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James Cárdenas Grisales





Capítulo 5




DISEÑO GEOMÉTRICO
TRANSVERSAL: SECCIONES,
ÁREAS Y VOLÚMENES








5.1 CONCEPTO

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5.2 ELEMENTOS GEOMÉTRICOS QUE INTEGRAN
LA SECCIÓN TRANSVERSAL

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

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Figura 5.1 Sección transversal típica mixta, pavimentada en recta

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

Tabla 5.1 Anchos recomendados de calzada en recta



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7,32 7,32 +202*e1(2VTR .PK 
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͔͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

Tabla 5.2 Anchos recomendados de bermas



7,32 7,32 9(/2&,'$''(',6(f2'(/75$02+202*e1(2VTR .PK 
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Tabla 5.3 Valores recomendados para el bombeo

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FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHDODGHODFDO]DGDPiVXQ2%6LVHFRQVWUX\HODEHUPD

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

Tabla 5.4 Anchos mínimos recomendados de derechos de vía



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5.3 SOBRE-ANCHO EN LAS CURVAS

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras





























Figura 5.2 Sobre-ancho en las curvas, vehículos rígidos


Tabla 5.5 Dimensiones de los vehículos de tipo rígido en el cálculo del sobre-ancho

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras











































Figura 5.3 Sobre-ancho en las curvas, vehículos articulados

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

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(Q ORV DOLQHDPLHQWRV HVSLUDOL]DGRV HO VREUHDQFKR VH GLVWULEX\H D OR
ODUJR GH OD &ORWRLGH WUD]DQGR HO ERUGH GHO HQVDQFKH SRU PHGLR GH
GLVWDQFLDV UDGLDOHV D SDUWLU GHO HMH GH OD YtD ODV FXDOHV YDUtDQ
GLUHFWDPHQWHFRQODVORQJLWXGHVGHODVHVSLUDOHVGHHQWUDGD\VDOLGD Le
GHVGHHO TE\HO ETWDOTXHVHOOHJXHDOVREUHDQFKRWRWDO SHQHO EC\
HO CEJDUDQWL]DQGRGHHVWDPDQHUDTXHWRGD ODFXUYDFLUFXODUFHQWUDO
OOHYHHOVREUHDQFKRXQLIRUPHS


͕͚͘

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales






















Figura 5.4 Transición del sobre-ancho en las curvas


EJEMPLO 5.1: Sobre-ancho en curvas y transición, vehículos rígidos

Datos:
$QJXORGHGHIOH[LyQSULQFLSDO = ' = 130qD
5DGLRGHODFXUYDFLUFXODU = Rc = 73m
9HORFLGDGHVSHFtILFDGHODFXUYD = VCH = 50 Km/h
3HUDOWHUHFRPHQGDGR = e = 8%
3HQGLHQWHUHODWLYDGHORVERUGHV = m = 0.77%
$QFKRGHODFDO]DGDHQWDQJHQWH = 7.30m (dos carriles)
9HKtFXORWLSR = Camión de 2 ejes

Calcular:
D (OVREUHDQFKRQHFHVDULRSDUDHOFDPLyQ
E (OVREUHDQFKRDXQDGLVWDQFLDGH20PHWURVGHVGHVXLQLFLR

͕͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

Solución:

a) Sobre-ancho necesario

6HJ~QOD7DEODSDUDXQFDPLyQGH 2HMHVODGLVWDQFLD LHVGH 8.00
PHWURV\GHDFXHUGRFRQODHFXDFLyQ  HOVREUHDQFKRQHFHVDULR
HV
0.1 50
S 2 §¨73  73 2  8.00 2 ·¸  0.879  0.585 1.464m 
© ¹ 73

b) Sobre-ancho a 20 metros

/DORQJLWXGGHWUDQVLFLyQGHSHUDOWDGRHV

Carril e 3.65 m 8.0%
Lt 37.922 m 
m 0.77%

3RU ORWDQWR VHJ~QOD HFXDFLyQ  HO VREUHDQFKRGHVDUUROODGRD
XQDGLVWDQFLDGH20PHWURVGHVGHVXLQLFLRHV


§ Lp · § 20 ·
Sp ¨¨ ¸¸S ¨ ¸1.464 0.772 m 
© Lt ¹ © 37.922 ¹



EJEMPLO 5.2: Sobre-ancho en curvas y transición, vehículos articulados

Datos:
$QJXORGHGHIOH[LyQSULQFLSDO = ' = 130qD
5DGLRGHODFXUYDFLUFXODU = Rc = 73m
9HORFLGDGHVSHFtILFDGHODFXUYD = VCH = 50 Km/h
/RQJLWXGGHODHVSLUDO = Le = 80m
$QFKRGHODFDO]DGDHQWDQJHQWH = WT =7.30m (dos carriles)
9HKtFXORDUWLFXODGRWLSR = C3-S2

Calcular:
D (OVREUHDQFKRQHFHVDULRSDUDHOFDPLyQDUWLFXODGR
E (OVREUHDQFKRDXQDGLVWDQFLDGH20PHWURVGHVGHVXLQLFLR

͕͘͜

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

Solución:

a) Sobre-ancho necesario

(O DQFKR RFXSDGR SRU HO YHKtFXOR HQ OD FXUYD U GH DFXHUGR FRQ OD
HFXDFLyQ  HV


u  R c  Rc2  L1  L2 2.59  73  73 2  5.95  12.97


2 2
U 5.084m 

/D GLIHUHQFLD UDGLDO HQWUH OD WUD\HFWRULD GH OD HVTXLQD H[WHULRU GHO
YXHORGHODQWHUR\ODWUD\HFWRULDGHODUXHGDH[WHULRUGHODQWHUDFAVHJ~Q
ODHFXDFLyQ  HV


FA Rc2  A 2 L1  A  Rc 73 2  1.22 2 u 5.95  1.22  73 0.110 m 



(ODQFKRDGLFLRQDOGHVHJXULGDG ZGHDFXHUGRFRQODHFXDFLyQ  
HV


0.1VCH 0.1 50
Z 0.585 m 
Rc 73

(ODQFKRGHODFDO]DGDHQFXUYDWCVHJ~QODHFXDFLyQ  HV

WC n U  C  n  1 FA  Z 2 5.084  0.90  2  1 0.110  0.585 12.663 m 

'H HVWD PDQHUD HO VREUHDQFKR QHFHVDULR S GH DFXHUGR FRQ OD
HFXDFLyQ  HV

S WC  WT 12.663  7.30 5.363 m 

b) Sobre-ancho a 20 metros

6HJ~QODHFXDFLyQ  HOVREUHDQFKRGHVDUUROODGRDXQDGLVWDQFLD
GH20PHWURVGHVGHVXLQLFLRHV

§ Lp · § Lp · § 20 ·
Sp ¨¨ ¸¸S ¨¨ ¸¸S ¨ ¸5.363 1.341m 
© Lt ¹ © Le ¹ © 80 ¹

͕͘͝

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

5.4 SECCIONES TRANSVERSALES TÍPICAS, POSI-


CIÓN DE CHAFLANES Y ESTACAS DE CEROS

5.4.1 Secciones transversales típicas

'HSHQGLHQGR GHO WLSR GH WHUUHQR R WRSRJUDItD SUHGRPLQDUi XQD
VHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDOGHWHUPLQDGDODFXDOVHUiWtSLFDSDUDHVHWUDPR

(Q OD )LJXUD  VH PXHVWUDQ ORV WLSRV JHQHUDOHV GH VHFFLRQHV
WUDQVYHUVDOHV HQ FRUWH H[FDYDFLyQ  WHUUDSOpQ UHOOHQR  \ PL[WDV D
PHGLDODGHUD 



















Figura 5.5 Secciones transversales típicas


5.4.2 Chaflanes o estacas de talud y estacas de ceros

&RPRVHGLMRDQWHULRUPHQWHORVchaflanesRHVWDFDVH[WUHPDVGHWDOXG
VRQ ORV SXQWRV GRQGH ORV WDOXGHV GH FRUWH R WHUUDSOpQ HQFXHQWUDQ HO
WHUUHQR QDWXUDO /RV ceros VRQ DTXHOORV SXQWRV GH SDVR GH FRUWH D
WHUUDSOpQRYLFHYHUVD


͖͔͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

6H GHILQH OD cota de trabajo FRPR HO WUDEDMR QHFHVDULR D UHDOL]DU
YHUWLFDOPHQWH VREUH XQ SXQWR \D VHD H[FDYDQGR R UHOOHQDQGR
H[SUHVDGDFRPR

Cota de Trabajo Cota Roja - Cota Negra 

'RQGH
Cota Roja  &RWDGHSUR\HFWRRQLYHOGHVXEUDVDQWH
Cota Negra  &RWDGHOWHUUHQRQDWXUDO

2EVpUYHVHTXHHQHOSXQWRGHSDVRGHFRUWHDWHUUDSOpQODFRWDURMDHV
LJXDO D OD FRWD QHJUD SRU OR TXH OD FRWD GH WUDEDMR HV QXOD
FDUDFWHUtVWLFDpVWDSURSLDGHODHVWDFDGHFHUR

(QOD)LJXUDVHPXHVWUDGHPDQHUDWULGLPHQVLRQDO\WUDQVYHUVDOD
ORODUJRGHXQDEDQFDODVGLIHUHQWHVSRVLFLRQHVGHORVFKDIODQHV\ORV
FHURV

$ VX YH] HQ OD )LJXUD  VH SUHVHQWD XQD YLVWD HQ SODQWD GH ORV
FKDIODQHV\FHURVGHOPRGHORDQWHULRU(VLPSRUWDQWHREVHUYDUTXHHQ
OD PHGLGD TXH DSDUH]FDQ FHURV GHQWUR GH OD EDQFD R SODWDIRUPD VH
WHQGUiQVHFFLRQHVPL[WDVGHORFRQWUDULRVHUiQVHFFLRQHVVLPSOHVGH
FRUWHRWHUUDSOpQ

/Dlínea de chaflanesHVODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQHQSODQWDGHORVERUGHVGH
ODH[SODQDFLyQROtQHDVTXHXQHQODVHVWDFDVGHFKDIOiQFRQVHFXWLYDV
(VWDOtQHDLQGLFDKDVWDGyQGHVHH[WLHQGHODWHUDOPHQWHHOPRYLPLHQWR
GHWLHUUDVSRUFDXVDGHORVFRUWHVRGHORVWHUUDSOHQHV

3DUD GLIHUHQFLDU ORV FRUWHV GH ORV WHUUDSOHQHV VH XWLOL]DQ FRORUHV
HVSHFLDOHV DFKXUDGRV FRQ GLIHUHQWHV WLSRV GH OtQHDV R IOHFKDV FRQ OD
VLJXLHQWHFRQYHQFLyQ

$/72%$-2

/D OtQHD GH FKDIODQHV GHWHUPLQD OD QHFHVLGDG GH HYHQWXDOHV FRPSUDV
DGLFLRQDOHVGHSUHGLRV\ODLGHQWLILFDFLyQSUHOLPLQDUGHUHTXHULPLHQWRV
GHHVWUXFWXUDVGHFRQWHQFLyQ

͖͕͘

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Diseño geométrico de carreteras











































Figura 5.6 Posición de las estacas de chaflanes y de ceros

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James Cárdenas Grisales




















Figura 5.7 Planta de chaflanes y ceros


5.4.3 Posición de los chaflanes

8QD VHFFLyQ WUDQVYHUVDO FRPR OD GH OD )LJXUD  TXHGD
JHRPpWULFDPHQWH GHILQLGD HQ IRUPD FRPSOHWD FXDQGR VH HVSHFLILFDQ
ORVVLJXLHQWHVHOHPHQWRV

B  $QFKRGHEDQFDRSODWDIRUPD
Y  &RWDGHWUDEDMRDOHMH
t  3HQGLHQWHGHORVWDOXGHV
Xd , Yd  3RVLFLyQGHO FKDIOiQGHUHFKRFRQUHVSHFWR DOHMH GH OD YtD\DOD
EDQFD
Xi , Yi  3RVLFLyQGHOFKDIOiQL]TXLHUGRFRQUHVSHFWRDOHMHGHODYtD\DOD
EDQFD
Xd  'LVWDQFLDKRUL]RQWDOGHVGHHOHMHGHODYtDDOFKDIOiQGHUHFKR
Xi  'LVWDQFLDKRUL]RQWDOGHVGHHOHMHGHODYtDDOFKDIOiQL]TXLHUGR
Yd  $OWXUDGHOFKDIOiQGHUHFKRFRQUHVSHFWRDODEDQFD
Yi  $OWXUDGHOFKDIOiQL]TXLHUGRFRQUHVSHFWRDODEDQFD

͖͗͘

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras















Figura 5.8 Posición de los chaflanes

7DOHVSRVLFLRQHVVHH[SUHVDQDWUDYpVGHODVVLJXLHQWHVHFXDFLRQHV
B §1 ·
Xd  ¨ ¸Yd         
2 ©t ¹
B §1 ·
Xi  ¨ ¸Yi         
2 ©t ¹

(Q OD ORFDOL]DFLyQ GLUHFWD GH FKDIODQHV HQ HO WHUUHQR ODV GRV
HFXDFLRQHV DQWHULRUHV VRQ LQGHWHUPLQDGDV SXHV VH GHVFRQRFHQ ORV
YDORUHVGH Xd\ Yd Xi\ YiWHQLpQGRVHTXHSURFHGHU PHGLDQWHWDQWHRV
KDVWDTXHWDOHVHFXDFLRQHVVHVDWLVIDJDQSDUDVXFHVLYRVYDORUHVGHYd\
Yi TXH DUURMHQ GLVWDQFLDV FDOFXODGDV Xd \ Xi LJXDOHV D ODV PHGLGDV
DFWXDOHVKHFKDVGLUHFWDPHQWHHQHOWHUUHQRGHVGHHOHMHGHODYtD


5.5 ANCHOS DE BANCA Y ÁREAS DE LAS
SECCIONES TRANSVERSALES

5.5.1 Anchos de banca

*HRPpWULFDPHQWH HO ancho de banca GHSHQGH GHO DQFKR GH ORV
FDUULOHV GHO DQFKR GH ODV EHUPDV GHO HVSHVRU GH OD HVWUXFWXUD GHO

͖͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

SDYLPHQWR GHO YDORU GHO ERPEHR R GHO SHUDOWH HQ FXUYDV GHO VREUH
DQFKRVLH[LVWHHQFXUYDVGHODSHQGLHQWHWUDQVYHUVDOGHODVFXQHWDV\
GHOYDORUGHORVWDOXGHVHQWHUUDSOpQ

7DO FRPR VH PHQFLRQy DQWHULRUPHQWH DTXHOODV GLPHQVLRQHV H
LQFOLQDFLRQHVTXHQRGHSHQGHQGLUHFWDPHQWHGHOHVWXGLRJHRPpWULFR\
TXH VH IXQGDPHQWDQ HQ RWURV HVWXGLRV FRPSOHPHQWDULRV VH VXSRQHQ
FRPRFRQRFLGDV'HORFRQWUDULRGHEHUiQVHUHVWLPDGDVORPiVSUHFLVR
SRVLEOH GH WDO PDQHUD TXH ORV DMXVWHV SRVWHULRUHV D TXH KD\D OXJDU
VHDQPtQLPRV

(Q HO FiOFXOR GHO DQFKR GHEDQFD VH SXHGHQSUHVHQWDU ORV VLJXLHQWHV
FDVRVEiVLFRVJHQHUDOHV


n ANCHO DE BANCA EN RECTA Y EN CORTE

(QOD)LJXUDVHHVTXHPDWL]DODVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDOSDUDHVWHFDVR
SDUDODFXDOVHGHILQHQORVVLJXLHQWHVHOHPHQWRV

B  $QFKRGHEDQFDRSODWDIRUPD
c  $QFKRGHOFDUULO
b  $QFKRGHODEHUPD
e  (VSHVRUWRWDOGHODHVWUXFWXUDGHSDYLPHQWR
gc+f  $QFKR GH OD FXQHWD GHVGH HO ERUGH GH OD EHUPD KDVWD GRQGH VH
LQLFLDHOWDOXGGHOFRUWH
d  3URIXQGLGDG GH OD FXQHWD SRU GHEDMR GH OD VXEUDVDQWH  P
PtQLPR 
m  %RPEHRQRUPDO
n  3HQGLHQWHGHODFXQHWD
h , j , i  $OWXUDVDX[LOLDUHVGHFiOFXOR


'HHVWDPDQHUDHODQFKRGHEDQFDBVHH[SUHVDFRPR

B 2c  2b  2g c  2f GRQGH
d
f 
n

͖͙͘

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras





















Figura 5.9 Ancho de banca en recta y en corte


3DUDKDOODUgcVHSODQWHDODVLJXLHQWHLJXDOGDGGHDOWXUDV

e  h j  i GRQGH

h m c  b  g c 

j m c  b 

i ng c HQWRQFHV

e  m c  b  g c m c  b  ng c 

e  mg c ng c HVWRHV
e
gc 
nm

3RUORWDQWR

§ e · §d ·
B 2c  2b  2 ¨ ¸  2¨ ¸        
©n-m ¹ © n ¹


͖͚͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

o ANCHO DE BANCA EN RECTA Y EN TERRAPLÉN



/D )LJXUD  PXHVWUD HVWH FDVR SDUD HO FXDO tt UHSUHVHQWD OD
SHQGLHQWHWUDQVYHUVDOGHOWDOXGHQWHUUDSOpQ













 Figura 5.10 Ancho de banca en recta y en terraplén

(ODQFKRGHEDQFDBVHH[SUHVDFRPR

B 2c  2b  2g t 

,JXDOPHQWHSDUDKDOODUgtVHSODQWHDODVLJXLHQWHLJXDOGDGGHDOWXUDV

e  h j  i GRQGH
h m c  b  g t 
j m c  b 
i t t g t HQWRQFHV
e  m c  b  g t m c  b  t t g t 
e  mg t t t g t HVWRHV
e
gt SRUORWDQWR
tt  m
§ e ·
B 2c  2b  2 ¨¨ ¸¸         
© tt - m ¹

͖͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

p ANCHO DE BANCA EN CURVA Y EN CORTE



/D )LJXUD  PXHVWUD HVWH FDVR SDUD XQD FXUYD GHUHFKD FRQ XQ
SHUDOWH m\XQVREUHDQFKR S2EVpUYHVHTXHSRUHIHFWRGHOSHUDOWHHO
DQFKR GH OD FXQHWD GHO ERUGH VXSHULRU HV PHQRU TXH OD GHO LQIHULRU
SXHVg'c < gc3DUDHOFiOFXORVHLGHQWLILFDQDGLFLRQDOPHQWHODVDOWXUDVi'
h'\j'
















Figura 5.11 Ancho de banca en curva y en corte

(QHVWHFDVRHODQFKRGHEDQFDBHV

B 2c  2b  S  g c  g' c 2f GRQGH
d
f 
n

'HQXHYRSDUDKDOODUgcVHSODQWHDODVLJXLHQWHLJXDOGDGGHDOWXUDV

e  h j  i GRQGH
h m c  S  b  g c 
j m c  S  b 
i ng c HQWRQFHV
e  m c  S  b  g c m c  S  b  ng c 

͖͘͜

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

e  mg c ng c HVWRHV
e
gc 
nm

3DUDKDOODUg'cVHSODQWHDWDPELpQODVLJXLHQWHLJXDOGDGGHDOWXUDV

e  j' h'  i' GRQGH
j' m c  b 
h' m c  b  g' c 
i' ng' c HQWRQFHV
e  m c  b m c  b  g' c  ng' c 
e mg' c ng' c HVWRHV
e
g' c 
nm

3RUORWDQWR
e e §d ·
B 2c  2b  S    2¨ ¸       
n-m nm © n ¹


q ANCHO DE BANCA EN CURVA Y EN TERRAPLÉN

/D)LJXUDLOXVWUDHVWHFDVRSDUDXQDFXUYDGHUHFKD(ODQFKRGH
EDQFDBHV

B 2c  2b  S  g t  g' t 

$QiORJDPHQWHORVYDORUHVGHgt\g'tVRQ
e
gt 
tt  m
e
g' t SRUORWDQWR
tt  m
e e
B 2c  2b  S          
tt - m tt  m


͖͘͝

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras
















Figura 5.12 Ancho de banca en curva y en terraplén


r ANCHO DE BANCA EN RECTA Y SECCIÓN MIXTA

/D)LJXUDPXHVWUDHVWHFDVRFRQWRGRVORVHOHPHQWRVFRQRFLGRV
YLVWRVDQWHULRUPHQWH

(QHVWHFDVRHODQFKRGHEDQFDBVHSODQWHDFRPR

B 2c  2b  g c  g t  f 

'HLJXDOPDQHUDORVYDORUHVGHgcgt\fVRQ
e
gc 
nm
e
gt 
tt  m
d
f SRUORWDQWR
n
e e d
B 2c  2b           
n - m tt  m n

͔͗͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales














Figura 5.13 Ancho de banca en recta y sección mixta


&RQDSR\RHQORVFDVRVEiVLFRVJHQHUDOHVDQWHULRUHVVHSXHGHSODQWHDU
ODHFXDFLyQSDUDFDOFXODUHODQFKRGHEDQFDGHFXDOTXLHURWUDVHFFLyQ
WUDQVYHUVDO FRQ XQD YDULHGDG GH LQFOLQDFLRQHV WUDQVYHUVDOHV FRQ
ERPEHR HQUHFWD HQWUDQVLFLyQ HQ UHFWD\FXUYD \FRQSHUDOWH HQ
FXUYD \DVHDHPSOD]DGDVVRODPHQWHHQFRUWHVRODPHQWHHQWHUUDSOpQ
RPL[WD


5.5.2 Áreas de las secciones transversales

n ÁREA DE UNA SECCIÓN HOMOGÉNEA SIMPLE EN RECTA

6HGHQRPLQDhomogéneaVLVHWUDWDGHVyORFRUWHRVyORWHUUDSOpQ\HV
simpleVLHOSHUILOGHOWHUUHQRQDWXUDOHVPiVRPHQRVXQLIRUPH

&RQHODYDQFHWHFQROyJLFRKR\HQGtDSDUDGHWHUPLQDUHOiUHDGHODV
VHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVVHXWLOL]DQWpFQLFDVGHFRPSXWDGRUFRPRSRU
HMHPSOR HQ SODWDIRUPDV GH $XWRFDG 6LQ HPEDUJR H[LVWHQ YDULRV
PpWRGRVPDQXDOHVTXHHYHQWXDOPHQWHSXHGHQVHUXVDGRV\TXHVRQOD
EDVH DQDOtWLFD GH ODV WpFQLFDV FRPSXWDFLRQDOHV (Q OD PHGLGD GH VX
DSOLFDELOLGDGVHH[SRQGUiQDTXtODVEDVHVWHyULFDVVREUHODVFXDOHVVH
IXQGDPHQWDFDGDXQRGHHOORV

͕͗͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

Método del planímetro:



(Q HVWH FDVR OD VHFFLyQ WUDQVYHUVDO GHEH HVWDU GLEXMDGD D XQD VROD
HVFDODGDGDWDOTXHVHSXHGDUHFRUUHUVXFRQWRUQRFRQHOSODQtPHWUR

Método de las figuras geométricas:

/D VHFFLyQ WUDQVYHUVDO VH GLYLGH HQ ILJXUDV JHRPpWULFDV FRQRFLGDV
JHQHUDOPHQWH WULiQJXORV UHFWiQJXORV \ WUDSHFLRV SDUD DVt FDOFXODU HO
iUHD GH FDGD XQD GH HOODV VHSDUDGDPHQWH FRPR VH PXHVWUD HQ OD
)LJXUDSDUDXQDVHFFLyQHQFRUWH






















Figura 5.14 Área sección homogénea simple en recta, por figuras geométricas y
coordenadas

(QHVWHFDVRHOiUHDGHFRUWH AcVHSXHGHSODQWHDUPHGLDQWHHOiUHDGH
ODVVLJXLHQWHVILJXUDVJHRPpWULFDVDVt

Ac Triángulo 865  Triángulo 823  Triángulo 805  Triángulo 803  Triángulo 045

 Triángulo 043 - Triángulo 107 - Trapecio 1762

͖͗͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

ª1 § B · º ª1 § B · º ª1 º ª1 º ª1 º
Ac « 2 ¨ 2 ¸Yd »  « 2 ¨ 2 ¸Yi »  « 2 h  d X d »  « 2 h  d X i »  « 2 Y X d »
¬ © ¹ ¼ ¬ © ¹ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼

ª1 º ª1 º ª§ 2 c  2 b  2 g c  B · º
 « Y X i »  « 2 c  2 b  2 g c h »  «¨ ¸d »
¬2 ¼ ¬ 2 ¼ ¬© 2 ¹ ¼

'HVDUUROODQGR
1 §B· 1 1
Ac ¨ ¸ Yd  Yi  Y X d  X i  X d  X i h  d  c  b  g c h
2©2¹ 2 2

Bd
 c  b  g c d 
2

)DFWRUL]DQGRVHOOHJDD
B Yd  Yi X d  X i Y  h  d Bd
Ac    c  b  g c h  d     
4 2 2

'RQGH
§ e · §d ·
B 2c  2b  2¨ ¸  2¨ ¸ 
©n-m¹ ©n¹
B Yd
Xd  
2 tc
B Yi
Xi  
2 tc
e
gc 
nm
h m c  b  g c 

Método de las coordenadas de los vértices:

6HXWLOL]DXQVLVWHPDGHFRRUGHQDGDV xy GHRULJHQODFRWDURMDHQHO
HMH GH OD YtD WDO FRPR VH DSUHFLD HQ OD )LJXUD  DQWHULRU SDUD OD
FXDOODVFRRUGHQDGDVGHORVYpUWLFHVVRQ

9pUWLFHb >0 , 0 @ 
9pUWLFHc >- c  b  g c , - h @

͗͗͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

9pUWLFHd >- B/2 , - h  d @ 


9pUWLFHe >- X i , Yi - h  d @ 
9pUWLFHf >0 , Y @ 
9pUWLFHg >X d , Yd  h  d @ 
9pUWLFHh >B/2 ,  h  d @ 
9pUWLFHi > c  b  g c ,  h @ 

(Q OD )LJXUD  VH KDQ RUJDQL]DGR ODV FRRUGHQDGDV x  y  GH ORV
YpUWLFHV GH WDO PDQHUD TXH OD VXPD GH ORV SURGXFWRV y SRU x GH ODV
OtQHDVFRQWLQXDVPHQRVODVXPDGHORVSURGXFWRV ySRU xGHODVOtQHDV
GLVFRQWLQXDVDUURMDQFRPRUHVXOWDGRHOGREOHGHOiUHDHVWRHV2Ac















Figura 5.15 Área sección homogénea simple en recta, por las coordenadas de los
vértices

(IHFWXDQGRGLFKRVSURGXFWRVVHWLHQH
§ B·
h ¨ ¸  h  d  X i  YX d  >Yd  h  d @  h  d c  b  g c
B
2 Ac
© 2¹ 2
§ B·
 ^ h  d > c  b  g c @`  >Yi  h  d @¨  ¸  Y  X i  > h  d X d @ 
© 2¹
B
  h
2

͗͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

'HVDUUROODQGR\IDFWRUL]DQGRVHREWLHQH
B Yd  Yi
2Ac  X d  X i Y  h  d  Bd  2 c  b  g c h  d 
2

3RUORWDQWR
B Yd  Yi X d  X i Y  h  d Bd
Ac    c  b  g c h  d 
4 2 2

2EVpUYHVHTXHpVWDHVODPLVPDH[SUHVLyQFDOFXODGDSRUODHFXDFLyQ
 GHOPpWRGRGHODVILJXUDVJHRPpWULFDV



EJEMPLO 5.3: Ancho de banca y área de una sección homogénea
simple en recta, por figuras geométricas y coordenadas

Datos:
/D)LJXUDPXHVWUDXQDVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDOKRPRJpQHDVLPSOHHQ
FRUWH \ HQ UHFWD GH OD FXDO SUHYLDPHQWH VH FRQRFH OD VLJXLHQWH
LQIRUPDFLyQ

$QFKRGHFDUULO     c 3.65m
$QFKRGHEHUPD     b 2.00m
%RPEHRQRUPDO     m 0.02
3HQGLHQWHGHODFXQHWD   n 0.50
(VSHVRUGHOSDYLPHQWR   e 0.50m
3URIXQGLGDGGHODFXQHWD  d 0.60m
7DOXGHQFRUWH     tc 2
&RWDGHWUDEDMRDOHMH   Y 2.294m
$OWXUDGHOFKDIOiQGHUHFKR Yd 2.351m
$OWXUDGHOFKDIOiQL]TXLHUGR Yi 3.852m

Calcular:
D  (ODQFKRQHFHVDULRGHEDQFD
E (O iUHD GH OD VHFFLyQ WUDQVYHUVDO HQ FRUWH SRU HO PpWRGR GH ODV
ILJXUDV JHRPpWULFDV \ SRU HO PpWRGR GH ODV FRRUGHQDGDV GH ORV
YpUWLFHV

͙͗͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras






































Figura 5.16 Ancho de banca y área, por figuras geométricas y coordenadas

͚͗͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

Solución:

a) Ancho de banca

6HJ~QODHFXDFLyQ  HODQFKRGHEDQFDBHV
§ e · §d · § 0.50 · § 0.60 ·
B 2c  2b  2 ¨ ¸  2¨ ¸ 2 3.65  2 2.00  2 ¨ ¸  2¨ ¸
© n - m ¹ © ¹ n © 0.50  0.02 ¹ © 0.50 ¹
B 15.783m 

b) Área de la sección transversal

0pWRGRGHODVILJXUDVJHRPpWULFDV

3DUDHOFiOFXORGHOiUHDHVQHFHVDULRWDPELpQFRQRFHUORVYDORUHVGH
XdXigc\h
B Yd 15.783 2.351
Xd   9.067 m 
2 tc 2 2
B Yi 15.783 3.852
Xi   9.818 m 
2 tc 2 2
e 0.50
gc 1.042 m 
n  m 0.50  0.02
h m c  b  g c 0.02 3.65  2.00  1.042 0.134m 

3RUORWDQWRVHJ~QODHFXDFLyQ  HOiUHDAcHV
B Yd  Yi X d  X i Y  h  d Bd
Ac    c  b  g c h  d 
4 2 2
15.783 2.351  3.852 9.067  9.818 2.294  0.134  0.60
Ac 
4 2 
15.783 0.60
  3.65  2.00  1.042 0.134  0.60
2
Ac 43.421 m 2 

0pWRGRGHODVFRRUGHQDGDVGHORVYpUWLFHV

&RQ EDVH D OD )LJXUD  HQ OD )LJXUD  VH RUJDQL]DQ ODV
FRRUGHQDGDV xy GHORVYpUWLFHV

͗͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

















Figura 5.17 Ejemplo de cálculo del área por las coordenadas de los vértices

$SOLFDQGRODVXPDGHORVSURGXFWRVGHODVOtQHDVFRQWLQXDVPHQRVORV
SURGXFWRVGHODVGLVFRQWLQXDVVHWLHQHTXHHOiUHDAcHV
1
Ac > 0.134  7.892  0.734  9.818  2.294 9.067  1.617 7.892
2
 0.734 6.692 @  > 0.734  6.692  3.118  7.892  2.294  9.818 
1
2
 0.734 9.067  0.134 7.892 @
Ac 43.422 m 2 

4XHHVHOPLVPRYDORUREWHQLGRDQWHULRUPHQWH


o ÁREA DE UNA SECCIÓN MIXTA SIMPLE EN RECTA

6H GHQRPLQD mixta VL VH WUDWD GH FRUWH \ WHUUDSOpQ \ HV simple VL HO
SHUILOGHOWHUUHQRQDWXUDOHVPiVRPHQRVXQLIRUPH

$O LJXDO TXH HQ HO FDVR DQWHULRU SDUD HO FiOFXOR GHO iUHD VH SXHGH
HPSOHDUFXDOTXLHUDGHORVPpWRGRVGHVFULWRVDVDEHU

͗͘͜

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

Método de las coordenadas de los vértices:



(QOD)LJXUDVHPXHVWUDQWRGRVORVHOHPHQWRVJHRPpWULFRVGHXQD
VHFFLyQ WUDQVYHUVDO PL[WD VLPSOH HQ UHFWD UHIHULGRV DO VLVWHPD GH
FRRUGHQDGDV x y GHRULJHQODFRWDURMDHQHOHMHGHODYtD&RPRVH
GHVDUUROOyDQWHULRUPHQWHHVWRVHOHPHQWRVVHFDOFXODQFRPR
e e d
B 2c  2 b    
n  m tt  m n
d Yd
Xd c  b  gc   
n tc
Yi
Xi c  b  gt  
tt
e
gc 
nm
e
gt 
tt  m
h m c  b  g c 
h' m c  b  g t 





















Figura 5.18 Área sección mixta simple en recta por las coordenadas de los vértices

͗͘͝

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

'HLJXDOPDQHUDHQOD)LJXUDVHKDQRUJDQL]DGRODVFRRUGHQDGDV
xy GHORVGLIHUHQWHVYpUWLFHV
























Figura 5.19 Área sección mixta por las coordenadas de los vértices

$SOLFDQGRODVXPDGHORVSURGXFWRVGHODVOtQHDVFRQWLQXDVPHQRVORV
SURGXFWRV GH ODV GLVFRQWLQXDV VH WLHQH TXH HO GREOH GHO iUHD GH
WHUUDSOpQAtHV


2At Y  X i  Yi  h' > c  b  g t @   Y X 0 d   h'  X i 


2At YX i  Yi  h' c  b  g t  YX 0 d  h' X i 

3RUORWDQWR
Y X i  X 0 d Yi  h' c  b  g t h' X i
At           
2 2 2

,JXDOPHQWHHOGREOHGHOiUHDGHFRUWHAcHV
mX 0 d X d  >Yd  h  d @ >B  c  b  g t @  h  d c  b  g c  h X 0 d


2Ac

 >Yd  h  d @X 0 d  > h  d X d @  ^ h>B  c  b  g t @ `   mX 0 d c  b  g c

͔͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

3RUORWDQWRGHVDUUROODQGR\IDFWRUL]DQGRVHOOHJDD


Ac
h  d X d  X 0 d  g t  g c  B  mX 0 d c  b  g c  X d
2 2      
Y  h X 0 d  c  b  g t  B
 d
2


p ÁREA DE UNA SECCIÓN HOMOGÉNEA SIMPLE EN CURVA

6HWUDWDUiDTXtXQDVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDOGRQGHHODQFKRGHEDQFD B\D
KDVLGRFDOFXODGRSUHYLDPHQWHSDUDXQDVHFFLyQHQUHFWD(QHVWHFDVR
DGLFLRQDOPHQWHDORVHOHPHQWRVDQWHULRUHVDSDUHFHQHOSHUDOWH m \ HO
VREUHDQFKR S DSOLFDGRV D XQD GHWHUPLQDGD VHFFLyQ WUDQVYHUVDO (O
iUHDVHSXHGHFDOFXODUSRUFXDOTXLHUDGHORVVLJXLHQWHVPpWRGRV

Método de las figuras geométricas:

(QODVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVHQUHFWDSDUDbancas planasDQLYHOGH
VXEUDVDQWH SDUD XELFDU ORV FKDIODQHV YHUWLFDOPHQWH VH WRPD FRPR
UHIHUHQFLDHOSODQRKRUL]RQWDOGHODEDQFD

(QVHFFLRQHVHQFXUYDSDUDWHQHUHQFXHQWDODLQFOLQDFLyQGHODEDQFD
TXH IDFLOLWH HO SHUDOWH GH OD FDO]DGD VH DGRSWD FRPR SODQRV
KRUL]RQWDOHVGHUHIHUHQFLDORVTXHSDVDQSRUFDGDXQRGHORVH[WUHPRV
GH ODEDQFD /D )LJXUD PXHVWUD XQD VHFFLyQGH WHUUDSOpQ VLPSOH
HQXQDFXUYDKRUL]RQWDOL]TXLHUGDDODFXDOVHOHKDDSOLFDGRXQSHUDOWH
m \ XQ VREUHDQFKR S HQ VX LQWHULRU 7DO VHFFLyQ VH KD GLYLGLGR HQ
FXDWURWULiQJXORVGHEDVHV\DOWXUDVFRQRFLGDVDVt
B 1 §B ·
Triángulo 1 : Base S , Altura Yi , Área A1 ¨  S ¸Yi 
2 2©2 ¹
1
Triángulo 2 : Base Y , Altura Xi , Área A2 Y X i 
2
1
Triángulo 3 : Base Y , Altura Xd , Área A3 Y X d 
2
B 1 §B·
Triángulo 4 : Base , Altura Yd , Área A4 ¨ ¸Yd 
2 2©2¹

͕͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras



















Figura 5.20 Área sección homogénea simple en curva, por figuras geométricas

$OFDOFXODUODViUHDVGHHVWDPDQHUDVHSXHGHYHUTXH

(OiUHDabcaVHFDOFXOyGRVYHFHVHOiUHDdbfdQRVHFDOFXOyHOiUHDfghf
WDPSRFR VH FDOFXOy \ HO iUHD igji VH FDOFXOy SRU IXHUD 3RU
FRPSHQVDFLyQSXHGHGHFLUVHTXHODViUHDVFDOFXODGDVDGLFLRQDOPHQWH
abca H igji VRQ DSUR[LPDGDPHQWH LJXDOHV D ODV TXH VH GHMDURQ GH
FDOFXODUdbfd\fghf

'HHVWDPDQHUDHOiUHDWRWDOGHWHUUDSOpQAtHV

1 §B · 1 1 1§B·
At A1  A2  A3  A4 ¨  S ¸Yi  YX i  YX d  ¨ ¸Yd 
2©2 ¹ 2 2 2©2¹

1 ª§ B · §B · º
At «¨ ¸Yd  ¨  S ¸Yi  Y X d  X i »            
2 ¬© 2 ¹ ©2 ¹ ¼

Método de la cartera de chaflanes:

'HDFXHUGRFRQOD)LJXUDDQWHULRUODFRWDGHOSODQRKRUL]RQWDOGH
UHIHUHQFLDSDUDVLWXDUHOFKDIOiQGHODGHUHFKDFRQUHVSHFWRDODFRWD
GH WUDEDMR Y HQ HO HMH HVWi DXQD DOWXUD fi SRU HQFLPD D OD FXDO VH OH
OODPDcota nominal de trabajo3DUDHOFKDIOiQGHODL]TXLHUGDODDOWXUD
HVfcSRUGHEDMR3RUORWDQWRSDUDHVWHFDVR

͖͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

3DUDHOFKDIOiQGHUHFKR
§B·
Cota nominal de trabajo Y  fi Y  m ¨ ¸ 
©2¹
B Yd
Xd  
2 tt

3DUDHOFKDIOiQL]TXLHUGR
§B ·
Cota nominal de trabajo Y  fc Y  m ¨  S ¸ 
© 2 ¹
§B · Y
Xi ¨  S¸  i 
© 2 ¹ tt

(Q OD SDUWH VXSHULRU GH OD )LJXUD  VH KD GLVSXHVWR OD FDUWHUD GH
FKDIODQHVFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHDORVGDWRVGHOD)LJXUDDQWHULRU

(OPpWRGRGHFiOFXORGHOiUHDSRUFKDIODQHVGHQRPLQDGRregla de las
crucesLOXVWUDGRHQODSDUWHLQIHULRUGHOD)LJXUDXWLOL]DODFDUWHUD
GHFKDIODQHVDUWLILFLDOPHQWHFRORFDQGRXQFHUR 0 HQHOGHQRPLQDGRU
GHOTXHEUDGRGHOFHQWUR\DGLFLRQDQGRXQSDUGHTXHEUDGRVH[WUHPRV
GHQXPHUDGRUFHUR 0 \GHQRPLQDGRUHOYDORUGHODVHPLEDQFD B/2+S
\B/2UHVSHFWLYDPHQWH 














Figura 5.21 Área sección homogénea simple en curva, por chaflanes

͗͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

6L VH HIHFW~DQ ORV SURGXFWRV HQ GLDJRQDO GH WDO PDQHUD TXH D ORV
SURGXFWRV GH ODV OtQHDV FRQWLQXDV VH OH UHVWHQ ORV GH ODV OtQHDV
GLVFRQWLQXDVVHREWHQGUiHOGREOHGHOiUHD3RUORWDQWR
§B · §B·
2At ¨  S ¸Yi  X i Y  Y X d  Yd ¨ ¸ 
©2 ¹ ©2¹
1 ª§ B · §B · º
At «¨ ¸Yd  ¨  S ¸Yi  Y X d  X i » 
2 ¬© 2 ¹ ©2 ¹ ¼

4XHHVODPLVPDHFXDFLyQ  

Método de las coordenadas de los vértices:

/D )LJXUD  SUHVHQWD OD VHFFLyQ WUDQVYHUVDO EDMR HO VLVWHPD GH
FRRUGHQDGDV xy 
















Figura 5.22 Área sección homogénea simple en curva, por coordenadas de los
vértices

2UJDQL]DQGRODVFRRUGHQDGDVGHORVYpUWLFHVVHJ~QOD)LJXUDVH
WLHQH
2At
mB
X d   Y  X i  §¨  mB  mS  Yi ·¸§¨ B  S ·¸  §¨  mB  mS ·¸ B
2 © 2 ¹© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹2

§ mB ·B § mB · § mB ·§ B ·
¨  Yd ¸   Y  X d  ¨   mS ¸  X i  ¨ ¸¨   S ¸
© 2 ¹2 © 2 ¹ © 2 ¹© 2 ¹

͘͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales



















 Figura 5.23 Área sección homogénea simple en curva, por coordenadas

2At
mB
X d  Y X i  mB §¨ B ·¸  mB S  mS§¨ B ·¸  mS S  Yi §¨ B ·¸  Yi S
2 2 ©2¹ 2 ©2¹ ©2¹
mB § B · § B · mB § B · §B· mB
 ¨ ¸  mS ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸  Yd ¨ ¸  Y X d  X i  mS X i 
2 ©2¹ ©2¹ 2 ©2¹ ©2¹ 2
mB § B · mB
 ¨ ¸ S
2 ©2¹ 2

2UJDQL]DQGRORVWpUPLQRVUHVXOWD
1 ª§ B · §B · º
At ¨ ¸Yd  ¨  S ¸Yi  Y X d  X i »
2 «¬© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹ ¼
     
1 ª§ mB · º
 «¨ ¸ X d  X i  mS S  B  X i »
2 ¬© 2 ¹ ¼

(VWDH[SUHVLyQGDHOárea exactaGHODVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDO2EVpUYHVH
TXH OD SULPHUD SDUWH GH HOOD HV HO iUHD GDGD SRU ORV GRV PpWRGRV
DQWHULRUHV (FXDFLyQ 'HDOOtTXHODVHJXQGDSDUWHUHSUHVHQWDOD
FRUUHFFLyQTXHSDUDHIHFWRVSUiFWLFRVHVPX\SHTXHxDPRVWUDQGRDVt
ODDSOLFDELOLGDGGHHOORV6LQHPEDUJRWRGDVODVYHFHVTXHVHTXLHUDHO
iUHD SUHFLVD GHEHUi FRQVLGHUDUVH H[SUHVLRQHV FRPR OD GDGD SRU OD
HFXDFLyQ  

͙͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

q ÁREA DE UNA SECCIÓN MIXTA COMPUESTA EN CURVA



6HGHQRPLQDcompuestaGHELGRDTXHHOSHUILOWUDQVYHUVDOGHOWHUUHQR
HVLUUHJXODUSRUORTXHSDUDSUHFLVDUPHMRUVXiUHDHVQHFHVDULRDFRWDU
GLIHUHQWHVSXQWRVH[DFWDPHQWHGRQGHHOWHUUHQRFDPELD

&RPR VH YLR DQWHULRUPHQWH FXDOTXLHUD GH ORV FXDWUR PpWRGRV WLHQH
DSOLFDFLyQ HQ HO FiOFXOR GHO iUHD 3RU HVWD UD]yQ SDUD HVWH FDVR VH
XVDUi VRODPHQWH HO GH OD UHJOD GH ODV FUXFHV EDVDGR HQ OD FDUWHUD GH
FKDIODQHVWRPDQGRFRPRPRGHORXQDVHFFLyQPL[WDHQFXUYDGHUHFKD
FRQXQFHURODWHUDOL]TXLHUGRFRPRORLOXVWUDOD)LJXUD






















Figura 5.24 Área sección mixta compuesta en curva

/RV GDWRV FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHV D HVWD VHFFLyQ VH PXHVWUDQ HQ OD )LJXUD
HQODFDUWHUDGHFKDIODQHV\ODUHJODGHODVFUXFHVSDUDORFXDO
B
2Ac X i  X i Y3  Yi X 3  Y3 X 0 i 
2
1 ª §B · º
Ac Yi ¨  X 3 ¸  Y3 X i  X 0 i »       
2 «¬ © 2 ¹ ¼

͚͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales
















Figura 5.25 Área sección mixta compuesta en curva, por chaflanes

§B ·
2At X 0 i Y  Y X 2  Y2 X 1  Y1 X d  Yd ¨  S ¸  X 2 Y1  X1 Yd 
© 2 ¹
1ª §B · º
At Y X 0 i  X 2  Yd ¨  S  X1 ¸  Y1 X d  X 2  Y2 X1 »    
2 «¬ © 2 ¹ ¼


5.6 VOLÚMENES DE TIERRA: CUBICACIÓN

8QDYH]TXHVHKDQFDOFXODGRODViUHDVGHODVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHV
VHSXHGHSURFHGHUDFDOFXODUHOYROXPHQFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHHQWUHHOODV

3DUDTXHGLFKRYROXPHQVHSXHGDFDOFXODUIiFLOPHQWHVHUiQHFHVDULR
VXSRQHUTXHHQWUHFDGDSDUGHVHFFLRQHVFRQVHFXWLYDVH[LVWHXQVyOLGR
JHRPpWULFR FRPSXHVWR GH HOHPHQWRV FRQRFLGRV R LGHQWLILFDEOHV (Q
HVWHVHQWLGRHOVyOLGRTXHPiVVHDSUR[LPDDHVWDFRQILJXUDFLyQHVHO
prismoideFRPRHOLOXVWUDGRHQOD)LJXUD(OSULVPRLGHHVDTXHO
VyOLGR JHRPpWULFR OLPLWDGR HQ ORV H[WUHPRV SRU ODV FDUDV ODWHUDOHV
SDUDOHODV FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHV D ODV VHFFLRQHV WUDQVYHUVDOHV \
ODWHUDOPHQWH SRU ORV SODQRV GH ORV WDOXGHV HO SODQR GH OD EDQFD \ OD
VXSHUILFLHGHOWHUUHQRQDWXUDO

͛͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras




























Figura 5.26 El prismoide en carreteras

(OYROXPHQGHOprismoideVHFDOFXODPHGLDQWHODVLJXLHQWHH[SUHVLyQ

A1  A2  4 Am         
6

'RQGH
  9ROXPHQGHOSULVPRLGH P 
A1  ÈUHDGHODVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDOH[WUHPDLQLFLDO P 
A2  ÈUHDGHODVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDOH[WUHPDILQDO P 
Am  ÈUHD GH OD VHFFLyQ PHGLD P  (V DTXHOOD VHFFLyQ VLWXDGD
H[DFWDPHQWHD /2

7DPELpQ SXHGH XWLOL]DUVH HQ IRUPD DSUR[LPDGD OD IyUPXOD GH ODV
áreas medias(VWHPpWRGRVXSRQHTXHHOiUHDGHODVHFFLyQPHGLD Am
HVLJXDODOSURPHGLRDULWPpWLFRHQWUHA1\A2(VWRHV

͘͘͜

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

A1  A2
Am 
2

5HHPSOD]DQGRHQODHFXDFLyQ  
ª § A  A2 ·º
« A1  A2  4¨ 1 ¸» 3 A1  3 A2 
6¬ © 2 ¹¼ 6
§ A1  A2 ·
¨ ¸         
© 2 ¹

(VWDIyUPXODHVPiVSUHFLVDDPHGLGDTXHA1\A2WLHQGDQDVHULJXDOHV
&XDQGR XQD GH ODV VHFFLRQHV WLHQGH D FHUR HO YROXPHQ VH FDOFXOD
FRPRXQpirámoide
A
         
3

2WURWLSRGHVyOLGRJHRPpWULFRTXHDSDUHFHFRQIUHFXHQFLDFXDQGRVH
IRUPDQVHFFLRQHVPL[WDVHVHOtronco de pirámoideFX\RYROXPHQVH
FDOFXODFRPR

3
A  A 
1 2
A1 A2         

/D)LJXUDPXHVWUDODIRUPDFLyQGHHVWRVWUHVVyOLGRVJHRPpWULFRV
FX\RVYRO~PHQHVVRQ

(QWUHODVHFFLyQ\ODVHFFLyQ
olumen de corte rismoide c
1
A1  A2  4 Am 
6
7DPELpQ
§ A1  A2 ·
olumen de corte rismoide c 1¨ ¸
© 2 ¹

(QWUHODVHFFLyQ\ODVHFFLyQ
olumen de corte Tronco de pirámoide c
2
3
A  A 
2 3
A2 A3 

A4 2
olumen de terrapl n irámoide t 
3

͘͘͝

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Diseño geométrico de carreteras

















Figura 5.27 Prismoide, tronco de pirámoide y pirámoide


EJEMPLO 5.4: Áreas y volúmenes de terraplén y corte

Datos:
8Q WUDPR GH XQD FDUUHWHUD VHFXQGDULD GH 30 PHWURV GH ORQJLWXG \ 10
PHWURVGHDQFKRGHEDQFDWLHQHORVFKDIODQHVTXHVHSUHVHQWDQHQOD
7DEOD

Tabla 5.6 Cartera de chaflanes en recta. Ejemplo 5.4

,=48,(5'2 (-( '(5(&+2
    
  . 
    
 . 
    
 .  
    
 . 
    
 . 
    
 . 

͙͔͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

Calcular:
/DViUHDV\ORVYRO~PHQHVGHWHUUDSOpQ\FRUWHHQWRGRHOWUDPR

Solución:
(Q OD )LJXUD  VH KD GLEXMDGR XQ HVTXHPD WULGLPHQVLRQDO GH OD
LQIRUPDFLyQ GDGD UHIHUHQWH D DEVFLVDV FRWDV GH WUDEDMR FKDIODQHV \
FHURVSDUDFDGDVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDO





























Figura 5.28 Abscisas, cotas de trabajo, chaflanes y ceros

a) Áreas de las secciones transversales

(QOD)LJXUDVHKDGLVSXHVWRODFDUWHUDGHFKDIODQHVGHWDOPDQHUD
TXHVHSXHGDQFDOFXODUODViUHDVGHODVVHFFLRQHVSRUHOPpWRGRGHOD
UHJODGHODVFUXFHV

͙͕͘

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Diseño geométrico de carreteras


























Figura 5.29 Áreas de las secciones por el método de los chaflanes. Ejemplo 5.4

6HFFLyQGHDEVFLVD.
7HUUDSOpQ
1
At >5 3.3  9.8 4.2  4.2 13.2  5.4 5 @ 70.050 m 2 
2

6HFFLyQGHDEVFLVD.
7HUUDSOpQ
1
At >5 3.4  9.9 3.2  3.2 8.6  2.5 5 @ 44.350 m 2 
2

6HFFLyQGHDEVFLVD.
7HUUDSOpQ
1
At >5 4.5  10.3 1.9  1.9 5 @ 25.785 m 2 
2

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James Cárdenas Grisales

6HFFLyQGHDEVFLVD.
7HUUDSOpQ
1
At >5 3.8  10.5 1.0  1.0 1.6 @ 15.550 m 2 
2

&RUWH
1
Ac >3.6 5  1.6 3.6 @ 6.120 m 2 
2

6HFFLyQGHDEVFLVD.
7HUUDSOpQ
1
At >5 3.2 @ 8.000 m 2 
2

&RUWH
1
Ac >3.5 5 @ 8.750 m 2 
2

6HFFLyQGHDEVFLVD.
7HUUDSOpQ
1
At >5 3.6  3.6 3.4 @ 2.880 m 2 
2

&RUWH
1
Ac >3.4 2.4  2.4 9.4  9.3 5 @ 38.610 m 2 
2

b) Volúmenes entre secciones transversales

(QWUHODVVHFFLRQHVGHDEVFLVDV.\.
7HUUDSOpQ3ULVPRLGHVHJ~QHFXDFLyQ  
§ A1  A2 · §70.050  44.350 ·
¨ ¸ 10 ¨ ¸ 572.000 m 
3
t
© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹

(QWUHODVVHFFLRQHVGHDEVFLVDV.\.
7HUUDSOpQ3ULVPRLGHHFXDFLyQ  


͙͗͘

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Diseño geométrico de carreteras

§ A1  A2 · § 44.350  25.785 ·
¸ 175.338 m 
3
t ¨ ¸ 5¨
© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹

(QWUHODVVHFFLRQHVGHDEVFLVDV.\.
7HUUDSOpQ7URQFRGHSLUiPRLGHVHJ~QHFXDFLyQ  
t
3
A  A 
1 2 A1 A2 53 >25.785  15.550  25.785 15.550 @ 102.265 m 3 


&RUWH3LUiPRLGHVHJ~QHFXDFLyQ  
A 6.120 5
c 10.200 m 3 
3 3

(QWUHODVVHFFLRQHVGHDEVFLVDV.\.
7HUUDSOpQ7URQFRGHSLUiPRLGHHFXDFLyQ  
t
3
A  A
1 2  A1 A2 34 >15.550  8.000  15.550 8.000 @ 46.271 m 3 


&RUWH7URQFRGHSLUiPRLGHHFXDFLyQ  
c
3
A  A 
1 2 A1 A2 34 >6.120  8.750  6.120 8.750 @ 29.584 m 3 


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7HUUDSOpQ7URQFRGHSLUiPRLGHHFXDFLyQ  
t
3
A  A 
1 2 A1 A2 63 >8.000  2.880  8.000 2.880 @ 31.360 m 3 

&RUWH7URQFRGHSLUiPRLGHHFXDFLyQ  
c
3
A  A 
1 2 A1 A2 63 >8.750  38.610  8.750 38.610 @ 131.481 m 3 


&DOFXODGDV ODV iUHDV \ ORV YRO~PHQHV VH HODERUD OD FDUWHUD GH
FXELFDFLyQWDOFRPRVHPXHVWUDHQOD7DEOD

&RPRVHSXHGHDSUHFLDUHQODFDUWHUDGHFXELFDFLyQSDUDFDGDDEVFLVD
DSDUHFHHQODSDUWHL]TXLHUGDODSRVLFLyQGHORVFKDIODQHV\FHURVHQOD
SDUWHFHQWUDOODViUHDVUHVSHFWLYDV\HQODSDUWHGHUHFKDORVYRO~PHQHV
HQWUHVHFFLRQHVVXFHVLYDV

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James Cárdenas Grisales

Tabla 5.7 Cartera de cubicación. Ejemplo 5.4



&+$)/$1(6 È5($6 P  92/Ò0(1(6 P 
$%6&,6$
,=48,(5'2 (-( '(5(&+2 &257( 7(55$3 &257( 7(55$3
.         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
.         
 92/Ò0(1(6727$/(6  


EJEMPLO 5.5: Áreas y volúmenes de corte y terraplén

Datos:
3DUD XQ WUDPR GH DQFKR GH EDQFD GH 10 PHWURV HQ OD 7DEOD  VH
PXHVWUDQORVFKDIODQHVFHURV\SXQWRVWRSRJUiILFRV

Tabla 5.8 Cartera de chaflanes y topografía. Ejemplo 5.5

,=48,(5'2 (-( '(5(&+2
    
  .  
    
  . 
    
 . 

Calcular:
/DViUHDV\ORVYRO~PHQHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQSDUDHOWUDPR

Solución:

a) Áreas de las secciones transversales

(QOD)LJXUDVHKDGLVSXHVWRODFDUWHUDGHFKDIODQHVSDUDFDOFXODU
ODViUHDVGHODVVHFFLRQHVSRUHOPpWRGRGHODUHJODGHODVFUXFHV

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Diseño geométrico de carreteras














Figura 5.30 Áreas de las secciones por el método de los chaflanes. Ejemplo 5.5

6HFFLyQGHDEVFLVD.
(V XQD VHFFLyQ PL[WD FRQ XQ FHUR HQ HO HMH SDUD OD FXDO ODV iUHDV
UHVSHFWLYDVVRQ

&RUWH
1
Ac >5 4.46 @ 11.150 m 2 
2

7HUUDSOpQ
1
At >2.96 5 @ 7.400 m 2 
2

6HFFLyQGHDEVFLVD.
(V XQD VHFFLyQ PL[WD FRQ XQ FHUR ODWHUDO L]TXLHUGR FX\DV ODV iUHDV
VRQ

&RUWH
1
Ac >5 3.28  3.28 1.20 @ 6.232 m 2 
2

7HUUDSOpQ
1
At >1.20 2.58  2.58 10.18  3.52 5 @ 23.480 m 2 
2

͙͚͘

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James Cárdenas Grisales

6HFFLyQGHDEVFLVD.
6H WUDWD GH XQD VHFFLyQ KRPRJpQHD FRPSXHVWD HQ WHUUDSOpQ FRQ XQ
FHURHQHOFKDIOiQL]TXLHUGRGHiUHD
1
At >5.00 1.22  1.60 3.32  3.32 3.60  2.84 10.20  3.58 5  3.60 3.58 @ 
2
28.672 m 2

b) Volúmenes entre secciones transversales

(QWUHODVVHFFLRQHVGHDEVFLVDV.\.
&RUWH7URQFRGHSLUiPRLGH
c
3
A  A 
1 2 A1 A2 18
3
>
11.150  6.232  11.150 6.232 @ 154.307 m 3 


7HUUDSOpQ7URQFRGHSLUiPRLGH
t
3
A  A 
1 2 A1 A2 18
3
>
7.400  23.480  7.400 23.480 @ 264.369 m 3 


(QWUHODVVHFFLRQHVGHDEVFLVDV.\.
&RUWH3LUiPRLGH
A 6.232 16
c 33.237 m 3 
3 3

7HUUDSOpQ7URQFRGHSLUiPRLGH
t
3
A  A 
1 2 A1 A2 16
3
>
23.480  28.672  23.480 28.672 @ 416.525 m 3 


(QOD7DEODVHUHVXPHQODViUHDV\ORVYRO~PHQHVGHHVWHWUDPR


Tabla 5.9 Áreas y volúmenes. Ejemplo 5.5

È5($6 P  92/Ò0(1(6 P 
$%6&,6$
&257( 7(55$3/e1 &257( 7(55$3/e1
.    
    
.    
    
.    

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EJEMPLO 5.6: Cálculo de ancho de banca, talud y área

Datos:
3DUDXQDVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDOOD7DEODPXHVWUDODGLVSRVLFLyQGH
ORVFKDIODQHV

Tabla 5.10 Cartera de chaflanes. Ejemplo 5.6

,=48,(5'2 (-( '(5(&+2
    
 6HFFLyQ  

Calcular:
(ODQFKRGHODEDQFDHOWDOXGXVDGR\HOiUHDGHODVHFFLyQ

Solución:

(Q OD SDUWH VXSHULRU GH OD )LJXUD  VH KD GLEXMDGR OD VHFFLyQ
WUDQVYHUVDOFRQODLQIRUPDFLyQGDGDSDUDODFXDO






















Figura 5.31 Cálculo de ancho de banca, talud y área

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James Cárdenas Grisales

$QFKRGHEDQFD B
0.00
LQGLFDXQFHURHQHOFKDIOiQGHUHFKRHVWRHV
3.60
0.00 0.00
GHGRQGH
3.60 B / 2
B 7.20 m 

7DOXG tc
tc 2.40
GHGRQGH
1 6.00  3.60
t c 1 , talud del 1 45 $ 

ÈUHD Ac
6HWUDWDGHXQDVHFFLyQKRPRJpQHDFRPSXHVWDHQFRUWH6HJ~QODSDUWH
LQIHULRUGHOD)LJXUDDODSOLFDUODUHJODGHODVFUXFHVVHWLHQH

1
Ac >3.60 2.40  6.00 2.16  2.16 2.88  1.48 3.60 @ 16.574 m 2 
2


EJEMPLO 5.7: Posición de chaflanes y área

Datos:
8QDVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDOHQUHFWDSUHVHQWDODVVLJXLHQWHVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV
JHRPpWULFDV

$QFKRGHEDQFD  15m
&RWDGHWUDEDMRHQHOHMH -0.50m
7DOXGHQFRUWH  1 hori ontal por 1 ertical
7DOXGHQWHUUDSOpQ  2 hori ontales por 1 ertical

(OWHUUHQRQDWXUDOHVEDVWDQWHXQLIRUPHEDMDQGRKDFLDODGHUHFKDFRQ
XQDSHQGLHQWHGH5 hori ontales SRU 1 ertical

Calcular:
D  /DSRVLFLyQGHORVFKDIODQHVGHUHFKRHL]TXLHUGR
E (OiUHDGHODVHFFLyQWUDQVYHUVDO

͙͘͝

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

Solución:

'HDFXHUGRFRQOD)LJXUDVHWLHQH




















Figura 5.32 Posición de chaflanes y cálculo de área

a) Posición de los chaflanes

&HURODWHUDOGHUHFKR X0d
X 0d 5
GHGRQGH
0.50 1
X 0 d 0.50 5 2.50 m 

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5HODFLRQDQGRWULiQJXORVFRQUHVSHFWRDOWHUUHQRQDWXUDOVHWLHQH
X i  X 0d 5

Yi 1

5HODFLRQDQGRWULiQJXORVFRQUHVSHFWRDOWDOXGGHFRUWH
X i  7.50 1

Yi 1
Yi X i  7.50 

͚͔͘

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James Cárdenas Grisales

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X i  2.50 5

X i  7.50 1
X i  2.50 5 X i  37.50 HVWRHV
X i 10.00 m 
Yi X i  7.50 10.00  7.50 2.50 m SRUORWDQWR
Y - 2.50
l chaflán i uierdo es : i 
X i 10.00

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,JXDOPHQWHUHODFLRQDQGRWULiQJXORV
Xd 5

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Xd
Yd  3.75 
2

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§X ·
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© 2 ¹
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10.833
Yd  3.75 1.667 m SRUORWDQWR
2
Y  1.667
l chaflán derecho es : d 
X d 10.883

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1 ª§ B · º 1 ª§ 15 · º
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1 ª§ B · º 1 ª§ 15 · º
At «¨  X 0 d ¸y d » «¨  2.50 ¸1.667 » 4.168 m 2 
2 ¬© 2 ¹ ¼ 2 ¬© 2 ¹ ¼

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5.7 MOVIMIENTO DE VOLÚMENES DE TIERRA Y


DIAGRAMA DE MASAS

5.7.1 Transporte de material excavado>@

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HV QHFHVDULR H[FDYDU IXHUD GH ORV FKDIODQHV GH OD YtD \ material de
desperdicioDTXHOFRUWHTXHQRVHXWLOL]DHQORVUHOOHQRV

͚͖͘

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James Cárdenas Grisales

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SODQHDPLHQWR


5.7.2 Representación del diagrama de masas

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͚͗͘

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Diseño geométrico de carreteras
























Figura 5.33 Perfil longitudinal y diagrama de masas

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͚͘͘

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James Cárdenas Grisales

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PDVDLQGLFDFDPELRGHFRUWHDWHUUDSOpQHQODDEVFLVD C'GHOSHUILO
ORQJLWXGLQDO $ VX YH] ORV SXQWRV PtQLPRV GH OD FXUYD PDVD
LQGLFDQFDPELRVGHWHUUDSOpQDFRUWHHOSXQWRPtQLPR EGHFXUYD
PDVDLQGLFDFDPELRGHWHUUDSOpQDFRUWHHQODDEVFLVD E'GHOSHUILO
ORQJLWXGLQDO

͚͙͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras











































Figura 5.34 Propiedades del diagrama de masas

͚͚͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

x &XDQGRODFXUYDPDVDHVWiSRUHQFLPDGHXQDOtQHDKRUL]RQWDOTXH
HVWDEOH]FD FRPSHQVDFLyQ HO PRYLPLHQWR GHO PDWHULDO GHEH
UHDOL]DUVHHQHOVHQWLGRGHDYDQFHGHODEVFLVDGR\FXDQGRODFXUYD
PDVD HVWi SRU GHEDMR GH OD FRPSHQVDGRUD HO WUDQVSRUWH GHEH
UHDOL]DUVH KDFLD DWUiV HVWR HV HQ VHQWLGR RSXHVWR DO DYDQFH GHO
DEVFLVDGR(VWDFDUDFWHUtVWLFDODPXHVWUDQODVIOHFKDVHQODILJXUD


5.7.3 Factor de compensación en el movimiento de
tierras

'HEHWHQHUVHHQFXHQWDHOH[FHVRGHFRUWHQHFHVDULRSDUDREWHQHUXQ
WHUUDSOpQFRPSDFWDGRGHYROXPHQGHWHUPLQDGR

(Q JHQHUDO 1 m3 GH corte en banco QR HTXLYDOH D 1 m3 GH terraplén
compactado\DTXHLQIOX\HQXQDYDULHGDGGHFRQGLFLRQHVWDOHVFRPR

x 'HQVLGDGHVGHOPDWHULDOHQVXVHVWDGRVRULJLQDO\FRPSDFWDGR


x 7DPDxRGHODVSDUWtFXODV


x &RQWHQLGRVGHKXPHGDG


x *UDGRGHFRPSDFWDFLyQH[LJLGR


x 3pUGLGDVGHPDWHULDOHQHOWUDQVSRUWH


x $UUDVWUHGHPDWHULDOSRUHOYLHQWR\HODJXD

(VLPSRUWDQWHPHQFLRQDUTXHORVPDWHULDOHVSURGXFWRGHODH[FDYDFLyQ
HQORVFRUWHVVHH[SDQGHQ\DVXYH]DOFRQIRUPDUORVWHUUDSOHQHVVH
FRQWUDHQ SRU OD FRPSDFWDFLyQ H[LJLGD 3DUD WHQHU HQ FXHQWD HVWD
SURSLHGDGHQPRYLPLHQWRGHWLHUUDVVHXVDXQfactor de compensación
GHO 25%XRWURTXHHVSHFtILFDPHQWHVHLQGLTXHFRPRUHVXOWDGRGHXQ
DQiOLVLVGHVXHORV

3DUDHIHFWRVGHFRPSHQVDFLyQGHYRO~PHQHVUHVXOWDSUiFWLFDPHQWHOR
PLVPR UHGXFLU HQ XQ 25% HO YROXPHQ GH PDWHULDO GH FRUWH R VHD
PXOWLSOLFDUORSRU 0.75\FRQVHUYDULQYDULDEOHHOYROXPHQGHWHUUDSOpQ
TXH DXPHQWDU HQ 33% HO YROXPHQ UHTXHULGR GH WHUUDSOpQ R VHD

͚͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

PXOWLSOLFDUOR SRU 1.33 VLQ PRGLILFDU HO YROXPHQ GH PDWHULDO GH FRUWH
GLVSRQLEOH(OVHJXQGRGHHVWRVSURFHGLPLHQWRVHVHOPiVXVXDO>@

(Q RWUDV SDODEUDV HO IDFWRU GH FRPSHQVDFLyQ GHO 25% VLJQLILFD TXH
FRQ 1 m3 GH corte en banco VH FRQIRUPDQ 0.75 m3 GH terraplén
compactadoRTXH1 m3GHterraplén compactadoVHFRQIRUPDFRQ1.33
m3GHcorte en banco


5.7.4 Uso del diagrama de masas

3DUDXQDPHMRULQWHUSUHWDFLyQGHOGLDJUDPDGHPDVDVHQHVWHQXPHUDO
VH GHVDUUROOD XQ HMHPSOR QXPpULFR FRPSOHWR LOXVWUDQGR SDVR D SDVR
ORVFiOFXORVDUHDOL]DUGHVGHODFDUWHUDGHFXELFDFLyQHOGLEXMRPLVPR
GHODFXUYDPDVDKDVWDHOFiOFXORGHODVGLVWDQFLDVGHDFDUUHR

n GRÁFICO DEL DIAGRAMA DE MASAS

6XSyQJDVH TXH SDUD HO SHUILO ORQJLWXGLQDO LOXVWUDGR HQ OD SDUWH
VXSHULRUGHOD)LJXUDVHWLHQHQORVYRO~PHQHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQ
DQRWDGRV HQ ODV FROXPQDV d \ e GH OD FDUWHUD PRVWUDGD HQ OD 7DEOD
 (VWRV YRO~PHQHV VH WRPDQ GH OD FDUWHUD GH FXELFDFLyQ \ VH
FRQVLJQDQ HQ UHQJORQHV DOWHUQDGRV DVLJQDQGR HO VLJQR +  D ORV
YRO~PHQHVHQFRUWH\HOVLJQR - DORVYRO~PHQHVHQWHUUDSOpQ

6LJXLHQGRHOSURFHGLPLHQWRGHDIHFWDUORVYRO~PHQHVGHWHUUDSOpQFRQ
HODXPHQWRUHODWLYRHQODFROXPQD fVHDQRWDQORVSURGXFWRVGHFDGD
XQR GH WDOHV YRO~PHQHV FROXPQD e  SRU HO IDFWRU GH FRPSHQVDFLyQ
1.33WRGRVEDMRHOVLJQR - TXHOHVFRUUHVSRQGH

(QODFROXPQDgVHDQRWDQODVVXPDVDOJHEUDLFDVGHORVYRO~PHQHVGH
FRUWH FROXPQD d  \ WHUUDSOpQ FRPSDFWDGR FROXPQD f  H[LVWHQWHV
HQWUHDEVFLVDVFRQVHFXWLYDV

(QODFROXPQD h VHDQRWDQDOIUHQWHGHFDGDDEVFLVDORVYRO~PHQHV
WRWDOHVDFXPXODGRVKDVWDGLFKDDEVFLVDFRQHOVLJQRTXHDOOtLQGLTXHOD
VXPD (VWRV YRO~PHQHV DFXPXODGRV UHSUHVHQWDQ ODV RUGHQDGDV GH OD
FXUYDPDVDORVFXDOHVVHGLEXMDQDXQDHVFDODDGHFXDGD

͚͘͜

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

Tabla 5.11 Cartera para elaborar la curva masa



c d e f g h
92/Ò0(1(6 P  680$
92/Ò0(1(6
$/*(%5$,&$
727$/(6
7(55$3/e1 7(55$3/e1 df
$%6&,6$6 &257(6 $&808/$'26
68(/72 &203$&72 $&$55(2
  25'(1$'$
  eu   /21*,78',
0$6$ 
1$/ 
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     
     
.     

(QHVWHHMHPSORODOtQHDEDVHHVXQDOtQHDGHHTXLOLEULR\DTXHHQWUH
ODV DEVFLVDV 0+000 \ 0+180 VH WLHQH XQD FRQGLFLyQ GH HTXLOLEULR R
VHFFLyQ EDODQFHDGD HVWR HV KD\ VXILFLHQWH FRUWH HQWUH HO 0+000 \ HO
0+080 SDUD FRQIRUPDU HO YROXPHQ GH WHUUDSOpQ HQWUH HO 0+080 \ HO
0+180 /R PLVPR VXFHGH HQWUH HO 0+180 \ HO 0+260 'HO 0+260 DO
0+280 KD\ H[FHVR GH FRUWH TXH VH SXHGH XWLOL]DU SDUD FRQIRUPDU
WHUUDSOHQHVGHPiVDGHODQWHRVLHVGHOFDVRKDVWDERWDU

͚͘͝

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras






































Figura 5.35 Ejemplo numérico del diagrama de masas

͔͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

o VOLÚMENES DE EXCAVACIÓN

3DUDXQDVHFFLyQEDODQFHDGDHOYROXPHQWRWDOGHH[FDYDFLyQVHSXHGH
H[SUHVDUGHODVLJXLHQWHPDQHUD


.T TA  T 

'RQGH
. T TA 9ROXPHQWRWDOGHH[FDYDFLyQ VXPDWRULDGHORVFRUWHV 
9ROXPHQGHH[FDYDFLyQTXHKD\TXHDFDUUHDUORQJLWXGLQDOPHQWH
T 9ROXPHQGHH[FDYDFLyQTXHKD\TXHDFDUUHDUWUDQVYHUVDOPHQWH

(QWUHHO 0+000\HO 0+180

0 180
.T TA ¦ Cortes 800  2400  3300  2700  700  100  100 10100 m 3 
0  000

(VWRV10100 m3VHUiQDFDUUHDGRVORQJLWXGLQDO\WUDQVYHUVDOPHQWH

'H RWUR ODGR OD VXPDWRULD GH ORV YRO~PHQHV SRVLWLYRV +  GH OD
FROXPQD g HQWUH HVWDV GRV DEVFLVDV UHSUHVHQWD HO YROXPHQ GH
H[FDYDFLyQGHDFDUUHRORQJLWXGLQDO 

0 180
¦ alores positi os columna 5 800  2400  3300  2600 9100 m 3 
0  000

&RPR VH SXHGH REVHUYDU HQ OD 7DEOD  DQWHULRU ORV 9100 m3
UHSUHVHQWDQ OD RUGHQDGD Pi[LPD GH OD FROXPQD h SDUD HVWD VHFFLyQ
EDODQFHDGD

3RUORWDQWRHOYROXPHQGHH[FDYDFLyQGHDFDUUHRWUDQVYHUVDO THV


T .T TA  10100  9100 1000 m 3 




p DISTANCIA MEDIA DE TRANSPORTE O ACARREO

8QRGHORVHOHPHQWRVTXHPiVLQIOX\HHQHOFRVWRGHOPRYLPLHQWRGH
WLHUUDVHVODGLVWDQFLDDODTXHVHGHEHQWUDQVSRUWDUODVPDVDVGHWLHUUDV
PRYLGDV

͕͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

7DO FRPR VH LOXVWUD HQ OD )LJXUD  HYLGHQWHPHQWH OD distancia
media de acarreo ORQJLWXGLQDO A GHXQYROXPHQ H[FDYDGR  HV
LJXDODODGLVWDQFLDHQWUHORVFHQWURVGHJUDYHGDG cg GHORVYRO~PHQHV
GHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHVDXQDVHFFLyQEDODQFHDGD

(Q OD SDUWH LQIHULRU HQ HO GLDJUDPD GH PDVDV HO iUHD GHO UHFWiQJXOR
DFKXUDGR HV DSUR[LPDGDPHQWH LJXDO DO iUHD EDMR OD FXUYD PDVD \ OD
OtQHDGHHTXLOLEULRHVWRHV


A Área bajo la cur a masa y la l nea de e uilibrio 



Área bajo la cur a masa y la l nea de e uilibrio m3 ˜m
A m
m3























Figura 5.36 Distancia media de acarreo longitudinal

͖͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

9ROYLHQGR D OD )LJXUD  HQWUH HO 0+000 \ HO 0+180 OD GLVWDQFLD
PHGLD GH DFDUUHR ORQJLWXGLQDO A  D OD TXH KD\ TXH WUDQVSRUWDU HO
YROXPHQGHH[FDYDFLyQORQJLWXGLQDO 9100 m3 HV


Área bajo la cur a


800
20  800  3200 20  3200  6500 20 
2 2 2
6500  9100
 20  9100  8200 20  8200  5300 20 
2 2 2
5300  2600
 20  2600  1000 20  1000 20 
2 2 2
Área bajo la cur a 734000 m 3 ˜ m 

Área bajo la cur a 734000 m 3 ˜ m
A 81 m 
9100 m 3

(OPpWRGRJUiILFRFRQVLVWHHQGLYLGLUODRUGHQDGDPi[LPD ABHQGRV
SDUWHV LJXDOHV \ SRU HO SXQWR PHGLR WUD]DU XQD OtQHD KRUL]RQWDO ORV
SXQWRVGHFRUWH C\ FRQODFXUYDPDVDLGHQWLILFDQOD A 81 m/RV
81 mHVODGLVWDQFLDPHGLDDODTXHGHEHDFDUUHDUVHORQJLWXGLQDOPHQWH
HOPDWHULDOH[FDYDGRGH 9100 m3HQWUHODVDEVFLVDV 0+000\ 0+080
SDUDFRQIRUPDUHOWHUUDSOpQHQWUHODVDEVFLVDV 0+080\ 0+180

(QWUHHO 0+180\HO 0+260

0  260
.T TA ¦ Cortes 100  800  3100 4000 m 3 
0 180

0  260
¦ alores positi os columna 5 300  3100 3400 m 3 
0 180

&RPR VH SXHGH REVHUYDU HQ OD 7DEOD  DQWHULRU ORV 3400 m3
UHSUHVHQWDQ OD RUGHQDGD Pi[LPD GH OD FROXPQD h SDUD HVWD VHFFLyQ
EDODQFHDGD FRQ YDORU QHJDWLYR LQGLFDQGR TXH HO DFDUUHR VH UHDOL]D
KDFLDDWUiV

(OYROXPHQGHH[FDYDFLyQGHDFDUUHRWUDQVYHUVDO THV


T .T TA  4000  3400 600 m 3 

͛͗͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

/D GLVWDQFLD PHGLD GH DFDUUHR ORQJLWXGLQDO A  D OD TXH KD\ TXH
WUDQVSRUWDUHOYROXPHQGHH[FDYDFLyQORQJLWXGLQDO 3400 m3 HV


Área bajo la cur a


1700
20  1700  3400 20  3400  3100 20  3100 20 
2 2 2 2
Área bajo la cur a 164000 m ˜ m 
3


Área bajo la cur a 164000 m 3 ˜ m
A 48 m 
3400 m 3

2EVpUYHVH WDPELpQ HQ HO PpWRGR JUiILFR TXH DO GLYLGLU OD RUGHQDGD
Pi[LPD HQGRVSDUWHVLJXDOHV\DOWUD]DUXQDOtQHDKRUL]RQWDOSRUHO
SXQWRPHGLRORVSXQWRVGHFRUWH \ FRQODFXUYDPDVDLGHQWLILFDQ
OD A 48 m/RV 48 mHVOD GLVWDQFLD PHGLDDODTXHGHEHDFDUUHDUVH
ORQJLWXGLQDOPHQWH KDFLD DWUiV HO PDWHULDO H[FDYDGR GH 3400 m3
HQWUH ODV DEVFLVDV 0+220 \ 0+260 SDUD FRQIRUPDU HO WHUUDSOpQ HQWUH
ODVDEVFLVDV 0+180\ 0+220


q DISTANCIA DE ACARREO GRATIS O LIBRE

(Q ORV FRQWUDWRV GH PRYLPLHQWR GH WLHUUDV VH HVWLSXOD XVXDOPHQWH OD
distancia de acarreo gratisRlibre A TXHHVODPi[LPDGLVWDQFLDDOD
TXHSXHGHVHUDFDUUHDGRXQPDWHULDOGHQWURGHOSUHFLRXQLWDULRSDFWDGR
SDUD OD H[FDYDFLyQ (VWR HV HQ ORV SOLHJRV GH FRQGLFLRQHV GH ODV
OLFLWDFLRQHV SDUD OD DGMXGLFDFLyQ GH XQ FRQWUDWR GH PRYLPLHQWR GH
WLHUUDVVHHVSHFtILFDXQDGLVWDQFLDGHDFDUUHROLEUHTXHGHEHWHQHUHQ
FXHQWD HO FRQWUDWLVWD OLFLWDQWH SDUD TXH ORV SUHFLRV XQLWDULRV TXH
SURSRQJDOOHYHQLQFOXLGRHOFRVWRGHDFDUUHRVKDVWDHVDGLVWDQFLD

*HQHUDOPHQWHHOYDORUXVXDOSDFWDGRFRPRGLVWDQFLDGHDFDUUHRJUDWLV
ROLEUHHV A 150 m6LKD\TXHWUDQVSRUWDUHOPDWHULDODXQDGLVWDQFLD
PD\RUHODFDUUHRH[WUDVHOODPDsobre-acarreoHOFXDOVHGHEHSDJDU
DGLFLRQDOPHQWHDOFRQWUDWLVWDDXQGHWHUPLQDGRSUHFLRXQLWDULR

*UiILFDPHQWHHQHOGLDJUDPDGHPDVDV )LJXUD VHGLEXMDODOtQHD
KRUL]RQWDO A 150 m SDUDOHOD D OD OtQHD EDVH 6H EDMDQ
SHUSHQGLFXODUHVGHVGH \ DODOtQHDEDVHREWHQLpQGRVHORVSXQWRV \
UHVSHFWLYDPHQWHFX\DVDEVFLVDVVRQ

͛͘͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

Abscisa 0+018
Abscisa 0+168

(QWRQFHVHOYROXPHQGHVREUHDFDUUHR SA FRUUHVSRQGHDODRUGHQDGD
PDVD A TXHDODHVFDODGHOGLDJUDPDFRUUHVSRQGHD


SA 700 m 3 

4XLHUHHVWRGHFLUTXHGHQWURGHODVHFFLyQEDODQFHDGD GHO 0+000DO
0+180 VHWLHQHQ 700 m3TXHKD\TXHPRYHUDXQDGLVWDQFLDPD\RUTXH
ODGLVWDQFLDGHDFDUUHRJUDWLV A 150m

$KRUDVHSXHGHSODQWHDUODVLJXLHQWHHFXDFLyQ


S  A 

'RQGH
 'LVWDQFLDPHGLDDODTXHKD\TXHPRYHUODH[FDYDFLyQHQWUHHO 0+000
\HO 0+018SDUDFRQIRUPDUHOWHUUDSOpQHQWUHHO 0+168\HO 0+180
S  'LVWDQFLDPHGLDGHVREUHDFDUUHR
A  'LVWDQFLDGHDFDUUHRJUDWLV

Área bajo la cur a
S 
SA

Área  Área
1
2

18 ˜ m 700 m 3  1 12 ˜ m 700 m 3
2

S 15 m 
SA 700 m 3

5HHPSOD]DQGRVHWLHQH


S  A 15  150 65 m 

$ VX YH] SDUD FDOFXODU HO volumen de acarreo gratis   VH SXHGH
SODQWHDUODVLJXLHQWHH[SUHVLyQ


 SA 


9100 m 3  700 m 3 8400 m 3 

͙͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

)LQDOPHQWHODGLVWDQFLDPHGLDGHDFDUUHRJUDWLV A HV


Área bajo la cu a Área B Área B  Área


A 

§ 150  180 ·
734000 m 3 ˜ m  ¨ ¸ 700 m ˜ m
3
Área B  Área © 2 ¹
A 
8400 m 3
734000 m 3 ˜ m  115500 m 3 ˜ m
A 74 m 
8400 m 3

2EVpUYHVHWDPELpQJUiILFDPHQWHTXHDOGLYLGLUODRUGHQDGD BHQGRV
SDUWHVLJXDOHV\DOWUD]DUXQDOtQHDKRUL]RQWDOSRUHOSXQWRPHGLRORV
SXQWRVGHFRUWH \ FRQODFXUYDPDVDLGHQWLILFDQOD A 74 m

5HVXPLHQGRHQHVWHHMHPSORQXPpULFRHQWUHHO 0+000\HO 0+180VH
WLHQHQGRVVLWXDFLRQHVUHODFLRQDGDVFRQORVYRO~PHQHVGHH[FDYDFLyQ
\VXVGLVWDQFLDVGHWUDQVSRUWHDVDEHU

6LQWHQHUHQFXHQWDHODFDUUHRJUDWLV

(OYROXPHQWRWDOGHH[FDYDFLyQGH 10100 m3 . T TA VHGLVWULEX\HHQ

x 9100 m3  DFDUUHDGRV ORQJLWXGLQDOPHQWH D XQD GLVWDQFLD PHGLD
GH 81m A 


x 1000 m3 T DFDUUHDGRVWUDQVYHUVDOPHQWH



7HQLHQGRHQFXHQWDHODFDUUHRJUDWLV

(OYROXPHQWRWDOGHH[FDYDFLyQGH 10100 m3 . T TA VHGLVWULEX\HHQ

x 8400 m3 DFDUUHDGRVORQJLWXGLQDOPHQWHDXQDGLVWDQFLDPHGLD
GH 74m

A OLEUHVGHSDJR


x 700 m3 SA  VREUHDFDUUHDGRV ORQJLWXGLQDOPHQWH D XQD GLVWDQFLD


PHGLDGH165m GHORVFXDOHVVRQOLEUHVGHSDJRHQ150 m A 
SDJiQGRVHVREUHDFDUUHRORQJLWXGLQDOHQ15 m S 


x 1000 m3 T DFDUUHDGRVWUDQVYHUVDOPHQWH

͚͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

5.8 PROBLEMAS PROPUESTOS



PROBLEMA 5.1

Datos:
3DUDOD)LJXUDVHWLHQHTXH/DVXEUDVDQWHHQWUHHO 0+000 \ HO
0+100HVDQLYHO SHQGLHQWHORQJLWXGLQDOLJXDOD 0 ORFDOL]DGDHQOD
FRWD 504.(ODQFKRGHODEDQFDSODQDHVGH 8PHWURV/RVWDOXGHVVRQ
SDUD FRUWH 1 ertical SRU 0.5 hori ontal \ SDUD WHUUDSOpQ 1 ertical SRU 1.5
hori ontal. (O SODQR PXHVWUD OD SODQWD D OD HVFDOD JUiILFD GDGD FRQ
FXUYDVGHQLYHOGHHTXLGLVWDQFLD1PHWUR

Calcular:
(OYROXPHQWRWDOGHWHUUDSOpQ\FRUWHHQHVWHWUDPR
>5HVSAproximadamente 715 m3 y 1090 m3@

Sugerencia 'LEXMH XQ SHUILO PRVWUDQGR HO WHUUHQR \ OD VXEUDVDQWH
7UDEDMH ODV VHFFLRQHV FDGD 20 PHWURV \ DGLFLRQDOPHQWH FRQVLGHUH
DTXHOODVTXHFRQWLHQHQFHURV


PROBLEMA 5.2

Datos:
/DVGRVVHFFLRQHVPRVWUDGDVHQOD7DEODSHUWHQHFHQDXQWUDPR
GHXQDFXUYDL]TXLHUGDGHDQFKRGHEDQFDSODQD8PHWURVVREUHDQFKR
1PHWUR\WDOXG3 hori ontalesSRU2 erticales

Tabla 5.12 Cartera de chaflanes. Problema 5.2

,=48,(5'2 (-( '(5(&+2
  
" . "
  
" . "

Calcular:
D  (OiUHDGHFDGDVHFFLyQ>5HVS54.190 m2 y 33.590 m2@
E  (OYROXPHQHQWUHODVVHFFLRQHV>5HVS1097.250 m3@

͛͛͘

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras






































Figura 5.37 Problema 5.1

͛͘͜

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales


PROBLEMA 5.3

Datos:
(QOD7DEODVHPXHVWUDQORVFKDIODQHV\ODWRSRJUDItDGHXQSDUGH
VHFFLRQHVGHDQFKRGHEDQFDSODQDGH8PHWURV

Tabla 5.13 Cartera de chaflanes y topografía. Problema 5.3

,=48,(5'2 (-( '(5(&+2
       
 . 
       
    .   

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVHQWUHHVWDVGRVVHFFLRQHV
>5HVSTerrapl n: 404.737 m3, Corte: 521.680 m3@


PROBLEMA 5.4

Datos:
/D)LJXUDLOXVWUDGRVVHFFLRQHVHQFXUYDVHSDUDGDV30PHWURV












Figura 5.38 Problema 5.4

Calcular:
(OYROXPHQHQWUHODVVHFFLRQHV>5HVS991.8 m3@

͛͘͝

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras


PROBLEMA 5.5

Datos:
8Q WHUUDSOpQ GHVFDQVD VREUH XQD VXSHUILFLH KRUL]RQWDO HQ XQD FXUYD
L]TXLHUGDGHSHUDOWH 10 EDQFD 10 PHWURVVREUHDQFKR 2PHWURVFRWD
GHWUDEDMRHQHOHMHGH6 PHWURV\WDOXG3 hori ontalesSRU2 erticales

Calcular:
(OiUHDH[DFWD>5HVS123.555 m2@


PROBLEMA 5.6

Datos:
/D 7DEOD  SUHVHQWD OD FDUWHUD GH FKDIODQHV GH XQ WUDPR UHFWR GH
XQDYtD(OVLJQRPHQRV  LQGLFDFRUWH\HOVLJQRPiV  WHUUDSOpQ

Tabla 5.14 Cartera de chaflanes en recta. Problema 5.6

,=48,(5'2 (-( '(5(&+2
  
 . 
  
 . 
  
 . 
  
 . 

Calcular:
(OYROXPHQWRWDOGHWHUUDSOpQ\FRUWHHQHOWUDPR
>5HVSTerrapl n: 166.467 m3, Corte: 437.098 m3@


PROBLEMA 5.7

Datos:
/D)LJXUDPXHVWUDODSODQWD\HOSHUILOGHXQWUDPRGHYtDGH37.50
PHWURVGHORQJLWXG

͔͘͜

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

/RVWDOXGHVGHODVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVVRQHQFRUWH2 erticalesSRU1
ontal\HQWHUUDSOpQ2 erticalesSRU3 hori ontales
hori




































Figura 5.39 Problema 5.7

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVWRWDOHVHQHOWUDPRGHYtD
>5HVSCorte: 894.775 m3, Terrapl n: 55.125 m3@

͕͘͜

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras


PROBLEMA 5.8

Datos:
/D)LJXUDLOXVWUDHOSHUILOORQJLWXGLQDOGHXQDVXEUDVDQWHFRQVX
UHVSHFWLYR HMH \ ERUGHV GH EDQFD (Q OD 7DEOD  VH PXHVWUDQ ODV
iUHDVFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHVDODVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHV


















Figura 5.40 Problema 5.8

Tabla 5.15 Áreas. Problema 5.8

È5($6 P 
$%6&,6$6
&257( 7(55$3/e1
.  
.  
.  
.  

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVWRWDOHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQ
>5HVSCorte: 704.569 m3, Terrapl n: 491.421 m3@

͖͘͜

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales


PROBLEMA 5.9

Datos:
(QOD)LJXUDVHWLHQHODYLVWDHQSODQWDGHXQWUDPRUHFWRGHXQD
FDUUHWHUD GH DQFKR GH EDQFD SODQD GH 10 PHWURV FRQ OtQHDV GH QLYHO
DOWXUDV  SDUDOHODV GH HTXLGLVWDQFLD 1 PHWUR $GHPiV SDUD OD VXE
UDVDQWHVHWLHQH
60m sim trica 
$EVFLVDGHO  2+150
3HQGLHQWHGHHQWUDGD 6 
3HQGLHQWHGHVDOLGD  -4 
&RWDHQA     56.00m
7DOXGHVWUDQVYHUVDOHV 2 erticales por 1 hori ontal























Figura 5.41 Problema 5.9

Calcular:
(O YROXPHQ WRWDO HQWUH ODV DEVFLVDV 2+100 \ 2+140 XVDQGR OD
FXDGUtFXODFRPRHVFDOD>5HVS2941.6 m3@

͗͘͜

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras


PROBLEMA 5.10

Datos:
(Q XQD FDUUHWHUD GH DQFKR GH EDQFD 10 PHWURV VH SUHVHQWDQ GRV
VHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVVHSDUDGDV40PHWURV(QORVUHVSHFWLYRVHMHVOD
SULPHUDVHFFLyQWLHQHXQDFRWDGHWUDEDMRGH6PHWURV\ODVHJXQGDGH0
PHWURV

(QWUH ODV VHFFLRQHV HO WHUUHQR QDWXUDO WLHQH XQD LQFOLQDFLyQ XQLIRUPH
GH 1 erticalSRU 4 hori ontales/RVWDOXGHVGHODVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHV
VRQ HQFRUWH 2 erticales SRU 1 hori ontal\HQWHUUDSOpQ 2 erticalesSRU 3
hori ontales.

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVWRWDOHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQ
>5HVSCorte: 1563.23 m3, Terrapl n: 13.88 m3@


PROBLEMA 5.11

Datos:
(QOD7DEODVHPXHVWUDODFDUWHUDGHFKDIODQHV\ODWRSRJUDItDGH
WUHVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVGHDQFKRGHEDQFDSODQDGH 10PHWURV(O
WDOXGHQWHUUDSOpQHVGH2 erticalesSRU3 hori ontales


Tabla 5.16 Cartera de chaflanes y topografía. Problema 5.11

,=48,(5'2 (-( '(5(&+2
      
   .  
      
  .   
      
  .  

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVGHWHUUDSOpQ\FRUWHHQWUHODVDEVFLVDV 0+000\ 0+040
>5HVSTerrapl n: 1119.4 m3, Corte: 207.2 m3@

͘͘͜

Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version


Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales


PROBLEMA 5.12

Datos:
/DV VHFFLRQHV WUDQVYHUVDOHV GH OD 7DEOD  HVWiQ EDVDGDV HQ XQ
DQFKRGHEDQFDSODQDGH 8PHWURV\WDOXGHVGHFRUWH 2 erticalesSRU 1
hori ontal \WHUUDSOpQ1 erticalSRU1 hori ontal


Tabla 5.17 Cartera de chaflanes y topografía. Problema 5.12

,=48,(5'2 (-( '(5(&+2
      
  .  
      
  .   
      
  . 

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQHQWUHODVDEVFLVDV 2+200\ 2+249
>5HVSCorte: 191.43 m3, Terrapl n: 460.76 m3@


PROBLEMA 5.13

Datos:
(QOD)LJXUDVHLOXVWUDQORVSHUILOHVORQJLWXGLQDOHVGHOWHUUHQRHQ
ORV ERUGHV GH OD EDQFD GHUHFKR H L]TXLHUGR  \ HQ HO HMH GH XQD
FDUUHWHUDGHDQFKRGHEDQFDSODQDGH10PHWURV3DUDHOSHUILODOHMHVH
PXHVWUDVXUHVSHFWLYDVXEUDVDQWH

/RVWDOXGHVGHODVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVVRQHQFRUWH2 erticalesSRU1
hori ontal\HQWHUUDSOpQ2 erticalesSRU3 hori ontales

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQHQWUHODVDEVFLVDV 3+000\ 3+020,
VL OD FXUYD YHUWLFDO VLPpWULFD SDUD HO  GHEH SDVDU D 1 PHWUR SRU
HQFLPDGHODFODYHGHODDOFDQWDULOOD
>5HVSCorte: 11.27 m3, Terrapl n: 246.72 m3@

͙͘͜

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Figura 5.42 Problema 5.13


PROBLEMA 5.14

Datos:
(QOD)LJXUDVHPXHVWUDQGRVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVVHSDUDGDV
20PHWURVFRQXQDQFKRGHEDQFDGH10PHWURV

/RVWDOXGHVGHODVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVVRQHQFRUWH2 erticalesSRU1
hori ontal\HQWHUUDSOpQ2 erticalesSRU3 hori ontales

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQHQWUHODVDEVFLVDV 0+000\ 0+020.
>5HVSCorte: 11.27 m3, Terrapl n: 246.72 m3@


͚͘͜

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales

























Figura 5.43 Problema 5.14


PROBLEMA 5.15

Datos:
(QOD)LJXUDVHLOXVWUDDODHVFDODJUiILFDGDGDODSODQWDGHXQD
FDUUHWHUDHQUHFWDGRQGHDSDUHFHQ WUHVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHV A B\
C FRQ VXV UHVSHFWLYDV FXUYDV GH QLYHO GH HTXLGLVWDQFLD 1 PHWUR \ OD
XELFDFLyQGHORVFKDIODQHV

/D VXEUDVDQWH DO HMH HV KRUL]RQWDO SHQGLHQWH ORQJLWXGLQDO  0 
HQFRQWUiQGRVHHQODFRWD16

/RVWDOXGHVGHODVVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVVRQHQFRUWH2 erticalesSRU1
hori ontal\HQWHUUDSOpQ2 erticalesSRU3 hori ontales

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQHQWUHODVVHFFLRQHVH[WHUQDV.
>5HVSCorte: 202.8 m3, Terrapl n: 51.3 m3@

͛͘͜

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras


























Figura 5.44 Problema 5.15


PROBLEMA 5.16

Datos:
(Q OD )LJXUD  VH HVTXHPDWL]DQ FLQFR VHFFLRQHV WUDQVYHUVDOHV GH
iUHDVWUDQVYHUVDOHVFRQRFLGDVHQWHUUDSOpQ At \HQFRUWH Ac 

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVWRWDOHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQGHVGHODDEVFLVD 0+000DOD
DEVFLVD 0+050.
>5HVSCorte: 280.4 m3, Terrapl n: 828.7 m3@

͘͜͜

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales


































Figura 5.45 Problema 5.16


PROBLEMA 5.17

Datos:
(QOD)LJXUDVHHVTXHPDWL]DQFXDWURVHFFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHV

Calcular:
/RVYRO~PHQHVWRWDOHVGHFRUWH\WHUUDSOpQGHVGHODDEVFLVD 0+000DOD
DEVFLVD 0+060.
>5HVSCorte: 3387.3 m3, Terrapl n: 615.9 m3@

͘͜͝

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras













































Figura 5.46 Problema 5.17

͔͘͝

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

James Cárdenas Grisales


PROBLEMA 5.18

Datos:
(QOD)LJXUDVHLOXVWUDHOSHUILOORQJLWXGLQDOGHXQDFDUUHWHUDFRQ
HOGLDJUDPDGHPDVDVFRUUHVSRQGLHQWH

7RPDQGR HO HMH GH ODV DEVFLVDV FRPR FRPSHQVDGRUD SDUD OD VHFFLyQ
EDODQFHDGDVHWLHQH

9ROXPHQGHDFDUUHRWUDQVYHUVDO 1200 m3
'LVWDQFLDGHDFDUUHRJUDWLV  150 m
9ROXPHQGHVREUHDFDUUHR  3200 m3




























Figura 5.47 Problema 5.18

͕͘͝

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Diseño geométrico de carreteras

Calcular:
D  (O YROXPHQ WRWDO GH H[FDYDFLyQ SDUD OD VHFFLyQ EDODQFHDGD
>5HVS10200 m3@
E  /DVDEVFLVDVHQWUHODVFXDOHVVHHIHFW~DHODFDUUHRJUDWLV
>5HVS 0+032 a 0+182@
F  /D DEVFLVD KDVWD OD FXDO H[LVWH FRPSHQVDFLyQ GH YRO~PHQHV
>5HVS 0+216.21@
G  /D GLVWDQFLD PHGLD GH DFDUUHR VLQ WHQHU HQ FXHQWD HO DFDUUHR
JUDWLV>5HVS118.10 m@
H  /DGLVWDQFLDPHGLDGHDFDUUHRJUDWLV>5HVS82.24 m@
I  /DGLVWDQFLDPHGLDGHVREUHDFDUUHR>5HVS33.10 m@




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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

Bibliografía
Índice temático

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Created in Master PDF Editor - Demo Version

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BIBLIOGRAF A







 !-%2)#!. !33/#)!4)/. /& 34!4% ()'(7!9 !.$
42!.30/24!4)/. /&&)#)!,3 A Policy on Geometric
Design of Highways and Streets&IFTH%DITION 7ASHINGTON $#
!33(4/ 

 "2!6/0AULO%MILIO Diseño de Carreteras: Técnica y Análisis
3EXTA%DICI˜N "OGOTÖ#ARVAJAL3! 

 #!, 9 -!9/2 2AFAEL Y #¬2$%.!3 *AMES Ingeniería de
Tránsito: Fundamentos y Aplicaciones /CTAVA %DICI˜N -£XICO
$&!LFAOMEGA3! 

 #!2#)%.4% *ACOB Carreteras: Estudio y Proyecto 3EGUNDA
%DICI˜N 0RIMERA 2EIMPRESI˜N #ARACAS %DICIONES 6EGA SRL


 #¬2$%.!3 ' *AMES Diseño Geométrico de Carreteras
0RIMERA%DICI˜N "OGOTÖ$#%COE%DICIONES 

 #(/#/.4¬ 0EDRO !NTONIO Diseño Geométrico de Vías
0RIMERA %DICI˜N "OGOTÖ %DITORIAL %SCUELA #OLOMBIANA DE
)NGENIER¤A 

493

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Diseño geométrico de carreteras

 %3#5%,! $% ).'%.)%2/3 -),)4!2%3 Introducción a la


Ingeniería de Vías0RIMERA%DICI˜N 3ANTAF£DE"OGOTÖ

 ()#+%23/. 4HOMAS & Route Location and Design &IFTH
%DITION .EW9ORK-C'RAW (ILL"OOK#OMPANY 

 ).34)454/ .!#)/.!, $% 6Ù!3 Manual de Diseño
Geométrico para Carreteras "OGOTÖ -INISTERIO DE 4RANSPORTE


 ).34)454/ .!#)/.!, $% 6Ù!3 Manual de Diseño
Geométrico de Carreteras"OGOTÖ$#3UBDIRECCI˜NDE!POYO
4£CNICO -INISTERIODE4RANSPORTE 

 +2!%-%2#ARLOSY/TROSIngeniería de Carreteras: Volumen I
-ADRID-C'RAW (ILL)NTERAMERICANADE%SPA®A 3!5 

 -!..%2).'&RED,AND+),!2%3+)7ALTER0Principles of
Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis 3INGAPORE *OHN
7ILEY3ONS 

 3%#2%4!2Ù! $% #/-5.)#!#)/.%3 9 42!.30/24%3
Manual de Proyecto Geométrico de Carreteras0RIMERA%DICI˜N
#UARTA 2EIMPRESI˜N -£XICO $& 4ALLERES 'RÖFICOS DE LA
.ACI˜N 

 72)'(4 0AUL Y 0!15%44% 2ADNOR Ingeniería de Carretras
-£XICO$&%DITORIAL,IMUSA 

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NDICE TEMÁTICO






A !NCHOSDECARRIL 
!BERTURADELCOMPÖS    ¬NGULO CENTRAL     
!BSCISA        
!CELERACI˜N CENTR¤FUGA   ¬NGULO DE DEFLEXI˜N    
      
!CARREO LONGITUDINAL    ¬NGULODEDEFLEXI˜NPRINCIPAL  
   ¬NGULODELAESPIRAL  
!CARREOTRANSVERSAL    ¬NGULODEPENDIENTE 
!CELERACI˜NDELAGRAVEDAD   ¬NGULOPARAM£TRICO 
!CELERACI˜NRADIAL    ¬NGULOSDEDEFLEXI˜N  
!CELERACI˜N CENTR¤FUGA   !PLANAMIENTO 
     !RCOCIRCULAR   
!COPIODEDATOS  !RCOEQUIVALENTE 
!DELANTAMIENTO     !RCO GRADO  
     !RCOUNIDAD  
!LINEAMIENTOENPERFIL  ¬REASDELASSECCIONES  
!LINEAMIENTOENPLANTA   ¬REASMEDIAS 
!LINEAMIENTOHORIZONTAL !RMON¤A 
!LINEAMIENTOVERTICAL   !UTOPISTAS 
!NCHODECALZADA   !ZIMUT        
!NCHODECARRIL    !ZIMUTES    
!NCHODEZONA  
!NCHODEBANCA     B
       "ANCA      
!NCHOSDEBANCA      
!NCHOSDEBERMA    "ANCASPLANAS 
!NCHOS DE CALZADA    "ERMAS     


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