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FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA Y
ARQUITECTURA ESCUELA DE
INGENIERÍA INDUSTRIAL

CARNET: TC17012

## Sonsonate, 17 de marzo de 2019

EJERCICIO 1
𝑥 𝑦 𝑥 4 4 𝑥 − 5𝑦
Hallar x, y, z y w si: 5 [ ]=[ ]+[ ]
𝑧 𝑤 −2 −𝑤 𝑧−𝑤 3
Entonces
𝑥+4 4 + 𝑥 − 5𝑦 5𝑥 5𝑦
[ ]=[ ]
𝑧−𝑤−2 3−𝑤 5𝑧 5𝑤
Despejar
Para 𝑥

𝑥 + 4 = 5𝑥
4 = 5𝑥 − 𝑥
4 = 4𝑥
4
=𝑥
4
1=𝑥
Para 𝑦

4 + 𝑥 − 5𝑦 = 5𝑦
4 + 1 − 5𝑦 = 5𝑦
5 − 5𝑦 = 5𝑦
5 = 5𝑦 + 5𝑦
5 = 10𝑦
5
=𝑦
10
1
=𝑦
2
Para 𝑤

3 − 𝑤 = 5𝑤
3 = 5𝑤 + 𝑤
3 = 6𝑤
3
=𝑤
6
1
=𝑤
2
Para 𝑧
𝑧 − 𝑤 − 2 = 5𝑧
1
𝑧− − 2 = 5𝑧
2
1
− − 2 = 5𝑧 − 𝑧
2
5
− = 4𝑧
2
5
−2 =𝑧
4
5
− =𝑧
8

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎
1 5 1
𝑥 = 1; 𝑦 = ;𝑧 = − ;𝑤 =
2 8 2

EJERCICIO 2
2 −1
1 −2 −5
Determinar 𝐴𝐵, siendo 𝐴 = [ 1 0 ]y𝐵 =[ ]
3 4 0
−3 4

1 −2 −5
3 4 0

## 2 −1 (2)(1) + (3)(−1) = −1 (2)(−2) + (−1)(4) = −8 (2)(−5) + (−1)(0) = −10

1 0 (1)(1) + (0)(3) = 1 (1)(−2) + (0)(4) = −2 (1)(−5) + (0)(0) = −5
−3 4 (−3)(1) + (4)(3) = 9 (−3)(−2) + (4)(4) = 22 (−3)(−5) + (4)(0) = 15

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎
−1 −8 −10
[ 1 −2 −5 ]
9 22 15

EJERCICIO 3
Utilizando las matrices anteriores determinar (𝐵 𝑡 )(𝐴𝑡 )
1 3
2 1 −3
𝐵 𝑡 = [−2 4] 𝐴𝑡 = [ ]
−1 0 4
−5 0

2 1 −3
−1 0 4

## 1 3 (1)(2) + (3)(−1) = −1 (1)(1) + (3)(0) = 1 (1)(−3) + (3)(4) = 9

−2 4 (−2)(2) + (4)(−1) = −8 (−2)(1) + (4)(0) = −2 (−2)(−3) + (4)(4) = 22
−5 0 (−5)(2) + (0)(−1) = −10 (−5)(1) + (0)(0) = −5 (−5)(−3) + (0)(4) = 15

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎
−1 1 9
[ −8 −2 22]
−10 −5 15

EJERCICIO 4
Mediante el método de cofactores calcular el valor del siguiente determinante:
2 5 −3 −2
−2 −3 2 −5
𝐴=[ ]
1 3 −2 2
−1 6 4 3
Transformar la matriz

𝐹1 − 2𝐹3 → 𝐹1
𝐹2 + 2𝐹3 → 𝐹2
𝐹4 + 1𝐹3 → 𝐹3
𝐹1: 2 5 −3 −2
−2𝐹3: −2 −6 4 −4
𝐹1 = 0 −1 1 −6

𝐹2: −2 −3 2 3
2𝐹3: 2 6 −4 4
𝐹2 = 0 3 −2 −1

𝐹4: −1 6 4 3
1𝐹3: 1 3 −2 2
𝐹4 = 0 9 2 5

0 −1 1 −6
|𝐴| = |0 3 −2 −1
|
1 3 −2 2
0 9 2 5

−1 1 −6
|𝐴| = 1 | 3 2 −1|
9 2 5

𝐹2 + 2𝐹1 → 𝐹2
𝐹3 − 2𝐹1 → 𝐹3

𝐹2: 3 −2 −1
2𝐹1: −2 2 −12
𝐹2 = 1 0 −13

𝐹3: 9 2 5
−2𝐹1: 2 −2 12
𝐹2 = 11 0 17

−1 1 −6
|𝐴| = 1 | 1 0 −13|
11 0 17
|𝐴| = −1 | 1 −13| 143
11 17 17
|𝐴| = −1(160)
|𝐴| = −160
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎
|𝐴| = −160

EJERCICIO 5
Halle el determinante de 𝐵, aplicando el método de Sarrus, donde:
𝑡+1 1 1
𝐵=| 3 𝑡−1 1 |
6 4 𝑡+3

𝑡+1 1 1 𝑡+1 1
|𝐵| = | 3 𝑡−1 1 | 3 𝑡−1
6 4 𝑡+3 6 4

## (𝑡 + 1)(𝑡 − 1)(𝑡 + 3) (1)(1)(6) (1)(3)(4)

(𝑡 2 − 𝑡 + 𝑡 − 1)(𝑡 + 3) 6 12
(𝑡 2 − 1)(𝑡 + 3)
𝑡 3 + 3𝑡 2 − 𝑡 − 3

## −[(6)(𝑡 − 1)(1)] −[(4)(1)(𝑡 + 1)] −[(𝑡 + 3)(3)(1)]

−[(6𝑡 − 6)(1)] −[(4)(𝑡 + 1)] −[(3𝑡 + 9)(1)]
−(6𝑡 − 6) −[4𝑡 + 4] −[3𝑡 + 9]
−6𝑡 + 6 −4𝑡 − 4 −3𝑡 − 9

𝑡+1 1 1 𝑡+1 1
|𝐵| = | 3 𝑡−1 1 | 3 𝑡−1
6 4 𝑡+3 6 4

𝑡 3 + 3𝑡 2 − 𝑡 − 3 + 6 + 12 − 6𝑡 + 6 − 4𝑡 − 4 − 3𝑡 − 9
𝑡 3 + 3𝑡 2 − 𝑡 − 6𝑡 − 4𝑡 − 3𝑡 − 3 + 6 + 12 + 6 − 4 − 9
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎
𝑡 3 + 3𝑡 2 − 14𝑡 + 8

EJERCICIO 6
Resolver el siguiente sistema de ecuaciones utilizando la regla de Cramer
2𝑥 + 5𝑦 = −24
{
8𝑥 − 3𝑦 = 19

2 5 𝑥 −24
( ) (𝑦 ) = ( )
8 −3 19
2 5 −24 5 2 −24
𝐷=( ); 𝐷𝑋 = ( ); 𝐷𝑦 = ( )
8 −3 19 −3 8 19

|𝐷| = |2 5 | −40
8 −3 −6
|𝐷| = −46

## |𝐷𝑋 | = |−24 5 | −95

19 −3 72
|𝐷𝑋 | = −23

2 −24 192
|𝐷𝑦 | = | |
8 19 38
|𝐷𝑦 | = 230

|𝐷𝑋 | |𝐷𝑦 |
𝑥= 𝑦=
|𝐷| |𝐷|
−23 230
𝑥= 𝑦=
−46 −46
1 𝑦 = −5
𝑥=
2
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎
1
𝑥= ; 𝑦 = −5
2

EJERCICIO 7
Resolver el siguiente sistema de ecuaciones utilizando la regla de Cramer
−24𝑥 − 15𝑦 = 84
{
24𝑥 + 16𝑦 = −88

−24 −15 𝑥 84
( ) (𝑦) = ( )
24 16 −88
−24 −15 84 −15 −24 84
𝐷=( ); 𝐷𝑋 = ( ); 𝐷𝑦 = ( )
24 16 −88 16 24 −88

24 16 −384
|𝐷| = −24

## |𝐷𝑋 | = | 84 −15| −1320

−88 16 1344
|𝐷𝑋 | = 24

−24 84 −2016
|𝐷𝑦 | = | |
24 −88 2112
|𝐷𝑦 | = 96

|𝐷𝑋 | |𝐷𝑦 |
𝑥= 𝑦=
|𝐷| |𝐷|
24 96
𝑥= 𝑦=
−24 −24

𝑥 = −1 𝑦 = −4
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎
𝑥 = −1; 𝑦 = −4

EJERCICIO 8
Resolver el siguiente sistema de ecuaciones utilizando el método de Gauss
2𝑥 + 3𝑦 + 𝑧 = 1
{ − 2𝑦 − 𝑧 = −14
6𝑥
3𝑥 + 𝑦 − 𝑧 = 1

2 3 1 1
(6 −2 −1 | −14) 𝐹3 → 𝐹2
3 1 −1 1

2 3 1 1
1
(3 1 −1 | 1 ) 𝐹1
2
6 −2 −1 −14

3 1 1 𝐹2 − 3𝐹1 → 𝐹2
1
( 2 2 | 2 )
3 1 −1 1 𝐹3 − 6𝐹1 → 𝐹3
6 −2 −1 −14

𝐹2: 31 −1 1
9 3 3
−3𝐹1: −3 − − −
2 2 2

7 5 1
𝐹1 = 0 − − −
2 2 2

𝐹3: 6 −2 −1 −14
−3𝐹1: −6 −9 −3 −3

𝐹1 = 0 −11 −4 −17
3 1 1
1
2 2 2 2
7 5 || 1 − 𝐹2 → 𝐹2
0 − − − 7
2 2 2
(0 −11 −4 −17)

3 1 1
1
2 2 2
5 || 1
0 1
7 7
(0 −11 −4 −17)

55 11
−3𝐹1: 0 11
7 7

27 108
𝐹1 = 0 0 −
7 7

3 1 1
1
2 2 2
5 | 1 7
0 1 𝐹3 → 𝐹3
7 | 7 27
27 108
(0 0 −
7 7 )

3 1 1
1
2 2 2
5 || 1
0 1
7 7
(0 0 1 −4)

## Sistema de ecuaciones equivalentes al original

3 1 1
𝑥+ 𝑦+ 𝑧=
2 2 2
5 1
𝑦+ 𝑧=
7 7
𝑧 = −4
Despejar y evaluar
5 1 3 1 1
𝑦+ 𝑧= 𝑥+ 𝑦+ 𝑧=
7 7 2 2 2

5 1 3 1 1
𝑦 + (−4) = 𝑥 + (3) + (−4) =
7 7 2 2 2

20 1 9 1
𝑦− = 𝑥+ −2=
7 7 2 2

1 20 1 9
𝑦= + 𝑥= − +2
7 7 2 2

𝑦=3 𝑥 = −2

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎
𝑥 = −2; 𝑦 = 3; 𝑧 = −4

EJERCICIO 9
Resolver el siguiente sistema de ecuaciones utilizando el método de Gauss
𝑥 𝑦 𝑧
+ + = 21
3 4 3
𝑥 𝑦 𝑧
+ − =0
5 6 3
𝑥 𝑦 𝑧
{10 + 3 − 6 = 3

1 1 1
3 4 3
1 1 1 | 21
− 0 3𝐹1 → 𝐹1
5 6 3 | 3
1 1 1
(10 − )
3 6
3
1 1 1
4
1 1 1 | 63 𝐹2 − 𝐹1 → 𝐹2
0 5

5 6 3 | 3
1 1 1 1
− 𝐹3 − 𝐹1 → 𝐹3
(10 3 6 ) 10

1 1 1
𝐹2: − 0
5 6 3
1 1 3 1 63
− 𝐹1: − − − −
5 5 20 5 5

1 8 63
𝐹2 = 0 − −
60 15 5

1 1 1
𝐹3: − 3
10 3 6
1 1 3 1 63
− 𝐹1: − − − −
10 10 40 10 10

31 4 33
𝐹3 = 0 − −
120 15 10

3
1 1 63
4 63
1 8 |−
0 − 5 60𝐹2 → 𝐹2
60 15 | 33
31 4 −
10)
(0 120 −
15

3
1 1 63
4 −756 31
0 1 −32 || 33 𝐹3 − 𝐹2 → 𝐹3
31 4 − 120
0 − 10
( 120 15 )
31 4 33
𝐹3: 0 − −
120 15 10
31 31 124 1953
− 𝐹2: 0 −
120 120 15 10

𝐹3 = 0 0 8 192

3
1 1 63 1
( 4 | −756) 𝐹3 → 𝐹3
0 1 −32 8
192
0 0 8

3
1 1 63
( 4 | −756)
0 1 −32
24
0 0 1

## Sistema de ecuaciones equivalentes al original

3
𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧 = 63
4
𝑦 − 32𝑧 = −756
𝑧 = 24

Evaluar y operar
𝑦 − 32𝑧 = −756 3
𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧 = 63
4
𝑦 − 32(24) = −756
3
𝑥 + (12) + (24) = 63
𝑦 − 768 = −756 4

𝑦 = −756 + 768 𝑥 + 9 + 24 = 63

𝑦 = 12 𝑥 = 63 − 9 − 24

𝑥 = 30
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎
𝑥 = 30; 𝑦 = 12; 𝑧 = 24