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Part

1部分 Revision notes 溫習筆記


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Chapter
第 4 章 Looking at living things
觀察生物
4.1 What are living things? 4.1 生物的特徵

Q1 How do we distinguish between 我們如何分辨生物和非生物?


living things and non-living things?

A1

 All living things have seven common  所有生物


生物都有七個共同的特徵。
生物
characteristics.

grow 生長
reproduce 生殖

move 運動
excrete 排泄
Characteristics of
living things
detect and react to 生物的特徵
breathe 呼吸
stimuli
探測刺激並作出反應
need food 需要食物

 Non-living things might have some of  非生物只具備部分生物的特徵。


非生物
these characteristics, but will never have
them all.

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Q2
What are the two main groups of living 生物可分成哪兩大類? 這兩大類有
things? What are their differences? 類有甚麼差別的地方?
A2

 The two main groups of living things are  生物可分成植物


植物和動物
植物 動物兩大類。
動物
plants and animals.
 Their differences are shown below:  植物和動物的差別如下所示:

Plants 植物 Animals 動物
Make their own food to provide the Need to feed on other living things for
energy they need energy
不需進食,能自製食物,供應所需 需要進食,不能自製食物
Move very slowly and move only parts of Move quickly and can move their whole
their body body
運動緩慢,而且只有身體某部分能運動 運動較快,通常能夠移動全身
React to stimuli slowly React to stimuli quickly
對刺激的反應緩慢 對刺激的反應較快

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4.2 Diversity of plants and animals 4.2 動植物的多樣性

Q3 What is habitat? 生境是甚麼?

A3

 Habitat is the environment where a living  生物在自然界生活的環境稱為生境


生境。
生境
thing lives.
 The following are some habitats:  以下圖片顯示一些生境:

Grassland 草原 Tropical rainforest 熱帶雨林

Freshwater pond 淡水池塘 Ocean 海洋

Desert 沙漠 Polar regions 極地

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Q4 Are there differences among the 同種生物之間是否存有相異之處?


same kind of living things?
A4

 Yes. There are differences in features. They  是。同種生物之間的特徵存有不少相


are called variations 異之處,稱為差異
差異。
差異

 The following are some variations in humans:  下圖顯示人類之間的一些差異:

Tongue roller 能把舌頭捲起 Non-tongue roller 不能把舌頭捲起

With ear lobe 有耳垂 Without ear lobe 沒有耳垂

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Q5
Do all variations vary in the same way? 是否所有差異都能明確地劃分?

A5

 No. Some variations are clear-cut while  不是。有些差異能明確地劃分


明確地劃分,而有些
明確地劃分
some have a continuous range of distribution. 差異則呈連續變化。

 Examples of clear-cut variations in humans:  人與人之間能明確劃分的差異之例子:

Curved thumb Straight thumb Right-handed Left-handed


拇指關節能向外屈曲 拇指關節不能向外屈曲 慣用右手 慣用左手

 Examples of variations with continuous range  差異呈連續變化的例子:指距、高度


of distribution: hand span, height and weight 和重量

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Chapter
第 5 章 Sorting living things into
groups
生物的分類
5.1 The need for classification 5.1 分類的重要性

Q6 What is classification? Why do scientists 甚麼是分類?為甚麼科學家


classify living things into groups? 把生物分成不同的類別?

A6
 Classification is the process of  把具有相似特徵的物件歸為
sorting things into groups with 一類的過程稱為分類
分類。
分類
similar characteristics.
 It helps scientists identify and  分類有助科學家有系統地研
study living things systematically. 究和分辨不同的生物。

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5.2 Classifying living things 5.2 把生物分類

Q7 How do scientists classify animals? 科學家如何把動物分類?

A7

 Scientists classify animals into vertebrates and  科學家根據動物有沒有脊柱


脊柱,把牠
脊柱
invertebrates, based on whether or not they 們分類為脊椎動物
脊椎動物和無脊椎動物
脊椎動物 無脊椎動物。
無脊椎動物
have a backbone.
 Examples of vertebrates:  脊椎動物的例子:

Crocodile 鱷魚 Zebra 斑馬 Penguin 企鵝

 Examples of invertebrates:  無脊椎動物的例子:

Snail 蝸牛 Jellyfish 水母 Bee 蜜蜂

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Q8
How do scientists further classify 科學家如何把脊椎動物再分類?
vertebrates?

A8

Vertebrates are classified into five groups: 脊椎動物可分為五類:

Vertebrates
脊椎動物

Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals


魚類 兩棲類 爬行類 鳥類 哺乳類

e.g. Goldfish e.g. Frog e.g. Turtle e.g. Eagle e.g. Panda
例如:金魚 例如:蛙 例如:海龜 例如:鷹 例如:熊貓

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Q9
How do scientists classify plants? 科學家如何把植物分類?

A9

Scientists classify plants into flowering plants 根據植物會否長出花朵,科學家把植物分類


and non-flowering plants, based on whether 為有花植物
有花植物和無花植物
有花植物 無花植物兩大類。
無花植物
or not they produce flowers.

Plants 植物

Flowering plant 有花植物 Non-flowering plants 無花植物

e.g. Sunflower e.g. Fern


例如:向日葵 例如:蕨

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5.3 Making use of a key 5.3 製作檢索表

Q10 What is a key? 甚麼是檢索表?

A10

 A key help us identify living things based on  我們可根據生物的特徵查閱檢索表,


their body features. 以辨認生物。
 The key for identifying birds is shown below:  以下顯示用來辨認雀鳥的檢索表:

Birds A to D
雀鳥 A 至 D

with short legs with long legs


腳短 腳長

beak spoon-shaped beak not spoon-shaped


喙呈匙羹狀 喙部尖長

White wagtail
白鶺鴒
with black facial skin with white facial skin
臉呈黑色 臉呈白色

Great egret
大白鷺

Black-faced spoonbill Eurasian spoonbill


黑臉琵鷺 白琵鷺

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Chapter
第 6 章 Living things in danger
瀕臨絕種生物
6.1 What are endangered 6.1 甚麼是瀕臨絕種生物?
甚麼是瀕臨絕種生物?
species?

Q11
What are endangered species? 甚麼是瀕臨絕種生物?

A11

 Endangered species are living things  瀕臨絕種生物是面臨絕種危機的生物。


瀕臨絕種生物
that are in danger of extinction.
 Examples of endangered species:  瀕臨絕種生物的例子:

Black rhinoceros 黑犀牛 Polar bear 北極熊 King protea 帝王花

Siberian tiger 西伯利亞虎 Chinese sturgeon 中華鱘 African elephant 非洲大象

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6.2 Why do some species 6.2 為 甚麼 生物會瀕 臨


become endangered? 絕種?
絕種?
Q12
Why do some living things become 野生生物為甚麼會瀕臨絕種呢?
endangered?

A12

Some human activities have impacts on living 人類活動對野生生物構成不少影響,例


things, such as destruction of habitat, 如破壞自然生境
破壞自然生境、污染
破壞自然生境 污染及過度捕殺
污染 過度捕殺。
過度捕殺
pollution and excessive hunting.

Destruction of habitat Pollution


破壞自然生境 污染
e.g. Chemical waste from
e.g. Forests are cleared to
factories can poison the
obtain wood, and to create
living things in water.
farmland.
e.g. 人類砍伐森林,以開墾 e.g. 工 廠 排 出 的 化 學 廢
農地或取得木材。 Living things become endangered 料會毒害水中的生物。

野生生物瀕臨絕種

Excess hunting
過度捕殺

e.g. Sharks are hunted for their fins.


e.g. 人類捕殺鯊魚以獲取牠的鰭。

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6.3 The importance of 6.3 保護野生生物的


protecting living things 重要性
Q13 Why do we need to protect living things? 為甚麼我們需要保護野生生物?

A13
Living things in a habitat are 同一生境中的生物互相依賴
互相依賴
interdependent on each other. The 而生存,任何一種生物消失,
disappearance of any of the species may 都會對其他生物構成影響。
have a harmful effect on the others.

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6.4 How can we protect 6.4 我們應如何保護生物?


我們應如何保護生物?
living things?
Q14 What are the 4 ‘R’s principles for 保護環境的「4R」原則是甚麼?
conserving the environment?

A14

4 ‘R’s Principles
「4 R」原則

Reduce Reuse Recycle Replace


(Reduce the use of (Reuse things rather (Turn the used (Use environmentally
resources) than throwing them material into a new friendly items to replace
減少使用 away) product) the ones that are
(減少資源的消耗) 重複再用 循環再造 harmful to the
environment)
(重用物件而不隨 (把廢棄的物料再造
便棄掉) 成一些可用的產品) 替代使用
(選用一些較環保的產
品,來代替一些會破壞
環境的產品

e.g. Turning off the e.g Used clothes can e.g. Recycling bins are set up e.g. Bring your own
light when not in be reused by people for recycling waste paper, shopping bags instead of
use . who need them. aluminium cans and plastic using plastic bags.
e.g. 關 掉 不 必 要 e.g 舊 衣 物 送 給 有 bottles. e.g. 購物時可自備購物
的電燈。 需要的人士。 e.g. 廢 物 回 收 箱 可 收 集 廢 袋,避免使用膠袋。
紙、鋁罐及膠樽以循環再造。

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第 2 部分 Revision exercise 單元練習


A. True or false questions
是非題
Write ‘T’ for a true statement or ‘F’ for a false statement in each box provided.
細閱以下句子,正確的在方格內填上「T」,不正確的則填上「F」。
1. Plants do not move. □
2. The number of students with curved thumb and with straight thumb can be shown by □
using a bar graph.
3. Different people have different body heights. This is an example of variation □
4. Snakes are invertebrates. □
5. Moss belongs to flowering plants. □
6. A key is used to identify living things □
7. Some endangered species are plants. □
8. Some animals become extinct because of excessive hunting by humans. □

B. Multiple-choice questions
多項選擇題
Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions.
選出正確的答案,然後在空格內填上代表該答案的英文字母。
1. Which of the following statements about plants is correct?
A. Plants cannot make food by themselves.
B. Plants react to stimuli quickly.
C. Plants can breathe.
D. Plants are non-living things. □

2. Which of the following are the characteristics of living things?


(I) They can excrete.
(II) They can grow.
(III) They can reproduce.
A. (I) and (II) only
B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III) □

3. Which of the following are the habitats of living things?


(I) Desert
(II) Polar regions
(III) Grassland
A. (I) and (II) only
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B. (I) and (III) only


C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III) □

4. Which of the following variations is clear-cut?


A. Hand span
B. Hair line
C. Body weight
D. Body height □

5. Which of the following is a vertebrate?


A. Goldfish
B. Butterfly
C. Grasshopper
D. Earthworm □

6. Which of the following animals do not belong to mammals?


A. Penguins
B. Bats
C. Lions
D. Horses □

7. Which of the following animals have lungs for breathing?


(I) Seals
(II) Snakes
(III) Turtle
A. (I) and (II) only
B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III) □

8. Which of the following are endangered species?


(I) Moth orchid
(II) Green turtle
(III) Polar bear
A. (I) and (II) only
B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III) □

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9. Which of the following activities damage the habitats of living things in the rivers and seas?
(I) Leaking oil from oil tankers.
(II) Discharging chemical wastes from factories directly.
(III) Using excessive fertilisers and pesticides in farmlands.
A. (I) and (II) only
B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III) □

10. Which of the following is NOT a way to conserve the environment?


A. Reuse plastic bags from shops.
B. Eat more meat.
C. Use recycled paper.
D. Plant more trees. □

C. Short questions
短問題
1. The following pictures show a green turtle and a giant panda.

(a) List two differences in body features between the turtle and the panda.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

(b) Which groups of vertebrates do they belong to respectively? Explain why they belong to
these groups of vertebrates.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

(c) How do they breathe?


______________________________________________________________________

(d) Are they endangered species?


______________________________________________________________________

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2. The following diagrams show three different leaves:

smooth edge

toothed edge

parallel veins branched veins

A B C

Construct a key to identify the three leaves.

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Part Answers 答案
A. True or false questions 是非題
1. F
2. T
3. T
4. F
5. F
6. T
7. T
8. T

B. Multiple-choice questions 多項選擇題


1. C
2. D
3. D
4. B
5. A
6. A
7. D
8. D
9. D
10. B

C. Short questions 短問題


1. (a) The turtle has scales but the panda has not.
The panda has hair but the turtle has not.
(b) The turtle is a reptile as it has dry hard scales.
The panda is a mammal as it has mammary glands.
(c) They have lungs for breathing.
(d) Yes, both of them are endangered species.

2. Leaves A to C

smooth edge toothed edge

parallel veins branched veins

B C
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