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HAM RADIO

CERTIFICATE

This is Certified that Sumit Chauhan, Tanu Singh Kashyap & Sashesh Madaan

have carried out their project work presented in this report entitled “HAM RADIO”

for the award of Bachelor of Technology Degree from Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

Technical University, Lucknow under my supervision. The project embodies result

of original work and studies carried out by students themselves and the contents of

this project do not form the basis for the award of any other degree of the candidate

or to anybody else.

PHOTO GRAPH OF ALL THE STUDENTS

WITH DEVELOPED PROJECT

Dr. Shelly Garg Mr. Shelly Garg

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR


Electronics & Communication Electronics & Communication
Engineering Engineering
Greater Noida Institute of Greater Noida Institute of
Technology, Greater Noida Technology, Greater Noida

Greater Noida Institute of Technology


HAM RADIO

DECLARATION

We, Sumit Chauhan, Tanu Singh Kashyap & Sashesh Madaan students of

Bachelor of Technology Degree (B.Tech) under the Department of Electronics

Communication Engineering of Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Technical University,

Lucknow, hereby declare that all the information furnished in this report is based on

our own intensive study work and is genuine.

This report does not, to the best of our knowledge, contain part of any work

which has been submitted for the award of degree either of this university or any

other university without proper citation.

Date: May, 2019

Sumit Chauhan (1513231184)

Tanu Singh Kashyap (1513231187)

Shashesh Madaan (1513231158)

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Greater Noida Institute of Technology


HAM RADIO

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project is done as a semester project known as “HOBBITUAL AMATEUR

RADIO”. We are really thankful to our guide Dr. Shelly Garg and whole

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Greater Noida Institute

of Technology, Greater Noida, for his invaluable guidance and assistance, without

which the accomplishment of the task would have never been possible. We also

thank him for giving this opportunity to explore into the real world and realize the

interrelation of Electronics and Communication without which a society can never

progress. In our present project we have chosen the topic “HOBBITUAL

AMATEUR RADIO” which aims at controlling a certain object with the help of the

movement of the palm. We believe in this technology which is aimed at helping the

mankind. In the end I will also like to thank Mrs. Shelly Garg who also helped us

in knowing the technicalities of the project. I will also like to thank my team

members for their effort of making the project.

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Greater Noida Institute of Technology


HAM RADIO

ABSTRACT

Throughout its history, amateur radio has made significant contributions to science,

industry, and the social services. The economic and social benefit derived from

amateur radio research has founded new industries, built economies, empowered

nations, and saved lives.

Amateur radio represents a unique research and development (R&D) environment


that cannot be duplicated in the labs or research parks of either industry or the
government. Existing at the intersection of the social, economic, cultural and

scientific spheres, amateur radio leverages this position to invent and innovate from

a unique perspective. Many now-commonplace communication technologies have

their genesis in amateur radio.

However, the amateur radio service, or more specifically, the portion of the

electromagnetic spectrum allocated to the activity, is under extreme pressure from

the telecommunications industry. Recent exponential growth in commercial wireless

communication systems has taxed existing commercial spectrum allocations, and

industry is eager for expansion. Amateur radio spectrum is threatened. Ironically,

many of the communication technologies used by these firms were initially

developed within the field of amateur radio.

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HAM RADIO

To justify their quest for additional spectrum, industry lobbyists portray amateur

radio as an anachronism, and characterize amateur bands, particularly in the UHF

and microwave region, as underutilized. On the contrary, innovative

communications research within the hobby is alive and well, and many of these new

amateur projects utilize the higher-frequency bands sought after by industry.

Therefore, amateur radio must be supported by government and the

telecommunications industry it helped create, so that it may continue to innovate

and serve as a source of creativity for both technological and social change as we

move forward into the twenty-first century.

Greater Noida Institute of Technology


HAM RADIO

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATE……………………….………………………………………………...i

DECLARATION…………………..…………………………………………………...ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………….iii

ABSTRACT………………….………………………………………………………iv-v

LIST OF FIGURES…………….……….…………………..................................viii

LIST OF SYMBOL………………..……………………………………………..…..ix

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS……...………………………………………………x-xi

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1-12

1.1. Objective of project work 5-6

1.2. Methodology adopted for project work 7-10

1.3. Organization of the report 11-12

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 13-24


2.1 APRS 13-15

2.2 Digipeating 15

2.3 1-Wire 15-16

2.4 K3TU 16

2.5 What is Amateur Radio 17-19

2.6 Why Amateur Radio 20-21

2.7 The Electromagnetic Spectrum- A Finite Source 21-22

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HAM RADIO

2.8 Amateur Radio Spectrum 23

2.9 Motivation and Resources 24

CHAPTER 3 PROJECT DETAILS

3.1. Block Diagram 25

3.2. Circuit Diagram 26

3.3. Printed circuit diagram design along with specification 27

3.4. Linear Amplifier Assembly 28-43

CHAPTER 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

4.1. Exciter Board- Building a BITx 20 version3 44-70

4.2. Conclusion and Future scope 71

APPENDIX A 72-75

REFERENCES 76-78

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HAM RADIO

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.5.1 Amateur radio population……………………………...16

Figure 2.7.1 The electromagnetic spectrum…………………………22

Figure 3.1 Block diagram………………………………………… 25

Figure 3.2 Circuit diagram…………………………………………26

Figure 3.3 PCB Layout…………………………………………… 27

Figure 3.4.1 BITX 20 Amplifier…………………………………… 28

Figure 3.4.2 Frequency Choke Inductor……………………………37

Figure 3.4.3 Jumper Board…………………………………………41

Figure 3.4.4 BITX 20 Version 3…………………………………. 42

Figure 3.4.5 Cicuit Flow Diagram ………………………………. 43

Figure 4.1.1 BFO/Modulation Section …………………………… 52

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HAM RADIO

LIST OF SYMBOLS

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HAM RADIO

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

Frequency

The number of complete oscillations per second of energy (as sound or


electromagnetic radiation) in the form of waves

Frequency Modulation

Modulation of the frequency of the carrier wave in accordance with speech or a


signal

Frequency Shift Keying

A type of modulation where the frequency of a carrier wave is shifted higher and
lower in frequency in direct correlation with the information which is to be
transmitted. At the receiver, the frequency of the carrier is tracked and used to
recover (or “demodulate”) the original information from the radio signal

Frequency-Division Multiplexing

A method of sharing the electromagnetic spectrum in which each radio signal, or


radio or television station, is assigned a specific frequency or channel on which to
operate. AM and FM radio are common examples of frequency division
multiplexing: each station remains at a unique and legally-assigned spot on the dial

FRS

See “Family Radio Service”

Greater Noida Institute of Technology


HAM RADIO

GHz

Gigahertz. A unit of frequency equal to one billion (109) hertz. Historically called a
“Gigacycle”

GUI

Graphical User Interface. An interface for issuing commands to a computer utilizing


a pointing device, such as a mouse, that manipulates and activates graphical images
on a monitor

Ham

A licensed amateur radio operator

Ham Shack

Colloquialism. The location from which the amateur radio enthusiast operates her
equipment.

Hertz

unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second

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Greater Noida Institute of Technology