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CIRCUIT

TRANSIENTS
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CIRCUIT TRANSIENTS
(BILATERAL CIRCUIT ELEMENTS ONLY)

Transient disturbances are produced whenever:


1. An apparatus or circuit is suddenly connected to or disconnected ti·om the supply
7 :\cirunt IS shorted and.
There is a sudden change in the applied voltage from one fmite value to another

.Vote: Trans tent carrents are not driven by any part of the applied \·oltage but are em1<,·!v .. s;, 0 , ;utc •.
with the charges m the stored _energy in mductor and capacitor . ·

81assification of Transient Disturbances


I. l11itiatimr Transients -these are prod;.tced when a circuit \-Yhich is ongmally dead.;-, e;Krgved
Suhsidcuce Transients- these arc produced when an cncrgi:ccd Cll'<..:Utt JS rap;dly dc-cLergvc:•.l and
reaches an eventual steady state of zero currenr or\ a~~ ID c~Js~~ ,_;f shu·
ctrctuttng an RL or R-c· cucult
Trtl!L\·ition Transieut\ these- are due to sudden but cnerg~tic chan.ges fnJITi on.._- ~tat:.:' T·; :Jnc:fL
-" Complex Tmnsienrs - these a!'e produced m a cncun '' hich is ,ubJc·~-'c'c\ :-
.,::._::.

producmg the transients :;, l'Seif vanabk


"' Relaxation Transieflt\ ··the transition occurs cyclicoJly t~)\\ards stzucs_ \\ hich ,, hctt ,, :.h.:h;,;d l _-·..·uri<.<,.'
unstable themsel,·es.

RESPONSE OF CIRCUIT PARAMETERS

Rl.'~iswr

dq
___..._ _,vVV
. Af AA __...___
v·~-. arnp
dt
R \Ct\m&)

Inductor

but i-
dt

I ('_;JQ:J~Or

e, ~
rcr- ec
a
==--___:_ .......
Qo

l
j
~E,
(:. i [2 '\
c c
..,. if aiding E or opposing

\..- \. TOll)ci I e( 2_
c
Jictt
Transients in R-1 series Circuit

Ji
L Ri
dt

f--
.; L

Hr
in~ E- Ri;

L Rl

-- R; ·:. l(c

FPr tna~Hant of inte2:ration f(~ l'onsider initiat conditic·n

",}- ~ ~

E;
i-=--~·\-e
·f
ft
ll.t
L
'I
·~
--
l
v·oltage across R ar anv instant

L
E l- c

Voltage across L at an) instant

R:
di l~- R --,
/L -e L
dt
7
Yo its
Power across R at any instant

watts

When t = oo

Power across L at any instant

. • E-2 ( -Rt
- -2RtJ
-
PL = eL . l = L e L - e L

When t = oo

Energy Stored in the mantic field

dWL = eL' i dt

di
= L i - . dt
dt

Jdw = JL i di
joules

Time Constant- the time for the current ito reach 63.2% of its finai value or the time for the negative
exponent of e to become unity
. L
Time Constant, y = - sec
R
Transient in R-C Series Circuits (DC}

When the switch is clu,ed


SW~t-=-0 tr
r eI . ---, E ~ R t~
r
~. c

II 4R bur i ~
dq/

J lc
//dt

_L
I dq q
.-
t ·-- _L E=R
dt c

T L~~--~-~--_._..
t
__________J
-----
dq
-
ch

\'lultiply both stdes by ,- aud 1ntc~;·at1ng


'-

1
- dq

J-E--·-~~-:(~ R.-.·

Ln i. E --q c J - --

lni1iai c·ond1tion.

K=E

·-··-
RC
i! q = EC l- c coul

·------_1

dq
Tran::-r!ents C:..trTent:
dr

E RC
~ -e amp
~-------'
If C has initial charge

e RC amp
Voltage Across R at any instar.t

·~··­
iR Ee RC Volts

Voltage Across C at any instant

~
q R\. [:
c !:

Energy Stored in the Capacitor

f_g_ dq i"Cjdq'

Jc dt l
'Y
--·--ot
dl

_____)

Time Const<Jnt in RC Series Circuit cS tune for

----------

,,,
:1 DOUBLE ENERGY TRANSIENTS
il
11
( Transienb in RLC Senes CircUit)
!i
ll 'When ihe switch i~ closed

I!It dr
E = Ri ~ L - -'-
,.
_, idr
li di c -
Takmg the first dcm·atin:
11

0~ R
I

dt l dt LC

Let r)
dr

' - ·'
L

R
-- \ -- -l
()u~:.dr(!_tic ronnula: '
.L
'
L

~;

LL

.'_;
j!
\; l 1 i
t \ .~1.- f.'-_

Case I 0Hrdamped Case

R \2 r \
if I > ~-· ~ Q(l
2L) ~LC)
~ is real number
D: =a;~

D, =a- 0
[D ~ ta ~ 1311 [ D- (a- r))] i ~ 0
' 7
,,l
l
il
II the solution to differential ~quation is

II
II
I
I
'.
amp
1

I Case II Critically Damped Case

f3=0
D2 =a

[D -a] [D-a]i =0

the solution to differential equation is

i= CJ cat+ t(~2eat
-----,
I
0
l -· e ' [ C 1 + t Cc} J amp
I

Case HI Underdampe-d Case

2 1
'J
if lzL
( R
< l LC) 1 \
0
11-
p is imaginary
Dz =a -jf)

[D-(a+jp)] [D-(a-jp]i=O

= e "' ( K 1 (cos f3 t + j sin f3t) + K 2 (cos f3t - j sin f3t]

= e o:r [ ( K 1 + K z) cos (3 t + ( jK1 - jK2) sm f3t]

1
i = e" ( c! cos f3t + Cz sin f3t] I
.'ote: to obtain cl & c2'00nstant, consider tie conditions
di E
@t=O ; i=C and-
dt L

--------- - ------·-·--- - - - - - - - - - - -
8
·:;-

Resultant Transient: i = itransient componnent + i steady state component


RL Circuits

~-
e = Emsin(wt + 4>)
@ t=O if e=O, then q>=0°
@ t=O if e=Em, then <p=90°
When the switch is closed,
di == Em Sln(mt+q>
Ri + L -- . . )
Ge dt
The solution to differential equation is
I
I
t
-~t Em I:/
i = Kc + ·-sin (wt + q> - 8z)
~----------z~L~_______________ _J

cuL
ez =arctan-
R

q> -position of sinusoidal voltage at the instant of switching

RC Circuits
When the switch is dosed,

~ J•
Ri + -1 1 dt= Em sin(w t+tD)
c '

_)i:
(.,
The solution to differential equation is

i=Ke
RC
+ -
Em
Zc
sin ( mt + (J) + 8z)
l

1 1
Zc=R-j- ez = arctan -----
we oJCR
1. A coil of inductance 10.5 His connected to a source voltage of V=(3t+25.4) 112 •
What is the current in the inductor after 5.25 sec?
A 5.5A £. 2.88A
B. 6.15A D. 3.22A

2. Find the voltage across 0.01 uF capacitor at t=0.25 micro-second if initial stored
voltage is 0.6 volt and the current through it is i(t)=0.2 sin 2 pi 10~ amperes.
A. 2.28 volts C. 2.86 volts
_e.. 3. 78voits D. 4.86 volts

3. Find the current through a 0.01 microfarad capacitor at t = 0 if the voltage across
it is -2 e·10000000 t V. ·
A 200mA C. 20A
B. 20mA D. 2A

4. Find the current through 0.01 micro-farad capacitor at t=O if the voltage across it
is v(t)= -2e -i~ sin 2 pi 10 6t volts. ·
A- o. 1256 C. 0.2
B. -0.1256 D. 0.1428

5. A 1000 pF capacitor, a 1.0 mH inductor, and a current source of i=2 cos 108t rnA
are in series. The capacitor voltage is zero at t=O. Find the energy stored in the
inductor at t=O.
A. 2x1o·9 J C. 2x10..s J
R 2x10..s J D. 2x10·3 J

6. A Capacitor has an initial charge 8.3 coulomb. if the current flows through it is
given by the equation i=2t+3 amperes, find the charge when t=1 sec?
A. 16.3 C. 4
B. 12.3 D. 6

7. A 10 ohms resistance Rand a 1.0 H inductance L are in series. A direct current


voltage of E 50 volts is applied across a series circuit at time t = 0 initial current is
i(O)=O. Solve for the differential equation and determine the resulting current i(t) at
t=0.1 second.
A 3.48 C. 2.87
, B. 3.16 D. 3.82

8. The field circuit of a synchronous motor has an inductance of 50 H and a


resistance of 100 ohms. The excitation voltage is 120 volts. Compute the time it
takes the field curreht to build up to 99% of its final value when the excitation
voltage is applied.
A. 0.01 sec ~- 2.3 sec
B. 3.6 sec D. 2 sec
r---------~------------------------~-~-

'
'
I/
I
I

9. A generator has a field winding with inductance of L =1 0 H arid a resistance Rf=


0.1 ohm. To break the initial field current of 1000 amperes, the field inserts a field
discharge resistance of Rd across the field terminals before it contacts open. As a
result, the f~eld current decays to zero according to Ldi/dt+ iR=O; where R=Rf+Rd
the differentia! equation, preventing the sudden decrease of ito zero, a resulting
high inductive voltage due to l. Solve for the differential equation and determine
the value of Rd that will limit the voltage across it to 1000 volts.
A. 0.9 C. 0.85
B. 0.8 D. 0.95

10.A 20 ohm resistance Rand a 0.001 farad capacitance Care in series. A direct
current voltage E 100 volts is applied across series circuit at t=O and the initial
current is i(O)= 5 amperes. The Appjicable differential equation is Rdildt+i/C=O.
Solve for the differential equation and determine the resulting current i(t) at t=
0.01 second.
A. 3.34 C. 2.78
R 3.67 Q. 3.03

11. A capacitor of 8 micro-farad is to be charged by a voltage of 400 volts through a


resistor of 100,000 ohms. How iong it wiU take for the vooage across capacitor
from its initial zero value to 300 volts?
A. 1 sec C. 1.1sec
B. 1.5 sec D. 0.8sec

12. A 50 ~ F capacitor is discharged through a 100 Kn resistor. If the capacitor was


initialrf charged to 400 V, determine the energy stored after 600 ms.
A. 3.14 joules C. 4.0 joules
8. 2.4 joutes D. 3.6 joules

13. A 100~-t F Capacitor charged to 24 V is connected with a 200~-t F uncharged


capacitor, a 1 kilo-ohm resistor and a switch. What is the current 0.1 sec after the
switch is dosed.
A 6.3mA ~- 5.36mA
B. 24mA D. 0.16 mA

14.A capacitor having a capacit.ance of 1 micro-farad is charge at 1 volt and


disconnected immediately after 1.0 hour, the voltage becomes 0.8 volt Find the
insulation resistance of the capacitor.
A.16Gn C. 20GQ
B.12GQ D. 24GQ

15.A series RLC with R=2 ohm and L=0.5 H. Find the value of capacitance so that
the circuit is critically damped.
A. 0.25 F C. 1F
B. 0.5F D.2F
16.A series RLC circuit consisting of 20 ohms resistor, 20 mH inductor 100 J..LF
capacitor in series is connected to a ·100 V de source. Find the additional
resistance just to prevent oscillation of the resulting transient current
A. 2.8ohms ~ 1&28 ohms
B. 28.2 ohms D. 282 ohms

17.A series RLC circuit consisting of20 ohms res~tor, 10 mH inductor and
uncharged 100 J..I.F capacitor in series is connected to a 100 V de source. Find
the resulting transient current when the switch is closed at t=O.
A 104e-1000t C. 104te· 1000t
B. 104e·1000t sin1000t D. 104e·1000t sinh1000t

18.A circuit consisting of 20 ohms resistor, 10 mH inductor 101 ~-tF capacitor in series.
is connected to a 1Qt V de source. The transient component of the current after
the switch closes has a frequency of oscillation of · ·
A 497Hz C. 159Hz
I B. 2420 Hz D. 1000 Hz
!'

19.A 2 H inductor, 16 ohms resistor and 0.02 F capacitor is sudd~:mly connected to a


300 volts Find the transient current when the switch is closed at t=O
A. 25 e 4 t cos3t C. 50 e 4 t cos3t
4
B. 25 e t sin3t P.,..50 e4 t sin 3t

20.A 10 ohms resistance Rand a 1.0 H inductance l are in series. An ac voltage of


e(t)= 100sin(377tvolts is applied across a series circuit. The appiicabie differential
equation is Ri + L di =e(t).
dt . .
sa'ive for the particular solution (without
complementary solution) to the differential equation and determine the amplitude
resu ltlng sinusoidal current .
A. 0.2645 Ampere C. 0.292 Ampere
B. 0.321 Ampere D. 0.241 Ampere·
CIRCUIT TRANSIENTS SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS.

1. A 5 ohms resistance R and a 0.5 Henry inductance l are in series is suddenly


connected to a direct current voltage of E 60 volts. Solve for the resulting
current 0.1 seeond after closing the switch.
A. 7.58 amperes C. · 12 amperes
"B. 7.16 amperes D. 7.82 amperes .

2. A DC voltage of 80 volts is applied to a circuit containing a resistance of 80


ohms in series with an inductance of 20 Henries. Catcufate the growth of
current at t = 5 millisecond.
A. 8.4 Amp/sec Q.! 3.92 Amp/sec
B. 1.2 Amp/sec D. 7.8 Amp/sec

3. A 10 ohms resistance and a 1.0 Henry inductance L are in series, A direct


current voltage of E 100 volts iS applied across the series circuit at time r-o .
Calculate the voltage across Rafter0.1 second.
A 34.8 volts C. 50 volts
R 31.6 volts 0. 63.2 volts

4. A shunt winding of a machine has a resistance of 80 ohms and inductance of


4 H. it is switched suddenly on to 220 V de supply. The time taken for current
to rise to half its final steady value is nearest to·
f:!t.: 0.035 sec C. 0.05 sec
B. 0.025 sec D. 0.25 sec

5. A 250 volts, 10 Kw, DC generator is separately excited. It has an effective


armature circuit resistance of 0.5 ohm and inductance of 0.10 H when it 1s
supplying its rated current. Suddenly the terminals beyond its protective
circuit breaker are short circuited with a short circuit resistance of 0.2 ohm.
The breaker operates .0.02 $ec after the fault occurs. Neglecting the
saturation of the magnetic circuit, What is the maximum current which the
genermor issu~eded?
A. 80Amp c. 85Amp
B. 90Amp' D. 95Amp

6. Th~ dec2v current of a coil is recorded. -It is found that i= 10 A at t = 2 ms and


=
i = 3.68 A at t 6 ms. What is the time constant of the coil?
A3~ ~2ms
aa~ n4ms
1. A 80 J.l. F capacitor in series with a voltmeter of 10,000 ohms resiStance is
connected suddenly to a 100 V de supply. How long it will take the voltmeter
read 40 volts
A. 0.04 sec C. 0.733 sec
B. 0.02 sec D. 0.523 sec
.c·

8. A coil of tO H inductance and 5 ohms resistance are connected in parallel


with 20 ohm resistor across 100 V DC supply which is suddenly
disconnected. The rate at which energy stored is losing 0.3 sec after
switching is
A. 2232 Joules/sec C. 2.332 joules/sec
B. 2,223 Joule/sec D. 223.13 joules/sec

=
9. A capacitor of 2 micro-farad with an initial charge q 100 micro-coulombs is
connected across the terminals of a 100 ohm resistanc-e at t = 0. Calculate
the time { micro-sec } in which the transient voltage across resistor drops from
40 to 10 volts ·
A 27740 C. 477.20
B. 274.20 D. 472.70

10.A capacitor of 2 micrO-farad with an initiai charge is connected across the


=
terminals. of a 10 ohm resistor and the switch is closed at t 0. Find qo (
micro-coulomb} if the transients power in the resistor is known to be
360e - 100. 000 t
A 1200 C. 120
B. 102 D. 2100

11.A circuit consisting of 10 ohms resistor, 10 mH inductor 10 ~F capacitor in


series is suddenly connected to a 10 V de source. The transient component
of current after the.swite;'! closes has a frequency of oscillation of
A 497hz 159hz
R 2420hz D. 1000hz

i 2. A 60 hz sinusoidal voltage of maximum value 311 V is applied to a series


circuit of resistance 10 ohms and inductance 0.1 H. Assuming that the vottage
is zero at the.instant of application, \f.Jhat is the equation of the resultant
transient current?
A 7.7 e-1oor +7.97 sin(377t~75 degrees) C. 7.7
B. 7.7 e 100t +7.97 sin(377t+75 degrees) D. 7.97 sin(377t~75 degrees)
!3.A circuit consisting of10 ohms resistor, 10 mH inductor iO ~F capacitor in
series is suddenly connected to a 10 V de source. What ls the transient
current 2 ms after closing the switch.
A 0.045Amp C. -0.0045 Amp
B. 3.2Amp D. 0.45Amp

l4.A circuit consisting of 20 ohms resistor, 20 mH inductor and a 100 micro-farad


capacitor in series is connected to 200 V DC supply. The capacitor is initially
uncharged. Find the maximum instantaneous current.
A. 6.45 Amp C. 7.45 Amp
B. 8.45 Amp D. 9.45 Amp
j
!I
I
i
I •. -·
I

15. A series circuit consist of resistor of 4 ohms, an inductor with XL= 5 ohms at
=
50 hz and a capacitor with Xc 5 ohms at 60 hz. If a de source rated 100
volts is applied across the series circuit, what would be the steady state
current?
A. Zero C. 60amp.
B. 6.7 Amp. D. 20Amp.
112
16. The current in a 125 farad capacitor is i=t(t+6.83) Find the voltage after 1.0
second if there is initial charge of 25 volts?
A 26 C. 11
B. 25 D. 19

17.A coil of 15 H inductance and 10 ohms resistance is suddenly connected to a


20 volts DC source by closing switch. What is the energy stored in the
magnetic f~eid 2 seconds after the switch is closed?
A 16.3 joules C. 30 joules
B. 20 jouies D. 10 joules

18.A current is given by this equation i =2f + f +3, a capacitor has an initial
charge of 6.83 coulomb. What should be the charge of the capacitor after 5
sec?
A. 362 C. 376
8. 385 D. 369

19.A series RLC with R=1 ohm and C=2 F. Find the value of inductance for
crtticalty damped.
A. 0.25H C. 1H
B. 2H D. 0.5H

20.A circuit consisting of 10 ohms resistor, 10 mH inductor 10 ~F capacitor in


series is connected to a 10 V de source. The transient component of the
current after the switc-h closes has a frequency of oscillation of
A. 497 Hz C. 159Hz
B. 2420 Hz D. 1000 Hz

PRACTICE Makes Perfect