw sI¶-¯ns\ aX- ambncp-¶n-Ã,- A-t±-l¯- n-s\-¶Ã;-- BÀ¡pw! äw sImXn-¡m-\m-cw-`n-¨p.
t_m-[-apÅh\m¡n hfÀ¯n Ckveman-s\tbm apkven-wI-sftbm sI¶¯v B{K-ln¨ amäw At±-l
Pohn-Xk - m-lN- cy§Ä ]e-co-Xn-bn C¡m-es- ¯m¶pw Cu kphn-ti-j{- ]-Nm- s¯ Im¯n-cn-¡p-¶p-­m-bn-cp-¶p.- tPm-
amdn-a-dn-ªn«pw NÀ¨p-am-bpÅ _Ôw c-I\v ]cn-Nb- a- p-­m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã.- BsI¡q en-bm-hi - ymÀY-w kpDuZn Atd-_y-bnse
sI¶¯v Dt]-£n-¨n-Ã.- tIm-tfPv Ime- Sn Ckvemansâ t]cn At±lw Adn- ¯nbXv At±-l-¯nsâ Pohn-X-¯nÂ
am-b-t¸m-tg¡pw ASn-bp-d¨ s]´-t¡m ªn-cp-¶Xv FenPm apl-½-Znsâ \mj ]cn-hÀ¯-\-§-fpsS sImSp-¦m-äp-XoÀ
kvXvImc-\mbn At±lw amdn-bn-«p-­m-bn- ³ Hm^v Ckvemw {]Øm-\-s¯-bm-Wv.- ¯p.- `q-anbpw BIm-ihpw Idp-¸n\v kwh-
cp-¶p.- ]-cn-ip-²m-ßmhv \ndª a\-Êp- Ckvemans\ Idp-¸n Ipfn-¸n-¨p-In-S¯n- c-Ww sNbvX FenPm apkven-wI-fn \n
ambn B tImtfPv hnZymÀY-n tam£-amÀ bn-cp¶ {]Øm\ {]hÀ¯-Ic- psS hwio- ¶v hyXy-kvX-cm-bn-cp¶p lnPm-knse
K-¯n AWn-\n-c-¶p. b-Xsb DÄs¡m-Åm³ kzm`m-hn-I-am Xma-k¡ - mÀ. H-scmä ssZhw, H-scmä P\X
]Ån-bn Xs¶-bm-bn-cp¶p Imcy-am bpw sI¶-¯n\v Ign-ªn-Ã. -I-dp¯ F¶ hniz-am-\-hn-I-X-bpsS {]tLmj
bn At±lw sNe-h-gn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. -]ns¶ Ckvemansâ Nne hàm-¡Ä AÃmlp Ww {]mtbm-Kn-I-cq-]-¯n Atd-_y³
ss__nÄ hmb-\-bnepw. Zn-h-k§fpw Hcp Idp¯ hyàn-bm-sW-¶v hsc sI apkven-wI-fn sI¶¯v I­p.- tI-«Xpw
BgvN-I-fp-sams¡ kXy-thZ ]pkvX-I- ¶-¯n\v hni-Zo-I-cn¨p sImSp¯p. Npcp- Adn-ª-Xp-aà bYmÀY- Ckvemsa¶v
¯n\v ap¼n X]-Ên-cp¶ sI¶¯v ¡-¯n Ckvemansâ X\-Xmb Bi- B kXym-t\zjn Xncn-¨d- n-bp-Ib - mbn-cp¶p.
Gsd-¯m-a-kn-bmsX Adn-b-s¸-Sp¶ b-§Ä- {Kln-¡m³ At±-l-¯n\v ap¼n (ti-jw- t]-Pv- 50þÂ)-

2007 Un-k-w-_À- 45
bpàn-bpsS acWw
s{]m^.- tUhnUv amIvsU-hÂ

Ihnbpw X¯-z-Nn-´-I-\pw kuµ-cy- Hcp km[m-cW bpàn-hmZ IrXn-bn Icpw ]n¡m-e¯v Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-ap-¶-
im-kv{X-Nn-´-I-\pw \mS-I-c-N-bn-Xm-hp  \n¶v FbvPv Hm^v doksW thÀXn- bn-¨n-«p-­v.- Hcp bpàn-hmZ IrXn-sb-¡p-
sam-s¡-bm-bn-cp¶ tXmakv s]³ Fgp- cn¨p \nÀ¯p-¶Xv kp{]-[m-\-ambpw dn-¨pÅ \mkvXn-I-cpsS Xo{h-amb Ah-
Xnb FbvPv Hm^v dok¬ F¶ IrXn ta¸dª khn-ti-j-X-I-fm-Wv. -]m- Im-i-hm-Z-sa¶ \ne-bn C¯cw \nco-
Nn´m-tem-I¯v Gsd NÀ¨-sN-¿-s¸-«n- Ým-Xy³ bpàn-hm-Zn-If- psS IrXn-If- n £-W-§sf ImWmhp-¶-Xm-Wv.- F-¦nÂ
«p-­v.- F-XoÌv ss__nÄ,-dm-j-W-enÌv \n¶v PUn-e-amb \ntj[Nn´-bpsS t¸mepw ]mÝmXy bpàn-hmZnIfnepw
am\n-s^-tÌm, _-p¡v Hm^v ly-pa-\n-kw,- A`mhw sIm­v Cu IrXn thdn-«p-\n ]m-Ým-Xy- ss{I-kvXh kaq-l-¯nse
tlmfn- kv{In]väv en_-de-nkw XpS-§nb ¡p-¶Xp {it²-b-am-Wv.- a-X-\n-tj-[-¯n hnizm-kn-IÄ¡n-Sbnepw GbvPv Hm^v
h B Ir-Xn¡v ]n¡m-e¯v ]ecpw sâ ]mc-¼-cy-co-Xn-Ifpw _men-i-bp-àn- dok¬ Imcy-amb kzm[o\w sNep-
\ÂInb hnti-j§ - f- mWv.tem-I¯
- nsâ I-fpw Xosc kv]Àin-¨n-«nà F¶v ]dbm- ¯nbXmbn ]T-\-§Ä sXfn-bn-¨n-«p-­v.-
hnhn[ `mK-§-fn-embn \m¸-¯n-sbm- \m-hn-sÃ-¦nepw bpàn-hm-Z-¯n\v ] s{]m-^.- BÀt\mÄUv tjhn-Ìdpw enb-
¼Xv `mj-I-fn-te¡v B IrXn hnhÀ¯ s¯m-¼Xmw \qäm-­n h¶p-tNÀ¶ tWmtUm aIvsä-bn\pw tNÀ¶p \S-¯n
\w sN¿-s¸-«n-«p-­v.- B-[p-\nI bpàn- \oXo-I-c-W-aÀln-¡m¯ Zpx-kz-`m-h-§- b ]T-\-¯n Dcp-¯n-cnªp h¶ hkv
hm-Z-¯nsâ XmXzn-Im-Sn-¯d hn]p-eo-I- fn \n¶v Cu IrXn thdn«p\n¡p-¶p. Xp-X-I-fn NneXv- C\n ]dbpw hn[-¯n-
cn-¡p-¶-Xn Imcy-amb kw`m-h\Ifm -hn-Úm-\m-[n-jvTn-X-amb Hcp am\-k-nI em-Wv.
Wv FbvPv Hm^v dok¬ \nÀh-ln-¨n-cn- ]cn-hÀ¯-\a- mbn bpàn-hm-Zs¯ hmbn ]mÝm-Xy-bp-àn-hm-Zn-IÄ¡n-SbnÂ
¡p-¶-Xv. B IrXnsb ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am- s¨-Sp-¡phm³ ]eÀ¡pw t{]cW \ÂIn- GbvPv Hm^v dok¬ sNep-¯nb kzm
¡pt¼mÄ AXn\v Nne khn-ti-j-am-\- b-Xn tXmakv ss]\nsâ Cu IrXn- [o\^e-§Ä :-
§-fp-Å-Xmbn Xncn-¨-dn-bm³ Ignbpw. ¡pÅ ]¦v hfsc hep-Xm-Wv.- AXv sIm (1).- bpàn-hmZw AÔ-amb aX-\n-cm-
Hcp km[m-cW aX-\n-cm-I-cW IrXn-bn ­mWv Cu IrXnsb dmj-Wn-enÌv- am\n I-c-Whpw hnizm-k-_-ln-jvI-c-W-hp-aÃ
 \n¶v `n¶-ambn AXn-\pÅ khn-ti- s^tÌm Fs¶ms¡ hnti-jn-¸n-¡-s¸- F¶ Nn´m-KXn hym]n-¨p.
j-amb Nne-am-\-§Ä C\n ]d-bp-¶-h- «p-h-¶-Xv.
]Xn-t\gv, ]-Xn-s\-«v, ]s¯m-¼Xv (2).- aX-hn-aÀi-\¯- n\v aX-t¯m-SpÅ
bm-Wv. hntZzjw am{Xw Bbp-[-am-¡n-bm aXn
(1).- aX-hn-aÀi-\-¯nsâ ]mc-¼-cy-co- \qäm-­p-If- n GbvP- v Hm^v dok-Wnsâ bmIn-söpw adn¨v hnÚm\m-[n-jvT-n-
Xn-bn \n¶v `n¶-ambn hkvXp-\njvTam AtX kz`m-h-t¯mSv IqSnb ap¸-Xn-e- X-amb am\-Z-Þ-§-fpsS ]n³_ew
b Ah-tem-I-\-¯n-eqsS ss{IkvX-h-X- [nIw kzX{´ Nn´m-{K-Ù§Ä {]kn- Bh-iy-am-sW¶pw Nn´n-¸n-¨p.
bpsS A´-Êmciyq\yX Xpd¶p Im«p- ²o-I-cn-¡-s¸-«n-cp-¶p.-
A-h-bv-s¡m-¶pw- B[p-\nI bpàn- (3).- aX-\n-cm-I-cWw hnizm-k-\n-cm-I-
¶p. c-W-a-söpw hnizmkw aX-_m-ly-amb
(2).- ssZh-hn-izm-k-amWv aX-¯n hm-Z-¯nsâ Ncn-{X-¯n {it²-b-amb Hcp LS-I-am-sW¶papÅ \nco-£Ww
sâbpw hnizm-k-¯n-sâbpw Xn·-I-fpsS CSw tXSp-hm³ km[n-¡p-I-bp-­m-bn-Ã.- Hcp hn`mKw ]mÝm-Xy-bp-àn-hm-Zn-If- nÂ
ASn-Øm-\-sa¶ aqV-amb bpàn-hm- AtX kabw GbvPv Hm^v dok¬ Db iàn {]m]n-¨p.
Z¯n \n¶v amdn-\n¶psIm­v hnizm- À¯nb tNmZy-§Â bpàn-hmZ aÞe
s¯bpw hnizmk aÞ-e-s¯bpw Htc (4).- ssZh-hn-izm-kn-bm-bn-cp-¶-p-sIm
k-¯nsâ \oXn-]qÀh-I-amb ]cn-tim- kabw _m[n-¡p-Ib - p-­m-bn.- a-X¯
- nsâ ­v Xs¶ bpàn-hm-Z¯ - nsâ sshÚm-
[\ \nÀh-ln-¡p-¶p. ASn-¯d- sb¡pdn¨v hnizm-kn-IÄ ktµ- \nI km[y-X-IÄ hn\n-tbm-Kn-¡m-sa¶p
(3).- a\p-jy- [nj-Wsb¡pdn-¨pÅ l-t¯msS Nn´n¨p XpS-§p-¶-Xn\v Nn´n-¡p¶ bpàn-hm-Zn-IÄ cwK-¯p-
Bgtadnb {]Xym-iI - Ä hni-Ie- \w sN GbvPv Hm^v dok¬ CS-bm-¡n-sb¡v h-¶p.
¿p-¶p. t]mÄ IpÀSvkn-s\-t¸mse ]e \mkvXn- (5).- aX-¯nsâ Xn·-IÄs¡-Xn-cmb
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 46
t]mcm- « - ¯ n\v aX- \ n- c m- I - c Ww Hc- ­p-It- fmfw am\-hc- m-in-bpsS `mK-t[bw W-mUv Hen-hd- pw {]n-̬ sebn\pw tNÀ
\nhmcyKp-W-am-bn-cn-t¡-­-Xn-söpw, a- AXn-ià - a- mbn¯s¶ \nÀW-bn-¨p-h¶ s¶-gp-Xnb lnÌdn Hm^v tamtU¬
X-¯nsâ `mK-ambn \ne-\n-¶p-sIm-­p- aX-§sf A{X- s]-s«¶v XÅn-¡-fbm dmj-W-enkw F¶ IrXn-bn-ep-­v. -]m-
Xs¶ hyàn-IÄ¡v aX-]u-tcm-ln-Xy- \m-hn-söv BÀP-h-apÅ Ah-t_m[w c-¼c- y-¯nsâ tIm«-Isf InSnewsImÅn-
¯n\pw NqjW¯n\psa-Xnsc t]mcm- ]mÝm-Xy-bp-à-hm-Zn-I-fn ]eÀ¡pw ¡p¶ Ne-\-§Ä krjvSn-¨p-sIm-­n-cp-
Sp-hm³ km[n-t¡-­-Xp-s­¶pw Nn´n- D­m-hp-Ibpw, AXnsâ ^e-ambn \S¶ ¶p-sh-¦nepw Imcy-am{X {]k-à-amb
¡p-¶h- c- psS kwJy ]mÝm-Xy-bp-àn-hm- ]T-\-§Ä sshÚm-\nIhpw At\z-j- amä-§-fp-­m-¡n-s¡m­v am\-h-cmin
Zn-I-fn hÀ[-n-¨p. Wm-ß-Ihpamb ]pXnb taJ-e-IÄ Xpd- bpsS `mhn-sb k¼-¶-am-¡p-¶-XnÂ
]mÝm-Xy-ss{IkvX hnizm-kn-IÄ ¶p-Xc- n-Ibpw sNbvXp.- a-X¯ - nsâ [mÀa- bpàn ]cm-P-b-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p-sh-¶mWv
¡n-S-bn GbvPv Hm^v dok¬ sNep- n-Ih- i
- hpw k-Zm-Nm-ck
- w-hn-[m-\hpw khn- {]kvXpX Ncn{X]pkvXIw hmbn-¨mÂ
¯nb kzm[o\w:-- ti-j-]-T-\-§Ä¡p hnt[-b-am-¡p¶Xn a\-Ên-em-Ip-¶Xv. AtX kabw k`mk
 bpàn-hm-Zn-I-fmb ]e ]mÝm-Xy-Nn- aq-l-§-fn-ep-­mb amä-§Ä¡v Imc-W-
(1).- aXhpw hnizm-khpw bpàn-bp- ´-Icpw ]peÀ¯n-bn-cp¶ XmÂ]-cbw am-bXv bpàn-hm-Zhpw ktµ-l-hm-Zhpw
sSbpw tNmZy-§-fp-sSbpw IS-¶m-{I-a-W- {it²-b-am-Wv.- k-`m-{]-kw-K-I-cm-bn-cp¶ Ah-bpsS ASn-Øm-\-¯n hfÀ¶p
¯n \n¶v then-sI«n kwc-£n-¡-s¸- bpàn-hm-Zn-I-fpsS Hcp Xe-ap-d-Xs¶ hnI-kn¨p h¶ sshÚm-\n-I-X-bp-
tS-­-h-bmWv F¶v ]mc-¼cy `oXnbne- Ccp-]Xmw \qäm-­nsâ XpS-¡-¯n amWv F¶v Hcp hmZ-KXn ]e-t¸mgpw
[n-jvTnX-amb at\m-`m-h-¯n\v amäw cwK-¯p-h-¶Xpw XpSÀ¶m-Wv. D¶-bn-¡-s¸-Sm-dp-­v.- _m-en-i-sa¶v
h¶p. bpàn-bpsS ]cm-Pbw
AXns\ \ncm-Ic- n-¡m-\m-hn-Ã. s- s{I-kvX-
(2).- bpàn-bp-sSbpw tNmZyw sN¿- C\n \mw Cu At\z-j-W-¯nsâ h-k-`-IÄ¡v amdm-Xn-cn-¡m-\m-hn-sö
en-sâbpw t\À¡v apJm-ap-J-ambn hnizm- AXn-{]-[m-\a- mb hi-t¯-¡mWv \o§p- ØnXn kwPm-X-am-¡p-¶-Xn Ahbv
ks¯ \nÀ¯n-s¡m-­pÅ Bi-b-hn- ¶-Xv.- GbvPv Hm^v dok¬ DbÀ¯nb ¡pw ]¦p­v.
\n-a-b-§Ä¡v ]mÝm-Xy-k-`m-hn-izm-kn- Xcw-Khpw AXnsâ XpSÀ¨bmbn kw`- bpàn hnizm-ks¯ IS-¶m-{I-an-¡p-
IÄ \nÀ_-Ôn-¡-s¸-«p. hn¨ ]cn-Wm-ahpw bYmÀY-¯n GsXm- t¼m-gmWv hnizmkw Pm{KX ]men-¡p-
(3).- thZ-]p-kvX-Im-[n-jvT-n-X-amb Hcp c-\p-`-h-s¯-bmWv {]Xn-\n-[m\w sN¿p- ¶Xv Fs¶mcp ]pXnb \nco-£Ww
]pXnb Ah-tem-I\ coXn-bn-eqsS ]mc- ¶-Xv.- bpàn AYhm a\p-jy-_p-²n-bpsS Xs¶ BhnÀ`-hn-¨p.- a-X-\-thm-°m-\-
¼cy hnizm-k-¯nsâ tIm«-t\-«-§sf Gähpw Xo£vWhpw ià-hp-amb aÀaa- ¯n\nS-bm-¡nb ]pXnb Ah-t_m[ [m
]co-£-W-hn-t[-b-am-¡p¶ coXn-IÄ Þ- e s¯ tI{µ- _ n- µ p- h m- ¡ n- s ¡m- c-bn Cu \nco-£W - hpw D­m-bn-cp-¶p.-
\ne-hn h¶p. ­pÅ a\p-jy-cm-in-bpsS [nj-Wm-]-c- ]m-c-¼-cy-¯nsâ ]mX-bn-eqsS apt¶m«v
(4).- imkv{Xhpw hnÚm-\hpw hn amb [mÀjvSyw ]cm-P-b-s¸-«-Xnsâ km t]mIp-t¼mÄ hnizmkw AXnsâ Bg-
izm-k¯nsâ i{Xp-¡fpw ]nim-Nnsâ £y-amtWm \ap¡v e`n-¡p-¶-Xv. -A-XÃ ta-dnb A[x-]-X-\-¯n-emWv sNs¶-
D]-I-c-W-§fpamWv F¶ ASªt_m ]mc-¼-cy-¯nsâ ]hn{X aÞ-e-§-fn ¯pI F¶pw thZm-[njvT-n-Xtam AÃm-
[s¯ Xnc-kvI-cn-¡m-\pÅ _u²nI kwc-£n-¡s¸«p-h¶ hnizm-k-¯n\v ¯tXm Bb Xc-¯n-epÅ Hcp \ho\
t{]c-W-IÄ Dcp-¯n-cn-ªp-h-¶p. XoÀ¨bmbpw ]X-\hpw kw`-hn-¨-Xnsâ am\-ZÞ irwJe-bpsS klm-b-t¯m
sXfn-hp-I-fmtWm \ap¡v e`n-¡p-¶Xv sS aXs¯ ]pXp-Xmbn Is­-¯p-I-bm
(5).- hf-cp¶ _u²n-I-X-bp-ambn cay- F¶-XmWv tNmZyw.- ]-s¯m-¼Xv, C-cp- Wv th­-sX-¶p-apÅ Nn´-bpsS ^e-
X-bn \o§n-bn-sÃ-¦n aXhpw hnizm- ]Xv \q-äm-­p-If- n aX-cw-K¯pw bp-àn- am-bn-«m-bn-cp¶p \thm-°m-\-¯nsâbpw
khpw Ahsb _Ôn¨p \nÀ¯p¶ hm-Z-a-Þ-e-¯nepw kw`-hn-¨n-«pÅ Ne- B Zni-bn-epÅ sshÚm-\nI ^e-§-
CXc LS-I-§fpw AXn-thKw inYn-e- \-§f- psSbpw ]cn-Wm-a§- f- psSbpw IW- fp-sSbpw BhnÀ`m-hw. -B-[p-\nI Ime-
ambn¯ocpsa¶ Xncn-¨-dnhv aX-t\-Xr- s¡-Sp¸v,- ap³]-d-ª-t]mse Nne khn- L-«-t¯mSv Ah-[m-\-X-tbmsS Bi-b-
Xzs¯ IqSp-XÂ PmK-cq-I-cm¡n amän. tij kmlnXy§fpsS kzm[o-\s¯ hn-\n-abw \S-¯p¶ Hcp ]pXnb Xe-ap-
^e-§Ä ¡pdn-¨pÅ At\z-jWw CsXÃmw tNcp- dbpsS BhnÀ`m-h¯ - n\v ]Ým-¯e- s- am-
taÂ]-dª hn[-¯n Ccp-`m-K t¼mÄ e`n-¡p¶ D¯cw kv]jvShpw cp-¡nb At\Iw LS-I-§-fn-sem¶v bp
¯pw D­mb amä-§Ä ]c-kv]-c-[m-c-W- hyà-hp-am-Wv. ànbmbn-cp-¶p-sh¶v ss{IkvXh- k - `- b
- p
bn A[n-jvT-n-X-amb Hcp kml-N-cy- B[p-\nI a\p-jy-Po-hn-X-s¯ kzm sS A\p-`h- ¯ - nsâ shf-¨¯- n ]dbmw.
¯n\p ]Ým-¯-e-am-bn-¯oÀ¶p. -hn-izm- [o-\n-¡p-Ibpw \nÀW-bn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p- CXp ]t£,- bpàn AXnsâ kzbw k
khpw bpànbpw kl-hÀ¯n-¡p¶ ¶-Xn bpàn ]cm-P-b-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p.- ¯-bn ]cm-P-b-s¸-«p-sIm­v hnizm-k-
B[p- \ n- I - k maq- l nI kml- N cyw bp-àn-hm-Z-¯nsâ hyh-Øm-]n-Xhpw ¯n\pw hnizm-km-[n-jvTnX kwkvIm-c-
]mÝm-Xy-tem-I-¯n\v km[y-am-Ip¶ AtX-k-abw XoÀ¯pw PU-n-e-hp-amb ¯n\pw kzbw klm-b-I-ambn ¯oÀ¶-
Xn aX-\-thm-°m\ ]cn-{i-a-§-tfm- Bi-b-§Ä ]mÝmXy ss{IkvX-h-k- Xnsâ ]mTm-\p-`-h-amWp \ÂIp-¶-Xv.
sSm¸w aX-\-cm-I-c-W- Nn´Ifn \n¶p aq-l-¯n thtcmSn¯pS-§nb ]Xn- \ntj-[n-IÄ¡v F´p-kw-`-hn¨p?-

Å ]ptcm-K-a\]c-amb \o¡-§fpw t\gmw \qäm­v sXm«v Ccp-]Xmw \qäm ssZh-s¯bpw ssZh-hn-izm-k-s¯


klm-b-I-am-bn-¯o-cp-I-bp-­m-bn.- \q-äm- ­nsâ Bcw`w hsc-bpÅ Ncn{Xw _À bpw KmV-amb Bth-i-t¯msS \ncmI-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 47
cn-¨-h-cmWv bqtdm-¸nse \ntj-[n-IÄ. [yamWv {it²-b-amb Hcp Imcyw. B Im-enI {]Xn-`m-k-am-bn-¯o-cp¶p \ntj-
Hcp kzX{´ Ck-ambn hfÀ¨ t\Sp-I hwi-¯n\v ]qÀW-amb \miw kw`-hn- [-hm-Z-sa¶ hkvXpX Øm]n-¡p-I-bm
bpw hnI-kn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvX-XmWv \n ¨n-cn-¡p¶p F¶ÀY-w. C-cp-]Xmw \qäm Wv. ]mÝm-Xy-bp-àn-hm-Zn-IÄ \mkvXn-
tj-[-hm-Zw.- ssZ-h-\n-tj-[-¯n\v Hcp ­nsâ a[y-Zi- I
- §
- f- n \mkvXn-IX
- s- b- I-ZÀi-\¯ - nsâ ]qÀW-Xbmbn DbÀ¯n-
Xcw hiy-amb Imev]-\n-I-bpàn kw`m- ¡p-dn¨v \S¶ khn-ti-j-amb ]T-\-§- s¡m-­v h¶ \ntj-[h- m-Z¯ - n\pw AIm
h\ sNbvX-XmWv \ntj-[-hm-Z-¯nsâ fn \ntj-[-hm-Zs¯¡pdn-¨pÅ ]e e Nc-a-amWv HcÀY-¯n kw`-hn-¨-Xv.
t\«-§f- n H¶v.- C-cp-]Xmw \qäm-­nsâ At\z-j-W-§Ä¡pw e`n¨ D¯-c-§Ä \n-tj-[-hm-Z-¯nsâ ]cm-Pbw Xncn-¨-dn-
Ah-km-\-¯n t\m¡p-t¼mÄ ]mÝm- Imev]\n-I-amb hn{`m-´n-bn \n¶m-cw- bp-hm³ C\n ]d-bp¶ Xmc-Xay¸«nI
Xy³ \ntj-[-hm-Zn-I-fpsS Akm-¶n- `n¨v AXn Xs¶ Ah-km-\n¨ Xm klm-b-I-am-bn-cn-¡pw.

]«nI 1 ]«nI 2

\ntj-[-hmZw DbÀ¯nb Bib §Ä \ntj-[-hm-Z \ntj-[n-IÄ D¶-bn¨ Ggp adp-]-Sn-IÄ

(1) ssZh-sa-¶Xv {]mNo-\-amb Hcp `mh\ am{X-am-Wv. (1) ssZh-sa-¶Xv {]mNo-\a- mb `mh-\b-Ã. A
- Xv a\p-jycmin
A\p-`h- n-¡p-Ibpw km£mÂI-cn-¡pIbpw sNbvX kXyamWv.
(2) AXn\v a\p-jy-Po-hn-Xs¯ {Inbm-ß-I-ambn kzm[o- (2) a\p-jy-Po-hn-Xs¯ AXnsâ FÃm Ah-Ø-I-fnepw
\n-¡p-hm³ km[n-¡n-Ã. {Inbm-ß-I-ambn kzm[o-\n-¡p-Ibpw \nÀW-bn-¡p-Ibpw
sNbvX Gähpw k\m-X\- hpw ]pcm-X\- p-ha- mb kXy-am-WXv.
(3) {]mIr-X-a-\p-jysâ bpàn cmln-Xy-amWv ssZhm-i- (3) {]mIr-X- a-\p-jyÀ¡v ssZhm-i-b-¯nsâ BhnÀ`mh¯n
b-¯n\v cq]w \ÂIn-b-Xv. Â bmsXmcp ]¦m-fn-¯hpanÃ.- AXv {]mNo\ am\-hn-IX - bnte
¡v kzb-tah IS-¶p-sN¶ A\p-`h P\y-amb BibamWv.
(4) FÃm B[p-\nIþ]p-tcm-K-a\ Nn´m-[m-c-I-fpsSbpw (4) B[p-\nI a\p-jysâ auen-Ihpw ssPhn-I-hp-amb \ne-
\mi-¯n\v ssZh-hn-izm-khpw AXnsâ ASn-Øm-\-¯n- \n¸n¶v ASn-Øm\ ]c-amb t{]cW e`n-¡p-¶Xv hnizm-
epÅ Pohn-X-{I-a-hp-amWv Imc-Ww. k-¯n \n¶pw hnizm-k-¯nsâ ]mÀiz-L-S-I-§-fnÂ
\n¶p-am-Wv.
(5) Ncn-{X-¯nse FÃm {Iqc-X-I-fp-sSbpw BhnÀ`mhw (5) Ncn-{X-¯nse {Iqc-X-IÄ¡v hnizm-k-hp-am-bà hnizmk-
aX-¯n \n¶pw aX¯nsâ BhnÀ`mhw ssZh-¯n cm-ln-Xyhpambpw hnizm-kZ- uÀ_-ey-hp-ambpw hnizm-ki- q\y-
\n¶p amI-bm ssZhm-ib¯nsâ Xnc-kvI-c-W-amWv amb aX-hn-\n-tbm-K-hp-am-bmWv _Ôw. AXn-\m Xs¶
Gähpw al-¯mb am\-h-hm-Zw. GsXmcp aX-¯n-sâbpw Ncn{Xs¯ bYm-hn[n DÄs¡mÅp-
hm³ hnizm-km-[n-jvTnX-amb Ncn{Xhni-I-e\w Ah-ew_n
¡p-t¼mÄ \ntj-[-hm-Z-¯n-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb aX-\n-tj[w
ZpÀ_-e-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶p.
(6) ssZhs¯¡pdn-¨pÅ FÃm Nn{Xo-I-c-W§fpw (6) ssZh-s¯-¡p-dn-¨pÅ Nn{Xo-I-c-W-§Ä aXm-[n-jvTn-X-
ZpÀ_e a\-kvI-cmb {]hm-N-I-hm-Zn-I-fpsS Bhn-jvIm-c- amb `n¶X ]peÀ¯p-¶p-sh-¦nepw ssZh-sa¶ Bib¯n
§-fmWv. A-h-bn H¶n\v asäm-¶n-t\-¡mÄ bmsXmcp sâ imàn-Ia- mb GI-Is¯ aX-§Ä sam¯-¯n AwKo
t{ijvT-X-bpanÃ. I-cn-¡p-¶p.- FÃm aX-§-fnepw kÀh- \nb-´m-hmb ssZh
s¯ FÃm \·Ifp-sSbpw ASn-Øm-\t- {km-XÊ - mbn ImWp
¶Xv AXp-sIm-­m-Wv.- A-Xm-Xp-Im-e-¯nsâ khn-tij ]m
Ým-¯-e-§-fpsS kzm[o\w ZpÀ_-e-amb ssZh-k-¦-ev]-§-
fn ImWp-sa-¦nepw hnizm-k-¯nsâ auen-I-X-bn KmV
amb GIX F¡m-e-¯p-ap-­v.
(7) ssZhm-ib¯nsâ kz`m-hhpw BhnÀ`m-hhpw a\-Ên- (7) \ntj-[-hm-Z-¯nsâ {]Xym-i¡p hncp-²-ambn aX-hn-izm-
em-¡n-bm a\p-jy-cmin Imem-´c- ¯
- n hnizm-k¯n khpw Cuizc-k-¦-ev]§fp-saÃmw a\p-jy-cm-inbn IqSp-
\n¶v kzbw tamNn-X-amIpIbpw ssZh-hn-izmk clnX XÂ ZrV-ambn¯ocp-I-bmWv sNbvXn-«p-Å-Xv.
am\-hn-IX BhnÀ`-hn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿pw.
aX-c-ln-X-amb am\-hn-IX cq]-s¸-Sp- I-fn Hcp \yq\-]£w D¶bn¨ ssh Bi-b§ - sf AhÀ kzoI-cn-¨X
- v. ssZhm-
¯p-¶-Xn-\pÅ ImÂ]-\n-I-km-[yX F Úm-\n-I -ap-Jw-aq-Sn-bpÅ \ntj-[-hmZw ibw F{X-am{Xw Imev]-\n-I-sa¶p
¶ \ne-bnemWv \ntj-[-hmZw D]-tbm- ]cm-P-b-s¸-Sp¶ thf-I-fn-emWv Imev]- Nn{Xo-I-cn-¡m-hp¶XmWv ssZh-\n-tj-[-
Kn-¡-s¸-«p-h-¶-Xv.- ]m-Ým-Xy-bp-àn-hm-Zn- \n-I-kz-`m-h-apÅ \ntj-[-hm-Z-¯nsâ sa¶v Imew adp-]Sn \ÂIn.
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 48
`uXn-I-im-kv{Xhpw bpàn-hm-Zhpw Hcp {]tXy-IX - cw ssZh-\n-tj-[a- mbn cw aX-\n-tj-[n-IÄ CXns\ Nn{Xo-I-cn-¡p-
1912 Ata-cn-¡-bn {]kn-²o-I-cn- K¯v hcn-Ibpw sNbvXp.- H-cÀY-¯n ¶Xv hnNn-{X-am-Wv.- c­mw L«-¯nÂ
¡-s¸« Hcp IrXn-bmWv tKmUv Bâ v CXv bpàn-bpsS Ncn-{X-¯nse c­mw imkv{X-amWv FÃm-än-sâbpw DÛ-hsa-
amäÀ. Adnbs¸Sm¯ bpàn-hm-Znbpw L«-am-bn-cp-¶p. Cu c­mw-L«- ¯ - n-em-Wv ¶p-w a\p-jycpsS FÃm -]p-tcm-K-Xn-bp-
k`m-\n-tj-[n-bp-am-bn-cp¶ tPmÀPv lqÌ UmÀh-n-\n-k-¯nsâ klm-b-t¯msSbp sSbpw t{kmXsʶpw hmZn-¨n-cp-¶-hÀ
¬ Bbncp¶p CXnsâ cN-bn-Xmhv. 1989 Å a\p-jy-\nÀhN-\-§Ä hym]-I-ambn D]-tbm-Kn¨ bpàn D¯-cm-[p-\nIL«-
 Cu IrXn-bpsS Hcp tIm¸n F\n¡v ¯oÀ¶Xpw ]cn-Wm-a-hmZw FÃm imkv ¯n imkv{Xs¯ i{Xp-]-£¯v Im
e`n-¨Xv HmIvkvt^mÀUv kÀh-I-em-im- {X Nn´-If- p-sSbpw ASn-¯dbmbn {]Xn- Wp¶ bpàn-hm-Zn-If- n \n¶v \jvSs- ¸-
em sse{_-dn-bn \n¶p-am-Wv.- `u-Xn-I- jvTn-¡s- ¸-Sp¶ `oam-_²w kw`-hn-¨X - pw. «p-t]m-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. Cu \jvS-s¯-bm-Wv
im-kv{X-¯nsâ {]mNo\ Adn-hp-IÄ imkv{Xs¯ Iq«p-]nSn-¨p-sIm­v ap bpàn-hm-Z AÔ-hn-izm-knI-fmb ]m
sIm­v ssZhs¯ CÃm-bva sN¿m-\p t¶m«v t]mIm³ {ian¨ B[p-\nI \mkv ÝmXy aX-\n-tj-[n-IÄ ]ptcm-K-a\w F
Å ZpÀ_e bXv\-§-fmWv Cu IrXnbn Xn-I-bpànhmZ-¯n\v hfsc s]s«¶p- ¶v hnfn-¡p-¶-Xv. b-YmÀY-¯n CXv
 \S-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xv.- Um-Å-knse Xs¶ Nne Xncn-¨-Sn-IÄ t\cn-«p. A[x]X-\-am-Wv. B[p-\nIPohn-X-¯n
Hcp Zcn-{Z-Ip-Spw-_-¯n P\n-¡p-Ibpw (1) UmÀh-n-\n-ks¯ ASn-¯-d-bmbn se imkv{X¯nsâbpw hkvXp-\njvT
_mey-¯n s{]m«-Ìâ v aX-hn-Zym-`ym kzoI-cn-¨ c­mwL« bpàn-hm-Z-¯n\v Ah-t_m-[§ - f- p-sSbpw ]n³_ew \jvS-
kw e`n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvX Hcp ac¸Wn UmÀh-n-\n-kw t\cn« shÃp-hn-fn-IÄ amÀ s¸-Sp-¯p¶ Xc-¯n D¯-cm-[p-\nI bp
¡m-c\- m-bn-cp¶p tPmÀPv lq̬. Xsâ K-X-S-Ê-ambn¯oÀ¶p. -]-s¯m-¼Xmw ànhmZ-¯n\v amÀK-{`wiw kw`-hn-¨ncn-
]c¶ hmb-\-bpsS _e-¯n-emWv At± \qäm-­n\v tijw BhnÀ`-hn¨ \qX\ ¡p-¶p. Cu amÀK-{- `wiw bpàn-amÀK-¯n
lw Hcp \mkvXnI IrXn cNn-¨-sX¶v ssPh-im-kv{X-t_m-[§fp-ambn hntbm- sâ XIÀ¨-bpsS `mK-am-Wv.
A\p-am-\n-¡m-hp-¶X - m-Wv. 1912\p tijw Pn-¡p¶ UmÀh-n-\n-k-¯nsâ ImgvN-¸m bpàn-bpsS ]cm-Pb - ¯
- nsâ ]mT-§
CtX kz`m-h-apÅ Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\p SpIÄ AXn-thKw AXns\ ]g-©\- m¡n Ä {Iam-\p-kr-Xa- mbn tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p-hm³-
IrXn-IÄ Ata-cn-¡-bnepw {_n«-Wnepw ¯oÀ¯p. UmÀhn-\n-k-¯n\v t\À¡pb \s½ klm-bn-¡p-¶-XmWv kXy-¯nÂ
{^m³kn-ep-ambn shfn-¨¯v h¶p-sIm- À¶p-h¶ tNmZy-§Ä imkv{Xm-[njvTnX taÂ]-dª aq¶mw-L-«-s¯-¡p-dn-¨pÅ
­n-cp-¶p. F¶m Ah-sbms¡ Ah- bpàn-hm-Z-¯n\v t\À¡p-t\À adp-]Sn Is­-¯Â.]-Xn-\mdmw \qäm­v apXÂ
bpsS Bi-b]- c- a- mb _mem-cn-jvSX - I- Ä ]d-tb-­-hbm-bn-cp-¶p. ]s¯m-¼Xmw \qäm-­nsâ BZy Zi-I-
sIm­v AXy-[nIw ZpÀ{K-l§ - fpw \njv (2) imkv{X-¯nsâ AØnc kzm`m §Ä hsc \ne\n¶ bpàn-hm-Z-¯nsâ
^-e-§-fp-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶p.- C-cp-]Xmw \q hw ImcWw hyh-Øm-]n-Xa- mb Hcm-ib- H¶mw L«s¯ hne-bn-cp-¯p-t¼mÄ A
äm­v Ah-km-\n-¡p-t¼mgpw CXv X¶- a-Þew c­mw L« bpàn-hm-Z-¯n\v Xn DÄt¨À¶p InS-¡p¶ LS-I-§Ä
bmWv `uXn-I-hm-Zm-[n-jvTn-X-amb ssZh- km[n-¡msXt]mbn.- ]-cn-Wm-am-ßI - a- mb C\n¸dbp¶-h-bm-Wv:-
\n-tj-[-¯nsâ ØnXn. X¯-z-§fpw Is­-¯-ep-saÃmw \bn-¨ (1) aX-\n-tj[w.- (2) Cuizc \ntj
]s¯m-¼Xmw \qäm-­nsâ Ah-km- Xv AØn-c-amb Bi-b-§-fn-te-¡m-bn- [w.- (3) Ncn-{X-t¯m-SpÅ h{I-ambn kao-
\-¯nepw Ccp-]Xmw \qäm-­nsâ BZy- cp-¶p.- im-kv{Xm-[n-jvTn-X-amb am\-hn-I- ]\w.- (4) {]mNo\ kw`m-h-\-I-tfm-SpÅ
]-Ip-Xn-bnepambn imkv{Xm[njvTnX-amb Xm-hm-Z-¯n-sâbpw imkv{Xm-[n-jvT-nX \ntj-[-a-t\m-`mhw.- (5) thZ-§sf hne-
bpàn-hm-Zmib§Ä AXy-[nIw Bth- [Àa-hm-Z-¯n-sâbpw \njv^-eX sXfn- bn-cp-¯p-¶X - n-epÅ thdn« kao-]\- w. (6)
i-amÀPn-¨-Xmbn \ap¡v ImWmw.- imkv bn-¡p-¶-Xm-bn-cp¶p Cu ØnXn. kaq-ls¯ am\-hn-I-ambn \nÀh-Nn-¡m-
{Xs¯¡pdn-¨pÅ Aan-X-amb {]Xo-£- (3) imkv{Xw AXnsâ ]cn-Wm-anI \pÅ DÄt{]-c-W-IÄ.- (7) kwkv-Im-c-
bpw Pohn-Xs¯ D]-cn-¹h- a- mbn kzoIcn- hfÀ¨-bn DbÀ¯nb shÃp-hn-fnIÄ t¯mSpw [mÀa-n-I-X-tbm-Sp-apÅ \ntj
¡m-\pÅ Aan-X-amb Bth-ihpw H¶p am\-h-cm-in-sb ASn-Øm-\X-e-¯n [w.- (8) aX-]u-tcmlnXy-¯nsâ Xn³a-
tNÀ¶mWv taÂ]dª AXn-`u-Xn-I- kzm[o-\n-¡p-¶h- bpw XIÀ¡p-¶h- b - p-am- I-tfm-SpÅ {]Xn-I-c-Ww. (9) ssZhm-i-
hm-Zs¯ apt¶m«v \bn-¨p-sIm-­n-cp-¶- bn-cp-¶p.- CXv imkv{X-am-\-h-hm-Z-¯n\v b-¯nsâ \ncm-Ic- W - ¯
- n-eqsS e`y-am-hp-
Xv. -kzm-X-{´y-¯nsâ AanX\nÀh-N-\- Xncn-¨-Sn-bm-bn-¯oÀ¶p. sa¶v hniz-kn-¡-s¸« kzX-{´-s¯-¡p-
§Ä, AXym-{K-l-§-fp-sSbpw XrjvW- dn-¨pÅ Aan-Xa- mb hnizmkw.- (10) ]pXn-
Ifp-sSbpw Bi-b-hÂI-cWw, Pohn-X imkv{Xs¯ am\-h-hm-Z-¯nsâ adp- b-Im-e-s¯-¡p-dn-¨pÅ Imev]-\n-Iamb
s¯ AÀY-h-¯mbn \nÀh-Nn-¡p¶-Xn- ]-£¯v {]Xn-jvTn-¡p¶ D¯-cm-[p-\nI A`n-em-j-§Ä.- (11) \ntj-[-hmZw DbÀ
epÅ I\¯ ]cm-P-b-§Ä Ch-sbm- bpàn-hmZ ]T-\-§Ä \mw ImtW-­- ¯n-hn« Xo{h-amb \nco-iz-cm-i-b-§Ä.-
s¡ imkv{Xm-[n-jvTn-X- bp-àn-hm-Z¯ - n\v Xp-­v.- CXv bpànhmZ-¯nsâ ]cn-Wma (12) aX-]-c-amb NnÓ-§-tfmSpw Bi-b-
Nme-I-i-àn-bmbn hÀ¯n-¨p-sIm-­n-cp- irwJ-e-bnse aq¶m-a-s¯bpw Ah-km- §tfm-Sp-apÅ Xo{h-amb {]Xn-I-c-W-§
¶p. thcäp-t]m-Ip¶ Pohn-Xs¯ bm \-s¯bpw L«-am-Wv.- A-Yhm Gähpw Ä.- (13) a\pjy kzmX-{´y-s¯-¡p-dn-¨p
{´n-I-XbpsS ZpÀ_-e-amb X´p-¡-fn ]pXnb bpàn Gähpw ]pXnb imkv Å sXämb A`n-em-j-§Ä.-(14) ]cn-[n-
_Ôn-¸n-¨p-\nÀ¯p-hm-\pÅ ITn-\-amb {Xs¯ i{Xp-]-£¯v ImWp¶ ØnXn- ew-Ln-¡p¶ kz`m-h-apÅ AXn-hm-Z-§
]cn-{i-a-§Ä imkv{Xm-[n-jvTnX bpàn bm-Wp-Å-Xv.- bp-àn-hm-Z-¯nsâ ]ptcm- Ä.- (15) a\pjy¶v ]c-a]- Zw IÂ]-n¡ - p¶
hm-Z-¯nsâ ad-hn \S-¶p.-C-Xm-hs« K-a\- ]- c- a- mb ]cn-Wm-as- a¶pw B[p-\nI hmZ-K-Xn-IÄ.-
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 49
c­mw-L«- b
- pàn-hm-Z¯ - n \ntj-[- amb `mj-bn am\-h-cm-in¡v ap¶n-e-h- bpàn-bpsS Ah-Øm-´-c-§Ä ]T-
hm-Z-¯n-sâbpw tXmakv s]bn³ D¶- X-cn-¸n¨ Bi-b-taXv F¶ tNmZy-¯n\v \-hn-t[-b-am-¡n-bm AXv ]cm-P-b-s¸-
bn¨ Úm\m-[n-jvTnX -k-ao-]-\-¯n-sâ s]s«¶v \ÂIm-hp¶ D¯cw imkv{X Sp-Ibpw ssZhmib-hpw AXnsâ XpSÀ
bpw CS-Ie- À¨-bmWv BZy kz`m-h§ - Ä.- s¯ AXv ssZh-am¡n F¶-Xm-Wv.- im- L-S-I-§fpw AXn-Zqcw apt¶m«v \o§p
F¶m ]n¶oSv Cu L«-¯nsâ A´y- kv{X-¯n-epÅ Aan-X-am-b-hn-izm-khpw Ibpw sNbvX-Xmbn a\-Ên-em-¡mw.- bp
kz-`m-h-§-sf¶ \ne-bn IS-¶p-h-cp- Ah-ew-_a- t- \m-`m-hh- p-amWv c­mw L« àn ssZh-¯n\v ]I-c-am-In-söpw
¶Xv Xo{h-amb imkv{X-hn-izm-k-am-Wv.- bpà-n-hm-Z-¯nsâ Gähpw HSp-hn-e- _p²n hnizm-k-¯n\v ]Icw sh¡m-\m-
a-X-\-thm-°m-\hpw bm{´n-Ibpàn-hm- s¯bpw BXy-´n-I-hp-amb kz`mhw. a- hn-sÃ-¶p-apÅ sXfn-ab - pÅ Hcp ]mThpw
Zhpw \nÝe `uXn-I-hm-Zhpw Cf¡nadn \p-jy-cm-in¡v asäm-¶n-epw B{i-bn-t¡- ktµ-i-hp-amWv B[p-\nI bpàn-hm-Z-
¨ a\pjy a\-Êp-I-fn k½n-{ihpw ­-Xn-Ã. imkv{Xw Ahs\ F¡m-e s¯-¡p-dn-¨pÅ hyàn-]-c-amb ]T-\-§
Nne-L-«-§-fn hnizm-km-`nap-J-hp-amb ¯pw A\-iz-c-\m¡n \ne-\nÀ¯n-s¡m- Ä \ap¡v \ÂIp-¶-Xv.- bpàn AXnsâ
kz`mhw {]I-Sn-¸n-¨p-sIm­v IS-¶p-h- Åp-sa¶v Cu L«-¯n bpàn-hm-Zn- A{]-am-ZnXyw Øm]n¡phm-\mbn B{i-
cp¶ bpàn-hmZw, hnizmkw bpàn-s¡- IÄ hniz-kn-¡p-Ibpw hniz-kn-¸n-¡p-I bn-¨p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p¶ imkv{Xw DÄs¸-
Xn-cà F¶ \ne-]m-Sn-eqsS Hcp-thf IS- bpw sNbvXp.- c-­mw-L-«-bp-àn-hm-Z-¯n sS-bpÅ FÃm LS-§fpw Ah-bpsS
¶p-t]m-Ip-¶Xv ImWmw.- hn-izm-khpw bp sâ Cu BXy-´nI ]cn-WnXn-s¡-Xn-cm- BXy-´n-I-kz-`m-h-¯n a\p-jy-cm-in-
ànbpw X½n-epÅ ]mc-kv]-cy-¯nsâ bn-«mWv aq¶mw L«-bp-àn-hmZw imkv tbmSv C¶v AXn-Zqcw AI-¶p-t]mbncn-
km[y-X-IÄ NÀ¨-sN-¿p¶ hntam-N\ {Xs¯ `oXn-tbmsS t\m¡p¶ AhØ ¡p-I-bmWv F¶ hkvXpX A\n-tj-[y-
ssZh-imkv{Xw t]msebpw, bpàn-hmZ AXnsâ Gähpw {]mYanI-kz-`m-h-sa¶ am-Wv. Cu hkvXp-Xb - psS klm-bt- ¯m
ssZh-im-kv{Xw-t]m-sebpapÅ hnI- \ne-bn Xs¶ Ah-X-cn-¸n-¨-Xv. Cu sS \mw sNs¶-¯p-¶Xv B[p-\nI a\p-
temÂ]-¶§Ä Cu L«-¯nsâ khn- kao-]-\-¯n\v ]cn-Øn-Xn-hmZw,- ssP-h- jy-cm-in-bpsS ssZhw bpàn-bÃ, km-
tij kw`m-h\- I - f- m-Wv.- H-cmÄ¡v hnizm- `o-Xn,- im-kv{X-ss\-Xn-I-hmZw XpS-§nb £m ssZh-amsW¶ kXy-¯n-te-¡m-
kn-bmbns¡m­v Xs¶ aXs¯ ]c-am- bpàn-hm-Zn-IÄs¡mcn-¡epw kv]Àin- Wv.- bp-ànsb \ntj-bpsS `mj¡v adp-
h-[n AXn-ew-Ln-¡p-hm³ Ah-Im-i-ap ¡m-\-h-Im-i-an-Ãm¯ hmZ-K-Xn-I-fpsS ]-Sn-bmb-n ]cm-P-b-s¸« `mh\ F¶p-hn-
­v F¶ Gähpw hnNn-{X-Ic-amb kzX- ]n³_ew t]mepw aq¶mw-L«- ¯ - n D]- fn-¡mw. ssZhs¯ ]cm-P-b-s¸« {]mNo
{´-Nn´ Cu L«-¯nsâ khn-ti-jk - w- tbm-K-s¸Sp¯p-¶Xv ImWmw.-am-\-h-hm- \ k¦Â]-w- F¶m-WtÃm \ntj ]­v
`m-h-\-I-fn asäm-¶m-Wv.- C-sXms¡ Z-¯nsâ km[y-X-I-sf-bmWv bpàn-hm- hnti-jn-¸n-¨n-cp-¶Xpw \ntj-[n-IÄ
c­mwL« -bp-àn-hm-Z-¯nsâ t\cnb Z-¯nsâ ]cym-b-]-Z-§sf¶ \ne-bn Imev]-\n-I-amb Ath-i-t¯msS Gäp-
KpW-§-fmbn ]cn-K-Wn-¡p¶ H«-\-h-[n aq¶mw-L«- ¯ - n Ah-Xc- n-¸n-¡p-¶X- v.- c- hn-fn-¨Xpw. C¶v bpànsb Gähpw ]cm-
ssZh-imkv{X Nn´-I-·mÀ temI-¯n ­mw L«-¯n Ah-Xc- n-¸n-¡s- ¸-«n-cp¶ P-b-s¸« B[p-\nI anYy-sb-¶v \ap¡pw
sâ hnhn[ `mK-§-fn-ep­v F¶Xv {i s]mÅ-bmb am\-h-hm-Z-§tf¡mÄ Ch Xncn¨v hnti-jn-¸n-¡mw.
t²bam-Wv. IqSp-XÂ AÀY-hym-]vXn-bp-Å-Xmbn þ
hnh.- C-lvkm³ Hä-¸mew

c­mwL«-bp-àh- mZw Gähpw ià- A\p-`-s¸-Sp-¶p.


(k`-bnÂ\n¶v .......- t]-Pv- 45þÂ- \n-¶v- Xp-SÀ-¨)-

c­v Imcy-§Ä sI¶-¯n-s\ hÃm c-Xay hni-I-e-\-§Ä.....- Ckvemans\ bpÅ _lp-a-Xn-¸-«-§Ä A_vZp-Ãsb
sX BIÀjn-¨p. H- cp {In-kvXym-\n¡v B sI¶¯v CjvS-s¸«pXpS-§n.- F-¶m XfÀ¯n-bn-Ã.- \n-Ý-b-ZmÀVy-t¯mSpIq
Ý-cy-Icw Xs¶-bm-bn-cp¶p B c­p ss__n-fns\ a\-Ên \n¶v IpSn-bn-d- Sn AÃm-lp-hnsâ amÀK-¯n apt¶-dpI-
khn-ti-j-X-IÄ. H-¶m-at¯Xv ]utcm- ¡p-hm³ At±-l-s¯-s¡m-­m-bn-Ã. {-In- bmWv At±lw. JpÀ-B\pw lZoYpw
ln-Xytam khn-ti-j-Xtbm CÃm¯ k kvXp-a-Xs¯ F´p-sN-¿p-sa¶pÅ hy Ad-_n-`m-jbpw kzmb-¯-am-¡m\pw {In-
¼qÀW- ka-Xzhpw kmtlm-Z-cyhpw \nd- Y sIm­p\S-¡p¶ ka-b¯v Hcp apkv kvXym-\n-IfS-¡-ap-Å-hsc Ckveman-
ªm-Sp¶ Ckvemansâ kmaq-ly-LS\. en-w kplr¯v AÒZv ZoZm¯pw Pn½n te¡v £Wn-¡m\pw A_vZpà ]cn-{i-
c-­m-at- ¯Xv icoc \áX ]qÀW-ambpw kmKÀ«pw X½n \S¶ kw-hm-Z¯ - n-sâ- an-¡p-¶p.
ad-bv-¡p-¶,- B-`n-PmXyw ssIap-X-em¡n Hcp kn. -Un.- sI-¶-¯n\v \ÂIn.- kwhm kp- DuZn Atd- _ y- b nse {Kmâ v
b apkven-w h\n-X. -\-·-IÄ ]q¯p-e-bp Zw I­v XoÀ¶-tXmsS {In-kvXp-a-Xhpw ap^vX-nbpw hniz-{]-kn² CkvemanI
¶ C¯-c-samcp Pohn-X-¯n\v \nZm-\-am- {In-kvXp-hnsâ aXhpw X½n-epÅ A´- ]Þn-X-\p-ambncp¶ ssiJv A_vZpÃm
Ip¶ aX-s¯-¡p-dn¨v Bg-¯n ]Tn- c-§Ä sI¶-¯n\v t_m[y-ambn. Xm-a- ln_v\p-_mkp-am-bpÅ IqSn-¡mgvNIÄ
¡m³ sI¶¯v Xocp-am-\n-¨p. kn-bmsX B \mhv ilm-Z¯v Iena Xsâ aX-]-c-amb Adn-hns\ A\p-kva-
]n¶oSv hnÚm-\-k-¼m-Z-\-¯n-\m- sNmÃn, A_vZpà F¶ \maw kzoIcn¨p. cn-¡p-¶p.- C-t¸mÄ XzmC-^n Xma-kn-
bpÅ s\t«m-«-am-bn-cp-¶p.- \n-c-´-c-amb Ah-[n¡v \m«n sN¶-t¸mÄ _ ¡p¶ A_vZpÃm apl-½Zv A ^mdqJv
hmb\, \n-Xm-´-amb At\z-j-W-§Ä, Ôp-¡-fn \n¶v k½m-\-ambn e`n¨ F¶ sI¶¯v amXr-I-bm-hp-I-bm-Wv,-
NÀ¨-IÄ,- kw-ib - \nhm-cW
- §
- Ä, aX-Xm- "aX-\n-tj-[n'- ap-X "apgp-{`m-´³'- hsc- sh-fn¨pw \pIÀ¶pw ]IÀ¶pw.
2007 Un-k-w-_À- 50