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How did Japan lose the chip war more than 30 years ago? Japan Display今年将提高对苹果的订单依赖
via:博客园 time:2019/5/21 14:02:45 readed:91 苹果供应商Japan Display斥资14亿美元建厂

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In just over 30 years, few people have remembered the chip war that broke out between Japan
mobile phone screen manufacturers Display
and the United States. Japan shares

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In this battle, the Japanese lost their money. From the peak, they accounted for nearly 80% of take How-Old.net judge the refugee age
the world's DRAM (commonly known as computer memory) share, falling to zero now. This chip HOW MY HSV-1 AND HSV-2 WAS CURED
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Silicon Valley Intel, AMD and other technology startups in the semiconductor storage field,
How did Japan lose the chip war more than
chased by the Japanese, and then overtaken, was driven away from the throne, the semiconductor 30 years ago?

chip field (then mainly semiconductor storage dominated) became the back garden of Japanese
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Kyushu Island is known as Japan's "Silicon Island" and has concentrated most of Japan's
semiconductor chip companies.

The Japanese play is very different: concentrate on doing big things. In 1974, the Japanese
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introduced measures such as loans and tax incentives, and companies such as Hitachi, NEC, and
Fujitsu were strong and strong enough.

A modern semiconductor memory chip manufacturing plant has emerged in Japan. As the
production line runs day and night, the Japanese launched a saturation attack.

The American nightmare begins. In 1980, Japan captured 30% of the semiconductor memory
market. Five years later, Japan's share exceeded 50%, and the United States was left behind.

Silicon Valley's high-tech companies can't stand the market share, and they continue to send
people over the Pacific to Japan to scout, which makes people feel desperate. Andy Grove, then
Intel's production director, said with frustration: "The people who came back from Japan showed
the situation very seriously. "If Grove visits Japan, he will be scared: a Japanese company uses a
whole building for storage chip development, the first floor staff develops 16KB capacity, and the
second floor staff develops 64KB. The third-tier personnel developed 256KB. The Japanese rhythm
of research and development is simply the legendary three arrows, so that Silicon Valley companies
accustomed to one-handedly playing the knife have no power.

What makes Americans feel suffocated is that Japan's memory chips are not only large, but also
of good quality. In the 1980s, the American Semiconductor Association conducted quality tests on
memory chips in the United States and Japan, hoping to find the weaknesses of their opponents. It
turned out that the highest quality memory chips in the United States were worse than the worst
quality in Japan.

Moreover, the Japanese also patted their chests to assure customers that the quality of Japanese
memory chips is 25 years!

Intel almost scorpion

Under the aggressive attack of Japan, the American chip company was defeated, and the
financial data was like a melting ice cream.

In 1981, AMD's net profit fell by 2/3, National Semiconductor lost $11 million, and earned $52
million in the previous year. In the second year, Intel was forced to lay off 2,000 employees. The
Japanese continued to expand their battles. The Americans continued to mourn. In 1985, Intel
surrendered and announced its withdrawal from the DRAM storage business. This war caused it to
lose $173 million, the first loss since its listing. At Intel's most critical moment, if it wasn't for IBM's
help, and it bought 12% of its bonds to guarantee cash flow, the chip giant is likely to close down
or be acquired, and the history of the US information industry may be rewritten.

Intel founder Robert Noyce (left) and other Silicon Valley companies set up SIA with the goal of
responding to competition from Japanese semiconductor companies

Intel founder Robert Noyes lamented the United States' entry into the "empire decline" process.
He asserted that if this situation continues, Silicon Valley will become a ruin.

What makes Americans intolerable is that Fujitsu intends to acquire an 80% stake in Fairchild
Semiconductor. Fairchild Semiconductor is the living fossil of Silicon Valley, as the founders of most
of Silicon Valley's technology companies (including Intel and AMD) were once employees of
Fairchild Semiconductor. In the hearts of Silicon Valley people, Fairchild Semiconductors generally
exist, but now the Japanese have to buy their "God", is this not a shame? One American newspaper
wrote in the report: “This transaction tells us through a message that we are already lagging
behind. What matters is how we should respond to this. ”

Fairchild Semiconductor is sacred in the hearts of Silicon Valley people

A few years ago, Silicon Valley technology companies established the Semiconductor Industry
Association (SIA) to deal with Japanese attacks. After several years of lobbying, the results were as
follows: Reduce the capital income tax rate from 49% to 28%, and promote pensions into venture
capital. field. But the government is reluctant to come forward to help.

Bitter until June 1985, SIA finally concocted a view that made Washington not calm, and turned
things around.

Magical logic reverses the situation

The SIA's point of view is that the weakening of the US semiconductor industry will pose
significant risks to national security.

Is Japan not an ally of the United States? The rise of Japanese semiconductors, the decline of
American semiconductors, and the game of watching the left pocket and the right pocket, how can
it threaten the national security of the United States?

The logical chain of SIA is like this:

Because super-weapon technology is inseparable from super-electronic technology, super-


electronic technology is inseparable from the latest semiconductor technology (this is not a
problem);

If US semiconductor technology lags behind, the US military will be forced to use foreign
products, including Japanese goods, on key electronic components (somewhat meaning);

Foreign sources are unreliable, and the United States will be out of stock during the war, and
will also supply the US rivals to the Soviet Union during the non-war period (the Japanese see it
here, it is estimated to cry);

Therefore, the United States let Japan dominate the semiconductor chip field, it is equal to the
sacrifice of national security … … (the Japanese heart is now bleeding).

Previously, SIA lobbied for seven years, and the government's response was always: the United
States is a free market, and government power should not be referred to corporate business
activities.

Americans blame Japan’s semiconductor radio for venting

This time, SIA's "National Security" said that the US government's smashing of the top, from the
original grinding to the fast-moving, the efficiency is amazing:

In the spring of 1986, Japan was identified as a dump-only memory; in September, the US-Japan
Semiconductor Agreement was signed, and Japan was asked to open up the semiconductor market
to ensure that foreign companies gained 20% market share within five years; soon, US$300 million
chips exported to Japan Impose a 100% punitive tariff; veto Fujitsu's acquisition of Fairchild
Semiconductor.

This wave of American operations has created at least two records: the first global strike against
the economic interests of allies; the first time the issue of trade disputes has changed from
economics to political economy on the grounds of national security.

Clyde Prestowitz, the chief US trade representative in charge of the US negotiations with Japan,
accused Japan of the unreasonable policy of the semiconductor chip industry, and was amazed at
it, “so I told the US government We must also adopt the same policy measures as Japan. ”

For this double standard, Yu Long, who had been doing research and development for many
years at Hitachi and Elpida, said angrily in his book: "This person is really deceiving too much!" ”

Samsung knife

With the signing of the US-Japan Semiconductor Agreement, the Japanese semiconductor chip
industry, which is at the top of the wave, turned around and turned to the abyss.

Japan's semiconductor chip industry has fallen from a maximum of 40% in 1986 to 15% in 2011,
and spit out more than half of the market share. Among them, DRAM has been hit hardest, with a
global market share of nearly 80% from the highest point. To the lowest 10% (2010), retreat nearly
70%.

It can be said that with the Americans, the Japanese have basically lost their money, and the
country has worked hard for eleven years (from 1975 to 1986) and was beaten back to liberation
overnight.

But the meat that the Japanese spit out did not fall into the mouth of Americans, because more
than 70% of Silicon Valley technology companies cut down the DRAM business (including Intel and
AMD). After 1986, the American market share curve was a horizontal lay. The death shackles have
been around 20%.

Intel lost to Japanese companies, eventually abandoned the semiconductor storage business and
entered the field of microprocessors.

So, who is the 70% of the huge market?

The answer is Korea.

In 1986, when the United States was fattened by the United States, South Korea's DRAM took
the opportunity to start, but the volume was like a toddler, and there was no sense in the global
semiconductor chip industry. Moreover, compared with Japan, the Korean semiconductor chip
company represented by Samsung is completely 360-degree no-dead chicken: it can't penetrate
the high-end market dominated by the Japanese, and can only eat at low prices in the low-end
market; In terms of mass, the two are the difference between ants and elephants.

However, Samsung understands that all trade friction issues belong to the category of political
economy and take the opportunity to turn over Japanese elephants.

Li Jianxi seized the excellent opportunity for Japan and the United States to carry out chip
battles and led Samsung Semiconductor to successfully counterattack

In the 1990s, Samsung faced anti-dumping lawsuits initiated by the United States, but its head Li
Jianxi skillfully used the Americans to suppress the Japanese semiconductor industry and sent a
strong public relations team to lobby the Clinton administration: “If Samsung cannot manufacture
chips, Japanese companies occupy the market. The trend will become more apparent, and the
reduction in competitors will further increase the price of US companies buying chips, which will be
even more disadvantageous for US companies. ”

As a result, Americans only charge 0.74% of anti-dumping duties to Samsung, and Japan's
highest is charged 100% of anti-dumping duties. This kind of operation is simply too lazy to install.

Samsung’s embrace of the thigh of the United States is equivalent to giving Japan a knife from
the back and letting Japan go out completely.

Winning key

If there is no Samsung to fill the knife, Japanese semiconductor chips still have the hope of
getting out of the predicament.

The Americans used the "US-Japan Semiconductor Agreement" to bind the Japanese and waved
anti-dumping sticks to make them fat, but the Japanese semiconductor memory chip industry
suffered only a skin injury, because more than 70% of Silicon Valley companies have withdrawn
from the semiconductor memory chip industry. Still firmly in the hands of the Japanese, after the
past, it is a group of Dongyang heroes. After all, in the global semiconductor chip industry chain,
Japan is still an irreplaceable force.

After Samsung joined the battle group and took the initiative to stand in the United States, the
Japanese who were difficult to replace suddenly became dispensable, and the Koreans became the
new favorite. Subsequently, Samsung's DRAM "two-way data selection program" was approved by
the American Semiconductor Standardization Committee to become a microprocessor-matched
memory, and Japan was excluded. In this way, Samsung successfully took the microprocessor-
driven PC era express train, leading Japanese companies.

Japan’s lost semiconductor chip share has almost entered the mouth of a Korean company
headed by Samsung.

From the above DRAM share chart, it can be found that Japan's share is falling off the cliff, while
South Korea is a steep rising curve. One pair of two lines form a huge pair of scissors, cutting off
the future of Japanese semiconductor chips. .

Since then, even though the Japanese government has intensively introduced support policies
for the semiconductor industry and invested a lot of money, it has been unable to return to the sky.
The fate of Japanese semiconductor chips has been fixed.

After the Toshiba semiconductor plug-in was sold, it marked the complete out of Japanese
semiconductor chips.

To this day, there are still views that the rise of Korean semiconductor chips and the decline of
Japanese semiconductor chips are the result of industrial shifts. This is inaccurate because the
industry shift is the migration of production lines/factories from high labor cost areas to low labor
cost areas. Japan's semiconductor chip companies have not migrated production lines to South
Korea, but have been directly replaced. The Americans actually teamed up with South Korea to
reorganize the global semiconductor industry supply chain, erasing the Japanese from the supply
chain, and making an industry force that seems indispensable in the world disappear.

Throughout the Japanese and American chip wars, whether or not to master the ability to
reorganize the global industrial chain is the key to the success of the trade war. The market
share does not constitute the main strength factor, which is one of the key reasons for Japan
to lose the chip war..

Main reference materials:

"The loss of manufacturing: the defeat of Japanese manufacturing", author: soup on Long;

"Rise and Fall of the Japanese electronics industry recorded", author: Yoshio Nishimura;

"Core business", author: Xie Zhifeng;

"Silicon Valley a century history", author: Allen Rao, Pierrot Alaska Lou.

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