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 Ideas are the only true reality, the  attain the maximum  The key/center to the learning  Lecture  The curricular  The aim of education is to
only thing worth knowing level of their intellectual process.  Discussion emphasis is subject discover and develop each
 The ultimate reality is spiritual or abilities.  Focus on handling ideas.  Socratic Dialogue (a matter of mind: individual's abilities and full
mental.  develop the power of  Develop students’ character through method of teaching that - Literature moral excellence in order
 It believes in a unified reality with thinking and moral imitating examples and heroes uses questioning to help - History to better serve society.
God as the perfect or absolute values to arrive at  Help the students develop the power students discover and - Philosophy  It aims to promote high
universal mind. accepted principles such of thinking clarify knowledge) - Religion cognitive level of
 Education should not only stress as justice and  help students to explore texts for  Deductive Method - Mathematics education.
development of the mind but also temperance. ideas about the purposes of life,  Declamations - Natural and  It safeguards and
encourage students to focus on all family, the nature of peer pressures,  Debates Physical promotes cultural learning.
things of lasting value. and the problems of growing up.  Personal Observations Sciences.  It believes in the
 It stressed the importance of mind  Encourage students to ask questions  Problem Solving  Least curricular importance of self-
over matter. and to provide a suitable environment  Dialectic (a process activities realization.
for learning where ideas are put into  Teacher-centered
 Exercises judgment about the kinds battle against each
of materials that are most important other, with the most
and encourages diligent study of significant idea winning
material that is of more ultimate worth the battle)
 Serve as exemplary models—  Projects
persons after whom students can  supplemental activities
pattern their lives.  library research
 artwork
 The focus is on the body/objects.  Have mastery on facts  Prepare the child for real life  Socratic method  The Realist curriculum  The goal of education is to
 The ultimate reality is the world of  Demonstrate the ability  Develop child’s mental and physical  Lecture emphasizes the help individuals
physical objects. to think critically and faculties  Memorization subject matter of the understand and apply the
 Man will discover reality with the scientifically, using  Develop child’s senses through  Use of visual aids physical world, principles of science to
use of science and common sense. observation and experiences  Problem solving particularly science help solve the problems
 It holds that reality, knowledge, and experimentation.  Provide knowledge of society and  Demonstration and mathematics. plaguing the modern world
value exist independently of the external nature  Experimentation  Problem-centered and  Learning to really put the
human mind.  Put emphasis on critical reasoning  Drills and Exercises habit formation attention on the learner as
 Knowledge is derived from through observation  Recitation  Curriculum should be it is.
experience.  Organizes and presents content scientifically  Initiative in education
 Reality can be proved by systematically within a discipline, approached, should emphasize
observation, experience, demonstrating use of criteria in making standardized, and education rather than
experiment and scientific reasoning. decisions. distinct-discipline children
 Values must be studied in the  Focus on mastery of facts and basic based.  The core of the
actual setting. skills through demonstration and  Practical and useful assimilation of the subject
 They believe that knowledge is recitation.  Highly organized and that has been determined.
power, and acquiring knowledge  Steep in the basic academic systematic  Learning is based on
allows individuals to deal with disciplines  Extensive use of facts, analysis and
problems and to face life effectively. pictures questioning.
 If the mind is a blank slate, then  Use objects in  Character is developed
knowledge comes from sources education through training in the
other than the mind, those things rules of conduct.
gained from sensation and
 “Follow nature” is the watch-word  occupies the central  serve as the support to the students  direct experience from  Child-centered  According to Rousseau,
of naturalism position in the educative  serve as an observer of the child’s nature according to the aim of education is not
 Takes nature as a whole reality process development rather than a giver of  Heuristic method (to find present and future preparation for life, but
 Everything comes from nature and  educated according to information. or to discover) needs of the child participation in it.
returns to nature. his nature  a friend, philosopher and guide.  direct method (teaching (Pathak, 2007)  Education should engage
 Material world is the only reality.  formulate their ideas  Designer and facilitator of classroom through things rather  Subjects includes the spontaneous self-
 Mind is an accident in the process through personal activities than words) physical sciences, activity of the child.
of evolution and it can be explained experiences  help the child in the discovery of  observation language,  There is no place for class-
in terms of nature. truth.  experimentation mathematics, social room, textbooks, time-
 Mind is a function of the brain which  have critical and scientific bent of studies, anatomy, table, formal lessons,
is material in nature. mind and supreme reverence for manual work, trade, curricula or examination.
 Mind is not the source of truth. history aesthetics,  education aimed at the
knowledge; all knowledge is  see that the child develops freely. physical culture, music inner faculties, capacities
acquired from without, and senses  should not make an artificial effort to and drawing. and powers of the child
are the gateways of all knowledge. educate the child.  natural sciences — (Shahid, 2000)
 Naturalism does not believe in  should not interfere in the natural such as physics,  The aim of education is to
spiritualism. It denies the existence development of the child. chemistry, zoology, develop the child
of a spiritual universe — the  should not impose ideals or ideas on botany — in the emotionally and morally
universe of ideas and values. him. curriculum according to the child’s
 there is inherent goodness in man. needs (Shahid, 2000).
 Man is born rational.
 Parents are natural teachers and
there is no need for the institutions
such as school.
 Only those things that are  Active learning and  Teach inductive and deductive  Inductive and deductive  Student-centered  Students learn through
experienced or observed are real. participation reasoning, scientific method and reasoning  Experience is the experience.
 Pragmatists believe that reality is  Problem-solvers powers of observation and practice  Scientific method content of education.  Experience is the best
constantly changing and that we  Observe the scientific  Facilitator of learning  Observation  Curriculum should teacher.
learn best through applying our method  Good classroom manager  Practice bring the disciplines  Prior knowledge is the
experiences and thoughts to  Curious  Result and process oriented  Hands-on activities together to focus on best spring board.
problems, as they arise.  Critical-thinker and  Prepare students for citizenship,  Group works solving problems in  Everyone is teachable
 Man is the supreme creation of process oriented daily living, and future careers.  Experimental method an interdisciplinary  Guided experience and
God.  Conduct experience  Guided experience way. exploration will boost
 There is no eternal knowledge,  Set positive expectations  Experimental inquiry  Science (Zoology/ curiosity.
values or reality.  Problem solving method Botany)  Touch the life of students
 Universe is composed of laws and  Math and feel no regrets.
relations.  Values  Teaching with soul is
 Man only judges what is useful to making a difference on
him. the life of students and
 Life is a laboratory where all country as well.
individual is experimenting.  Importance of child
 Pragmatism is an attitude and a  Emphasis on activity
way of living which opposes the old  Faith in applied life
doctrines of idealism and naturalism  Social and democratic
and inspires the individual to look education
ahead and create new values and  Progressive and optimistic
ideas to meet the challenges of an attitude
unknown future.  Construction of project
 The nature of reality  confront others' views to  focus on creating opportunities for  Self-expression  Focus on freedom  Make learners understand
is subjective, and lies within the clarify his or her own. self-direction and self actualization  dialogue  Character themselves and their
individual.  Answers their own  Emphasize individual responsibility  Dramatization development is reason for existence
 The physical world has no inherent problems for decisions. emphasized  Examining life through
meaning outside of human  Be responsible on their  Help students define their own  Not the same subjects authentic thinking involves
existence. own choices essence by exposing them to various to everyone, since not students in genuine
 Individual choice and individual  free to set the goals for paths they may take in life everyone would enjoy learning experiences.
standards rather than external own life.  Create an environment in which the the same things  Existentialists are opposed
standards are central. students will freely choose  the subject matter of to thinking about students
 Existence comes before any  Provide reflective ideas existentialist as objects to be measured,
definition of what we are.  emphasize self-esteem and a feeling classrooms should be tracked, or standardized.
 We define ourselves in relationship of self-worth a matter of personal  They start with the student,
to that existence by the choices we choice rather than on curriculum
make.  literature content.
 We should not accept anyone else's  biography
predetermined philosophical  subjects that are
system; rather, we must take emotional, poetic, and
responsibility for deciding who we aesthetic.
 The focus is on freedom, the
development of authentic
individuals, as we make meaning of
our lives.
 Existentialists celebrate the human
 Very subjective
 Emphasis on meaning within each
 May doubt external reality
 Emphasis on present


 rooted in REALISM  Acquire understandings  Use tried and true teaching methods  Socratic dialogues  Teacher centered  The subject matter, not the
 focused on things that have lasted about the great ideas of that are believed to be most  Mutual inquiry sessions  No extracurricular child, should stand at the
for many years Western civilization. beneficial to disciplining students’  Use of religious books activities center of the educational
 Man is a rational animal so as  read and analyze the minds. and historical documents  The curriculum endeavor.
individuals develop their minds, works of history’s finest  Teach principles rather than facts.  Reading and discussion stresses a strong  The educational
they can use reason to control thinkers and writers  Teach information that may soon to of Great books liberal arts curriculum experience is a preparation
appetites, passions, and actions.  Make conclusions on be outdated or found to be incorrect.  Memorization that includes subjects for life, rather than a real-
 Knowledge is universally what they have read  Not concern on students’ interest  Rote learning as philosophy, life situation.
consistent, therefore there are  Learn information that  Emphasize the importance of  Debates mathematics, history,  Schools should develop the
certain basic subject matters that may soon to be outdated transferring knowledge, information  Tests geography, political students’ rational and
should be taught to all people. (everlasting) or found to and skills from the older generation science, sociology, moral powers.
 The great works of the past are a be incorrect.  Set everything based on syllabus theology, languages,  Education aims to develop
repository of knowledge and   Stresses the students’ growth in and literature (Great students’ intellectual and
wisdom which has stood the test of enduring discipline books), physical and moral qualities.
time and are relevant today.  Discuss topics and correct errors in life sciences, and the  Schools spend more time
 Human nature is consistent, so reasoning fine arts and teaching about concepts
education should be the same for  Develop students’ reasoning skills humanities. and explaining they are
everyone.  Ensure that students gain cultural  The demanding meaningful to students.
 Perennialists think it is important literacy and learn about the greatest curriculum focuses on  Schooling may come to an
that individuals think deeply, achievements in a given field attaining cultural end but a person will never
analytically, flexibly, and literacy, stressing stop learning throughout
imaginatively. students’ growth in their life time.
enduring disciplines.
 Rooted in idealism and realism  possess basic  Strong classroom manager  Memorization  Teacher-centered  The school’s task is to
 Schools and instructors should knowledge and skills,  Focus of the classroom activity  Drill  The core of the teach basic knowledge.
strive to instill traditional intellectual and character  Decide what students ought to learn  Problem solving method curriculum is essential  Learning is hard work and
and moral values in students and  develop disciplined and and is responsible for presenting the  Lecture method knowledge and skills requires discipline.
focus mainly on the "essential" practical minds subject matter in a logical sequence  Deductive and academic rigor  The content gradually
academic subjects (such as  respect and recognize  Have the right to discipline students  Systematic analysis  Basic subject matters moves towards more
reading, history, math, natural authority of the teacher to create a conducive learning  Homework should be mastered at complex skills and detailed
science, or writing).  capable of applying environment. the elementary and knowledge.
 Recitation
 There is a common core of lessons learned in school  Embed traditional moral values and secondary school  Schooling should be
 Testing and evaluation
knowledge that needs to be in the real world virtues such as respect for authority, levels to eliminate practical, preparing
transmitted to students in a  require to master a set perseverance, fidelity to duty, illiteracy at the college students to become
systematic, disciplined way. body of information and consideration for others, and level. valuable members of
 Accept the idea that core basic techniques for their practicality and intellectual knowledge  Rejects electives or society.
curriculum may change grade level before they that students need to become model vocational courses for  Teaching should focus on
 Ensure that collective wisdom and are promoted to the next citizens. their costs. facts-the objective reality
academic knowledge is passed higher grade.  serve as an intellectual and moral  Parallels today’s out there—and “the
systematically from teacher to  learn passively by sitting role model for the students secondary schools basics,” training students to
student in an effort to prepare in their desks and  decide what is most important for the with academics and read, write, speak, and
students to be productive members listening to the teacher. students to learn with little regard to cognitive skills + compute clearly and
of society. the student interests computers. logically.
 Teaching students the basic skills  Not rooted in the past;  Schools should not try to
 focus heavily on achievement test
will still make them successful. concerned with set or influence policies or
scores as a means of evaluating
 Teaching should be done contemporary scene. reshape society.
progressively from less complex  Education is a fine
skills to more complex ones combination of hard work
and effort.
 Rooted in pragmatism  Participate on activities  Advisor  Hands-on projects  Student-centered  The process of education
 Individuality, progress, and change and actively learning  Guide  Expeditionary learning  Built around personal finds its beginning and
are fundamental to one's education  Develop social qualities  fellow traveler  Experiential learning experiences, interests, purpose in the child.
 people learn best from what they such as cooperation and  not an authoritarian  Problem solving and needs of the  Education should be a
consider most relevant to their lives tolerance for different  not a classroom director  Critical thinking students process of ongoing growth,
 How to think; not what to think. points of view.  try making school interesting and  Group works  Integrated curriculum not just a preparation for
 Lessons must be relevant to  Solve problems in the useful by planning lessons that  Cooperative and with thematic units becoming an adult.
students in order to learn. classroom similar to provoke curiosity collaborative leaning  Integration of  The school is a microcosm
 Education must focus on a whole of those they will encounter  assess the students’ projects and  Community service entrepreneurship in of the larger society.
a child in their everyday lives productions  Service learning projects education  School would be a lot of
 Emphasis on learning by doing  learn through action and  provide experience so that the  Varied learning  Flexible hands-on learning, and the
 Understanding and action as the being involved in the students can learn by doing resources  Use community progression of education
goals of learning as opposed to processes that will get to  facilitate learning by putting emphasis  Activities based on the resources and would not end!
rote knowledge the end product on learning by doing, and on group interests of the child encourage service-  Learning should be
 Highly personalized education  work on hands-on activities  Inductive learning projects integrated.
accounting for each individual’s projects so learning  Teach problem solving, inquiry,  Deductive  Information technology  Classroom activity should
personal goals would take place, rather cooperation and self-discipline.  Inquiry and ICT focus on solving problems,
 Selection of subject content by than memorization  Teach through activities,  Experimental learning  Science rather than on artificial
looking forward to ask what skills  exercise their brain by experiments, problem solving,  Project method  Mathematics methods of teaching
will be needed in the future society problem solving and projects and thematic approaches subject.
 De-emphasis on textbooks thinking critically,  The social atmosphere of
 Emphasis on lifelong learning and the school must be
social skills cooperative and
 Develop the human potential democratic.
 Rooted on pragmatism  Critical element s in  Catalyst of change  Inquiry  student-centered  Teaching and learning as a
 Society is in need of constant bringing social change  Organize classroom in a class less  dialogue  Focus on student process of inquiry in which
reconstruction or change  Capable of initiating and nonsexist and non racial manner  multiple perspectives experience and taking the child must invent and
 Such social change involves a adapting to change  Less emphasis on management and  Community-based social action on real reinvent the world.
reconstruction of education and the especially if they are control and more on focus community learning problems, such as  School is an ideal
use of education in reconstructing influenced by appropriate building  Bringing the world into violence, hunger, community in which pupils
the society. adult role models  Promote an environment of analysis, the classroom international terrorism, get practice in cooperation,
 Emphasizes the addressing of  Help the society criticism, and research  Group works inflation, and self-government, and
social questions and a quest to  Question the  Willing to engage and form alliances  Cooperative and inequality (Cohen application of intelligence
create a better society and assumptions of the with the community and parents to collaborative leaning 1999) to difficulties.
worldwide democracy. status quo and examine make the school better  Debate  Subjects that contains  Schools, teachers, and
 Systems must be changed to social issues and future  need to incorporate world issues into  Research project world events and students must focus their
overcome oppression and improve trends. his/her teachings  Interview tackle controversial studies and energies on
human conditions.  Have the ability to think  inform the students of the problems,  Press conference issues. alleviating pervasive social
 Humans must learn to resist in critical terms and give possible solutions, and assist  Use technology  Critical Pedagogy – inequities, and as the name
oppression and not become its expose their the students in trying to solve  Exhibit Unites theory and implies, reconstruct society
victims, nor oppress others. assumptions and possible issues  Class discussion practice into a new and more just
 Central to this philosophy is the practices  motivate students to use their  Analyze news coverage – Provides students social order.
concept of praxis, the idea that  select educational education to help solve the problems  Fieldtrips with critical thinking  School must be more
actions based on sound theory and objectives and social of society  Examine public tools focused on individual
values can make a real difference priorities  explore social problems, suggest documents  Public Education needs, contemporary
in the world. alternate perspectives, and facilitate  Use moral dilemmas to relevance, and preparing
student analysis of these problems direct attention toward students for a changing
 enhance students’ civic participation social and world future.
 Rooted in Pragmatism  construct their own  Guide on the side  Deductive reasoning  Student-centered  Classroom must be
 There is no absolute knowledge, meaning by building on  Encourage students to constantly  Use of manipulative  Eliminate constructed, active,
just our interpretation of it. their previous assess how the activity is helping  Hands-on problem standardized reflective, inquiry based
 The acquisition of knowledge knowledge and them gain understanding solving curriculum and evolving.
therefore requires the individual to experience  Encourage learning and reflection  Multiple representations  Curriculum  Education works best when
consider the information and -  Not a blank slate but process of reality emphasizes big it concentrates on thinking
based on their past experiences, bring past experiences  Help students to construct  Authentic tasks concepts, beginning and understanding rather
personal views, and cultural and cultural factors to a knowledge rather than reproduce a  practical workshops with the whole and than memorization.
background - construct an situation series of facts  Discovery learning expanding to include  Knowledge is constructed
interpretation of the information that  Become experts  Coach, mediate, prompt, and help  guided discovery the parts based on personal
is being presented to them. learners by questioning students develop and assess their  problem-based learning  Curricular activities experiences and
 People construct their own their own strategies learning  simulation-based rely heavily on hypotheses of the
understanding and knowledge of  Reflect on their  Have a dialogue with students and learning primary sources of environment.
the world, through experiencing experiences; learn how help them construct their own  case-based learning data and manipulative  Instruction must be
things and reflecting on those to learn knowledge  incidental learning materials. concerned with the
experiences.  Formulate test ideas  Assess students based on students’  Reciprocal Teaching  Usually use in experiences and contexts
 Constructivist learning and draw conclusions works, observations and points of Science and that make the student
 Cooperative Learning
environments "enable context- and  Apply schema and real view Mathematics willing and able to learn
 Situated Learning (readiness).
content- dependent knowledge world experiences  encouraging students to use active  Spiral curriculum
construction."  Anchored Instruction  Instruction must be
 Work in groups techniques (experiments, real-world
 Learning is transferable  Discussion structured so that it can be
 Enjoy learning more problem solving) to create more
  Debates easily grasped by the
when actively involved knowledge and then to reflect on
 Peer learning student (spiral
 Test hypotheses and talk about what they are doing
through social and how their understanding is  Essay writing organization).
interaction changing  Group projects  Instruction should facilitate
 Understand the students' preexisting extrapolation and or fill in
conceptions, and guides the activity the gaps (going beyond the
to address them and then build on information given).
 Behavior is shaped deliberately by  acquire and remember  Direct the learning process  Lectures  teacher centered  Repetition of a meaningful
forces in the environment and that responses that lead to  Specify the desired behaviors:  Tutorials  applicable in all connection results in
the type of person and actions satisfying after effects Explain exactly what is expected,  Drills and Practice subjects which learning.
desired can be the product of  learn the correct what you want to see.  Demonstrations require mastery  Positive and negative
design. response  Identify the consequences, both  behavioral simulations  classroom reinforcement techniques of
 Behavior is determined by others,  negative and positive.  programmed instruction management Behaviorism can be very
rather than by our own free will.  Establish the rules, the  games effective.
 Conditioning is the behaviorists consequences, and the rewards  graphic organizer/  Behavioral teaching and
term for learning based on what (reinforcements) for each behavior. semantic web learning tends to focus on
the individual does in response to  accountable and responsible for  examinations skills that will be used
a specific object, event, or what children learn  use of rewards and later.
stimulus.  Compliment Good Behavior punishment  Learning is passive.
 There is learning if there is a  Support Praise With Evidence  computer-assisted  Learning requires external
change in behavior.  Utilize Negative Reinforcement by instruction reward.
 Humans are highly-developed giving alternatives  Knowledge is a matter of
animals who learn in the same  Apply Unpleasant Consequences remembering information.
way that other animals learn. When Necessary  Understanding is a matter
 People are programmed to act in  Use reward and punishment of seeing existing patterns.
certain ways by their environment.  break down the skills and
 Behavior may be modified by information to be learned into small
manipulating environmental units
reinforcers.  Check student's work regularly and
 Efficiency, economy, precision and provide feedback as well as
objectivity are central value encouragement (reinforcement)