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INTRODUCTION

The school of mathematics trains professionals with investigative attitude that allows to
work independently in the creation of mathematical models for the solution of problems in
different areas of knowledge, professionals in university teaching, developing academic
activities, clearly in the dictation of courses offered by the department of mathematics and
other specialties, from different universities; and professionals with sufficient training to
pursue advanced studies in mathematics at the master's or doctoral level.
The present thesis project has the purpose of deepening the spectral theorem, since this
theorem is used in linear algebra and in the functional analysis that can not be developed in
the mentioned areas. Making this great theorem known is very important in mathematics.
The spectral theorem in the Hilbert space plays an important role in the functional analysis,
also we will analyze some definitions and theorems, which will be necessary for this
investigation that we propose to perform.
The denomination of the spectral theorem was introduced by David Hilbert, this original
theorem was conceived as a version of the theorem of main axes of an ellipsoid, in an
environment of infinite dimension. The later discovery in quantum mechanics that the
spectral theory could explain the characteristics of the atomic spectra was therefore
fortuitous.
Thanks to this theorem extends to include the Banach algebras in an abstract way, in
functional analysis and linear algebra, the spectral theorem establishes the conditions under
which an operator can be expressed in simple form as a sum of simple operators that also
provides a decomposition canonical call "spectral decomposition", of the vector space over
which the operator acts there are spaces of finite dimension as for example the hermetic
operators or an existing square matrix of a ortho-normal base of V that consists of vectors
of the operator, the values own corresponding to each vector are real and as infinite spaces
we have the Hilbert space, the assertion of the spectral theorem for compact operators and
self-attachments is virtually what is held in spaces of finite dimension.