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Apéndice de los Datos Experimentales

Prueba del Modelo Matemático


ℇ0 ∗ 𝑆
𝐶=
𝑑
𝛿𝑑 = 0.001[𝑚]
1
𝛿𝐶 = ∗ 200
100
𝛿𝐶 = 2[𝑝𝐹]

d ± δd [mm] C ± δC [pF]
3±1 172.5 ± 2
4±1 136.2 ± 2
5±1 115.1 ± 2
6±1 98.0 ± 2
7±1 86.9 ± 2
8±1 79.3 ± 2
9±1 72.4 ± 2
10 ± 1 66.7 ± 2
11 ± 1 62.7 ± 2
12 ± 1 59.4 ± 2
13 ± 1 55.6 ± 2
14 ± 1 53.4 ± 2
15 ± 1 51.1 ± 2

Gráfico C vs. d
180

160

140
C ± δC [pF]

120

100

80

60

40
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
d ± δd [mm]
Análisis:
Al observar el gráfico anterior se puede observar que existe alto grado de correspondencia
con relación al modelo matemático y los datos registrados, por lo que se decide proseguir
con los cálculos.

Procesamiento de datos experimentales


Preparación de tabla de datos

d ± δd [m] Cm ± δC [pF] C ± δC [pF]

0.003 ± 0.001 172.5 ± 2 163.47 ± 2


0.004 ± 0.001 136.2 ± 2 124.23 ± 2
0.005 ± 0.001 115.1 ± 2 101.42 ± 2
0.006 ± 0.001 98.0 ± 2 82.94 ± 2
0.007 ± 0.001 86.9 ± 2 70.94 ± 2
0.008 ± 0.001 79.3 ± 2 62.72 ± 2
0.009 ± 0.001 72.4 ± 2 55.26 ± 2
0.010 ± 0.001 66.7 ± 2 49.10 ± 2
0.011 ± 0.001 62.7 ± 2 44.78 ± 2
0.012 ± 0.001 59.4 ± 2 41.21 ± 2
0.013 ± 0.001 55.6 ± 2 37.10 ± 2
0.014 ± 0.001 53.4 ± 2 34.73 ± 2
0.015 ± 0.001 51.1 ± 2 32.24 ± 2

ℰ0 ∗ 𝑆
𝐶=
𝑑
El área de las placas es igual a:
𝜋
𝑆= ∗ 𝐷2
4
𝜋
𝑆 = ∗ 0.262
4
𝑆 = 0.0531[𝑚2 ]
Donde.
𝑝𝐹
ℰ0 = 8.85 [ ]
𝑚
Entonces:
ℰ0 ∗ 𝑆 = 0.4699[𝑝𝐹 ∗ 𝑚]
Modelo Matemático Universal
𝛼
𝜇=
𝑋𝛽
Donde:
𝜇=𝐶
𝑋=𝑑
Los parámetros son:
𝛼 = ℰ0 ∗ 𝑆 = 0.4699[𝑝𝐹 ∗ 𝑚]
𝛽=1
La función estimadora:
𝐴
𝑌=
𝑋𝐵
ln 𝑌 = ln 𝐴 − 𝐵 ln 𝑋
Donde:
𝑦 = ln 𝑌 𝑥 = ln 𝑋 𝑎 = ln 𝐴 𝑏 = −𝐵 𝑦 = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑥
Entonces:
𝑦 = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑥

N° d=X C=Y 𝒙 = 𝐥𝐧 𝑿 𝒚 = 𝐥𝐧 𝒀 𝒙𝟐 𝒚𝟐 𝒙𝒚
1 0.003 163.4725 -5.80914 5.09664 33.7461423 25.97579 -29.60713

2 0.004 124.2322 -5.52146 4.82215 30.48653 23.25315 -26.62533

3 0.005 101.4231 -5.29832 4.61930 28.07217 21.33794 -24.47452

4 0.006 82.9380 -5.11600 4.41809 26.17341 19.51955 -22.60295

5 0.007 70.9389 -4.96185 4.26182 24.61991 18.16310 -21.14649

6 0.008 62.7233 -4.82831 4.13873 23.31261 17.12911 -19.98310

7 0.009 55.2644 -4.71053 4.01213 22.18910 16.09718 -18.89926

8 0.01 49.1027 -4.60517 3.89391 21.20759 15.16257 -17.93214


9 0.011 44.7787 -4.50986 3.80173 20.33884 14.45317 -17.14528

10 0.012 41.2114 -4.42285 3.71871 19.56159 13.82884 -16.44731

11 0.013 37.1036 -4.34281 3.61371 18.85996 13.05893 -15.69366

12 0.014 34.7254 -4.26870 3.54747 18.22178 12.58455 -15.14308

13 0.015 32.2391 -4.19971 3.47318 17.63752 12.06298 -14.58633

Suma 0.117 900.1533 -62.59469 53.41760 304.42716 222.62686 -260.28658

𝑛 ∗ ∑ 𝑋𝑌 − ∑ 𝑋 ∑ 𝑌
𝑏=
𝑛 ∑ 𝑋 2 − (∑ 𝑋)2
13 ∗ (−260.28658) − (−62.59469) ∗ (53.41760)
𝑏=
13 ∗ (304.42716) − (−62.59469)2
𝑏 = −1.0155
∑𝑌 − 𝑏∑𝑋
𝑎=
𝑛
(53.41760) − (−1.0155) ∗ (−62.59469)
𝑎=
13
𝑎 = −0.7804
𝑌̂ = −0.7804 − 1.0155𝑋
Entonces:
𝐴 = 𝑒 𝑎 = 𝑒 −0.7804
𝐴 = 0.4582
𝐵 = −𝑏 = −(−1.0155)
𝐵 = 1.0155
Para la desviación Estándar:

N° X y ̂ = 𝑨 + 𝑩𝒙
𝒚 ̂ )𝟐
(𝒚 − 𝒚
1 -5.80914 5.09664 5.11858 0.00048

2 -5.52146 4.82215 4.82645 0.00002

3 -5.29832 4.61930 4.59986 0.00038

4 -5.11600 4.41809 4.41472 0.00001

5 -4.96185 4.26182 4.25819 0.00001


6 -4.82831 4.13873 4.12259 0.00026

7 -4.71053 4.01213 4.00299 0.00008

8 -4.60517 3.89391 3.89600 0.00000

9 -4.50986 3.80173 3.79921 0.00001

10 -4.42285 3.71871 3.71086 0.00006

11 -4.34281 3.61371 3.62958 0.00025

12 -4.26870 3.54747 3.55432 0.00005

13 -4.19971 3.47318 3.48426 0.00012

Suma -62.59469 53.41760 53.41760 0.00174

∑(𝑌 − 𝑌̂ )2
𝑆𝑦 = √
𝑛−2

0.00174
𝑆𝑦 = √
13 − 2

𝑆𝑦 = 0.0126

Desviación estándar de a y b
1 2
𝑆𝑥𝑥 = ∑ 𝑋 2 − (∑ 𝑋)
𝑛
1
𝑆𝑥𝑥 = 304.42716 − (−62.59469)2
13
𝑆𝑥𝑥 = 3.0352

𝜕𝐴 ∑ 𝑋2
𝜎𝑎 = | | 𝑆𝑦 √
𝜕𝑎 𝑛𝑆𝑥𝑥

𝜕𝐴
| | = 𝑒 𝑎 = 𝑒 −0.7804
𝜕𝑎

304.42716
𝜎𝑎 = 𝑒 −0.7804 ∗ 0.0126 ∗ √
13 ∗ 3.0352

𝜎𝑎 = 0.0160
𝜕𝐵 𝑆𝑦
𝜎𝑏 = | |
𝜕𝑏 √𝑆𝑥𝑥

𝜕𝐵
| |=1
𝜕𝑏
0.0126
𝜎𝑏 = 1 ∗
√3.0352
𝜎𝑏 = 0.0072

Función ajustada a los datos

C vs. d
180
160
140 y = 0.4582x-1.015
R² = 0.9994
120
100
80
60
40
20
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016

𝐴
𝑌=
𝑋𝐵
0.4582
𝑌=
𝑋1.0155

Coeficiente De confianza
𝑣 =𝑛−2
𝑣 = 11

t α/2=3.106
Errores absolutos de a y b
𝛿𝑎 =t α/2*𝜎𝑎

𝛿𝑎 = 3.106 ∗ 0.0160 = 0.049696

𝛿𝑏 =t α/2*𝜎𝑏

𝛿𝑏 = 3.106 ∗ 0.0072 = 0.0223632


𝛼 = 𝐴 ± 𝛿𝑎
𝛼 = 0.4582 ± 0.0497
𝛽 = 𝐵 ± 𝛿𝑏
𝛽 = 1.0155 ± 0.022

Prueba de hipótesis
Para α:
𝐻0: 𝛼 = 0.4699
𝐻1: 𝛼 ≠ 0.4699
𝐴−𝛼
𝑡𝑎 =
𝜎𝑎
0.4582 − 0.4699
𝑡𝑎 =
0.0160
𝑡𝑎 = −0.73125

- 3.106 -0.73125 3.106


Se acepta por estar en la zona de aceptación
Para β:
𝐻0: β = 1
𝐻1: β ≠ 1
𝐵−𝛽
𝑡𝑏 =
𝜎𝑏
1.0155 − 1
𝑡𝑏 =
0.0072
𝑡𝑏 = 2.1528
También se acepta la hipótesis para β
Resultados
𝐴 𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎 𝛼 = ℰ0 ∗ 𝑆
𝐴 = ℰ0 ∗ 𝑆 = 0.4699[𝑝𝐹 ∗ 𝑚]
𝐴 0.4699 𝑝𝐹
ℰ0𝑝 = = = 8.8493 [ ]
𝑆 0.0531 𝑚

𝛿𝐴 0.0497
𝛿ℰ0 = = = 0.9359
𝑆 0.0531
ℰ0 = ℰ𝑜𝑝 ± 𝛿ℰ0

ℰ0 = 8.8493 ± 0.9359
0.9359 ∗ 100
𝜀% =
8.8493
𝜀% = 10.57598%