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Qué hacen las oraciones tópico?

Estas oraciones tienen 3 roles cruciales en la escritura de un párrafo.

1. Introduce una idea control. Esta idea determinará el contenido de un párrafo. Siempre debes ser
capaz de demostrar como cada pieza de información en tu párrafo se relaciona con la idea
control expresada en la oración tópico. Una idea control puede tomar la forma de:

 un nuevo argumento, o
 un aspecto nuevo de un argumento existente.

2. La oración tópico enlaza claramente la idea control a una idea anterior en el texto. Esta idea
puede ser la tesis en la introducción, un argumento o punto previo en el mismo argumento. Puede hacer
estos enlaces a través de:

 repitiendo palabras claves (o sinónimos para ellas) de la oración tesis en su introducción o la


afirmación principal en su argumento individual.
 usando palabras o frases de enlace tales como: otro aspecto de, una segunda característica de,
adicionalmente.

3. La oración tópico orienta al lector al contenido del párrafo. Establece la expectativa de que:

 toda la información en el párrafo será relacionada a la idea control.


 solo información demostrable relacionada a la idea control será incluida en el párrafo.

Reflexión

Lea la oración tópico y trate de predecir el contenido del párrafo. Observe la manera en que ella introduce
el siguiente contenido.

Oración Tópico 1

There are two major impediments to the process of formal or legal rights becoming effective or actual
rights.

First, existing social structures such as laws, privileged associations and discriminatory cultural practices
may prevent this from happening. For example, the gender-biased social and cultural practices which
exxist in many countries may effectively constrain the rights of women to be elected to political office or to
gain a decent income, even when their rights are formally recognised under the law. Secondly, the
economic incapacity of individuals or groups may also create a barrier to the actualization of legal rights.
Women's opportunities may, for example, also be limited by their lack of economic independence,
particularly when this is coupled with poor educational opportunities.

Adapted from Anderson, T. 2002. The Political Economy of Human Rights. School of
Economics and Political Science, University of Sydney, (unpublished).

Reflexión

Lea la oración tópico y trate de predecir el contenido del párrafo. Observe la manera en que ella introduce
el siguiente contenido.

Oración Tópico 2

The lack of clear evidence from domestic contexts is a well-known problem for archaeologists of mainland
Southeast Asia (Higham 1989), and has given rise to considerable dispute in archeological circles.

Most of the material used in the domestic sphere was non-durable, including the building structures
themselves, and the seasonal wet-dry climate is not conducive to its good preservation. Some researchers
have therefore argued that the population simply lived within th temple precincts (Jacques and Freeman
cited in Fletcher 2001). Lack of evidence has prevented scholars from reaching a definitive conclusion,
although all who have tackled the question stress the pragmatism of locating dwellings on elevated areas
or house mounds such as those used by the modern Khmer. Recent archeological evidence has
uncovered organic debrids and remnants of Angkorean pottery in linear fformations, suggesting that
houses may in fact have been elevated on stilts along the ambankments of roads and channels. Whatever
the case may be, it is evident that archeologists must assume that evidence of the vast numbers of people
needed to service and maintain the temple must be sought across the full extent of the settlement.

a estructura de un párrafo consiste en:

 Topic Sentence:

Esta es la oración que indica la idea general de la que tratara el párrafo

 Supporting sentences:

Son las oraciones que respaldan mi idea general

 Concluding sentence:
Es una proposición final que completa, cohesiona y enlaza la siguiente idea.

Ejemplos:

Topic sentence:
Mary does many things every day.

Supporting Sentences:
In the morning she goes running, prepares breakfast, and goes to school.
In the afternoon she goes to work, visits her friends and plays soccer.
In the evening she prepares dinner, does homework and watches TV.

Conclusion: At the end of the day she is very tired.

Children's television in Australia is also highly regulated in comparison


with that in European countries.
La sección de desarrollo del párrafo probablemente contenga:

a discussion of the evils of unregulated television viewing by children in Australia.

information about regulation in European countries and how this compares to Australia.
a profile of the kind of children who watch too much television

El escritor claramente comparará algunos aspectos de la regulación de la TV en países europeos con la


regulación en Australia. Las palabras y frases en la oración tópico establecen esta expectativa.

Read the following topic sentence. Select the information which is likely to follow
in the development section of the paragraph.

There is considerable evidence to show that children's eating habits


are, in large part, determined by what they see advertised on
children's prime time television.
La sección de desarrollo del párrafo probablemente contenga:

a review of the evidence which supports or qualifies this statement.

a description of the types of programs which are shown in children's prime time slots

an argument about how much time children spend watching television

Al mencionar directamente la evidencia, el escritor ha establecido la expectativa de que como mínimo


alguna de esta evidencia será presentada y discutida. Si no se hace ésto, el lector se sentirá confundido y
puede tener dificultad para seguir el sentido al párrafo.

Read the following topic sentence. Select the information which is likely to follow
in the development section of the paragraph.

The demographics of television watching amongst children are closely


correlated with child obesity statistics.
La sección de desarrollo probablemente contenga:

an argument as to why children should eat less and exercise more

a breakdown of the time spent watching television by children in different demographic categories and a
discussion of the relationship of this to weight problems in children.

a critique of statistical data collection methods in relation to child obesity


El escritor directamente menciona demografía y estadística. El lector ahora espera ver el tratamiento de
ambos en el resto del párrafo. Si el escritor no lo hiciera, el lector se sentiría confuso acerca del por qué
esta oración tópico fue escogida.

Read the following topic sentence. Select the information which is likely to follow
in the development section of the paragraph.

Unregulated television watching by children has serious consequences


in the educational sphere.
La sección de desarrollo probablemente contenga:

an argument about the relative value of television watching and education

a profile of the kind of parents who do not value education

an outline of the consequences of television watching on children's educational progress

El escritor ha destacado las consecuencias de ver TV en el campo educativo en esta oración tópico. El
lector espera legítimamente que esto sea ampliado en detalles en la sección de desarrollo.

Lea y seleccione

Instrucciones:

Mira el grupo de oraciones. Decide cuál de estas oraciones es la oración tópico.

The waves crashed on the shore.

Beach umbrellas blew wildly.

It was a stormy day at the beach.

People ran out of the water.

Las otras oraciones explican lo que pasó en la playa ese día.

Instrucciones:
Mira el grupo de oraciones. Decide cuál de estas oraciones es la oración tópico.

Tim had big problems before his game.

He forgot to bring his cleats.

The bus left without him.

His ball was flat.

Las otras oraciones cuentan los problemas que tuvo.

Instrucciones:

Mira el grupo de oraciones. Decide cuál de estas oraciones es la oración tópico.

She eats in the room with us.

Sometimes she brings us a treat.

She always writes nice notes on our papers.

My teacher is friendly and kind.

Las otras oraciones te cuentan acerca de sus acciones amigables y amables.

Instrucciones:

Mira el grupo de oraciones. Decide cuál de estas oraciones es la oración tópico.

He had a red nose and fiery red hair.


Bo Bo the clown looked funny.

He was dressed in a bright green costume.

His hair was bright orange.

Las otras oraciones te explican por qué Bo Bo luce gracioso.

Instrucciones:

Mira el grupo de oraciones. Decide cuál de estas oraciones es la oración tópico.

We have a feast with turkey and dressing.

My family has many Thanksgiving Day traditions.

My dad takes us to the parade.

Each member of the family tells what he is thankful for.

Las otras oraciones cuentan acerca de las tradiciones familiares.

Students born after 1982 are considered Millennials, and they exhibit quite different characteristics from
those of students only a few years older. Among the differences are these:

 They gravitate toward group activities.


 They identify with their parents' values and feel close to their parents.
 They spend more time doing homework and housework and less time watching TV.
 They believe it's cool to be smart.
 They are fascinated by new technologies.
 They are racially and ethnically diverse, and 20% have one immigrant parent.

Source: Helen Woodman, Ed., Basic Skills SPIN Newsletter, November, 2004, National Association for
Developmental Education.

Which of these are supporting details in the paragraph?


A)Students born after 1982 are considered Millennials, and they exhibit quite
different characteristics from those of students only a few years older.

B)They gravitate toward group activities.

C)They spend more time doing homework and housework and less time
watching TV.

D)They are fascinated by new technologies.

The purpose of the major details in this paragraph is to give

an explanation of how the term Millennial came about.

characteristics of Millennials.

the process for becoming a Millennial.

Opción correcta

Párrafo dos. Tópico: personal digital assistants.

Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are small, hand-held electronic organizers that come in a range of
prices and capabilities. These lightweight computers are usually operated with a stylus, a special "pen."
The most basic, inexpensive PDAs have monochromatic screens. They can be used to organize and store
contact information, such as names, phone numbers, and email addresses. More expensive models have
color screens and offer computer-like applications. For example, you can manage email and create
documents. In addition, they include a calendar function that allows you to keep track of appointments and
events. They feature the ability to play video and audio files. The most expensive PDAs also offer a phone
function, including text messaging.

Which of these are supporting details in the paragraph?

A)Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are small, hand-held electronic organizers


that come in a range of prices and capabilities.

B)They can be used to organize and store contact information, such as names,
phone numbers, and email addresses.

C)More expensive models have color screens and offer computer-like applications.

D)The most expensive PDAs offer a phone function, including text messaging.
The purpose of the major details in this paragraph is to give

reasons to buy a color PDA.

differences between inexpensive and expensive PDAs.

the procedure for buying a PDA.

Opción correcta

Instrucciones: Lea los párrafos y determine su tópico. Luego seleccione las


opciones que expresen las ideas principales implícitas.

Passage 1

How do migrating animals find their destination? They navigate in a variety of ways. Fish use their sense
of smell to recognize their migration paths and are guided by changing water temperatures. Birds use the
position of the sun to orient themselves. Some birds have magnetic particles in their ear mechanisms that
act as a compass. Mammals rely on their memory. Some elephant trails have been used for hundreds of
years.

Source: Adapted from The Complete Book of Questions and Answers, Columbus, OH: American Education Publishing, 2002, p.
120.

The topic of this paragraph is:

destinations

fishes' sense of smell

how birds orient themselves

migrating animals

Opción correcta

The implied main idea is:


How do migrating animals find their way?

Migrating animals navigate in a variety of ways.

Mammals rely on their memory.

Fish and birds have special methods for finding their way.

Opción correcta

Passage 2

Psychologists say that a sigh can express satisfaction and contentment. Frequent sighing can suggest
despair and depression. It can also express disgust or frustration. It can express several emotions, but
there is no one correct way to interpret its meaning.

The topic of tha paragraph is:

psychologists

a sigh; sighing

despair and depression

interpreting emotions

Opción correcta

The implied main idea is:

Psychologists say that a sigh can express satisfaction and contentment, and frequent sighing can suggest
despair and depression.
Sighing can express several emotions.

A sign can express emotions, such as disgust or frustration.

A sigh can express several emotions, but there is no one correct way to interpret its meaning.

Opción correcta

Passage 3

You're up to your neck in credit card debt. You're feeling stressed, perhaps even panicky. You may be
tempted to take out a home equity loan to pay off high credit card debt. Financial specialists say that's a
bad idea! If you spend the money instead of paying off your debt, you'll dig yourself into a deeper financial
hole. Even worse, you could lose your home.

The topic of this paragraph is:

credit card debt

feeling stressed and panicky.

using a home equity loan to pay off credit card debt.

consulting financial specialists.

Opción correcta

The implied main idea is:

You're feeling stressed, perhaps even panicky, and you may be tempted to take out a home equity loan to
pay off high credit card debt.

You may be tempted to take out a home equity loan to pay off high credit card debt, but financial
specialists say that's a bad idea.
If you spend the money instead of paying off your debt, you'll dig yourself into a deeper financial hole.

Financial specialists say that's a bad idea!

Opción correcta

¿Qué es una oración final (concluding)?


Una oración de cierre indica que estás cerrando un párrafo. Escribirla puede no ser mu fácil como podría
pensar. Muchos escritores no se dan cuenta de que la oración final cierra los pensamiento finales acerca
del tópico que escriben. Por eso es importante para que usted pueda escribir oraciones de cierre
efectivas. Para cada párrafo, el lector debería ser capaz de identificar los principales puntos en esa
oración. Recuerde, la oración de cierre no debe contener ninguna información que no haya sido abarcada
en el párrafo.

Estos son algunos ejemplos de palabras que funcionan como abridores de oraciones de cierre en el
idioma inglés:

 Thus...
 It is important to remember...
 In conclusion...
 Therefore...
 All in all...
 As expressed...
 Overall...
 In brief...
 As evident...
 As a result...
 In sum...
 Finally...
 Lastly...
 For this reason...
 In general...

Como escritor, debe tener en cuenta que las oraciones de cierre pueden lucir diferentes para varios tipos
de escritos; por ejemplo, para un párrafo narrativo la oración de cierre debería hacer énfasis para la
audiencia en la moraleja del párrafo. En un párrafo descriptivo, la oración de cierre ayuda a enlazar el
párrafo enfatizando detalles de la oración tópico usando diferentes palabras y resumiendo los hechos que
la apoyan. Si desea leer más al respecto vaya a este enlace.