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# DC Converter Equations Revisited

Normally the rectifier and inverter equations are written in terms of the firing angles 𝛼 and 𝛾.
Rectifier Equations Inverter Equations
3√2𝑁 𝐷𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 3𝑋𝑐 3√2𝑁 𝐷𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 3𝑋𝑐
𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑟 = � � Vac cos(𝛼) − 𝑁 � + 2𝑅𝑐 � 𝐼 𝑑𝑐 𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑖 = � � Vac cos(𝛾) + 𝑁 �− + 2𝑅𝑐 � 𝐼 𝑑𝑐
𝜋 𝑇𝑎𝑝 𝜋 𝜋 𝑇𝑎𝑝 𝜋
𝐷𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝐷𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒
𝐸𝑎𝑐 = � � Vac 𝐸𝑎𝑐 = � �V
𝑇𝑎𝑝 𝑇𝑎𝑝 ac
√2𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑋𝑐 √2𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑋𝑐
𝜇 = cos−1 �cos 𝛼 − �−𝛼 𝜇 = cos−1 �cos 𝛾 − �−𝛾
𝐸𝑎𝑐 𝐸𝑎𝑐
For transient stability purposes it is more convenient to write the inverter equations in terms of 𝛽. 𝛽 is related to 𝛾 by 𝛽 = 𝜇 + 𝛾.
During the simulation we will need to flip back and forth between 𝛽 and 𝛾, thus express 𝛽 as a function of 𝛾 and vice versa.
√2𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑋𝑐 √2𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑋𝑐
𝛽 = cos−1 �cos 𝛾 − � and 𝛾 = cos −1 �cos 𝛽 + �.
𝐸𝑎𝑐 𝐸𝑎𝑐

√2𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑋𝑐
Now using the relationship cos 𝛾 = cos 𝛽 + , rewrite the DC voltage equation for the inverter in terms of 𝛽.
𝐸𝑎𝑐
3√2𝑁 √2𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑋𝑐 3𝑋𝑐
𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑖 = 𝐸𝑎𝑐 �cos 𝛽 + � + 𝑁 �− + 2𝑅𝑐 � 𝐼 𝑑𝑐
𝜋 𝐸𝑎𝑐 𝜋
3√2𝑁 6𝑋𝑐 3𝑋𝑐
𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑖 = 𝐸𝑎𝑐 cos 𝛽 + 𝑁 � 𝐼 𝑑𝑐 � + 𝑁 �− + 2𝑅𝑐 � 𝐼 𝑑𝑐
𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
3√2𝑁 3𝑋𝑐
𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑖 = 𝐸𝑎𝑐 cos 𝛽 + 𝑁 � + 2𝑅𝑐 � 𝐼 𝑑𝑐
𝜋 𝜋
Using these equations, model the converter in the DC network equations as follows, with the extra constraint that the currents can
NOT be negative.
𝑅𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑣

𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝐼𝑖𝑛𝑣
𝐸𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡 +
3√2𝑁 𝐷𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒
+
-- 3√2𝑁 𝐷𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝐸𝑖𝑛𝑣
𝐸𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡 = � � V cos(𝛼𝑟 ) 𝐸𝑖𝑛𝑣 = � � V cos(𝛽)
--
𝜋 𝑇𝑎𝑝 ac 𝜋 𝑇𝑎𝑝 ar
3𝑋𝑐 3𝑋𝑐
𝑅𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 𝑁 � + 2𝑅𝑐 � 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑣 = 𝑁 � + 2𝑅𝑐 �
𝜋 𝜋
Multi-Terminal DC Network 3𝑋𝑐𝐶3
3𝑋𝑐𝐶1 DC Network Equations 𝑅𝐶3 = 𝑁𝐶3 � + 2𝑅𝑐𝐶3 �
𝑅𝐶1 = 𝑁𝐶1 � + 2𝑅𝑐𝐶1 � 𝜋
𝜋
𝑅𝐶1 𝑅𝑎 𝐿𝑎 𝐿𝑏 𝑅𝑏 𝑅𝐶3

+
𝐼𝑐1 𝐼𝑎 𝐼𝑏 𝐼𝑐3
𝐸𝐶1 𝐿𝑐 +
-- -- 𝐸𝐶3
𝐼𝑐

𝑅𝑐

## 3√2𝑁 𝐷𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 3√2𝑁 𝐷𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒

𝐸𝐶1 = � �V cos(𝛼𝐶1 ) 𝐸𝐶3 = � �V cos(𝛼𝐶3 )
𝜋 𝑇𝑎𝑝 acC1 𝜋 𝑇𝑎𝑝 acC3

## Following are AC per unit voltages from 𝐿𝑑

the network equations.
VacS , VacC3 , VacC1
𝐼𝑑
𝑅𝑑
Following are outputs of the various
dynamic DC converter models.
cos(𝛽𝑆 ) , cos(𝛼𝐶1 ) , cos(𝛼𝐶1 )

𝐼𝑠 𝑅𝑠 3𝑋𝑐𝑆
𝑅𝑆 = 𝑁𝑆 � + 2𝑅𝑐𝑆 �
Note: For coding purposes it is easier to 𝜋
flip the direction of the current at the
inverter and then just require that it be
+ 𝐸𝑆 3√2𝑁 𝐷𝐶𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒
-- 𝐸𝑆 = � � VacS cos(𝛽𝑆 )
negative instead of positive 𝜋 𝑇𝑎𝑝
Implementation of the numerical solution of the PDCI

In the normal network boundary equations and in Simulator's power flow engine, the DC converter control is assumed to be
instantaneous. We assume that firing angle move instantaneously to bring DC currents instantaneously to a new operating point.
For the PDCI we will be removing these assumptions completely and modeling the dynamics of the firing angle control. It is
convenient for numerical reasons to make the control output of the DC converter equal to either cos(𝛼) and cos(𝛽) depending on
whether the converter is acting as a rectifier or inverter. Here we will describe how this changes the numerical simulation of the
multi-terminal DC line.

Inside the transient stability engine in Simulator, an explicit integration method is used. Thus the general process of solving the
equations is to use a numerical integration time step to update all dynamic state variables and then another step to update all the
algebraic variables such as the AC system voltage and angle (network boundary equations). The MTDC simulation is added into this
framework as follows.

During each time-step of the numerical simulation of the multi-terminal DC Line, the following steps are taken
1. Using the standard routines within Simulator to calculate the new states for the dynamic models MTDC_PDCI,
CONV_CELILO_E, CONV_CELILO_N, and CONV_SYLMAR. This is done along with all the other thousands of dynamic models.
--> Updated Variables are cos(𝛼) or cos(𝛽) terms for the DC converters
2. Before solving all the other algebraic equations using the AC network boundary equations, take the new cos(𝛼) and cos(𝛽)
terms and use them to model a step change in the DC voltages seen by the DC network equations. Use numerical integration
to simulate the change in DC voltages and DC currents on the transmission lines for this time-step. Note that this is the only
place in the numerical routines where the DC system currents in the system change.
--> Updated Variables are the DC voltages and DC Currents
3. Finally, when the normal AC network boundary equations are being solved we must modify how the DC network equations
are handled. Without the dynamic model for the MTDC line modeled, we assume that the DC currents respond
instantaneously to a change in the DC voltages by an instantaneous change in the converter firing angles. Because the PDCI
is modeling the actual dynamics of the DC converter firing angle change, we must assume that the firing angles remain
constant during the network boundary equation solution instead. In addition, the PTDC is a very long transmission line and
thus has a substantial inductance, therefore the current cannot change instantaneously either and must be assumed
constant during the network boundary equation solution. This means that in order to solve the DC network equations we
must allow the voltages in the DC network to change but since we're not allowing the currents to change, then this means all
voltage changes from resistances must be zero. This means that the new voltage variations must be coming from the
inductor L*dI/dt terms. We will show this below.
--> Updated Variables are DC voltages
Numerical Integration to model the change in DC currents and DC voltages after a change in the
𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝜶) and 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝜷) terms
DC Converter equations are as follows, where R and E were described earlier. The unknown variable associated with this equation is
the DC current. Note that it's possible for this to result in a current that is impossible (negative current injected into DC network for
a rectifier or positive injection for an inverter). In that case we use a different equation which sets the current to zero.
𝑅

+ 𝐼 + 𝑅𝐼 + 𝑉𝑡 = 𝐸 𝑜𝑟 𝐼=0
𝐸 -- 𝑉𝑡
_
DC transmission line equations are as follows. The unknown variable associate with this equation is the DC line current.
𝑅 𝐿 Remember the trapezoidal integration rule:
dx dx
𝑑𝐼 (n) + (n − 1) x(n) − x(n − 1)
dt dt
+ + 𝑉𝑘 (𝑛) − 𝑉𝑚 (𝑛) − 𝑅𝐼(𝑛) = 𝐿 (𝑛) 2
=
h
𝑑𝑡
𝑉𝑘 𝐼 𝑉𝑚 which gives
_ _ dx 2 2 dx
(n) = x(n) − � x(n − 1) + (n − 1)�
dt h h dt
Use the trapezoidal rule to write the dI/dt(n) term
Where n = the present integer time step
2𝐿 2𝐿 𝑑𝐼 h = the duration of the time step
𝑉𝑘 (𝑛) − 𝑉𝑚 (𝑛) − 𝑅𝐼(𝑛) = 𝐼(𝑛) − � 𝐼(𝑛 − 1) + 𝐿 (𝑛 − 1)� x(n) = value at present time
ℎ ℎ 𝑑𝑡
x(n − 1) = value at previous time step

## Use the standard relationship above to write the LdI/dt(n-1) term

2𝐿 2𝐿
𝑉𝑘 (𝑛) − 𝑉𝑚 (𝑛) − 𝑅𝐼(𝑛) = 𝐼(𝑛) − � 𝐼(𝑛 − 1)� − [𝑉𝑘 (𝑛 − 1) − 𝑉𝑚 (𝑛 − 1) − 𝑅𝐼(𝑛 − 1)]
ℎ ℎ

Finally, group the terms that are a function of values at time (n) on the left and time (n-1) on the right
2𝐿 2𝐿
𝑉𝑘 (𝑛) − 𝑉𝑚 (𝑛) + �−𝑅 − � 𝐼 (𝑛) = �+𝑅 − � 𝐼 (𝑛 − 1) − 𝑉𝑘 (𝑛 − 1) + 𝑉𝑚 (𝑛 − 1)
ℎ ℎ
DC Bus equation is just Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL). The unknown variable associated with the equation is the DC bus voltage.

𝐼𝑎 + 𝐼𝑏 + 𝐼𝑐 + ⋯ = 0
Using the PDCI as an example, the following matrix equations are created.

Ic1 Ic3 Is Ic Ia Ib Id v3 v4 v7 v8 v9 X B
Celilo1 Rc1 1 Ic1 (n) Ec1
Celilo3 Rc3 1 Ic3 (n) Ec2
Sylmar1 Rs 1 Is (n) Es
(+Rc-2Lc/h)*Ic (n-1)
LineC (-Rc-2Lc/h) 1 -1 Ic (n) - v3 (n-1) + v4 (n-1)
(+Ra-2La/h)*Ia (n-1)
LineA (-Ra-2La/h) -1 1 Ia (n) - v7 (n-1) + v3 (n-1)
(+Rb-2Lb/h)*Ib (n-1)
LineB (-Rb-2Lb/h) -1 1 Ib (n) = - v8 (n-1) + v3 (n-1)
(+Rd-2Ld/h)*Id (n-1)
LineD (-Rd-2Ld/h) -1 1 Id (n) - v9 (n-1) + v4 (n-1)
KCL3 -1 1 1 v3 (n) 0
KCL4 1 1 v4 (n) 0
KCL7 1 -1 v7 (n) 0
KCL8 1 -1 v8 (n) 0
KCL9 1 -1 v9 (n) 0

Simulator solves this set of equations by splitting the actual integration time-step used in the standard numerical integration and
dividing it by 10. We set the h variable above to the time step divided by 10 then iterate this set of equations 10 times. When
solving these equations, we initially assume that none of the currents end up the wrong sign. Then after each sub time step we
check if the converter currents end up as the wrong sign. If converter currents have the wrong sign, we automatically change the
equation for the offending converter to force that converter current to zero and redo this sub time step. We assume the converter
current remains zero during the remainder of this time step and only allow it to back-off this limit during the following time step. I
believe the current would never bounce around during a time step anyway, because this is fundamentally only a set of RL circuits so
you will only get a first-order RL circuit exponential decay response toward the new steady state.

As an example, if the current at Celilo1 ended up the wrong sign, then its matrix equation would be rewritten as
Celilo1 1 0 Ic1 (n) 0
Solution of the algebraic change in DC voltages during the AC network boundary equation solution
DC Converter equations are as follows, where R and E were described earlier. Also note that the DC current is assumed constant so
it is moved to the right side as a known quantity. The unknown variable associated with this equation is the voltage at the terminal.
𝑅

+
𝐼 + 𝑉𝑡 = 𝐸 − 𝑅𝐼
𝐸 --
𝑉𝑡
_
DC transmission line equations are as follows. The unknown variable associated with equation is the derivative of the DC current.
The DC current is assumed constant during the AC network boundary equation solution.
𝑅 𝐿

+ + 𝑑𝐼
𝑉𝑘 − 𝑉𝑚 − 𝐿 = 𝑅𝐼
𝑉𝑘 𝐼 𝑉𝑚 𝑑𝑡
_ _
DC Bus equation is just Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL), but for the derivatives of the currents instead of the actual currents. The
unknown variable associated with the equation is DC bus voltage. Also note that we only add an equation for DC buses which are
not connected to a DC converter terminal.
𝑑𝐼𝑎 𝑑𝐼𝑏 𝑑𝐼𝑐
+ + +⋯=0
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Using the PDCI as an example, the following matrix equations are created

## LineC -Lc 1 -1 dIc/dt Ic*Rc

LineA -La 1 -1 dIa/dt Ia*Ra
LineB -Lb 1 -1 dIb/dt Ib*Rb
LineD -Ld 1 -1 dId/dt Id*Rd
Celilo1 1 v7 = Ec1-Rc1*Ic1
Celilo3 1 v8 Ec3-Rc3*Ic3
Sylmar1 1 v9 Es-Rs*Is
KCL3 -1 1 1 0 v3 0
KCL4 1 1 0 v4 0
General Overview of Multi-Terminal DC Line Model for the Pacific DC Intertie
Simulator has a multi-terminal DC (MTDC) record which represents the grouping of the dc converters, dc buses and dc lines for a
single pole of a MTDC transmission line. The Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI) is represented by two of these records: one for each pole of
the PDCI. For the PDCI, each MTDC record contains three DC converters with two at Celilo (North end) and one at Sylmar (South
end). In Simulator these DC converters are also represented by unique objects.

The transient stability model of the PDCI works by assigning a dynamic model to each of the two MTDC records, and also assigning a
dynamic model to each of the DC converter objects. To model this, there are 4 dynamic models

## MTDC_PDCI Assigned to the MTDC record.

CONV_CELILO_E Assigned to the Celilo DC converter at the 230 kV bus at Celilo (North). Note: "E" stands for "existing"
CONV_CELILO_N Assigned to the Celilo DC converter at the 500 kV bus at Celilo (North). Note: "N" stands for "new"
CONV_SYLMAR Assigned to the DC converter at Sylmar (South)

## The flow of signals is depicted in the following image.

𝑉𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒3𝑑𝑐
Power Flow 𝑉𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒4𝑑𝑐
Data Record MTDCRecord MTDCRecord
Pole 3 Pole 4
𝐼𝑑𝑐
𝐼𝑑𝑐 ,𝑉𝑑𝑐 ,
Transient 𝑉𝑑𝑐
MTDC_PDCI 𝐼𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 𝑉𝑎𝑐 𝐼𝑑𝑐 , 𝑉𝑑𝑐 ,
Stability 𝑉𝑎𝑐
Model 𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 𝑉𝑎𝑐
𝐼𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒
𝐼𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝑁
Converter 𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝐿𝑜𝑤 Converter Converter
Celilo 230kV 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 Celilo 500kV Sylmar
𝐼𝑑𝑐 , 𝑉𝑑𝑐 𝐼𝑑𝑐 , 𝑉𝑑𝑐
cos(𝛼) 𝐼𝑑𝑐 , 𝑉𝑑𝑐 cos(𝛽)
, 𝑉𝑎𝑐 𝐼𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 , 𝑉𝑎𝑐 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝛼) , 𝑉𝑎𝑐
𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒
CONV_CELILO_E
𝐼𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝐸 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 CONV_CELILO_N CONV_SYLMAR

𝐼𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝑆
The function of the converts is generally described as follows.
MTDC_PDCI Assigned to the MTDC record. Model will coordinate the allocation of current order reference signals
sent to the three DC converters that it manages. Model may also pass on various flags such a VacLow.
Model receives signals of sensed AC and DC voltage and DC current from the converters also.

The two MTDC_PDCI models will act independently of one another, except that each record passes a
measurement of the DC voltage at the rectifier end of each pole to the other pole.
CONV_CELILO_E Assigned to the "existing" Celilo DC converter at the 230 kV bus at Celilo (North). Converter initializes
its Isched and Psched values to those from the initial network boundary equation solution. Model will
take as an input one signals from MTDC_PDCI: the current order reference signal (𝐼𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝐸).
CONV_CELILO_N Assigned to the "new" Celilo DC converter at the 500 kV bus at Celilo (North). Converter initializes its
Isched and Psched values to those from the initial network boundary equation solution. Model will
take as an input two signals from MTDC_PDCI: the current order reference signal (𝐼𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝑁) and
the flag VacLow.
CONV_SYLMAR Assigned to the DC converter at Sylmar (South). Converter initializes its Isched and Psched values to
those from the initial network boundary equation solution. Model will take as an input one
signalsfrom MTDC_PDCI: the current order reference signal (𝐼𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝑆).

In addition the implementation of these four models will be automatically modify based on the initial flow in the initial system flow
direction (depending whether the flow is from Celilo to Sylmar or Sylmar to Celilo). These modifications reflect the differences in
how each converter behaves when acting as a rectifier or inverter. In the following block diagrams portions of the model which are
only used for a flow from Celilo to Sylmar (North to South) are highlighted in green, while portion only used for a flow from Sylmar
to Celilo (North to South) are highlighted in purple. Differences also have a red notation of 𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆 added to denote highlighting.
Values which are passed between models are highlighted in orange. Outputs of the control angle for DC converters are highlighted
in pink.
CONV_CELILO_E Purple represent
Celilo 230 kV Converter Controls (Celilo Existing Controls) sections only
modeled for Sylmar-
Celilo Flow
𝑶𝒗𝒆𝒓𝑪𝒖𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒕𝑭𝒍𝒂𝒈 𝐼𝑓 ( 1 ) < (𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝐸 + 400) 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑶𝒗𝒆𝒓𝑪𝒖𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒕𝑭𝒍𝒂𝒈 = 𝐹𝐴𝐿𝑆𝐸
Green represents
𝐹𝐴𝐿𝑆𝐸 𝑇𝑅𝑈𝐸 𝐼𝑓 ( 1 ) > (𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝐸 + 800) 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑶𝒗𝒆𝒓𝑪𝒖𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒕𝑭𝒍𝒂𝒈 = 𝑇𝑅𝑈𝐸 sections only
𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆 0 1000 modeled for Celilo-
𝑉𝐶𝐴_𝑢𝑝_𝐶𝐸 19.5746 16𝜋
𝑖𝑑_𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛_𝐶𝐸 cos � � Sylmar flow
_ 180
_ _
7.55 1 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑏𝐶𝐸 𝐾𝑎𝐶𝐸 + 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑏𝐷𝐴𝐷
𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝐸
+ Σ + Σ ∗
1.8 1000 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑐𝐶𝐸 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑎𝐶𝐸 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑐𝐷𝐴𝐷
0.1
+
Σ 𝐾𝑚𝐶𝐸 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑐𝑡𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑔𝐶𝐸
_
1
100 4 5 6 𝐼𝑑𝑐 1 𝐼𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝐼𝐷𝐶
𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆 (∗)
1
𝑅𝑖𝑐𝑢𝐶𝐸 1 𝑉𝑑𝑐 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐷𝐶 2 𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒
1 ∗
𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝐼𝑑𝑐 1.8 1000 1
𝑎𝑡 𝐶𝑒𝑖𝑙𝑜 230 𝑉𝑎𝑐 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐴𝐶 3 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒
CONV_CELILO_E parameters are all hard-coded based on whether the initial flow direction of the PDCI. The parameters and the
initialization are different for Celilo to Sylmar (North to South) or Sylmar to Celilo (South to North) flow. The following table shows
the differences
Parameter Celilo-Sylmar Sylmar - Celilo Initialization Celilo-Sylmar Sylmar - Celilo
(North to (South to Reference (North to South) (South to North)
South) North) Values
𝑇𝑏𝐶𝐸 0.0323 𝑅𝑖𝑐𝑢𝐶𝐸 2.2 Initialize so State 5 is at its lower limit
𝑇𝑐𝐶𝐸 0.0323 4 ∗ 1.8 ∗ 1000
𝑅𝑖𝑐𝑢𝐶𝐸 =
𝐾𝑎𝐶𝐸 330 82.5 1
𝑇𝑎𝐶𝐸 8.1500 Parameter Celilo-Sylmar Sylmar - Celilo
𝑉𝐶𝐴_𝑢𝑝_𝐶𝐸 20 8.5 (North to South) (South to North)
𝑇𝑏𝐷𝐴𝐷 0 1/240 𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚𝐶𝐸 2160
𝑇𝑐𝐷𝐴𝐷 1/60 𝑇𝑓_𝐼𝐷𝐶 0.004 0.0084
𝐾𝑚𝐶𝐸 1 -1 𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐷𝐶 0.004 0.0084
𝑖𝑑_𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛_𝐶𝐸 0 180 𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐴𝐶 0.0333
Purple represent
CONV_CELILO_N sections only
Celilo 500 kV Converter Controls (Celilo Expansion Controls) modeled for Sylmar-
𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑎𝑡 𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜 500 Celilo Flow
1 Green represents
+ 𝑖𝑑_𝑒𝑟𝑟
𝑀𝐼𝑁 _ 0.5 sections only
+
Σ_ 𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑐
Σ 1100
+
Σ modeled for Celilo-
𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝑁 60 𝐾𝑖𝐶𝑁 _ Sylmar flow
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑖𝐶𝑁 4
𝑖𝑑_𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛_𝐶𝑁 𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚_𝐶𝑁 + 𝑜𝑐
𝑢𝑝 2 𝑜𝑟(∗) 𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆
𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆 Σ 𝑜𝑐 > 𝑢𝑝
2.0 𝑜𝑟 0.0
+ 1 7
𝑅𝐸𝑆𝐸𝑇
60 𝑖𝑑𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝_𝐶𝑁
_ 𝑠𝑇𝑎𝑖
0.5 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑓 0.0 𝑜𝑟 − 2.0
𝑝𝑎𝑟_𝑣𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓
𝑀𝐼𝑁
+ Σ 1100
𝐾𝑣𝑑𝑖𝑑1
0 𝑜𝑟(∗) -1 +
_ 𝑀𝐴𝑋 𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑐𝑜 + 𝑀𝐼𝑁
0.001 6 + 1.0 𝑀𝐼𝑁 𝐾𝑣𝑑𝑖𝑑 Σ +
+ Σ Σ 0.0
2
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑣 if 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝐿𝑜𝑤 0.0
+
Σ
𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑉𝑑𝑐 + 𝐾𝑣𝑑𝑖𝑑2
𝑎𝑡 𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜 500 v𝑑_𝑜𝑓𝑓_𝐶𝑁 𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆

1 𝑔𝑎𝑚𝑟𝑒𝑓 +
Σ Σ
+ 𝐾𝑔𝑖𝑑𝐶𝑁
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐷𝐶 17 _ 𝐾𝑖𝑣𝑔_𝐶𝑁
+
𝑜𝑓𝑓𝑔𝑎𝑚
𝑔𝑎𝑚𝑚𝑎
8 𝑔𝑎𝑚𝑟𝑒𝑓
[in degrees] 𝐾𝑔2 𝑎𝑙𝑝ℎ𝑎_max_𝐶𝑁
1
𝐼𝑑𝑐 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝐼𝐷𝐶 1 𝐼𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒
𝑀𝐼𝑁 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑝 1 5
1 1.0 𝐾𝑚𝐶𝑁 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑐𝑡𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑔𝐶𝑁
𝑉𝑑𝑐 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐷𝐶 2 𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 𝐾𝑣 𝑠𝑇𝑡
1 2.0
𝑉𝑎𝑐 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐴𝐶 3 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 𝑎𝑙𝑝ℎ𝑎_min_𝐶𝑁
CONV_CELILO_N parameters are all hard-coded based on whether the initial flow direction of the PDCI. The parameters and the
initialization are different for Celilo to Sylmar (North to South) or Sylmar to Celilo (South to North) flow. The following table shows
the differences.

## Parameter Celilo-Sylmar Sylmar - Celilo Parameter Celilo-Sylmar Sylmar - Celilo

(North to South) (South to North) (North to South) (South to North)
𝑖𝑑_𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛_𝐶𝑁 0 150 𝐾𝑖𝑣𝑔_𝐶𝑁 -0.264 +0.26400
𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚_𝐶𝑁 1650 𝑇𝑡 -1/360 +1/360
𝑖𝑑𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝_𝐶𝑁 +110 -110 𝑎𝑙𝑝ℎ𝑎_max_𝐶𝑁 +1.000 +1.91260
𝑖𝑑_𝑚𝑖𝑛_𝑚𝑖𝑛 n/a 60 𝑎𝑙𝑝ℎ𝑎_min_𝐶𝑁 -1.992 +0.34700
𝐾𝑖𝐶𝑁 2/3 𝐾𝑚𝐶𝑁 -0.5 0.5
𝑇𝑖𝐶𝑁 1/120 𝐾𝑣𝑑𝑖𝑑2 n/a -0.333
𝑇𝑎𝑖 0.1660 𝑔𝑎𝑚𝑟𝑒𝑓 n/a 0.38428
𝐾𝑣𝑑𝑖𝑑1 0.4400 𝐾𝑔2 n/a 0.6
𝐾𝑣𝑑𝑖𝑑 +0.7575 -0.7575 𝐾𝑔𝑖𝑑𝐶𝑁 n/a 0.11694
𝑇𝑣 0.0138 𝑜𝑓𝑓𝑔𝑎𝑚 n/a -0.42743
𝑝𝑎𝑟_𝑣𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓 550 𝑇𝑓_𝐼𝐷𝐶 0.004 0.0084
𝐾𝑣 -0.4000 𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐷𝐶 0.004 0.0084
v𝑑_𝑜𝑓𝑓_𝐶𝑁 0.100 0.066 𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐴𝐶 0.0333
CONV_SYLMAR Purple represent
Sylmar Converter Controls sections only
modeled for Sylmar-
3√2 (𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑁𝑆 ) 𝒂𝒃𝒔( 3 ) Celilo Flow

𝜋 (𝑈𝑑𝑖𝑜𝑁𝑆 ) (𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍𝑻𝒂𝒑)
� π 𝐾𝑔1𝑆
+
Σ + 𝐾𝑔0𝑆
Green represents
_ + sections only
1 7
(𝐺𝑎𝑚𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑆 ) Σ π + Σ + Σ modeled for Celilo-
+ + + Sylmar flow
1 + 𝑠(𝑇𝑈𝑎𝑐𝑇𝑐𝑆 ) (𝐺𝑎𝑚𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑆 ) cos(∗) 𝐾𝑔2𝑆 𝐾0𝑆
0.5 𝐷𝑒𝑛 +1 𝜋
+ +
1 _
𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑠(∗) _ +
1
𝐼𝑑𝑁𝑆 𝑁𝑢𝑚 ÷ 2(𝑑𝑥𝑁𝑆 ) Σ Σ +
𝐶𝐶𝐴𝑅𝑒𝑓 𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆
𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑅𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑆 _ −1
_
1 (𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑅𝐺𝑛𝑆 ) 8
𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝑆
𝐼𝑑𝑁𝑆 +
Σ 1 + 𝑠(𝑇𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑅𝑇𝐶𝑆 ) 𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆
If DAmax2 > DAmax1
𝑖𝑑_𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑆 𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 ( ) ignore DAmax2 and
𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑅𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑆 interpolate between

+ Σ _
𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥_𝑐𝑐𝑎𝑆
𝑀𝐼𝑁 𝑎𝑚𝑎 𝑥𝑈𝐷𝐼𝑆
𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥1 DAmax1 and DAmax3
𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥2
𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥3
𝑎𝑙𝑓𝑎_𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟
(∗) (∗) (∗)
𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥1 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥2 5
𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 ( 5 )
+ 5 Specify similar 5 values to
(𝐾𝑖𝑆 ) + (𝑇𝑐𝑓𝑠 )
𝑠
Σ _
Σ 𝑠
define the 𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑖𝑛 ( ) function
6
+ 𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑖𝑛 ( 5 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠(∗) 𝐾𝑚𝑆 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑐𝑡𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑔
𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑛_𝑐𝑐𝑎𝑆 𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑛_𝑐𝑐𝑎𝑆 𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑛_𝑐𝑐𝑎𝑆
𝐾𝑝𝑆 1
π 𝐼𝑑𝑐 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝐼𝐷𝐶 1 𝐼𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒
𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑆
𝐷𝑒𝑛 4 1 1
÷ 𝑠𝑖𝑛(∗) 𝑉𝑑𝑐 2 𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒
1 + 𝑠�𝑇𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑆 � 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐷𝐶
𝑁𝑢𝑚
𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑥𝑆 1
𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝐴𝑙𝑓𝑎𝑁𝑜𝑚𝑆 ) 𝑉𝑎𝑐 3 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐴𝐶
CONV_SYLMAR parameters are all hard-coded based on whether the initial flow direction of the PDCI. The parameters and the
initialization are different for Celilo to Sylmar (North to South) or Sylmar to Celilo (South to North) flow. The following table shows
the differences.
Parameter Celilo-Sylmar Sylmar - Celilo Parameter Celilo-Sylmar Sylmar - Celilo
(North to South) (South to North) (North to South) (South to North)
𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑁𝑆 230.0 𝐾𝑖𝑆 180 π/200
𝑈𝑑𝑖𝑜𝑁𝑆 286.7 𝐾𝑝𝑆 20 π/180
𝑇𝑈𝑎𝑐𝑇𝑐𝑆 0.1 𝑇𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑆 0.003
𝐼𝑑𝑁𝑆 3100.0 𝐴𝑙𝑓𝑎𝑁𝑜𝑚𝑆 17.5 π/180
𝐺𝑎𝑚𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑆 15 π/180 𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑆 1.000
𝐺𝑎𝑚𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑆 17 π/180 𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑥𝑆 0.300
𝐾0𝑆 -0.018846501 π/180 𝑇𝑐𝑓𝑠 1000
𝐾𝑔0𝑆 0.0 π/180 𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥1 10 π/180 90 π/180
𝐾𝑔1𝑆 -0.601288000 π/180 𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥2 2 π/180 999 π/180
𝐾𝑔2𝑆 -0.029795800 π/180 𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥3 1 π/180 5 π/180
𝑑𝑥𝑁𝑆 0.090 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥1 110 π/180 0 π/180
𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑅𝐺𝑛𝑆 0.150 n/a 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥2 140 π/180 120 π/180
𝑇𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑅𝑇𝐶𝑆 0.002 n/a 𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑖𝑛1 -5 π/180 -6 π/180
𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑅𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑆 0.050 n/a 𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑖𝑛2 -5 π/180 -8 π/180
𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑅𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑆 -0.050 n/a 𝐷𝐴𝑚𝑖𝑛3 -5 π/180 -15 π/180
𝑖𝑑_𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑆 0.03 0.00 𝐴𝑚𝑖𝑛1 0 π/180 35 π/180
𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑈𝐷𝐼𝑆 200 π/180 𝐴𝑚𝑖𝑛2 10 π/180 70 π/180
𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑛_𝑐𝑐𝑎𝑆 95 π/180 5 π/180 𝐶𝐶𝐴𝑅𝑒𝑓 Initialize so State n/a
𝑇𝑓_𝐼𝐷𝐶 0.004 0.0084 32 is at the upper
𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐷𝐶 0.004 0.0084 limit
𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐴𝐶 0.0333 𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑆 3100
𝐾𝑚𝐶𝑁 -1 1
State 3 from the MTDC_PDCI
Celilo 500 converter Current Order Allocation Calculations for Celilo and Sylmar
𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜500 𝐴𝐶𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑥
A = 𝐼𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜500 State 1 from the Purple represent
B = 𝐼𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜230 respective DC sections only
𝐴𝐶𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑥 ∗ 2
+
Σ 𝑠(𝑇𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑣𝑑𝑐𝑜𝑙 ) 4 C = 𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑆𝑦𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑟
converters modeled for Sylmar-
_ 330 Celilo Flow
−0.5 𝑀𝐼𝑁 𝑖𝑑_𝑝𝑜𝑐𝑙_lim_𝐶
Green represents
𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑉𝐷𝐶𝐿 𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆 𝐴𝐶𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑙𝑚𝑖𝑛 Σ
+
sections only
_ A 0 modeled for Celilo-
(𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚𝐶𝐸 + 𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚𝐶𝑁 )
+ Sylmar flow
𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆
(∗)
Σ
+ B
𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑑_𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒 C
TimerVDCFreeze Active _ _
𝑣𝑑_𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑖𝑑_𝑜𝑟𝑑_𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒 1 5
𝑉𝐷𝐶𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑧𝑒 1
𝑁𝑢𝑚
𝐷𝑒𝑛
𝑀𝐼𝑁
+
Σ 𝑠𝑇𝑝𝑐𝑚𝑐
÷ 1000
1 + 𝑠�𝑇𝑉 𝑏𝑐𝑜𝑐 � 3
1 0
TimerVDCFreeze Inactive
𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚_𝐶𝑁 1100 + 0
+ When TimerPCMC is
𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆 Σ
+ +
Σ _ 1 − 𝐾𝑐 Σ Active then Reset
(∗) if 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝐿𝑜𝑤𝑆𝑦𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑟 _
+ 5 =0
then use zero A + Σ+ Σ+
+ 0 _ _ 𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚_𝑆
6 1 + + 𝑖𝑜𝑟𝑑_𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒_𝐶
Σ_ Σ _ Σ Σ Σ
𝑠𝑇𝑖𝑐𝑚𝑐 _ _
+ 𝐼𝑑𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐶
+ (∗) 2000
(∗) B + + _ 𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆
+
Σ + _ Σ+ Σ+ 𝐾𝑐 Σ+
Σ + 100 𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚_𝐶𝐸 +
𝑒 −𝑗𝑇𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑒 −𝑗𝑇𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑒 −𝑗𝑇𝐼𝑑𝑐 Σ 𝑒 −𝑗𝑇𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑦
+
𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆 _
𝑖𝑑_𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛_𝐶𝐸
𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝑁 𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝐸 𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑒𝑓 𝑆 𝐼𝑑𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑆
MTDC_PDCI (North to South Implementation)
Measurements and Low Voltage Detection Logic

Direct readings of 𝐼𝑓 (𝑉𝑎𝑐𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜230 < 0.5) 𝑂𝑅 (𝑉𝑎𝑐𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜500 < 0.5) 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑽𝒂𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘𝑪𝒆𝒍𝒊𝒍𝒐 = 𝑇𝑅𝑈𝐸
𝐼𝑓 (𝑉𝑎𝑐𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜230 > 0.6) 𝐴𝑁𝐷 (𝑉𝑎𝑐𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜500 < 0.6) 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑽𝒂𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘𝑪𝒆𝒍𝒊𝒍𝒐 = 𝐹𝐴𝐿𝑆𝐸
AC voltage at
𝐼𝑓 �𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑆𝑦𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑟 < 0.5� 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑽𝒂𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘𝑺𝒚𝒍𝒎𝒂𝒓 = 𝑇𝑅𝑈𝐸
converter buses
𝐼𝑓 �𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑆𝑦𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑟 > 0.6� 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑽𝒂𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘𝑺𝒚𝒍𝒎𝒂𝒓 = 𝐹𝐴𝐿𝑆𝐸
State 2 from the Celilo500 𝐼𝑓 (𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜500 < 150) 𝑂𝑅 �𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑆𝑦𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑟 < 150� 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑽𝒅𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘 = 𝑇𝑅𝑈𝐸
and Sylmar converter 𝐼𝑓 (𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜500 > 350) 𝐴𝑁𝐷 �𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑆𝑦𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑟 > 350� 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑽𝒅𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘 = 𝐹𝐴𝐿𝑆𝐸
𝑽𝒂𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘 = 𝑽𝒂𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘𝑪𝒆𝒍𝒊𝒍𝒐 𝑂𝑅 𝑽𝒅𝒂𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘𝑺𝒚𝒍𝒎𝒂𝒓
𝑽𝒍𝒐𝒘𝑭𝒍𝒂𝒈 = 𝑽𝒂𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘 𝑂𝑅 𝑽𝒅𝒄𝑳𝒐𝒘
(𝑉𝑑𝑐𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜3𝑃 + 𝑉𝑑𝑐𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜4𝑃 ) 𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑁𝑆 0.5 1
�𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑆𝑦𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑟3𝑃 + 𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑆𝑦𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑟4𝑃 � 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓_𝑉𝐷𝐶 1 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑉𝑑𝑐_𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑧 2

## DC Voltage Measurement Freeze

If VLowFlag = TRUE then activate a timer TimerVDCFreeze and set timer to Tdelfriz. Continue to set this timer
up to Tdelfriz as long as VLowFlag is TRUE. If VLowFlag become FALSE then start having the timer count down
to zero. Once the TimerVDCFreeze reaches zero then make it inactive.

## Whenever TimerVDCFreeze is inactive then

Set VDCFreeze = 2
and pass 1 as the DC voltage to Current Order Allocation Calculation
Whenever TimerVDCFreeze is active then
Pass the variable VDCFreeze as the DC voltage to the Current Order Calculation

## Pole Current Margin Compensator

If VLowFlag = TRUE then activate a timer TimerPCMC and set timer to Tpcmc_rst. Continue to set this timer up
to Tpcmc_rst as long as VLowFlag is TRUE. If VLowFlag become FALSE then start having the timer count down
to zero. Once the TimerPCMC reaches zero then make it inactive.
MTDC_PDCI Parameters are all hard-coded based on whether the initial flow direction of the PDCI. The parameters and the
initialization are different for Celilo to Sylmar (North to South) or Sylmar to Celilo (South to North) flow. The following table shows
the differences
Initialization Celilo-Sylmar Sylmar - Celilo
Reference Values (North to South) (South to North)
𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑑_𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒 Initialize to Sum of Initialize to Psched
Parameter Celilo-Sylmar Sylmar - Celilo Psched at two Celilo at the Sylmar
(North to South) (South to North) Converters Converter
𝑇𝑓𝑝𝑐𝑚𝑐_𝑟𝑠𝑡 0.1 𝐾𝐶 Initialize based on the following equation
𝑇𝑉𝐷𝐶_𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑧 0.53 𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝐸
𝐾𝐶 =
𝑇𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑧 0.44 𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝐸 + 𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝑁
𝑉𝑎𝑐𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑉𝐷𝐶𝐿 228/230 n/a 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝐿𝑜𝑤𝑆𝑦𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑟 FALSE
𝐴𝐶𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑙𝑚𝑎𝑥 3100 n/a 𝑉𝑎𝑐𝐿𝑜𝑤𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑙𝑜 FALSE
𝐴𝐶𝑉𝑑𝑐𝑙𝑚𝑖𝑛 2400 n/a 𝑉𝑑𝑐𝐿𝑜𝑤 FALSE
𝑇𝑣𝑐𝑎𝑐𝑣𝑑𝑐𝑜𝑙 0.5 n/a 𝑉𝐿𝑜𝑤𝐹𝑙𝑎𝑔 FALSE
𝐼𝑑𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐶 n/a Initialize equal to
𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚𝐶𝐸 Get from CONV_CELILO_E model State 14 to handle
𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚𝐶𝑁 Get from CONV_CELILO_N model difference between
𝐼𝑑𝑅𝑒𝑓𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑆 Get from CONV_SYLMAR model 𝑖𝑑_𝑜𝑟𝑑_𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒 and
𝑇𝑣_𝑏𝑐𝑜𝑐 0.05 𝑖𝑑_ref_S
𝑇𝑝𝑐𝑚𝑐 0.5120 𝐼𝑑𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑆 Initialize equal to State n/a
𝑇𝑖𝑐𝑚𝑐 n/a 0.2500 14 to handle difference
𝐼𝑑_𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛_𝐶𝐸 Get from CONV_CELILO_E model between 𝑖𝑑_𝑜𝑟𝑑_𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒
𝑇𝐼𝑑𝑐 0.5 cycles and 𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝑁
𝑇𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑦 2 cycles + 𝑖𝑑_𝑟𝑒𝑓_𝐶𝐸
Exciter AC7B and ESAC7B

## Exciter AC7B and ESAC7B

IEEE 421.5 2005 Type AC7B Excitation System Model
VFEMAX -K D I FD Speed
VREF VUEL VRMAX VAMAX K P VT K E +SE (VE )
EC 1 Spdmlt
+ + 0
2 + + VE 1
π
K IA VA 1
π
1 K IR sK DR
Σ Σ Σ
E FD

K PR + + K PA +
1 + sTR VC s 1 + sTDR s sTE
− − 5

+
3 4 -K L VFE FEX
VRMIN VAMIN VEMIN
VS +
Σ KF 2 FEX = f ( I N )
+ VX = VE S E (VE )
6 sK F 3 VX IN
1 + sTF VFE +
+ KC I FD
Σ Σ +
KE IN =
VE
+

States KD I FD
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt K F1
3 - K IR
4 - K DR
5 - VA
6 - Feedback
AC7B supported by PSSE
ESAC7B supported by PSLF with optional speed multiplier
Exciter AC8B

Exciter AC8B
IEEE 421.5 2005 AC8B Excitation System

VFEMAX -K D I FD
VREF VS VPIDMAX VRMAX
VCOMP K E +SE (VE )
2 + 5 1
+
π
1 − + K sK DR KA 1 E FD
1 + sTR Σ +
Σ K PR + IR +
s 1 + sTDR 1 + sTA VΣ
+
sTE
+ R
− FEX
3 4
VPIDMIN VRMIN VEMIN
VUEL VOEL FEX = f ( I N )
VFE

IN
K C I FD
Σ +
K E + S E (VE ) IN =
VE
+

KD I FD

States
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - PID 1
4 - PID 2
5 - VR
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter BBSEX1

Exciter BBSEX1
Transformer-fed Excitation System

VREF
EC
VRMAX E T E FDMAX
1 + 1 + sT3 + T +
E FD
− 1
1 + sTF Σ 1 + sT4 Σ K 2
T1 Σ 1 + sTE
+ + −
VRMIN
E T E FDMIN
1  T1  1
 − 1
K  T2  1 + sT2

Switch = 0 Switch = 1

Supplemental
Signal

## Model supported by PSSE

Very similar to the model EXBBC supported by PSLF
Exciter BPA_EA

Exciter BPA_EA
Continuously Acting DC Rotating Excitation System Model

Regulator
VSTB
VRMAX Exciter
Filter + E FD
VT 1 2 + KA 3 1 4 + 1 1
1 + sTR − Σ Σ 1 + sTA 1 + sTA1
Σ sTE
+ −

VRMIN
VREF SE + K E
Stabilizer
5 sK F
1 + sTF

States
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VR1
5 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA EB

Exciter BPA EB
Westinghouse Pre-1967 Brushless Excitation System Model

Regulator Exciter
VSTB VRMAX E FDMAX
Filter +
VT 1 2 + KA 3 1 4 + 1 1 E FD
1 + sTR − Σ Σ 1 + sTA 1 + sTA1 Σ sTE

+ −
VRMIN E FDMIN = 0
VREF
Stabilizer SE + K E

5 sK F 6 1
1 + sTF 1 + sTF 1

States
1 - E FD before limit
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VR1
5 - VF
6 - VF1
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA EC

Exciter BPA EC
Westinghouse Brushless Since 1966 Excitation System Model

Regulator Exciter
VSTB VRMAX E FDMAX
+
+ KA 2 1 3 + 1 1
VT
− Σ Σ 1 + sTA 1 + sTA1 Σ sTE
E FD

+ −
VRMIN E FDMIN = 0
VREF SE + K E
Stabilizer
4 sK F
SE + K E
1 + sTF

States
1 - E FD before limit
2 - VR
3 - VR1
4 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA ED

Exciter BPA ED
SCPT Excitation System Model

Regulator Exciter
VREF
VRMAX VBMAX
VT'
+ VB
1 2 KA 3 1 4 + + 1 1 E FD
1 + sTR − Σ + Σ 1 + sTA 1 + sTA1 VR
Σ Σ sTE
+ −
− +
0
VRMIN KE
VS

5 sK F
VTHEV 1 + sTF
π
VT
V=
THEV K PVT + jK I IT
IT Stabilizer

2
 0.78 ⋅ I FD  IFD 1− A
A= 
 VTHEV 
If A > 1, VB = 0

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VA
4 - VR
5 - Feedback
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA EE

Exciter BPA EE
Non-Continuously Active Rheostatic Excitation System Model

Regulator Exciter

VRMAX E FDMAX
If:
+ K A'

VRH ∆VT ≥ KV , VR =
VRMAX VR + 1 1 E FD
VT'
− Σ 1 + sTRH 2 ∆VT < KV , VR =
VRH Σ sTE
+ −
∆VT ≤ − KV , VR =VRMIN
VRMIN E FDMIN
VREF SE + K E

∆VT
VT'
− Σ * NOTE:
+
If the time constant TRH is equal to
'
VTO zero, this block is represented as K 'A /s

States
1 - EField before limit
2 - VRH
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA EF

Exciter BPA EF
Westinghouse Continuous Acting Brushless Rotating Alternator
Excitation System Model

Regulator Exciter
VSO VRMAX E FDMAX
+
+ K A (1 + sTA ) 2 + 1 1
VT − Σ Σ Σ E FD
( TR = 0 ) +
− s

sTE

VRMIN E FDMIN = 0
VREF SE + K E
Stabilizer
3 sK F
SE + K E
1 + sTF

States
1 - EField before limit
2 - VR
3 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA EG

Exciter BPA EG
SCR Equivalent Excitation System Model

Regulator
VREF VRMAX
+
KA 2 1 1 E FD
VT
− Σ + Σ 1 + sTA 1 + sTA1 VR
+ −
VRMIN
VSO

3 sK F
1 + sTF

Stabilizer

States
1 - EField
2 - VA
3 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA EJ

Exciter BPA EJ
Westinghouse Static Grand Couple PP#3 Excitation System Model

Regulator
VSO VRMAX E FDMAX
Filter
VT' +
1 + E FD
π
2 KA 3 1 1
1 + sTR − Σ Σ 1 + sTA 1 + sTA1

+
VRMIN E FDMIN
VREF
Stabilizer
4 sK F
1 + sTF

States
1 - EField before limit
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA EK

Exciter BPA EK
General Electric Alterrex Excitation System Model

Regulator Exciter
VSO VRMAX E FDMAX
+
+ KA 2 1 3 + 1 1
VT
(TR =0) − Σ Σ 1 + sTA 1 + sTA1 Σ sTE
E FD

+ −
VRMIN E FDMIN = 0
VREF SE + K E
Stabilizer
4 sK F
1 + sTF

States
1 - EField before limit
2 - VR
3 - VR1
4 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FA

Exciter BPA FA
WSCC Type A (DC1) Excitation System Model

VREF VS VRMAX
+ +
VT VC 1 2 VERR 1 + sTC 3 KA VR 1 E FD
IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ + Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA 4
+
Σ sTE 1
− −
VF VRMIN VFE
SE + K E

5 sK F
1 + sTF

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VB
4 - VR
5 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FB

Exciter BPA FB
WSCC Type B (DC2) Excitation System Model

VREF VS VT VRMAX
+ +
VT VC 1 2 VERR 1 + sTC 3 KA VR 1 E FD
IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ + Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA 4
+
Σ sTE 1
− −
VF VFE
VT VRMIN SE + K E

5 sK F
1 + sTF

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VB
4 - VR
5 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FC

Exciter BPA FC
WSCC Type C (AC1) Excitation System Model

VREF
+
VT VC 1 2

IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ

VERR

VS VRMAX

+
+ 1 + sTC + VE
π
4 KA 3 1 1 E FD
Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE
− − FEX
VF 0
VRMIN
FEX = f ( I N )

5 sK F VFE IN
1 + sTF
States KC I FD
1 - VE
Σ +
KE IN =
VE
+
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR KD I FD
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FD

Exciter BPA FD
WSCC Type D (ST2) Excitation System Model

VREF
+
VT VC 1 2

IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ

VERR

## VRMAX EFD MAX

+
KA 3 + 1 1 E FD
Σ 1 + sTA
+
VR
Σ Σ sTE
+ −
+ −
VF VRMIN 0
VS VB
KE
4 sK F
1 + sTF
= =
If K P 0. and =
K I 0., VB 1.
π
VT VE
=
VE K PVT + jK I IT
IT
States
1 - EField
K I
I N = C FD FEX = f ( I N ) 2 - Sensed Vt
IFD VE IN FEX
3 - VR
4 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FE

Exciter BPA FE
WSCC Type E (DC3) Excitation System Model

VREF

+
VT VC 1 2

IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ

VRMAX
KV
VERR VRMAX − VRMIN VRH 3
sKV TRH
−K V
VRMIN

If VERR ≥ KV , VR =
VRMAX
1 1 E FD
If VERR < KV , VR =
VRH
VR
+
Σ sTE
If VERR ≤ − KV , VR =VRMIN −
States VFE
1 - EField before limit K E + SE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VRH
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FF

Exciter BPA FF
WSCC Type F (AC2) Excitation System Model
VREF
+
VT VC 1 2

IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ

VERR

VS VAMAX
4 VRMAX
+ 3
+ 1 + sTC + 1 VE E FD
π
KA + 1
Σ Σ Σ
LV
KB
1 + sTB 1 + sTA −
Gate VR sTE
− VA −
VRMIN
VL − FEX
VF VAMIN
VH
KL Σ 0
+
FEX = f ( I N )
VLR
KH
5 sK F VFE IN
States 1 + sTF
KC I FD
1 - VE Σ +
K E + SE IN =
VE
2 - Sensed Vt +
3 - VA
I FD
4 - VLL KD
5 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FG

Exciter BPA FG
WSCC Type G (AC4) Excitation System Model

VREF

+
VT VC 1 2

IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ
VERR

VIMAX (VRMAX − K C I FD )
+ 1 + sTC 3 KA 1
Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA E FD
+
VIMIM (VRMIN − K C I FD )
VS

States
1 - EField before limit
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VLL
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FH

Exciter BPA FH
WSCC Type H (AC3) Excitation System Model
VREF
+
VT VC 1 2

IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ

VERR

K LV Σ
+
VAMAX
VLV
1 + sTC 3 + VE 1
π π
4 KA 1
Σ Σ
HV
+ 1 + sTB Gate 1 + sTA VA VR sTE E FD
+ − −
VS FEX
VF VAMIN 0
FEX = f ( I N )
KR
VFE
VN KN IN
5 s + KC I FD
1 + sTF KF Σ K E + SE IN =
VE
EFD
States +
EFDN
1 - VE I FD
KD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VA
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FJ

Exciter BPA FJ
WSCC Type J Excitation System Model

VREF

+
VT VC 1 2

IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ
VERR
VRMAX
(VT E FDMAX − K C I FD )
+ 1 + sTC 3 KA 1
Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA E FD
+ −
VS (VT E FDMIN − K C I FD )
VRMIN
VF
4 sK F
1 + sTF

States
1 - EField before limit
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VLL
4 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FK

Exciter BPA FK
WSCC Type K (ST1) Excitation System Model

VREF

+
VT VC 1 2

IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ
VERR

## VIMAX (VT VRMAX − K C I FD )

+ 1 + sTC 3 KA 1
Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA E FD
+ −
VIMIM (VT VRMIN − K C I FD )
VS
VF
4 sK F
1 + sTF

States
1 - EField before limit
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VLL
4 - VF
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FL

Exciter BPA FL
WSCC Type L (ST3) Excitation System Model
VREF

+
VT VC 1 2

IT
VC =VT + ( RC + jX C ) IT
1 + sTR − Σ
VGMAX
VERR KG
VS VG VRMAX
+ VIMAX − E FDMAX
1 + sTC
π
+
3 + KA 1
Σ KJ
1 + sTB VA Σ 1 + sTA VR E FD
+
VIMIN
VRMIN VB
VREF

VE = K PVT + j ( K I + K P X L ) IT π
VT VE
IT

K I K P = K P e jθ p
I N = C FD
IN FEX = f ( I N )
IFD VE FEX
States
1 - VM
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VLL
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Exciter BPA FM through BPA FV

## No block diagrams have been created

Exciter DC3A and ESDC3A
Exciter DC3A
IEEE 421.5 2005 DC3A Excitation System Model

VREF VRMAX
KV
VC 1 1 + VERR
VRMAX − VRMIN 3
1 + sTR − Σ sKV TRH
−K V VX
VRMIN
VRH VX EFD ⋅ S E ( EFD )
= Speed

1 Spdmlt
0
If VERR ≥ KV , VR =
VRMAX −
E FD
π
VR 1 2
If VERR ≤ − KV , VR =VRMIN
+ Σ K E + sTE
Else VR = VRH
If exclim <> 0 then 0 else unlimited

States
1 - EFD
2 – Sensed Vt
3 - VRH

## DC3A model supported by PSSE

ESDC3A model supported by PSLF
Exciter DC4B and ESDC4B

Exciter DC4B
IEEE 421.5 2005 DC4B Excitation System Model
V OEL
V OEL
(OEL=1) (OEL=2)
Alternate OEL Inputs

## VUEL VUEL Spdmlt Speed

(UEL=1) (UEL=2) 0
Alternate UEL Inputs VT
VREF VT VRMAX 1
VRMAX K A 5
KA VR 1
π π
1
Σ
EC LV
2 + − HV Gate 1 + sTA +
1 − + K sK D sTE E FD
1 + sTR +
Σ KP + I +
s 1 + sTD
Gate −

− VT VRMIN VEMIN
3 4
VF +
VX = VE S E (VE )
VRMIN K A
VS Vu Σ
+

States
KE
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - PID1 6 sK F
4 - PID2 1 + sTF
5 - VR
6 - Feedback

## DC4B model supported by PSSE

ESD4B model supported by PSLF
Exciter EMAC1T

Exciter EMAC1T
Modified IEEE Type AC1 Excitation System Model

VS
VAMAX
EC +
1 + sT1 1 + sT3 1 + sT5
3 +
π
1 KA 1 VE
Σ
1 E FD
1 + sTR 2 1 + sT2 − Σ 1 + sT4 4 1 + sT6 7 1 + sTA VR sTE
+ − −
6 0 FEX
VF VAMIN
VREF
sK FE
1 + sTFE
VFE
sK F
1 + sTF FEX = f ( I N )
VX = VE S E (VE )
5
States
1 : VE
2 : Sensed Vt + VX +
3 : VR + KC I FD
4 : VLL34 ∑ Σ +
KE IN =
VE
5 : VF +
6 : VLL56
7 : VLL56
8 : FBFE KD I FD

## Model supported by PSSE

Exciter ESAC1A

Exciter ESAC1A
IEEE Type AC1A Excitation System Model

VUEL Speed
VS
VAMAX 1 Spdmlt
EC + 4 VRMAX 0
2 1 + sTC +
π
1 KA 1 1 VE
Σ
HV LV E FD
1 + sTR − Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA 3 Gate Gate VR sTE
+ − −
VRMIN 0 FEX
VF VAMIN
VREF
VOEL FEX = f ( I N )
VX = VE S E (VE )
VX
5 sK F VFE
+
1 + sTF
KC I FD
Σ +
Σ +
KE IN =
VE
+
States
1 - VE
KD I FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VA
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Model supported by PSLF with optional speed multiplier
Exciter ESAC2A

Exciter ESAC2A
IEEE Type AC2A Excitation System Model

VFEMAX -K D I FD Speed
VREF VS VAMAX VUEL VOEL K E +SE (VE )
EC Spdmlt
VRMAX 1
4 0
+ + KA + 3 +
π
1 − 1+sTC 1 1 VE E FD
1+sTR 2 Σ Σ Σ
HV LV
KB
1+sTB 1+sTA V Gate Gate VR − sTE
− A

VF VRMIN 0 FEX
VAMIN VH
KH FEX =f(I N )
VX =VESE (VE )
5 sK F + VX IN
1+sTF Σ+ KE
K C I FD
IN =
+ VE
Σ
+ KD
I FD
States
VFE
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VA
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Model supported by PSLF with optional speed multiplier
Exciter ESAC3A

Exciter ESAC3A
IEEE Type AC3A Excitation System Model

KR
VUEL VFEMAX -K D I FD Speed
EC VREF
VAMAX K E +SE (VE ) 1 Spdmlt
2 0
+
1 + sTC + + VE E FD
π
1 3
π
VC KA 1 1
Σ Σ VR Σ
HV
1 + sTR − 1 + sTB 4
Gate 1 + sTA V A sTE
+ − − FEX
VAMIN VEMIN
VS
VF
VFE FEX = f ( I N )
VX = VE S E (VE )
VX IN
+
KC I FD
Σ +
Σ +
KE IN =
VE
+

States KD I FD
1 - VE
VN KN
2 - Sensed Vt s
3 - VA 5 1 + sTF VN KF
4 - VLL EFD

5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Model supported by PSLF with optional speed multiplier
Exciter ESAC4A

Exciter ESAC4A
IEEE Type AC4A Excitation System Model

VUEL
VREF
VIMAX VRMAX -K C I IFD
+
1 2 1 + sTC 3 KA 1
Σ
HV
EC E FD
1 + sTR − VI 1 + sTB Gate 1 + sTA
+ VRMIN
VIMIN
VS

States
1 - EField before limit
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VLL
Model supported by PSLF and PSSE
PSSE uses nonwindup limit on E FD
Exciter ESAC5A

Exciter ESAC5A
IEEE Type AC5A Excitation System Model

EC VREF VRMAX
+
1 2 KA 3 + 1 1 E FD
1 + sTR − Σ 1 + sTA Σ sTE

+ −
VRMIN 0
VS
4 5
V=
X VE ⋅ S E (VE )
sK F (1 + sTF 3 ) VX
(1 + sTF1 )(1 + sTF 2 ) +

## If TF2 =0, then sTF3 =0. Σ +

KE

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - Feedback 1
5 - Feedback 2
Model supported by PSLF and PSSE
Exciter ESAC6A

Exciter ESAC6A
IEEE Type AC6A Excitation System Model

Speed
VREF VUEL VAMAX
EC 1 Spdmlt
+ + VT VRMAX 0
1 2 K A (1 + sTK ) 3 1 + sTC 4 + + 1 VE
π
1 E FD
1 + sTR VC − Σ 1 + sTA 1 + sTB VA Σ VR Σ sTE
+ − −
VT VRMIN FEX
VAMIN 0
VS
FEX = f ( I N )
VX = VE S E (VE )
VHMAX
VX
5 1 + sTJ IN
1 + sTH VH
KH

Σ+ VFE +
KC I FD
0 VFELIM Σ +
Σ +
KE IN =
VE
+

KD I FD
States
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - TA Block
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Model supported by PSLF with optional speed multiplier
Exciter ESAC7B and AC7B

## ESAC7B is the same as AC7B. See AC7B documentation

Exciter ESAC8B_GE

Exciter ESAC8B_GE
IEEE Type AC8B with Added Speed Multiplier.

K PR VFEMAX -K D I FD Speed
VREF
VRMAX K E +SE (VE )
VCOMP 1 Spdmlt
+ 0
+ 5 1
π
1 − K IR 3 KA 1 E FD
Σ
2
1 + sTR + s + Σ 1 + sTA VΣ
+
sTE
R
+ − FEX
VRMIN VEMIN
VS sK DR 4 FEX = f ( I N )
VFE
1 + sTDR
IN
K C I FD
Σ +
K E + S E (VE ) IN =
VE
+

KD I FD

States
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - PID 1
4 - PID 2
5 - VR
Model supported by PSLF
=
If VTMULT <> 0, VRMAX V=
T  VRMAX and VRMIN VT VRMIN
Exciter ESAC8B_PTI

Exciter ESAC8B_PTI
Basler DECS Model

K PR
VREF
VRMAX
VC
+ +
1 2 K IR 4 KA 5 + 1 1 E FD
1 + sTR − Σ s + Σ 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE
+ + −
VRMIN 0
VS
sK DR 3
1 + sTD VX EFD ⋅ S E ( EFD )
=
VX
+

Σ +
KE

States
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - Derivative Controller
4 - Integral Controller
5 - VR
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter ESDC1A

Exciter ESDC1A
IEEE Type DC1A Excitation System Model
Alternate UEL Inputs

VUEL VUEL
UEL ≥ 2 UEL < 2 Speed
VREF
VRMAX
1 Spdmlt
EC 0
+ +
1 + sTC 3 + 1
π
1 2 KA 1
1 + sTR VC − Σ 1 + sTB 5
HV
Gate 1 + sTA VR
Σ sTE
E FD

+ − if exclim <> 0
VRMIN then limit = 0
VS
VF else unlimited

## VFE VX EFD ⋅ S E ( EFD )

=

VX +

Σ +
KE
4 sK F
States
1 + sTF 1
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VF
Model supported by PSSE but always assumes values of spdmlt = 0, UELin = 0, and exclim = 1
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter ESDC2A

Exciter ESDC2A
IEEE Type DC2A Excitation System Model
Alternate UEL Inputs
VUEL VUEL
UEL ≥ 2 UEL < 2 Speed
VREF
VT VRMAX
1 Spdmlt
EC 0
+ +
1 + sTC 3 +
1
π
2 KA 1 1
Σ Σ
HV
E FD
1 + sTR VC − 1 + sTB 5
Gate 1 + sTA VR sTE
+ −
− if exclim <> 0
VT VRMIN then limit = 0
VS
else unlimited
VF
VX EFD ⋅ S E ( EFD )
=
VFE
VX
+

Σ +
KE
States
1 - E FD 4 sK F
2 - Sensed Vt 1 + sTF 1
3 - VR
4 - VF
Model supported by PSSE but always assumes values of spdmlt = 0, UELin = 0, and exclim = 1
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter ESDC3A

Exciter ESDC3A
IEEE Type DC3A with Added Speed Multiplier

VREF VRMAX
KV
VC 1 1 + VERR
VRMAX − VRMIN 3
1 + sTR − Σ sKV TRH
−K V VX
VRMIN
VRH VX EFD ⋅ S E ( EFD )
= Speed

1 Spdmlt
0
If VERR ≥ KV , VR =
VRMAX −
E FD
π
VR 1 2
If VERR ≤ − KV , VR =VRMIN
+ Σ K E + sTE
Else VR = VRH
If exclim <> 0 then 0 else unlimited

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VRH
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter ESST1A and ESST1A_GE

Exciter ESST1A
IEEE Type ST1A Excitation System Model
VUEL VUEL
ESST1A: UEL=1 ESST1A: UEL=3
ESST1A_GE: UEL=2 Alternate ESST1A_GE: UEL= -1
UEL Inputs
VUEL VS
ESST1A: UEL=2 ESST1A: VOS=2
VS ESST1A_GE: UEL= +1 ESST1A_GE: PSSin=1
ESST1A: VOS=1 Alternate
ESST1A_GE: PSSin=0 Stabilizer
Inputs VAMAX
EC VT VRMAX -K C I FD
+ +
(1 + sTC )(1 + sTC1 )
2 1
1 − + KA +
Σ Σ
HV HV LV
1 + sTR VI Gate (1 + sTB )(1 + sTB1 ) 1 + sTA VA Gate Gate E FD
+ − −
VIMIN 3 4 VT VRMIN
VAMIN
VREF
VOEL
VF
I FD
K LR Σ +
0 −

States I LR
5 sK F
1 - VA
1 + sTF
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - LL
4 - LL1
5 - Feedback
Support in PSLF and PSSE. Different integer codes for VOS (or PSSin), and UEL codes
Exciter ESST2A

Exciter ESST2A
IEEE Type ST2A Excitation System Model
Alternate UEL Inputs
VUEL VUEL
UEL ≥ 2 UEL < 2
VREF
VRMAX EFD MAX
EC
2 + + 1 + sTC + 1
π
1 KA 3 1 E FD
− Σ Σ
HV
1 + sTR VC 1 + sTB 5 Gate 1 + sTA VR sTE
+ −

VF VRMIN 0
VS VB
KE
4 sK F
1 + sTF
If= =
K P 0 and K I 0,=
VB 1
π
VT VE
=
VE K PVT + jK I IT
IT

KC I FD
States IN = FEX = f ( I N )
IFD VE IN FEX
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VF
5 - LL
Model supported by PSSE but always assumes values of UEL=
= 0, TC 0,=
and TB 0
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter ESST3A

Exciter ESST3A
IEEE Type ST3A Excitation System Model

VGMAX
KG
VS VUEL VG
VRMAX VMMAX
EC + VIMAX −
1 + sTC
π
1 2 − HV 4 KA 3 + KM 1
1 + sTR Σ VI Gate 1 + sTB VA 1 + sTA VR Σ 1 + sTM VM E FD
+
VIMIN
VRMIN VMMIN VB
VREF VBMAX

VE = K PVT + j ( K I + K P X L ) IT π
VT VE
IT

K P = K P e jθ P
KC I FD
IN =
IN FEX = f ( I N )
IFD VE FEX

States
1 - VM
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - LL
Model supported by PSLF and PSSE
Exciter ESST4B

Exciter ESST4B
IEEE Type ST4B Potential- or Compound-Source Controlled-Rectifier Exciter Model

VGMAX
VS KG
VUEL
VRMAX VMMAX
VCOMP
+ + −

π
1 2 − K 4 1 3 + K IM 1
Σ Σ
LV
K PR + IR K PM +
1 + sTR s VR 1 + sTA s Gate E FD
+

## VRMIN VMMIN VOEL

VREF VBMAX VB

π
VE
VE = K PVT + j ( K I + K P X L ) IT
VT
IT

K P = K P e jθ P
KC I FD
IN =
IN FEX = f ( I N )
IFD VE FEX
States
1 - VM
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VA
4 - VR
Model supported by PSSE but assumes VGMAX = infinite
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter ESST5B and ST5B
Exciter ESST5B and ST5B
IEEE (2005) Type ST5B Excitation System

Vrmax/Kr Vrmax/Kr

7 8

Vc Vrmin/Kr Vrmin/Kr
Vref Vrmax/Kr Vrmax/Kr VtVrmax
Voel Vrmax
LV +1 Efd
+ Vr
2 Gate + 0
_ HV +
3 1
Gate + 4 _
-1
Vuel Vs Vrmin
Vrmin/Kr Vrmin/Kr VtVrmin
Vrmax/Kr Vrmax/Kr Ifd

States:
1 – Efd
2 – Sensed Vt 5 6
3 – LL1
4 – LL2
5 – LLU1 Vrmin/Kr Vrmin/Kr
6 – LLU2
7 – LLO1
8 – LLO2

## Model supported by PSLF (ESST5B) and PSSE (ST5B)

Exciter ESST6B and ST6B
Exciter ESST6B
IEEE 421.5 2005 ST6B Excitation System Model

I FD
VC

1 2
I LR +
1 + sTR KCL Σ K LR

VRMIN VT
VOEL VOEL
(OEL=1) (OEL=2)
Alternate OEL Inputs K FF 1 VRMULT
0
VAMAX
VRMAX VB
− − +
+
VA E FD
+ +
π
− K sK DA VR 1
Σ
HV
Gate Σ K PA + IA +
s 1 + sTDA Σ KM Σ
LV
Gate 1 + sTS
+ + − VRMIN 1
3 4
VUEL VAMIN
VREF VS

VG sKG
States
5 1 + sTG
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - PID1
4 - PID2
5 - VG

## ESST6B is the same as model ST6B

ESST6B is a PSLF model and ST6B is a PSSE model
Exciter ESST7B and ST7B
Exciter ESST7B
IEEE 421.5 2005 ST7B Excitation System Model

VC 1 1 + sTG
1 + sTR 2 1 + sTF 3
VOEL VOEL
(OEL=1) Alternate (OEL=2)
VDROOP OEL Inputs
VS
VMAX
+ +
VSCL + +
Σ Σ Σ Σ
LV HV
Gate
K PA
Gate VREF_FB
+ + VMIN
Alternate UEL Inputs
V UEL
(UEL=2)
VREF VUEL
(UEL=1)

V OEL V UEL
(OEL=3) (UEL=3)

VT VRMAX
1 + sTC + 1 E FD
States: HV
Gate
LV
Gate 1 + sTB 4
Σ LV
Gate
HV
Gate 1 + sTS 1
1 – EField +
2 – VTerminalSensed VT VRMIN
VT VRMIN + + VT VRMAX
3 – InputLL
4 – LL2 Σ Σ
5 – Feedback − −
sK IA
KL
5 1 + sTIA

H K
ESST7B is the same as model ST7B
ESST7B is a PSLF model and ST7B is a PSSE model
Exciter EWTGFC

Exciter EWTGFC
Excitation Control Model for Full Converter GE Wind-Turbine Generators
Reactive Power Control Model
VC VRFQ K IV 5
Q MAX
4 + s +
1 − 1 1 6
∑ ∑
1 + sTR fN 1 + sTFV
K PV 3 +
Q MIN
1 + sTV
Q REF
PFAREF tan
0
π
Pelec 1 7 1 VMAX IQMAX
1 + sTP Q MAX Qgen
1
0 − VREF IQCMD
pfaflg K QI 1 + KVI
+
Q REF ∑ ∑
−1 s − s 2
Q MIN VTERM
varflg VMIN IQMIN

## pqflag Converter Current Limit

States
I PMAX
1 - Vref
2 - E qppcmd PORD ÷
I PCMD
3 - K PV
4 - VregMeas VTERM 1
+ Pdbr
− +
5 - K IV Pelec ∑ ∑
6 - QORD − 0
7 - PMeas + 1
K dbr ∑ s
Model supported by PSLF −
0 E BST
Exciter EX2000

Exciter EX2000
IEEE Type AC7B Alternator-Rectifier Excitation System Model

Field Current
Limiter
VRMAX VAMAX K P ⋅ ETRM VEMAX
EC
1 2 + + 1 VE E FD
π π
K IR K IA 1
1 + sTR − Σ K PR +
s Σ K PA +
s
Minimum
VA Gate 1 Σ sTE
+ −
3 −
REF 4 VF − K L VFE VEMIN
FEX
VRMIN VAMIN
Reference 1st PI Controller 2nd PI Controller FEX = f ( I E )
Signal VFE VX = VE S E (VE )
Σ + KF 2
VX
+
+
+ KC I FD
If field current limiter is included, VE MAX is off.
V -K I
Σ Σ +
KE IN =
VE
If field current limiter is excluded, VEMAX = FEMAX D FD +
K E +SE (VE )
States
1 - VE KD I FD
2 - Sensed Vt K F1
3 - VAPI
4 - VRPI
5 - LL
6 - IFD PI
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter EX2000 REFERENCE SIGNAL MODEL

## Exciter EX2000 Reference Signal Model

Frequency KVHZ

Reactive
SBASE 1 Current
Q ELEC KRCC
Machine MVA BASE ETERM

VREF REFLIMP
+ − REF
+
Σ
Minimum
VUEL
+ Gate 2

VSTB

## Model supported by PSSE

Exciter EX2000 FIELD CURRENT LIMITER MODEL

## IFD REF1 Level Output =1 if level exceeded Latch

Detector Gate 1

Inverse Timing OR
IFD REF2 ( I 1, T 1) Output =1 if

( I 2, T 2)
timing expired Latch
Gate 2
( I 3, T 3)
( I 4, T 4)

IFD LIMP
6 To
I FD KIIFD A C
KPIFD + Minimum
Gate 1
s
A C
D
IFD REF3
D
+
Σ IFD LIMN B
− 3rd PI Controller
IFD REF4 B

Switch Operation
1 + sTLEAD 5 IFDADVLIM Output D = B if C =0
Output D = A if C=1
1 + sTLAG

## Field Current Limiter Model

(Over Excitation Limiter)
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter EXAC1

Exciter EXAC1
IEEE Type AC1 Excitation System Model
Speed
VREF VS VRMAX
1 Spdmlt
EC + +
0
2
1 1 + sTC + 1 VE
π
− 4 KA 3 1 E FD
1 + sTR VC Σ + Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE
− − FEX
VF VRMIN 0
FEX = f ( I N )

5 sK F VFE
1 + sTF
KC I FD
Σ +
K E + SE IN =
VE
States
+
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt I FD
KD
3 - VR
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE but always assumes value of spdmlt = 0
Model supported by PSLF also uses VAMIN and VAMAX
Simulator will narrow the limit range as appropriate when loading the DYD file
If VAMIN > VRMIN then VRMIN = VAMIN
If VAMAX < VRMAX then VRMAX =
VAMAX
Model supported by PSLF but always assumes value of spdmlt = 1
Exciter EXAC1A

Exciter EXAC1A
Modified Type AC1 Excitation System Model

Speed
VREF VS
VRMAX
EC 1 Spdmlt
+ +
0
2
1 1 + sTC 3 + VE E FD
π
− 4 KA 1 1
1 + sTR VC Σ + Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE

− FEX
VF VRMIN 0
FEX = f ( I N )
VFE

KC I FD
Σ +
K E + SE IN =
VE
+

KD I FD

States
5 sK F
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt 1 + sTF
3 - VR
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE but always assumes value of spdmlt = 0
Model supported by PSLF but always assumes value of spdmlt = 1
Exciter EXAC2

Exciter EXAC2
IEEE Type AC2 Excitation System Model

Speed
VREF VS
VAMAX
1 Spdmlt
EC VRMAX 0
+ + 4 3
2 +
1 + 1 + sTC + VE 1 E FD
π
− KA 1
1 + sTR V Σ Σ Σ Σ
LV
KB
1 + sTB 1 + sTA VA
Gate VR sTE
C
− − VRMIN −
VL − FEX
VF VAMIN VH KL Σ 0
+
FEX = f ( I N )
VLR
KH
5 sK F VFE IN
1 + sTF
KC I FD
Σ +
K E + SE IN =
VE
+

I FD
States KD
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VA
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE but always assumes value of spdmlt = 0
Model supported by PSLF but always assumes value of spdmlt = 1
Exciter EXAC3

Exciter EXAC3
IEEE Type AC3 Excitation System Model

K LV Σ −

+ Speed
VREF VS
VAMAX VLV VFEMAX 1 Spdmlt
EC 0
+ +
1 2
1 + sTC 3 + VE 1
π π
4 KA 1 E FD

Σ Σ V Σ
HV
1 + sTR + 1 + sTB Gate 1 + sTA VA sTE
VC −
R −
FEX
VF VAMIN 0
FEX = f ( I N )
KR
VFE
VN KN IN
5 s + KC I FD
1 + sTF KF Σ K E + SE IN =
VE
EFD
+
EFDN
I FD
KD

States
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VA
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE but always assumes values of VFEMAX = 9999 and spdmlt = 0
Model supported by PSLF but always assumes value of spdmlt = 1
Exciter EXAC3A

Exciter EXAC3A
IEEE Type AC3 Excitation System Model

KR
VREF
VAMAX VEMAX Speed
EC
2 +
1 + sTC 3 E FD
π
VE 1
+
π
1 4 KA 1
1 + sTR

Σ 1 + sTB + Σ 1 + sTA VA VR
Σ sTE
VC + −
− FEX
VAMIN VEMIN FEX = f ( I N )
VS VFE
VF IN
+ KC I FD
Σ K E + SE IN =
VE
+

VN KN KD I FD
5 s
KF
1 + sTF
EFD
States EFDN
VFEMAX =
( K L1VC +VS +VREF -VC -VF )
1 - VE K FA K L1
2 - Sensed Vt
VEMAX =
( VFEMAX -K D IFD )
3 - VA SE +K E
4 - VLL VLV
VEMIN =
5 - VF FEX
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXAC4

Exciter EXAC4
IEEE Type AC4 Excitation System Model

VREF VS
EC + + VIMAX VRMAX -K C I IFD
1 2 − 1 + sTC 3 KA 1
1 + sTR Σ Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA
E FD
VERR+ VIMIN
VRMIN -K C I IFD

States
1 - EField before limit
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VLL
Model supported by PSLF and PSSE
Exciter EXAC6A

Exciter EXAC6A
IEEE Type AC6A Excitation System Model

VREF
VAMAX Speed
EC VT VRMAX
+
2 VE 1
K A (1 + sTk ) 3 1 + sTC + + 1
π
1 − 4 E FD
1 + sTR Σ 1 + sTA 1 + sTB VA Σ VR Σ sTE
+ − − FEX
VT VRMIN
VS VAMIN 0 FEX = f ( I N )
VHMAX IN
5 1 + sTJ + KC I FD
Σ+ Σ
VH IN =
KH K E + SE
1 + sTH − +
VE
0
VFE
VFELIM
KD I FD

States
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - TA Block
4 - VLL
5 - VF
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXAC8B

Exciter EXAC8B
Brushless Exciter with PID Voltage Regulator

KVP
VREF
VRMAX
EC Speed
+ VIMAX +
2 5 3 VE 1
1 1 + 1
π
KVI E FD
1 + sTR

+
Σ s +Σ 1 + sTA
Σ sTE
+ − FEX
-VIMAX
VS
VRMIN 0 FEX = f ( I N )
sKVD 4
1 + sTVD IN
+ KC I FD
Σ K E + SE IN =
VE
+
VFE
KD I FD

States
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - Derivative
5 - Integral
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXBAS

Exciter EXBAS
Basler Static Voltage Regulator Feeding DC or AC Rotating Exciter Model

VREF VSTB
VRMAX
EC 4 5
+ +
2
1 1 + sTC 3 + VE 1 E FD
π
− + KI KA 1
1 + sTR Σ Σ KP +
s 1 + sTB 1 + sTA Σ sTE
+ + −

FEX
VRMIN
VUEL FEX = f ( I N )
VOEL

IN
7 sK F 6 1 + sTF 1 + KC I FD
1 + sTF 1 + sTF 2 Σ K E + SE IN =
VE
+

I FD
KD

States
1 - VE
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - PI
5 - LL
6 - Feedback LL
7 - Feedback
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter EXBBC

Exciter EXBBC
Transformer-fed Excitation System

VREF
EC
VRMAX E T E FDMAX
1 + 1 + sT3 + T + E FD
− 1 +
1 + sTF Σ 1 + sT4 Σ K 2
T1 Σ 1 + sTE
Σ
+ + − −
VRMIN
E T E FDMIN
XE
1  T1  1
 − 1
K  T2  1 + sT2
I FD
Switch = 0 Switch = 1

Supplemental
Signal

## Very similar to the model BBSEX1 supported by PSSE

Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXDC1

Exciter EXDC1
IEEE DC1 Excitation System Model

VS
VRMAX Speed
EC
+
E FD
1 + sTC 3 4
π
1 2 − KA + 1
1 + sTR Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE 1
+ −

VREF VRMIN
VF
K E + SE
5 sK F
1 + sTF 1

States
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VB
4 - VR
5 - VF
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXDC2A

Exciter EXDC2A
IEEE Type DC2 Excitation System Model

VS
VRMAX VT Speed
EC
+ 3
E FD
1 + sTC 4 +
KA 1
π
1 2 −
1 + sTR Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE 1
+ − −
VREF VRMIN VT
VF K E + SE
5 sK F
1 + sTF 1

States
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VB
4 - VR
5 - VF
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXDC2_GE

Exciter EXDC2_GE
IEEE Type DC2 Excitation System Model

Speed
VREF VS VRMAX VT
Vcomp
+
2 + 1 + sTC 3 4 +
π
1 KA 1 E FD
1 + sTR

Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA Σ 1 + sTE 1
− −
VRMIN VT
K E + SE
sK F
(1 + sTF1 )(1 + sTF 2 )
5 6

States
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VB
4 - VR
5 - VF1
6 - VF2
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXDC2_PTI

Exciter EXDC2_PTI
IEEE Type DC2 Excitation System Model

Speed
VREF VS VRMAX VT
Vcomp
+ +
2
1 + sTC 3
π
1 KA 4 + 1 E FD

1 + sTR Σ VERR + Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA Σ 1 + sTE 1
− −
VRMIN VT
K E + SE
5 sK F
1 + sTF 1

States
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VB
4 - VR
5 - VF
Model supported by PSEE
Exciter EXDC4

Exciter EXDC4
IEEE Type 4 Excitation System Model

VS VRMAX Speed
1
+ E FD

π
-K R 1 2 + 1
EC Σ KR sTRH VRH VR
Σ K E + sTE
+ − 1
-1
VREF VRMIN
π
VRMAX
-K V SE
KV
VRMIN

States
1 - E FD
2 - VRH
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXELI

Exciter EXELI
Static PI Transformer Fed Excitation System Model

K s1
PGEN S MAX
+
 sTW 
3
− sTs 2 8
  Σ 1 + sTs 2
 1 + sTW 
+ − S MAX
4 5 6 Ks2 7
1 + sTs1

EC E FMAX
+
2
1 + 1 1 + + E FD
1 + sTFV

Σ VPU Σ sTNU Σ VPI Σ
+ + −

E FMIN
States VPNF
VREF
1 - TNU XE
2 - Sensed Vt
− 3
3 - Sensed I FLD 1 I FD
4 - PGEN Washout1 Σ+ 1 + sTFI
5 - PGEN Washout2
6 - PGEN Washout3 D PNF
7 - Lag Stabilizer
8 - Washout Stabilizer
Model supported by PSLF and PSSE
Exciter EXIVO

Exciter EXIVO
IVO Excitation Model

Vref

MAX1 MAX3
MAX5
+
Vcomp _ Efd
2 1 3 4
+
MIN5

MIN1 MIN3
VS

States:
1 – VLL12
2 – Sensed Vt
3 – VLL34
4 – VLL56

## Model supported by PSLF

Exciter EXPIC1

Exciter EXPIC1
Proportional/Integral Excitation System Model

VREF VR1
EC VRMAX E FDMAX
2 +
K A (1 + sTA1 ) 3 (1 + sTA3 ) 1
π
1 − + E FD
1 + sTR E T Σ Σ s VA (1 + sTA2 )(1 + sTA4 ) VR E0 Σ sTE
+ 1
− −
4 5 VRMIN E FDMIN
VS VR2 VB
sK F K E + SE
(1 + sTF1 )(1 + sTF 2 )
6 7

VT
IT
=
VE K PVT + jK I IT π
FEX
=If K P 0=
and K I 0, =
then VB 1
=If TE 0,=
then EFD E0
KC I FD
I FD
IN = FEX = f ( I N )
States VE IN
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VA
4 - VR1
5 - VR
6 - VF1
7 - VF
Model supported by PSLF and PSSE
Exciter EXST1_GE

Exciter EXST1_GE
IEEE Type ST1 Excitation System Model

VREF
VS VAMAX
Vcomp VIMAX VT VRMAX -K C I IFD
+
+
1 2 1 + sTC 3 1 + sTC1 5 KA 1
1 + sTR − Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTB1 1 + sTA + Σ + Σ E FD
− VIMIN − −
VT VRMIN -K C I IFD
VAMIN
XE
4 sK F +
1 + sTF
K lr Σ I FD
0 −

Ilr

States
1 - VA
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VLL
4 - VF
5 - VLL1
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXST1_PTI

Exciter EXST1_PTI
IEEE Type ST1 Excitation System Model

VREF VS
Ec VIMAX VT VRMAX -K C I IFD
+ +
1 2 + 1 + sTC 3 KA 1
1 + sTR − Σ VERR
Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA
E FD
− VIMIN
VT VRMIN -K C I IFD

4 sK F
1 + sTF

States
1 - E FD before limit
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VLL
4 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter EXST2

Exciter EXST2
IEEE Type ST2 Excitation System Model

## VREF VS VRMAX E FDMAX

EC
+ +
1 2 + 1 + sTC 5 KA 3
+ 1 1 E FD
1 + sTR

Σ VERR
Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR + Σ Σ sTE
− + −
VRMIN VB 0

KE
4 sK F
1 + sTF
VE =
If K P 0=
and K I 0, =
then VB 1
VT
IT
=
VE K PVT + jK I IT π
FEX

KC I FD
States
IN = FEX = f ( I N )
IFD VE IN
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VF
5 - VLL
Model supported by PSLF
Model supported by PSSE does not include TB and TC inputs
Exciter EXST2A

Exciter EXST2A
Modified IEEE Type ST2 Excitation System Model
VREF VS VRMAX E FDMAX
VCOMP
+ +
2 1 + sTC 3 E FD
π
1 5 KA 1 1
+
1 + sTR

Σ + Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR
Σ sTE
VERR
− −
VF VRMIN VB 0
KE
4 sK F
1 + sTF

VE =
If K P 0=
and K I 0, =
VT
IT
=
VE K PVT + jK I IT π then VB 1

KC I FD
IN = FEX = f ( I N )
IFD VE IN FEX
States
1 - E FD
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VF
5 - VLL
Model supported by PSLF
Model supported by PSSE does not include TB and TC inputs
Exciter EXST3

Exciter EXST3
IEEE Type ST3 Excitation System Model
VGMAX

KG Speed
VREF VS
VG VRMAX
EC 1 Spdmlt
VIMAX − E FD MAX 0
+ +
2 − 1 + sTC 3 + KA
π π
1 1
1 + sTR Σ VERR +
Σ KJ
1 + sTB VA
∑ 1 + sTA VR E FD
VIMIN
VB
VRMIN
VE
VT
IT
VE = K PVT + j ( K I + K P X L ) IT π
K P = K P e jθ P
KC I FD
IN = FEX = f ( I N )
I FD VE IN FEX

States
1 - VR
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - LL
Model supported by PSSE but always assumes value of spdmlt = 0
Model supported by PSLF but always assumes value of spdmlt = 1
Exciter EXST3A

Exciter EXST3A
IEEE Type ST3 Excitation System Model
VGMAX

KG
VS VRMAX
VG
EC VIMAX −
1 + 1 + sTC KA
π
2

3 + 1
1 + sTR Σ KJ
1 + sTB VA

1 + sTA
+ E FD
VIMIN
VB
VREF VRMIN
VBMAX
VE
VT
IT
VE = K PVT + j ( K I + K P X L ) IT π
Speed
jθ P
K P = K Pe
KC I FD
IN = FEX = f ( I N )
I FD VE IN FEX

States
1 - VR
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - LL
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXST4B

Exciter EXST4B
IEEE Type ST4B Excitation System Model

KG
VS
VRMAX VMMAX
EC
+ −
2 4 3 K IM 1
π
1 − K 1 +
Σ K PR + IR ∑ K PM +
1 + sTR s 1 + sTA s VM
E FD
+
VB
VREF VRMIN VMMIN
VBMAX
VT VE
IT VE = K PVT + j ( K I + K P X L ) IT π
K P = K P e jθ P
FEX
K I
I N = C FD FEX = f ( I N )
I FD VE IN

States
1 - VMInt
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VA
4 - VR
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXWTG1

Exciter EXWTG1
Excitation System Model for Wound-Rotor Induction Wind-Turbine Generators

## ωREF R EXT R MAX

+ +
ωR − 1 + sTW 1 2
+ 1 1
∑ KW ∑
1 + sTW 2 + 1 + sTA R EXT (E FD )

sK DP 3 R MIN
PE
1 + sTDP

States
1 - R external
2 - SpeedReg
3 - Washout
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter EXWTGE

Exciter EXWTGE
Excitation System Model for GE Wind-Turbine Generators

WindVAR Emulation
VREG VRFQ (VREF ) K IV 5
Q MAX
4 + s +
1 − 1 1 QORD
1 + sTR ∑ ∑
fN
K PV 3 +Q
1 + sTC 6
MIN
1 + sTV
PFAREF (VREF ) tan(⋅) Q REF
(VREF ) Switch = 0
1 QORD from separate model
π
PE 7
(VREF )
1 + sTP Switch = 1 GEWTG
pfaflg machine
Switch = 0 Switch = −1 Q MAX model
Open
QORD Loop QCMD
Switch = 1
Control
varflg Q MIN
States I PMAX
1 - Vref
PORD (VS ) ÷ IPCMD (IFD )
2 - E"QCMD From Wind Turbine Model
3 - K PV VTERM
4 - VregMeas VMAX VTERM + XIQMAX
QGEN
5 - K IV − − 2
K QI VREF + KVI
6 - QORD QCMD
+
∑ ∑ E Q ''CMD (E FD )
s 1 s
7 - PMeas
Model supported by PSLF VMIN VTERM + XIQMIN
Exciter IEEET1

Exciter IEEET1
IEEE Type 1 Excitation System Model

4 sK F
1 + sTF
Speed
VREF VRMAX
EC 1 Spdmlt
0
+ −
2 3 +
π
1 KA 1
1 + sTR − Σ +
Σ 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE 1
+
E FD

VRMIN
VS
V=
E S E ⋅ EFD
VE
+

Σ +
KE

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VF
Model supported by PSSE but always assumes value of spdmlt = 0
Model supported by PSLF but always assumes value of spdmlt = 1
Exciter IEEET2

Exciter IEEET2
IEEE Type 2 Excitation System Model

VREF VRMAX
EC
2 + +
1 KA 3 1 E FD
1 + sTR − Σ + Σ 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE 1
+ − −
VRMIN
VS
V=
E S E ⋅ EFD
1 sK F
VE
1 + sTF 2 1 + sTF 1
+
5 4
Σ +
KE

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VF1
5 - VF2
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEEET3

Exciter IEEET3
IEEE Type 3 Excitation System Model

VREF VRMAX
EC VBMAX
2 + 3 + 1 E FD
1 KA 1
1 + sTR − Σ + Σ 1 + sTA VR Σ VB K E + sTE
+ − +
0
VRMIN
VS
4 sK F
1 + sTF
VT
IT
V=
THEV K PVT + jK I IT π

2
I FD 1− A
 0.78 ⋅ I FD 
A= 
 VTHEV 
If A > 1, VB = 0

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEEET4

Exciter IEEET4
IEEE Type 4 Excitation System Model

SE

VREF VRMAX π
EC
+ 1 −
ΔV -K R 1 ΔV < K V + 1 E FD
− Σ KR sTRH VRH VR Σ K E + sTE 1
-1 2
VRMIN

ΔV > K V
VRMAX
-KV
KV
VRMIN

States
1 - EField
2 - VRH
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEEET5

Exciter IEEET5
Modified IEEE Type 4 Excitation System Model

SE

VREF VRMAX π
+
ΔV < K V −
− ΔV 1 + 1 E FD
EC Σ sTRH 2 VRH VR
Σ K E + sTE 1

VRMIN

ΔV > K V
VRMAX
-KVV
RMAX
KV
VRMIN

States
1 - EField
2 - VRH
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEEEX1

Exciter IEEEX1
IEEE Type 1 Excitation System Model

VREF VS VRMAX
EC + + Regulator
2
1 + 1 + sTC 3 KA 4 + 1 1
E FD
1 + sTR

Σ Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE
VERR −

VF
VRMIN
K E + SE
5 sK F
1 + sTF 1
Damping

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VB
4 - VR
5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEEEX2

Exciter IEEEX2
IEEE Type 2 Excitation System Model IEEEX2

VREF VS VRMAX
EC + + Regulator
1 2
1 + sTC 3 KA 4
+ 1 1
E FD
1 + sTR

Σ VERR +
Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR Σ sTE
− −
VF
VRMIN
K E + SE

sK F
(1 + sTF1 )(1 + sTF 2 )
Damping
5 6

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - LL
4 - VR
5 - VF1
6 - VF2
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEEEX3

Exciter IEEEX3
IEEE Type 3 Excitation System Model

VREF VS VRMAX
EC Regulator
+ + 1
1 2
− + KA 3 + 1 E FD
1 + sTR Σ VERR
Σ 1 + sTA VR
Σ K E + sTE

+
VF
VRMIN 0
4 sK F
1 + sTF
Damping
VBMAX
VT VTH VB
V= K PVT + jK I IT V − ( 0.78I FD )
2 2
THEV
IT TH
IFD 0

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VR
4 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEEEX4

Exciter IEEEX4
IEEE Type 4 Excitation System Model

VREF VRMAX
EC KV
+
1 2 VERR VRMAX − VRMIN 3
1 + sTR

Σ sKV TRH VRH
−K V
VRMIN

If VERR ≥ KV , VR =
VRMAX
1 1 E FD
If VERR < KV , VR =
VRH
VR
+
Σ sTE
If VERR ≤ − KV , VR =VRMIN −

K E + SE

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VRH
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEET1A

Exciter IEET1A
Modified IEEE Type 1 Excitation System Model

VREF
VRMAX
E FDMAX
+
+ KA 2 + 1 1 E FD
EC −
Σ Σ 1 + sTA Σ sTE
+ −

VRMIN E FDMIN

VS
3 sK F
K E + SE
1 + sTF

States
1 - EField
2 - VR
3 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEET1B

Exciter IEET1B
Modified IEEE Type 1 Excitation System Model

sK F 1 Switch=1
1 + sTF 1
Switch=0 SE

I MAG ψ

XE VREF Bias
VRMAX π
EC VSMAX
+ + −
+ −
1 + + KA 1 + 1 E FD
+
Σ 1 + sTR VT Σ

Σ Σ 1 + sTA1 VR 1 + sTA2 VREG Σ sTE
+ +
VSMIN
VRMIN
VS −KE

## Model supported by PSSE but not implemented yet in Simulator

Exciter IEET5A

Exciter IEET5A
Modified IEEE Type 4 Excitation System Model

SE

VREF
VRMAX π
E FDMAX
+
* −
KA 2 ΔV < K V + 1 1 E FD
− Σ 1 + sTRH VR Σ K E + sTE
E FDMIN
EC
VRMIN ΔV > K V
VTO
+ VRMAX KA
* If TRH equals zero, block becomes
Σ
-KV
s
− ΔVT KV
VRMIN

States
1 - EField
2 - VRH
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IEEX2A

Exciter IEEX2A
IEEE Type 2A Excitation System Model

VREF VS VRMAX
EC + +
1 2 1 + sTC 3 KA 4 1 1 E FD
Σ +Σ Σ
− +
1 + sTR 1 + sTB 1 + sTA VR sTE
VERR −

VF
VRMIN 0

5 sK F
K E + SE
1 + sTF 1

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - VB
4 - VR
5 - VF
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter IVOEX

Exciter IVOEX
IVO Excitation Model

Vref

MAX1 MAX3
MAX5
+
Ec _ Efd
2 1 3 4
+
MIN5

MIN1 MIN3
VS

States:
1 – VLL12
2 – Sensed Vt
3 – VLL34
4 – VLL56

## Model supported by PSSE

Exciter PLAYINEX
With the PLAYINEX model, specify the index (FIndex) of a specified PlayIn structure. That signal will then be played into the model
as the field voltage during the simulation.
Exciter REEC_A

Exciter REEC_B

## Model supported by PowerWorld

Exciter REXS

Exciter REXS
General Purpose Rotating Excitation System Model
VREF VRMAX States
EC VIMAX 6 Regulator
2 + 1 - VE 6 - Voltage PI
1 − K (1 + sTC1 )(1 + sTC 2 ) KA VR 5
1 + sTR +
ΣV + Σ KVP + VI
s (1 + sTB1 )(1 + sTB 2 ) 1 + sTA
2 - Sensed VT 7 - VI LL1
ERR
− 3 - VF 8 - VI LL2
VS VF − V
IMAX 7 8
VRMIN 4 - Current PI 9 - Feedback
9 5 - VR 10 - Feedback LL
sK F K EFD
1 + sTF
ITERM XC
10
1 + sTF 1 VFMAX Speed
VR VCMAX
1 + sTF 2 1
+ 4 3 +
VE
π
K 1 1 E FD
+ Σ Σ +Σ
K IP + II

s 1 + sTP +

sTE0
FEX
VFMIN 0
KH FEX = f ( I N )

0 IN
Fbf KC I FD
+
Σ
I FE
1 K E + SE IN =
VE
2 +

I FD
KD

Model supported by PSLF. If flimf = 1 then multiply VRMIN ,VRMAX ,VFMIN , and VFMAX by VTERM .
Exciter REXSY1

Exciter REXSY1
General Purpose Rotating Excitation System Model
Voltage Regulator VREF F ⋅ VRMAX
EC 6
F= [1.0 + F1IMF (E T -1.0) ] ⋅ (K E +K D +SE )
+ VIMAX
1 2 − K (1 + sTC1 )(1 + sTC 2 ) 1
1 + sTR Σ + Σ KVP + VI
s (1 + sTB1 )(1 + sTB 2 ) 1 + sTA 5
VR
+ −
VF − VIMAX 7 8
F ⋅ VRMIN 0
VS 10 1 + sTF 1 9 sK F
1 I FE
1 + sTF 2 1 + sTF
Fbf 2
E FD
ITERM XC

## Exciter Field Current Regulator F ⋅ VFMAX VCMAX

+ VE
+ 4 1
π
K 1 3 1 E FD
Σ + Σ
VR K IP + II

s 1 + sTP sTE0

FEX
KH F ⋅ VFMIN FEX = f ( I N )
I FE
IN
States
+ KC I FD
1 - VE 6 - Voltage PI Σ K E + SE IN =
VE
2 - Sensed VT 7 - VI LL1 +
3 - VF 8 - VI LL2 KD I FD
4 - Current PI 9 - Feedback
5 - VR 10 - Feedback LL
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter REXSYS

Exciter REXSYS
General Purpose Rotating Excitation System Model
Voltage Regulator VREF
F ⋅ VRMAX
EC 6
F= [1.0 + F1IMP (E T -1.0) ] ⋅ (K E +K D +SE )
+ VIMAX
1 2
− K (1 + sTC1 )(1 + sTC 2 ) 1
1 + sTR Σ + Σ KVP + VI
s (1 + sTB1 )(1 + sTB 2 ) 1 + sTA
VR
− 5
+ VF − VIMAX 7 8
F ⋅ VRMIN 0
VS 10 1 + sTF 1 9 sK F
1 I FE
1 + sTF 2 1 + sTF Fbf
2
E FD

## Exciter Field Current Regulator F ⋅ VFMAX

+ 1 VE
+
π
K 4 1 3 1 E FD
Σ + Σ
VR K IP + II

s 1 + sTP sTE0

FEX
KH F ⋅ VFMIN FEX = f ( I N )
I FE
States IN
+ KC I FD
1 - VE 6 - Voltage PI Σ K E + SE IN =
VE
2 - Sensed VT 7 - VI LL1
+
3 - VF 8 - VI LL2 KD I FD
4 - Current PI 9 - Feedback
5 - VR 10 - Feedback LL
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter SCRX

Exciter SCRX
Bus Fed or Solid Fed Static Excitation System Model

CSWITCH =0 CSWITCH =1
ET 1
VREF E FDMAX
EC
+
E FD
1 + sTA 1 2
π
K

Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTE
+
E FDMIN
VS

States
2 - VE
Model supported by PSLF
Model supported by PSSE has CSWITCH = 1
Exciter SEXS_GE

Exciter SEXS_GE
Simplified Excitation System Model

VREF
E MAX
+ 3 EFDMAX
1 2 1 + sTA KC (1 + sTC ) 4 K 1 E FD
Vcomp 1 + sTR

Σ 1 + sTB sTC 1 + sTE
+
E FDMIN
E MIN
Stabilizer
Output

States
1 - EField
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - LL
4 - PI
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter SEXS_PTI

Exciter SEXS_PTI
Simplified Excitation System Model

VREF E FDMAX
+
1 + sTA 2 K 1 E FD
EC −
Σ 1 + sTB 1 + sTE
+
E FDMIN
VS

States
1 - EField
2 - LL
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter ST5B and ESST5B
ST5B is the same as ESST5B. See ESST5B documentation.

## Exciter ST6B and ESST6B

ST6B is the same as ESST6B. See ESST6B documentation.

## Exciter ST7B and ESST7B

ST7B is the same as ESST7B. See ESST7B documentation.
Exciter TEXS

Exciter TEXS
General Purpose Transformer-Fed Excitation System Model
Constant
Source Voltage

Generator
Terminal Voltage

I LR K CL K LR
1 0
VREF VRMAX 0
K FF
VIMAX VRMAX
+ +
2 KVI 4 +
πV Σ
1 − +
Σ KVP + Σ Σ Σ
EC LV
KM E FD
1 + sTR s + − + Gate VR −
+ + E

− VIMAX VRMIN
VRMIN XC
VS
sKVD 3 1 KG
I FD
1 + sTVD 1 + sTG

States
1 - Feedback
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - Derivative Controller
4 - Integral Controller
Model supported by PSLF
Exciter URST5T

Exciter URST5T
IEEE Proposed Type ST5B Excitation System Model

VUEL
EC
VRMAX /K R VRMAX /K R VRMAX VT
VRMAX
1
1 2 + 1 + sTC1 3 1 + sTC 2 4 1 E FD
− Σ Σ Σ
HV LV +
KR
1 + sTR Gate Gate 1 + sTB1 1 + sTB 2 1 + sT1
+ + −
VRMIN
VRMIN /K R VRMIN /K R VRMIN VT
VREF KC I FD
VOEL VSTB

States
1 - VR
2 - Sensed Vt
3 - LL1
4 - LL2
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter WT2E

Power-Slip Curve

Kw 2 R MAX
Speed
1 + sTw
− K ip 1
Σ K pp +
s
+
R MIN

Kp 3
Pelec
1 + sT p

States:
1 – Rexternal
2 – Speed
3 – Pelec

## Model supported by PSLF

Exciter WT2E1

Exciter WT2E1
Rotor Resistance Control Model for Type 2 Wind Generator

## Note: Power-Slip Curves is

Power-Slip Curve defined in the WT2G1 model

1 2 R MAX
Speed
1 + sTSP

1 1
Σ KP +
sTI
+
R MIN

1 3
Pelec
1 + sTPC

States
1 - R external
2 - Speed
3 - Pelec
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter WT3E and WT3E1

## Exciter WT3E and WT3E1

Electrical Control for Type 3 Wind Generator

## Reactive Power Control Model States

VC VRFQ K IV 5 1 - Vref 6 - QORD
Q MAX
4 + s + 2 - E qppcmd 7 - PMeas
1 − 1 1 6
∑ ∑
1 + sTR fN 1 + sTFV 3 - K PV 8 - PowerFilter
K PV 3 +
Q MIN 4 - VregMeas 9 - SpeedPI
1 + sTV
5 - K IV 10 - PORD
PFAREF tan

1
π
Pelec 7
1 + sTP VMAX VTERM
XIQMAX vltflg
−1 1 Q MAX
Qelec
− VREF −
+ K QI 1 + KQV >0 2
Q REF ∑ ∑ E QCMD
0 s s 0
Q MIN
varflg VMIN
Active Power (Torque) Control Model XIQMIN

Speed
Speed Speed
PMAX
( P = 100%, ω P100 )
RPMAX I PMAX
( P = 60%, ω P 60 ) +
8 9 + 1 10
Pelec
( P = 40%, ω P 40 ) 1
1 + sTPWR −
∑ K PP +
K IP
π ∑ sTFP ÷
( P = 20%, ω P 20 ) s − I PCMD
( PMIN , ω PMIN ) RPMIN
P PMIN VTERM

=
WT3E supported by PSLF with =
RPMAX Pwrat and =
RPMIN -Pwrat , TFV TC
WT3E1 supported by PSSE uses vltflg to determine the limits on E QCMD . When vltflg > 0 Simulator always uses XI QMAX and XI QMIN .
Exciter WT4E1

Exciter WT4E1
Electrical Control for Type 4 Wind Generator
VRFQ
VC K IV Q MAX States:
+ s 5 + 1 – Vref 6 - Qord
1 − 1
∑ ∑ 2 - Eqppcmd 7 - Pmeas
1 + sTRV 4 1 + sTFV 6 3 – Kpv 8 - TPower
K PV + 4 – VregMeas 9 - Kip
Q MIN
1 + sTV 3 5 – Kiv 10 - Feedback

Q REF
PFAREF tan
0
π
Pelec 1 1 VMAXCL IQMAX
1 + sTP 7 Q MAX Qelec
1
0 − IQCMD
pfaflg K QI + KVI
+
∑ ∑
1
s s 2

Q MIN VTERM
varflg VMINCL IQMIN
PREF pqflag
dPMAX Converter Current Limit

− +
I PMAX
+ − PORD
Pelec
1
1 + sTPWR 8 ∑ K PP +
K IP
s
∑ ÷ I PCMD

9
dPMIN
0.01
sK F
VTERM
10 1 + sTF
Model supported by PSSE
Exciter WT4E
Exciter WT4E
Electrical Control for Full Converter Wind-turbine generators (FC WTG)
VRFQ
VC K IV Q MAX States:
+ s 5 + 1 – Vref 6 - Qord
1 − 1
∑ ∑ 2 - IqCMD 7 - Pmeas
1 + sTRV 1 + sTFV 6 3 – Kpv
K PV + 4 – VregMeas
4 Q MIN
1 + sTV 3 5 – Kiv

Q REF
PFAREF tan
0
π
Pelec 1 1 VMAXCL IQMAX
1 + sTP 7 Q MAX Qelec
1
0 − IQCMD
pfaflg K QI + KVI
+
∑ ∑
1
s s 2

Q MIN VTERM
varflg VMINCL IQMIN

## pqflag Converter Current Limit

+
I PMAX
WT4T PORD
Governor ÷ PORD I PCMD
Model
VTERM

VTERM
Model supported by PSLF
Generator Other Model COMP

𝐼𝑇̅ ECOMP

## Model supported by PSSE

Generator Other Model COMPCC

## Voltage Regulator Current Compensating Model for Cross-Compounds Units COMPCC

IT1 VT

IT2

𝐼𝑇1 + 𝐼𝑇2
𝐸𝐶𝑂𝑀𝑃1 = 𝑉𝑇 − � � ∙ (𝑅1 + 𝑗 ∙ 𝑋1 ) + 𝐼𝑇1 ∙ (𝑅2 + 𝑗 ∙ 𝑋2 )
2
𝐼𝑇1 + 𝐼𝑇2
𝐸𝐶𝑂𝑀𝑃2 = 𝑉𝑇 − � � ∙ (𝑅1 + 𝑗 ∙ 𝑋1 ) + 𝐼𝑇2 ∙ (𝑅2 + 𝑗 ∙ 𝑋2 )
2

## Model supported by PSSE

Generator Other Model GP1

## Generic Generator Protection System GP1

Trip Signal
52G Alarm
1 Only
flag
0 𝑘
𝑇1 =
1.05 − 𝑎
GSU T1
PT
VT 𝑘
Generator 𝑇2 =
Protection 𝑠2 − 𝑎
CT I
(GP) T2

Ifd
pick up 1.05*pick up s2

Excitation
System Notes: = isoc or ifoc*affl
Field a = asoc or afoc
Shunt k = ksoc or kfoc

## Model supported by PSLF

Generator Other Model IEEEVC

𝐼𝑇̅ ECOMP

## Model supported by PSSE

Generator Other Model LCFB1

## Turbine Load Controller Model LCFB1

Freq

1.0
+ Σ KP

Fb Lrmax
Lrmax
− eMAX +
Pmwset K1 2
+ + +
Σ − db
db s Σ Σ Kdrp Pref
− −eMAX +
1 − Lrmax
− Lrmax Pref 0
1
1 + sTPELEC

Pgen
Frequency Bias Flag - fbf, set to 1 to enable or 0 to disable
Power Controller Flag - pbf, set to 1 to enable or 0 to disable If Kdrp <= 0, then
Kdrp is set to 1.0 for speed reference governors
Kdrp = 25.0 for load reference governors

States
1 - Pelec Sensed
2 - KI
Model supported by PSLF
Generator Other Model LCFB1_PTI

## Turbine Load Controller Model LCFB1_PTI

Freq

1.0
+ Σ KP

Fb Lrmax
Lrmax
− eMAX +
Pmwset K1 2
+ + +
Σ − db
db s Σ Σ Pref
− −eMAX +
1 − Lrmax
− Lrmax Pref 0
1
1 + sTPELEC

Pgen
Frequency Bias Flag - fbf, set to 1 to enable or 0 to disable
Power Controller Flag - pbf, set to 1 to enable or 0 to disable

States
1 - Pelec Sensed
2 - KI

## Model supported by PSSE

Generator Other Model LHFRT

## Fref Frequency ref. in Hz

dftrp1 to dftrp10 Delta Frequency Trip Level in p.u.
dttrp1 to dttrp10 Delta Frequency Trip Time Level in sec.

## Model supported by PSLF

Generator Other Model LHVRT

## Vref Voltage ref. in p.u.

dvtrp1 to dftrp10 Delta Voltage Trip Level in p.u.
dttrp1 to dttrp10 Delta Voltage Trip Time Level in sec.

## Model supported by PSLF

Generator Other Model MAXEX1 and MAXEX2

EFDDES*EFDRATED

+ 0 VOEL
EFD -
� KMX

VLOW

(EFD1, TIME1)

Time (sec.)
(EFD2, TIME2)
(EFD3, TIME3)

## Model supported by PSSE

Generator Other Model MNLEX1

## Minimum Excitation Limiter Model MNLEX1

MELMAX

IREAL +

𝐾𝑀 + - 𝑠𝐾𝐹2
� EFD
PQSIG 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑀 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝐹2
+

1 0 VUEL
𝐾

## Model supported by PSSE

Generator Other Model MNLEX2

- - Q
+ 𝐾𝑀 VUEL
Q
+ � X 2

+

PQSIG
+ -
P
2
X 0

𝑠𝐾𝐹2
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝐹2
P

## Model supported by PSSE

Generator Other Model MNLEX3

## Minimum Excitation Limiter Model MNLEX3

𝑄
𝑉𝑇 MELMAX
+ Q/V
+ + + 𝐾𝑀 VUEL
Qo � � �
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑀
(1.0 p.u.) PQSIG
+ -
P/V
B
𝑠𝐾𝐹2 0
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝐹2 B = Slope
Qo
(1.0 p.u. V)
𝑃
EFD
𝑉𝑇

## Model supported by PSSE

Generator Other Model OEL1

## Over Excitation Limiter for Synchronous Machine Excitation Systems OEL1

Generator
CT

PT

Field
Winding Voltage Reference Voltage
Regulator Runback Reference
Field
Current
Transformer
Overexcitation
Limiter

## Model supported by PSLF

Generator Other Model PLAYINREF

With the PLAYINREF model, specify the indices (Vref_Index and Pref_Index) of a specified PlayIn structure. Those signals will
then be played into the model as either Pref of the Governor models or Vref of the Exciter models.
Generator Other Model REMCMP

## Model supported by PSSE

Generator Other Model REPC_A

## Model supported by PowerWorld

Generator Other Model WTGAR_A

## Model supported by PowerWorld

Generator Other Model WTGTRQ_A

## Model supported by PowerWorld

Governor BPA GG

Governor BPA GG
WSCC Type G Governor Model

PMO

+ PMAX
'
KΔω 1 + sT2 2 1 3 1 4 1 + sFT5 1 PM -Pe
1
1 + sT1 − Σ 1 + sT3 1 + sT4 1 + sT5
+
Σ
PM −
Pe

States
1 - Pmech
3 - Integrator 3
4 - Integrator 4
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Governor BPA GH

Governor BPA GH
WSCC Type H Hydro-Mechanical Governor Turbine Model

## PILOT VALVE GATE SERVO TURBINE

P0 XR P UP PMAX(P.U.)

+ 1
1 3 1 2 1 − sTW PM
Σ
'
KΔω
1
− TG (1 + sTP ) s 1 + sTW /2

P DOWN PMIN =0

+
Σ R
+

SDd Td 4

1 + sTd

States
1 - Pmech
2 - P gate valve
3 - y3
4 - Feedback
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Governor BPA GIGATB, BPA GJGATB, BPA GKGATB, and BPA GLTB

BPA GLTB

## No block diagrams have been created

Governor BPA GSTA

## Governor BPA GSTA

WSCC Type S Steam System Governor
And Nonreheat Turbine (Type A) Model

P0 PMAX(P.U.)
P UP
+
KΔω
1 1 + sT2 3 1 1 2 PGV 1 1 PM
1 + sT1 − Σ T3 s 1 + sTCH

P DOWN PMIN(P.U.)

States
1 - Pmech
2 - P gate valve
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Governor BPA GSTB

## Governor BPA GSTB

WSCC Type S Steam System Governor and Tandem Compound
Single Reheat Turbine (Type B) Model

P0 PMAX(P.U.)
P UP
+
KΔω
1 1 + sT2 2 1 1 1

1 + sT1 − Σ T3 s
PGV

P DOWN PMIN(P.U.)

PM
+ Σ + Σ
+ +

## FHP FIP FLP

States
1 3 1 4 1 5
1 - P gate valve
2 - Lead-lag 1 + sTCH 1 + sTRH 1 + sTCO
3 - y3
4 - y4
5 - y5
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Governor BPA GSTC

## Governor BPA GSTC

WSCC Type S Steam System Governor and Tandem Compound
Double Reheat Turbine (Type C) Model

P0 PMAX(P.U.)
P UP
+
KΔω
1 1 + sT2 2 1 1 1

1 + sT1 − Σ T3 s PGV

P DOWN PMIN(P.U.)

PM
+ Σ + Σ + Σ
+ + +

## FVHP FHP FIP FLP

States
1 - P gate valve
3 4 5 6
2 - Lead-lag 1 1 1 1
3 - y3 1 + sTCH 1 + sTRH 1 1 + sTRH 2 1 + sTCO
4 - y4
5 - y5
6 - y6
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Governor BPA GWTW

## Governor BPA GWTW

WSCC Type W Hydro Governor System
And Hydro Turbine (Type W) Model

P0
PMAX/100
+
KΔω 1 + sT2 PGV 1 − sTW 1 PM
(1 + sT1 )(1 + sT3 ) − Σ 1 + 0.5sTW

2 3 PMIN/100

States
1 - Pmech
2 - y0
3 - y1
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Governor CCBT1

Governor CCBT1
Steam Plant Boiler/Turbine and Governor Model
8 9
π
1 1 1
Σ + Σ
1
7 1 + sTW +

sTD − 1 − ah Σ sTRH +
1 KP π +
1 + sTF
ah Σ
+

6
Σ Bias π
MAX4 Pmech
MAX7 + 2
− − VMAX
KP4 +
KI 4
K P7 +
sK D 7 + Σ Plmref •Press ref 1 Pgen
s 1 + sTD 7 Press ref Σ 1 + sTG
MIN4 K PLM rvalve
− 14 MIN7 TPLM = 50 VMIN
Σ MAX2 1 + sTPLM 15 1
+ + K IGOV 1 + sTPelec
4
12 0 K PGOV +
+
Σ
K
Σ KP2 + I 2
s MAX1 -1
s 13

+ − rpelec
MAX3
5 K 3 − −
KI 3
MIN2 K P1 + I 1
s + Σ −
K P3 + MAX5 +
s MIN1 ωref Speed
MIN3 K 10
K P5 + I 5
− s
Pmech Σ −
+ MIN5 MAX6 +
+ +
Σ 11
K P6 +
KI 6 Σ Σ
1.0 − 1.0 −
+ s
1r Σ L ref + −
Σ
-dbd Valve Bias
KB MIN6
+dbd
Speed
Model supported by PSLF
Proportional-integral blocks 1-6 also have rate limits not shown in the block diagram
Governor CRCMGV

Governor CRCMGV
Cross Compound Turbine-Governor Model

Reference
PMAX(HP)
Speed (HP) 1/ R( HP ) 1 + 1 + sF( HP )T5( HP ) +
1 + sT1( HP ) − Σ (1 + sT )(1 + sT )(1 + sT ) Σ Pmech(HP)
3( HP ) 4( HP ) 5( HP ) −
0
2 3 4

(D )(E )
High-Pressure Unit 2
H ( HP ) T − HP

Reference
PMAX(LP)
+
Speed (LP) 1/ R( LP ) 5 + 1 + sF( LP )T5( LP ) +
− Σ 1 + sT1( LP ) − Σ (1 + sT )(1 + sT )(1 + sT ) Σ Pmech(LP)
States 3( LP ) 4( LP ) 5( LP ) −
0
1 - HPInput 6 7 8
2 - HPState1

( −D )(E )
3 - HPState2 Low-Pressure Unit 2
H ( LP ) T − HP
4 - HPState3
5 - LPInput
6 - LPState1
7 - LPState2
8 - LPState3
Model supported by PSLF and PSSE
Governor DEGOV

Governor DEGOV
Woodward Diesel Governor Model

TMAX
1+Speed

## − (1 + sT3 ) K (1 + sT4 ) Pmech

Δω
Speed 1 + sT1 + s 2T2T1 s (1 + sT5 )(1 + sT6 ) e − sTD
π
  
TMIN Engine
Electric Control Box
  
1 2 Actuator
3 4 5

States
1 - Control box 1
2 - Control box 2
3 - Actuator 1
4 - Actuator 2
5 - Actuator 3
Model supported by PSSE
Governor DEGOV1

Governor DEGOV1
Woodward Diesel Governor Model

Pref TMAX
1+Speed
+
− (1 + sT3 ) K (1 + sT4 ) Pmech
Δω
Speed − Σ 1 + sT1 + s 2T2T1 s (1 + sT5 )(1 + sT6 ) e − sTD π

  
Electric Control Box T Engine

MIN

1 2 Actuator
3 4 5
0 Droop Control
DROOP 6 1 SBASE Pelec
1
1 + sTE MBASE

States
1 - Control box 1
2 - Control box 2
3 - Actuator 1
4 - Actuator 2
5 - Actuator 3
6 - Droop Input
Model supported by PSSE
Governor G2WSCC

Governor G2WSCC
Double Derivative Hydro Governor and Turbine
Represents WECC G2 Governor Plus Turbine Model

Pref

Δω + +
(Speed) 1 2 sK1 3 + 6
Σ Σ
eps − KI
db1 1 + sTD 1 + sTF s
+ −

s2 K2 (TT =0)
(1 + sTF ) 2 1 Pelec
R
4 5 7 1 + sTT

States
1 - Pmech
VELOPEN PMAX
2 - TD
3 - K1
KG 8 9 GV PGV 1 + sAturbTturb 1 Pmech
Σ
1
+ 1 + sTP s db2 1 + sBturbTturb 4 - K 2 first
N GV
− 5 - K 2 second
VELCLOSE PMIN
6 - Integrator
7 - Pelec Sensed
Model supported by PSLF 8 - Valve
GV1, PGV1...GV6, PGV6 are the x,y coordinates of NGV block 9 - Gate
Governor GAST_GE

Governor GAST_GE
Gas Turbine-Governor Model

5 1
1 + sTLTR

if (D V >L INC ) R LIM =L TRAT
else R LIM =R MAX DV Σ +

VMAX
R LIM
− PGV
dbb
K A (1 + sT4 )
3
Pref 1 + 1 + AsT2
Σ Σ Σ
LV 1
+ 1 + BsT2
1 + sT5 GATE sT1 2 GV Pmech

1 VMIN
R FIDLE

+ − 4 1
FIDLE Σ KT Σ + 1 + sT3
+
eps −
db0 L MAX
States
1 - Input LL
Δω 2 - Integrator
(Speed) 3 - Governor LL
Model supported by PSLF 4 - Load Limit
GV1, PGV1...GV6, PGV6 are the x,y coordinates of PGV vs. GV block 5 - Temperature
Governor GAST_PTI

Governor GAST_PTI
Gas Turbine-Governor Model

Speed Dturb

1
R VMAX

− −
1 1 1 2
+
Pmech
Σ Σ
LV
+ Gate 1 + sT1 1 + sT2

VMIN

+ −
3 1
Σ KT Σ 1 + sT3
+ +

## States A T (Load Limit)

1 - Fuel Valve
2 - Fuel Flow
3 - Exhaust Temperature
Model supported by PSSE
Governor GAST2A

Governor GAST2A
Gas Turbine-Governor Model
States
1 - Speed Governor Thermocouple Shield
2 - Valve Positioner + Turbine
1 + sT5 − 1 K
Σ K4 + 5
Temperature
3 - Fuel System Control* f1
sτ T 1 + sT4 1 + sT3 Turbine
Exhaust
4 - Radiation Shield w f1
5 - Thermocouple 6
5 4 e− sETD
6 - Temp Control MAX K6 Valve Fuel
Fuel Positioner 2 System 3 Wf
7 - Turbine Dynamics 1 Control Fuel
+
+ W ( sX + 1) Flow
π
Low A 1
Reference
Σ sY + Z
Value
Select
K3 e− sT
+
Σ C + sB 1 + sτ F e− sECR
− −
Speed Speed
MIN Governor Control KF
Gas Turbine
Dynamics
7
1
1 + sTCD
Δω Pmech
Turbine
w f2
π
TRATE
f2
MBASE

+
1.0 +
Σ
* Temperature control output is set to output of speed governor when temperature control input changes from positive to negative

## Model supported by PSSE

 
f1 =TR -A f1 1.0-w  -Bf1 Speed ( ) (
f 2 =A f2 -Bf2 w f2 -C f2 Speed ) ( )
 f1 
Governor GASTWD

## Pelec Governor GASTWD

Woodward Gas Turbine-Governor Model
SBASE
TRATE Thermocouple
Shield
Turbine
Pe sT5 + 1 − 1 K
Temperature
Σ K4 + 5 f1
K DROOP Control*
sτ T 1 + sT4 1 + sT3 Turbine
Exhaust
+ 5
1 + sTD MAX 6 4 w f1 e− sETD
TC Setpoint for
1 Temperature Control
KP
K6 Valve Fuel
Fuel Positioner 2 System 3 W
− Control f
Speed + + Fuel

π
Reference KI A 1
Σ +
Σ
Low Flow
+ Σ s + Value
Select
K3 e− sT C + sB 1 + sτ F e− sECR
− + −
Speed
sK D Control KF
7
1
8 9
States MIN 1 + sTCD
1 - Power Transducer Δω Pmech
Turbine
w f2
π
TRATE Gas Turbine
2 - Valve Positioner f2 Dynamics
MBASE
3 - Fuel System
+
5 - Thermocouple 1.0 +
6 - Temp Control Σ
7 - Turbine Dynamics
8 - PID 1
* Temperature control output is set to output of speed governor when temperature control input changes from positive to negative

( ) ( )
9 - PID 2
Model supported by PSSE f =T -A 1.0-w -B ( Speed ) f =A -B w -C ( Speed )
1 R f1 f1 f1 2 f2 f2 f2 f2
Governor GGOV1

## Governor GGOV1 – GE General Governor-Turbine Model

If D m >0, (Speed)
Dm
If D m <0, (Speed+1)
**D m

Ldref Pmech
( Ldref / K turb ) + w fnl +
1 + sTSA
Σ
π
6 1 10
Σ − 1 + sTFload 1 + sTSB
+
5
1 + sTC
+ 1.0
7 1 + sTB
Σ
aset s
+ Timestep
Speed s Low

1 + sTA 9 Σ K A ∆t +
Σ Value e
− sTeng

+ Select
K Pgov VMAX
VMAX K turb
− maxerr +
Pref + 4
Σ +
Σ -db
db
K Igov
s
+
Σ 1
1 + sTACT
π +
Σ
+ 1.1r
3
8 − minerr + −
VMIN
sK Dgov Flag
K IMW r VMIN w fnl
s 1 + sTDgov 2 0 1
−2
-1.1r governor output 1.0 (Speed+1)
Pmwset 1 valve stroke
−1 States
+ Σ − 1 Rselect 1 - Pelec Measured 5 - Turbine LL
Pelec 1 2 - Governor Differential Control 6 - Turbine Load Limiter
1 + sTPelec 3 - Governor Integral Control 7 - Turbine Load Integral Control
Model supported by PSLF 4 - Turbine Actuator 8 - Supervisory Load Control
Model supported by PSSE does not include non-windup limits on K IMW block 9 - Accel Control
R UP , R DOWN , R CLOSE , and R OPEN inputs not implemented in Simulator 10 - Temp Detection LL
Governor GGOV2
Governor GGOV2 - GE General Governor-Turbine Model
If D m >0, (Speed)
Dm
If D m <0, (Speed+1)
**D m

Ldref PMECH
( Ldref / K turb ) + w fnl +
Σ
1 + sTsa
π
6 10
Σ
1
− +
1 + sT fload 1 + sTsb 5
1 + sTc
Speed
+ 1.0 1 + sTb
7 s4
+
Σ
fsrt
aset s s6
Frequency-
+ Timestep dependent
Σ Σ
Speed s − + limit
K a ∆t fsra − sTeng
1 + sTa 9
e
+ Low ropen
s8 K pgov Value vmax
VMAX K turb
− maxerr + Select
Pref + 4
Σ +
Σ -db
db
K igov +
s 23
Σ fsrn
1
1 + sTact
π +
Σ
+ 1.1r −
s +
8 minerr −
VMIN s3
sK dgov vmin
Flag
K imw r rclose w fnl
s 1 + sTdgov s21 0 1
−2
s7
-1.1r governor output 1.0 (Speed+1)
1
Pmwset −1 valve stroke
+ Σ − 1 Rselect States
PELEC 1 - Pelec Measured 5 - Turbine LL
1
1 + sTPelec 2 - Governor Differential Control 6 - Turbine Load Limiter
s0
3 - Governor Integral Control 7 - Turbine Load Integral Control
4 - Turbine Actuator 8 - Supervisory Load Control
9 - Accel Control
Model supported by PSLF 10 - Temp Detection LL
Governor GGOV3

## Governor GGOV3 - GE General Governor-Turbine Model

If D m >0, (Speed)
Dm −
**D m PMECH
Ldref
( Ldref / K turb ) + w fnl +
If D m <0, (Speed+1)
Σ
1 + sTsa
π
6 10 5 +
Σ
1
− 1 + sT fload 1 + sTsb 1 + sTc
+ 1.0
7 − sTeng

aset s
Timestep
+ K turb
Σ Σ
Percieved s − +
K a ∆t 11
Speed 1 + sTa 9
+ Low 1 + sTcd
K pgov VMAX
Value
VMAX 1 + sTbd
− Maxerr + Select
Pref + 3
+
π
4
Σ Σ
-db
db
K igov
s
+ Σ 1
1 + sTact
+
Σ
+ 1.1r − +
8 Minerr −
VMIN Flag
sK dgov 2 VMIN
K imw R w fnl
1 + sTdgov 0 1
s
−2
-1.1r governor output 1.0 (Speed+1)
1 valve stroke
Pmwset −1 States
+ Σ − 1
Rselect 1 - Pelec Measured 5 - Turbine LL 9 - Accel Control
PELEC 1 2 - Governor Differential Control 6 - Turbine Load Limiter 10 - Temp Detection LL
1 + sTPelec 3 - Governor Integral Control 7 - Turbine Load Integral Control 11 - Fuel System Lead Lag
Model supported by PSLF 4 - Turbine Actuator 8 - Supervisory Load Control
dnrate, R UP , R DOWN , R CLOSE , and R OPEN inputs not implemented in Simulator
Governor GGOV3 - GE General Governor-Turbine Model

slope = 1

dnhi
Measured ffa Filtered Percieved
Speed Speed Speed
dnlo
ffb
slope = ffc

## Model supported by PSLF

Rate limit dnrate not used in Simulator
Governor GPWSCC

Governor GPWSCC
PID Governor-Turbine Model

KP
Pref

Δω + +
(Speed) − 1 2 K1 3 + CV
err
db1
Σ 1 + sTD s Σ
− + Tt = 0

sK D 4 1 Pelec
R
1 + sT f 5 1 + sTt
(Tt > 0)

VELOPEN PMAX

## KG 6 7 GV PGV 1 + sAturbTturb 1 Pmech

Σ
1
1 + sTP s db2 1 + sBturbTturb
N GV
+ −
VELCLOSE PMIN

States
1 - Pmech 5 - Pelec Sensed
2 - TD 6 - Valve
Model supported by PSLF 3 - Integrator 7 - Gate
GV1, PGV1...GV6, PGV6 are the x,y coordinates of NGV block
4 - Derivative
Governor HYG3

Governor HYG3
PID Governor, Double Derivative Governor, and Turbine Δω = (speed-1)pu

Pref Rgate
States
K2
1 - TD
+ +
− 2 - K1
Δω − 1 1 KI 3 +
db1
Σ 1 + sTD s Σ 3 - Ki
− +
sK1 2
4 - Valve
7 1 5 - Gate
Relec Pelec 1 + sT f
1 + sTt cflag>0 6 - TW
Pref
+ 7 - Pelec Sensed
+ cflag<0
Δω 1 1 sK1 2 + KI 3
1 + sTD 1 + sT f +
Σ −
Σ s
8 - K 2 First
db1 − 9 - K 2 Second

s2 K2 8 7 1 Pelec
Relec
(1 + sT ) 1 + sTt
2
f 9 Rgate
CV

VELOPEN PMAX
CV
KG 4 5
Σ
1 GV
+ 1 + sTP s db2

VELCLOSE PMIN
π Δω

Dturb
PGV −
PGV q 6 Pmech
÷ π π
1

Σ +
Σ +
Σ
N GV H At
q/PGV sTW
GV H0 + −
qNL

Model supported by PSLF Note: cflag determines numbering of states GV1, PGV1...GV6, PGV6 are the x,y coordinates of NGV block
Governor HYGOV

Governor HYGOV
Hydro Turbine-Governor Model

Pref G MAX
+
Δω 1 + sTn 1 1 1 + sTr 2 1 3
db1 1 + sTnp − 1 + sT f rTr s 1 + sTg

Δω
R G MIN
rate limit - Velm Dturb
db2

π
PGV
N GV GV

g
GV

π π
Pmech
÷ − 1 4
PGV q/PGV
H
Σ sTW
+
Σ At
+
Σ
+ −
Hdam=1 qNL
States
1 - Filter Output
2 - Desired Gate
3 - Gate
4 - Turbine Flow
Model supported by PSSE and PSLF
Rperm shown as R, Rtemp shown as r
GV0, PGV0...GV5, PGV5 are the x,y coordinates of N GV block
Ttur, Tn, Tnp, db1, Eps, db2, Bgv0...Bgv5, Bmax, Tblade not implemented in Simulator
Governor HYGOV2

Governor HYGOV2
Hydro Turbine-Governor Model

Pref
VGMAX G MAX
Δω +
K I + sK P 1  1 + sT1  2 1 + sT2 3 5
Σ
Speed − 1
KA  
s − 1 + sT4 s
 sT3 

-VGMAX G MIN

sRtempTR
R 1 + sTR

Pmech 6 1 − sT5
PMAX
1 + sT6

States
1 - Filter Output
2 - Governor
3 - Governor Speed
4 - Droop
5 - Gate
6 - Penstock
The G MAX G MIN limit is modeled as non-windup in PSSE but as a windup limit in Simulator.
Model supported by PSSE
Governor HYGOV4

Governor HYGOV4
Hydro Turbine-Governor Model

Pref PMAX
UO
+
1 1 1 1 2
Δω db1 − Σ 1 + sTp Tg s db2

UC
PMIN

Σ + R perm
+
π
3 sTr Rtemp
1 + Tr s
GV

Dturb
PGV
q − Pmech
÷ π π
− 1 4
PGV q/PGV
H
Σ sTW
+
Σ At +
Σ
+ −
N GV Hdam qNL
GV
States
1 - Velocity
2 - Gate
3 - Rtemp
4 - TW
Bgv0...Bgv5, Bmax, Tblade not implemented in Simulator
GV0, PGV0...GV5, PGV5 are the x,y coordinates of N GV block
Model supported by PSLF
Governor HYGOVR
Fourth Order Lead-lag Governor and Hydro Turbine Model
HYGOVR
Pref
gmax
db1
+
Δω - CV

2 3 4 5 - 6
1
R
gmin
Pelec
10

Velop Pmax
db2

CV + GV
7 8
-

Velcl Pmin
Δω
π
States: 1 – Input Speed 5 – LL78 9 – Flow
2 – LL12 6 – Governor 10 – Pelec
3 – LL34 7 – Velocity Dturb
4 – LL56 8 – Gate
-
GV Pgv H - q + + Pmech
π π At
q/Pgv
+ 9 -
qn1
H0

## Model supported by PSLF

Governor HYPID

Governor HYPID
Hydro Turbine and Governor
|ds2/dt|<velm
gmax
Pref
+
speed
_ 3
_
1 5
gmin
Pelec Telec > 0 speed
2
Telec < 0
6
R
b
Dturb

_ +
_ Pmech
At +
g 4
+ _

Pv = f(g,b)
hdam qnl

States:
1 – Ki
2 – RPelec
3 – Gate
4 – Turbine Flow
5 – Derivative
+

## Model supported by PSLF

Governor HYST1

Governor HYST1
Hydro Turbine with Woodward Electro-Hydraulic PID Governor,
Surge Tank, and Inlet Tunnel

Σ +
Pref

R perm
1 + sTreg Pgen
+ 1
Δω − Ki 2 1 1
Σ Σ
4 + 5
Kp +
s 1 + sTa 1 + sTa
+

sK d 3
1 + sTa

G MAX
PGV 7
Pmech
1 +
Σ
6 8
G (s)
1 + sTb 9

G MIN GV

Dturb

## Not yet implemented in Simulator

Model supported by PSLF
Governor IEEEG1 and IEEEG1_GE

## Governor IEEEG1 and IEEEG1_GE

IEEE Type 1 Speed-Governor Model

Δω
SPEED HP

PMECH HP
+
Σ +
Σ +
Σ PM1
db1 + + +
Pref PMAX K1 K3 K5 K7
UO 3 4 5 6
PGV
2 +
K (1 + sT2 ) − 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 + sT1
Σ T3 s db2 1 + sT4 1 + sT5 1 + sT6 1 + sT7
− GV
UC
PMIN K2 K4 K6 K8

+ + +
Σ +
Σ +
Σ
PMECH LP
States
+
PM2
1 - Governor Output
2 - Lead-Lag IEEEG1_GE is supported by PSLF. PowerWorld ignores the db2 term. All values are specified on the
turbine rating which is a parameter in PowerWorld and PSLF. If the turbine rating is omitted or zero, then
3 - Turbine Bowl
the generator MVABase is used. If there are two generators, then the SUM of the two MVABases is used.
4 - Reheater
5 - Crossover
6 - Double Reheat IEEEG1 is supported by PSSE. PSSE does not include the db2, db1, non-linear gain term, or turbine rating.
For the IEEEG1 model, if the turbine rating is omited then the MVABase of only the high-pressure
generator is used.
GV1, PGV1...GV6, PGV6 are the x,y coordinates of PGV vs. GV block
Governor IEEEG2

Governor IEEEG2
IEEE Type 2 Speed-Governor Model

Pref
PMAX
+
K (1 + sT2 ) − 1 − sT4
Σ
Δω 2 1
1 + 0.5sT4
Pmech
Speed (1 + sT1 )(1 + sT3 ) 3
PMIN

States
1 - Pmech
2 - First Integrator
3 - Second Integrator

## Model supported by PSSE

Governor IEEEG3_GE

Governor IEEEG3_GE
IEEE Type 3 Speed-Governor Model IEEEG3

PREF PMAX
Δω
UO
+ PGV
Speed − 1 2 1 1 3 PGV KTURB (1 + ATURB sTW ) Pmech
Σ
GV

## db1 1 + sTP TG s db2 1 + BTURB sTW 1

UC GV
PMIN
Σ + RPERM
+

4 RTEMP sTR
1 + sTR

States
1 - Pmech
2 - Servomotor position
3 - Gate position
PSLF model includes db1, db2, and Eps read but not implemented in Simulator 4 - Transient droop
Model supported by PSLF
Governor IEEEG3_PTI

Governor_IEEEG3_PTI
IEEE Type 3 Speed-Governor Model IEEEG3

PREF UO PMAX
+   a a   1
Δω − 1 1 3 a23 1 +  a11 − 13 21  sTW 
Σ
2 Pmech
Speed TG (1 + sTP ) s   a23  
− 1 + a11sTW
UC PMIN

Σ +
RPERM
+

4 RTEMP sTR
1 + sTR

States
1 - Pmech
2 - Servomotor position
3 - Gate position
4 - Transient droop
Model supported by PSSE
Governor IEESGO

Governor IEESGO
IEEE Standard Model IEEESGO

PO

+
K1 (1 + sT2 ) 1 − PMAX 1 3 Pmech
Speed
(1 + sT1 )(1 + sT3 ) 2
Σ PMIN 1 + sT4
1 − K2 +
Σ
+ +

1 − K2

K2 K3
1 + sT5 4
1 + sT6 5

States
1 - First Integrator
2 - Second Integrator
3 - Turbine T4
4 - Turbine T5
Model supported by PSSE 5 - Turbine T6
Governor PIDGOV

## Governor PIDGOV - Hydro Turbine and Governor Model PIDGOV

Σ +
PREF
− 1

0 Feedback signal
States
R perm
SBASE Pelec 1 - Mechanical Output
1 + sTreg
MBASE 2 - Measured Delta P
2
3 - PI
+
Δω − Ki 3 1 1 6 4 - Reg1
Σ Σ
4 +
Kp +
Speed s 1 + sTa 1 + sTa 5 - Derivative
+
6 - Reg2
7 - Gate
sK d 5
1 + sTa

G MAX
VelMAX Power 3

1 1 7 1 − sTZ 1 + Pmech
+
Σ Tb s 2
1 + sTZ 2 Σ
− 1 Gate −
VelMIN G
MIN
TZ = ( A tw ) *Tw

Dturb
Model supported by PSLF
Model supported by PSSE (G0,0), (G1,P1), (G2,P2), (1,P3) are x,y coordinates of Power vs. Gate function
Governor PLAYINGOV
With the PLAYINGOV model, specify the index (FIndex) of a specified PlayIn structure. That signal will then be played into the
model as the mechanical power (Pmech) during the simulation.
Governor SHAF25

## State # State number containing delta speed

Var # Variable number containing electrical torque
Xd - Xdp Xd - X'd
Tdop T'do
Exciter # Exciter number
Gen # Generator number
H 1 to H 25 H of mass 1 to H of mass 25
PF 1 to PF 25 Power fraction of 1 to power fraction of 25
D 1 to D 25 D of mass 1 to D of mass 25
K 1-2 to K 24-25 K shaft mass 1-2 to K shaft 25-25

## Model supported by PSSE

Governor TGOV1

Governor TGOV1
Steam Turbine-Governor Model TGOV1

VMAX

1 1 2 1 + sT2 1 Pmech
PREF
+ Σ R 1 + sT1 1 + sT3
+
Σ
− −

VMIN

Δω
Speed
Dt

States
1 - Turbine Power
2 - Valve Position

## Model supported by PSLF

Model supported by PSSE
Governor TGOV2

Governor TGOV2
Steam Turbine-Governor with Fast Valving Model TGOV2

K
VMAX

+
1 1 1 1− K v 3 + PMECH
Σ Σ
Reference 2
+ R 1 + sT1 1 + sT3 1 + sTt 4
− −

VMIN

Δω Dt
Speed

TC
Intercept Valve Position

## TI : Time to initiate fast valving.

TB
TA : Intercept valve, v, fully closed TA
seconds after fast valving initiation.
TA
TB : Intercept valve starts to reopen TB 1.
seconds after fast valving initiation.
0.
TC : Intercept valve again fully open TC
States
seconds after fast valving initiation. 1 - Throttle
TI (TI
+ TA ) (T I
+ TB ) (T I
+ TC ) 2 - Reheat Pressure
Time, seconds
3 - Reheat Power
4 - Intercept Valve
Model supported by PSSE
Governor TGOV3

Governor TGOV3
Modified IEEE Type 1 Speed-Governor with Fast Valving Model

+ PMECH
Σ +
Σ
+ +

PREF PRMAX
K1 K2 K3
UO PMAX
Δω 1 + 0.8

Flow
K (1 + sT2 ) − 1 1 1 3 + 1 4 6 1
Σ Σ
Speed 2 5
v
1 + sT1 T3 s 1 + sT4 sT5 1 + sT6
− − 0 0.3
UC PMIN Intercept Valve
Position

TC
Intercept Valve Position

## TI : Time to initiate fast valving.

TB States
TA : Intercept valve, v, fully closed TA
seconds after fast valving initiation.
TA 1 - LL
TB : Intercept valve starts to reopen TB 1. 2 - StateT3
seconds after fast valving initiation.
0. 3 - StateT4
TC : Intercept valve again fully open TC 4 - StateT5
seconds after fast valving initiation.
TI (T
I
+ TA ) (T I
+ TB ) (T I
+ TC ) 5 - StateT6
Time, seconds 6 - Intercept Valve

## Model supported by PSLF

Model supported by PSSE Gv1,Pgv1 ... Gv6, Pgv6 are x,y coordinates of Flow vs. Intercept Valve Position function
Governor TGOV5

## Governor_TGOV5 - IEEE Type 1 Speed-Governor Model Modified to Include Boiler Controls

PMECH HP
+
Σ +
Σ +
Σ PM 1
+ + +
VMAX K1 K3 K5 K7

UO
K (1 + sT2 )
π
− 1 1 1 ms 1 1 1
1 + sT1 Σ T3 s 1 + sT4 1 + sT5 1 + sT6 1 + sT7
∆ω +
SPEEDHP UC
∆f PO VMIN K2 K4 K6 K8
+ + +
K MW PM 2
B PELEC 1 + sTMW RMAX
LMAX +
Σ +
Σ +
Σ
− PMECH LP
− 1
MW
+
Σ Desired
+
Σ + Σ K14
s ms

π
Demand MW −
C2 + Σ RMIN
LMIN
K13 + PE
(Pressure Error)
KL
PO
PT π
K12 PSP
+
PSP
π
− DPE
π
Σ DPE CMAX
K I (1 + sTI )(1 + sTR ) PT
C3 s (1 + sTR1 ) PE
Σ − Σ −
+ C1
CMIN 1 − +
Fuel Dynamics
sCB PD
K9 Σ
+
Desired
MW
+
Σ Σ −
ms
+ +
K11
Model supported by PSSE K10
Governor_TGOV5 - IEEE Type 1 Speed-Governor Model Modified to Include Boiler Controls

States:
1 – Governor Output
3 – Turbine Bowl
4 – Reheater
5 – Crossover
6 – Double Reheat
7 – PELEC
8 – PO
9 – FuelDyn1
10 – FuelDyn2
11 – Controller1
12 – Controller2
13 – PD
14 – Delay1
15 – Delay2
16 – Delay3
17 – Delay4

## Model supported by PSSE

Governor URGS3T

Governor URGS3T
WECC Gas Turbine Model

5 1 States
1 + sTLTR 1 - Input LL
− 2 - Integrator
Σ
If (D V >L INC ), then R LIM = L TRAT + 3 - Governor LL
else, R LIM = R MAX DV
5 - Temperature
VMAX
R LIM 3

Pref Pmech
err K a (1 + sT4 ) 1 1 + AsT2 PGV
+
Σ db1
1 + sT5
LV
GATE
+
Σ sT1
+
Σ 1 + BsT2 db2
+
Σ
− 2 − GV

1
VMIN FIDLE

4 1
1 +
R
FIDLE + Σ − KT Σ 1 + sT3
+ −

L MAX

Speed
Dturb

## Model supported by PSSE

GV1, PGV1...GV5, PGV5 are the x,y coordinates of PGV vs. GV block
Governor W2301

Governor W2301
Woodward 2301 Governor and Basic Turbine Model

Speed
Pref Ref

+ +
Pelec 1 − 1 + 0.5Rho ⋅ s 2
Σ Σ
1 +
Gamma
1 + sTp Beta ⋅ s(1.05 − Alpha)

PI
Controller
Speed
1 + 2Beta ⋅ s

Gmax

1 1 + sKtTturb 4
Σ Σ
3 + + Pmech
Valve Servo 1 + sTV 1 + sTturb
− −
Turbine
Gmin
gnl
D

States
1 - PelecSensed
2 - PI
Gain, Velamx read but not implemented in Simulator. 3 - Valve
Model supported by PSLF 4 - Turbine
Governor WEHGOV

Governor WEHGOV
Woodward Electric Hydro Governor Model

## sK D 5 Pilot Valve Distribution Valve

1 + sTD
Gmax+DPV GTMXOP*Tg
− +
+ ERR (*) 1 +
Σ
2
Σ Σ
1 1
Pref KP States
1 + 1 + sTP − sTDV
− − + − 1 - Pilot Valve
Gmin-DPV GTMXCL*Tg 2 - DistributionValve
Feedback
signal KI 6
Feedback Gmax 3 - Gate
7 0 s signal=1
RpermPE
Feedback 4 - Turbine Flow
signal=0 13 1
Gmin-DICN
1 + sTPE Tg 5 - Derivative
Gate position, g s
RpermGate 6 - Integrator
Pelec SBASE=(*)Out 0 if ERR < (Speed deadband)
Out =
ERR ( I ) − (Speed deadband) if ERR > (Speed deadband)
Gmin 7 - PelecSensed
MBASE = Out ERR ( I ) + (Speed deadband) if ERR < −(Speed deadband)

## Governor and Hydraulic Actuators Speed Dturb

g π
Gate Flow Steady-State Pmss Pmss −
π
Pmech
π
1
÷
position, g − 4
Σ
Flow, q ss
Σ
H
q/q ss sTW +
H 0 =1 +
Gate Flow
Turbine Flow, q

## Model supported by PSSE

Turbine Dynamics
(Gate 1, Flow G1)...(Gate 5, Flow G5) are x,y coordinates of Flow vs. Gate function
(Flow P1, PMECH 1)...(Flow P10, PMECH 10) are x,y coordinates of Pmss vs. Flow function
Governor WESGOV

Governor WESGOV
Westinghouse Digital Governor for Gas Turbine Model

KP

Reference
+
Δω + 1
1 2 3 Pmech
Speed * −
Σ sTI + Σ (1 + sT1 )(1 + sT2 ) 4

Pelec 1 1 ** Droop
1 + sTpe
Digital Control ***

## *Sample hold with sample period defined by Delta TC.

**Sample hold with sample period defined by Delta TP.
***Maximum change is limited to A lim between sampling times.

States
1 - PEMeas
2 - Control
3 - Valve
4 - PMech

## Model supported by PSSE

A lim read but not implemented in Simulator
Governor WNDTGE

Governor WNDTGE
Pdbr + Wind Turbine and Turbine Control Model for GE Wind Turbines
Pelec + Σ
Trip
Spdwl Wind Pmech Rotor 7 8 ω Over/Under Signal
Power States
Model 9 10 Speed Trip
Model
ω+ 1 - Pitch
ωrotor Pelec
− 6 2 - Pitch Control
Σ
1
Blade Anti-windup on ωref −0.67 Pelec
2
+ 1.42 Pelec + 0.51
Pitch PIMax & PIRat
Pitch Limits 1 + s5 3 - Torque Control
θ ωerr
Anti-windup on
ω
PWmax & PWrat 4 - Pitch Compensation
1 θ cmd 2
Σ
1
K pp + K ip / s Power Limits
1 + sTp +
5 - Power Control
π
3 1 5 Pord
+ K ptrq + K itrq / s 6 - Speed Reference
1 + sTpc
PImin & -PIRat Pitch Control Torque 7 - Mech Speed
Anti-windup on Pitch Limits Control
PWmin & -PWrat 8 - Mech Angle
Σ +
4
Pitch K pc + K ic / s 9 - Elect Speed
− Power Response
Compensation Rate Limit 10- ElectAngle
p stl
11- Washout
Wind
+ sTW 11
Wind Pavl
Σ
Speed 1 Active Power 1 PsetAPC perr 12- Active Power
Power 1 + sTpav Control − 1 + sTW wsho
(glimv) Model (optional) +
Pmax plim
+
Σ
WTG Ter Pavf 12 0 Pord
Bus Freq + p set 1
fbus Frequency
Auxiliary
Σ Response To gewtg
apcflg Pmin Release
Curve Trip Signal
Signal + PMAX
(glimit) if fflg set
(psig) if (fbus < fb OR 1
fbus > fc) fflg

## Model supported by PSLF

Apcflg is set to zero. Limits on states 2 and 3 and trip signal are not implemented. Simulator calculates initial windspeed Spdwl.
Governor WNDTGE
Wind Turbine and Turbine Control Model for GE Wind Turbines

## Two - Mass Rotor Model ω0

+
+ ωrotor Turbine Speed
Σ
+
Tmech + 1
Σ
1 7
ωbase 1 8
Pmech 2H s s
Tmech = ωmech −
ωmech + ω0 Dtg Σ Σ Ktg Tshaft
+ +
Telec −
1 9 ωelec 10
Σ ωbase
1 1
− 2H g s s
Pelec −
Telec =
ωelec + ω0 ω
∆ω +
+
Σ Generator Speed
ω0

## Wind Power Model

ρ
Pmech = Ar vw3C p ( λ ,θ )
2
λ = Kb (ω / vw )
4 4
C p ( λ ,θ ) = ∑∑ α ijθ i λ j
=i 0=j 0
See charts for curve fit values

## Model supported by PSLF

Governor WNDTRB

Governor WNDTRB
Wind Turbine Control Model

90
BPR MX
K P (1 + sT1 )
π
1 1 2 1 3 Pmech
Σ
Rotor speed cos
ωr + 1 + sT2 s 1 + sTa

-BPR MX Pwo
0
ωref

States
1 - Input
Model supported by PSLF
Governor WPIDHY

Governor WPIDHY
Woodward PID Hydro Governor Model

States
1 - Mechanical Output
2 - Measured Delta P

## Per Unit Output

PREF (1, P3 )

(MBASE)
(G2 , P2 ) 3 - PID1
− (G1 , P1 ) 4 - PID2
PELEC
+
Σ 0 1.0
5 - PID3
(G0 , 0) 6 - Velocity
Gate Position (pu)
7 - Gate
REG
1 + sTREG sK D

2 PMAX
Vel MAX G MAX
Δω +
+ 3 1 − sTW
Speed − 6 7 GP 1
Σ + Σ
1 1 1
KP 4 T
(1 + sTA ) 1 + sTB 1+ s W
2
s
5 2
+ Vel MIN G MIN PMIN

Ki
s
+

D Σ

PMECH

## Model supported by PSSE

Governor WSHYDD

Governor WSHYDD
WECC Double-Derivative Hydro Governor Model

Pref

Δω + +
(Speed) 1 2 sK1 3 + 6

Σ Σ
err KI
db1 1 + sTD 1 + sTF s
+ −
TT = 0
s2 K2 Pelec
7 1
(1 + sTF ) R
2

4 5

VELOPEN PMAX

## KG 8 9 GV PGV 1 + sAturbTturb Pmech

Σ
1 Trate
+ 1 + sTP s db2 1 + sBturbTturb MVA
N GV 1

VELCLOSE PMIN
States
1 - Pmech 6 - Integrator
2 - TD 7 - Pelec Sensed
3 - K1 8 - Valve
Model supported by PSSE 4 - K 2 first 9 - Gate
Inputs GV1, PGV1...GV5, PGV5 are the x,y coordinates of NGV block 5 - K 2 second
Governor WSHYGP

Governor WSHYGP
WECC GP Hydro Governor Plus Model

KP
Pref

Δω + +
− 1 2 KI 3 +
Σ Σ
(Speed) err CV
db1 1 + sTD s
− + Tt = 0

sK D 4 5 1 Pelec
R
1 + sT f (Tt > 0) 1 + sTt

VELOPEN PMAX

## KG 6 7 GV PGV 1 + sAturbTturb 1 Pmech

Σ
1 Trate
+ 1 + sTP s db2 1 + sBturbTturb MVA
N GV

VELCLOSE PMIN
States
1 - Pmech 5 - Pelec Sensed
2 - TD 6 - Valve
3 - Integrator 7 - Gate
Model supported by PSSE 4 - Derivative
GV1, PGV1...GV5, PGV5 are the x,y coordinates of NGV block
Governor WSIEG1

Governor WSIEG1
WECC Modified IEEE Type 1 Speed-Governor Model

GV0
PMAX
UO
+
Δω 1 + sT2 1 2 GV PGV
Σ
err CV 1 1
K −
db1 1 + sT1 T3 s db2 N GV

UC
PMIN

PMECH HP
+
Σ +
Σ +
Σ PM1
+ + + States
K1 K3 K5 K7
2 - Governor Output
1 1 1 1 3 - Turbine 1
3 4 5 6
1 + sT4 1 + sT5 1 + sT6 1 + sT7 4 - Turbine 2
5 - Turbine 3
K2 K4 K6 K8
6 - Turbine 4
Iblock = 1 : if PMIN =0, PMIN =Pinitial + + +
Iblock = 2 : if PMAX =0, PMAX =Pinitial +
Σ +
Σ +
Σ
PMECH LP

## Iblock = 3 : if PMIN =0, PMIN =Pinitial PM2

: if PMAX =0, PMAX =Pinitial

## GV1, PGV1...GV5, PGV5 are the x,y coordinates of NGV block

Model supported by PSSE
Governor WT12T1

Governor WT12T1
Two-Mass Turbine Model for Type 1 and Type 2 Wind Generators

From
WT12A
Model

+ +
− 1 1
Σ Σ 2Ht s
ωbase
+
+ + K shaft 2
Dshaft Σ Σ− s

Damp

+ −
+ 1
Σ Σ− 2H g s
3
ωbase
Tmech Speed
+
+ Rotor
Telec Σ ωbase 1 4
angle
s
− deviation

## Initial rotor slip

States
H t =H×H tfrac
H g =H-H t 1 - TurbineSpeed
π×Freq1)
2H t ×H g ×(2 2 2 - ShaftAngle
K shaft = 3 - GenSpeed
H×ω0
Model supported by PSSE 4 - GenDeltaAngle
Governor WT1T

Governor WT1T
Wind Turbine Model for Type-1 Wind Turbines
From
Generator
Pgen Model

− 1
+ Tacc ω
÷
1 1 To
Pmech Σ 2H s
Generator
Model and
From − Governor
Model
Governor
Model
Damp

## Type 1 WTG Turbine One - mass Model

ωt
ω0

Tmech 1 ∆ω ωt
÷
1
Σ Σ
From 1 t States
Governor Pmech + s
2Ht
Model − 1 - TurbineSpeed
∆ω tg + ∆ω tg 2 2 - ShaftAngle
Σ−
1
Dshaft K
s 3 - GenSpeed
From Telec + 1 ∆ωg ωg 4 - GenDeltaAngle
Generator
Model
Pgen ÷ − Σ 2H g
1
s
Σ
+
3
ω0 1 4 H t =H×H tfrac
ωg s H g =H-H t
Type 1 WTG Turbine Two - mass Model π×Freq1)
2H t ×H g ×(2 2

K=
H
Model supported by PSLF
Governor WT2T

## Governor Model WT2T

H Inertia
Damp Damping factor
Htfrac Turbine inertia fraction
Freq1 First shaft torsional frequency
DShaft Shaft damping factor

## Model supported by PSLF

Governor WT3T
Governor WT3T
Wind Turbine Model for Type-3 (Doubly-fed) Wind Turbines
From
Generator
Simplified Model
Aerodynamic Model
Pgen
Pitch −
Σ π
+ Pmech + Tacc 1 ω
÷
1 To Pitch
Σ
1
− Σ
θ
K aero Control Model
From + 2H s and Converter
− +
Pitch Control − Control Model
Model
θ0 Pmo

Damp

## Type 3 WTG Turbine One - mass Model

Theta 2  1 
=
When windspeed > rated windspeed, blade pitch initialized to θ 1 − 2 
0.75  VW 
ωt
ω0

Tmech 1 ∆ω ωt
÷
1
Σ Σ
1 t
Pmech + s States
2Ht

1 - TurbineSpeed
∆ω tg + ∆ω tg 2
Σ−
1 2 - ShaftAngle
Dshaft K
s
3 - GenSpeed
Telec + 1 ∆ωg ωg
Pgen ÷ − Σ 2H g
1
s 3
Σ 4 - GenDeltaAngle
+ ω0 1 4 H t =H×H tfrac
ωg s H g =H-H t
Type 3 WTG Turbine Two - mass Model π×Freq1)
2H t ×H g ×(2 2

K=
H
Model supported by PSLF
Governor WT3T1

Governor WT3T1
Mechanical System Model for Type 3 Wind Generator

Pitch
+
Σ π
+ −
Σ
From θ
Paero initial
K aero
WT3P1 Model +

Initial θ 1
Pitch 0 1 + State 1
Angle

+ +
− 1 ∆ω t
Σ Σ ωbase
1

+
Tmech 2Ht s
∆ω tg + + K shaft
Σ
2
Dshaft
− −
Σ s
Damp

+ − ∆ωg
+
Σ
1 3
ωbase
Tmech Σ− 2H g s
+
+ ωg 4
1
Σ ωbase
Rotor
Telec Angle
s Deviation

H t =H×H tfrac ω0 Initial rotor slip
H g =H-H t
π×Freq1)
2H t ×H g ×(2 2

K shaft =
H×ω0
Model supported by PSSE
Governor WT4T

Governor WT4T
Simplified Type-4 (Full Converter) Wind Turbine

Pref Pref

dPmax

_ +
Pelec + Piin Piou Pord
1 2 _
_

dPmin

States:
1 – Pelec
2 – PIOut
3 – Feedback

Governor WTGT_A

## Model supported by PowerWorld

HVDC
Two Terminal DC Control Diagram
PDES PMOD
VOLTAGE
+ Σ + RECT
TRANSDUCER
VDC 1 VMEAS PDES CONSTANT CONSTANT
I DES = I DES
1 + sTv VMEAS POWER CURRENT
CURRENT
TRANSDUCER
I MAX
I DC 1 If I MIN ≤ I DES ≤ I MAX
I MAX I ORD = I DES
1 + sTC
I MIN If I MIN > I DES , I ORD =
I DES
I MEAS If I MAX < I DES , I ORD =
I MAX
VMIN VMEAS
MARGIN
SWITCH
LOGIC I MIN = 10% * I MAX
VMIN = VLIM *VRATED
− 1 1.35 EC
− I ORD
+ Σ LIM
EOR EOI 1 + sTD

I MOD + Vα
αR
cos= − cos γ o cos α R
( RECTIFIER ) − Kα (1 + sT1 ) Vα' Vα
+
Σ
EOR
(1 + sT2 )(1 + sT3 ) αI
cos=

− cos γ cos α I
CURRENT + EOR
MARGIN 0 2 RC
( INVERTER ) LIM= EOR (cos γ 0 + cos γ min ) − 2 I MEAS RC ( RECT )
LIM = EOI (cos γ + cos γ STOP ) − 2 I MEAS RC ( IVERT )
I MEAS I MEAS
( RECTIFIER ) ( INVERTER )

## Available in old BPA IPF software

HVDC
WSCC Stability Program Two-Terminal DC Line Model
PGEN r + jQGEN r PGEN i − jQGEN i
1: N r 1 2 Pr Pi N i :1
X cr Rcr Lsr R L Lsi Rci X ci
Vvr Vvi

VAr I VAi
3
V pr Dr' Vr Vi Di' V pi

3 2 3 2 IX cr 3 2 3 2 IX ci
=Er =
N rVAR V pr =
cos γr − cos θ r =
Ei N=
iVAi V pi =
cos β i cos θ i −
π π 2V pr π π 2V pi
3I 3I
Er cos α −
Dr' = X cr PGEN r =
Dr' I Ei cos α −
Di' = X ci PGEN i =
Di' I
π π
Dr' Di'
cos θ r = cos θ i =
Er Ei

## =I '' ( Er cos α MIN − Ei cos γ MIN − Vvr − Vvi ) / RTOT

=I '''
( Er cos α MIN + Ei cos γ STOP − Vvr − Vvi ) / RTOT
3
WHERE RTOT =R + Rcr + Rci + ( X cr − X ci )
π

## Available in old BPA IPF software

HVDC-MTDC Control System for Rectifiers and Inverters without
Current Margin

## VDC 1 VLAG PDES CONSTANT CONSTANT

I DES = I DES
1 + sTv VMEAS POWER CURRENT

I MAX
I DC 1 ' If I MIN ≤ I D ≤ I MAX
1 + sTC
I MAX I ORD = I D
I MIN If I D > I MAX , I ORD =I MAX
V If I D < I MIN , I ORD =
I MIN
DV
I MEAS

+ VdoL 1 Vdo
− I ORD
Σ LIM
1 + sTLIM

+1. cos α
I REF V1 − Kα (1 + sT1 ) V3 GREATER Vα Vα
OF THE α
cos= − cos γ ON
(1 + sT2 )(1 + sT3 ) VdoL
TWO −1.
0.0 VC
=
RECT LIM VdoL (cos γ 0 + cos γ min ) 6XC
=
INV LIM VdoL (cos γ 0 + cos γ STOP )
π
I MEAS

## Available in old BPA IPF software

HVDC-MTDC Control System for Terminals with Current Margin

I
I ORD 2 ORD1

## I ORD 3 ... Σ =cos γ ON

2 RC ( FRAC ) I MARG
Vdo INITIAL
+ cos γ o
FRAC = 0.25

I ORD N -1

## = Vdo (cos γ ON − cos γ o ) + 2 RC I ORD

VCORD

I DC 1
1 + sTC
I ORD
I MEAS VCORD
− VdoL 1 Vdo
+
Σ LIM
1 + sTLIM
+
+1. cos α
I MARG V1 − Kα (1 + sT1 ) V3 GREATEST Vα Vα
OF THE α
cos= − cos γ ON
(1 + sT2 )(1 + sT3 ) TWO VdoL
−1.
0.0 VC
=LIM VdoL (cos γ ON + cos γ STOP ) 6XC
π
I MEAS

## Available in old BPA IPF software

HVDC
Detailed VDCL and Mode Change Card Multi-Terminal

## CURRENT YES PDES PDES

1.0 VMEAS VMEAS

Y1 I DES
VMEAS
Y0 VMEAS > VC1 NO
VOLTAGE
VDCL
V1 V2 I ORD

## VDCL Mode Change

Y1 , Y0 PU Current on rated Current base VC1 PU rated DC Voltage below
V1 , V2 PU Voltage on rated Voltage base which mode is changed to constant
I from constant P

## Available in old BPA IPF software

HVDC
Equivalent Circuit of a Two Terminal DC Line

## Xr Rr Rcr Reqr RL Reqi Rci Xi Ri

1: T 1: T
Id
VDr VDi
Pr , Qr Pi , Qi
+ +
Eα r Ecr Vdor cos α r Vdr Vdi −Vdoi cos α i Eci Eα i
− −

## Available in old BPA IPF software

HVDC
BPA Converter Controller
PDES PMOD
VOLTAGE
+ Σ + RECT
TRANSDUCER
VDC 1 VMEAS PDES CONSTANT CONSTANT
I DES = I DES
1 + sTv VMEAS POWER CURRENT
CURRENT I DES
TRANSDUCER
I MAX
I DC 1 If I MIN ≤ I DES ≤ I MAX
I MAX I ORD = I DES
1 + sTC
I MIN If I MIN > I DES , I ORD =
I DES
I MEAS If I MAX < I DES , I ORD =
I MAX
VMIN VMEAS
MARGIN
SWITCH
LOGIC I MIN = 10% * I MAX
VMIN = VLIM *VRATED
− 1 1.35 EC
− I ORD
+ Σ CURRENT LIM
EOR EOI 1 + sTD

I MOD + CONTROLLER Vα
αR
cos= − cos γ o cos α R
( RECTIFIER ) − Kα (1 + sT1 ) Vα' Vα
+
Σ
EOR
(1 + sT2 )(1 + sT3 ) αI
cos=

− cos γ cos α I
CURRENT + EOR
MARGIN 0 2 RC
( INVERTER ) LIM= EOR (cos γ 0 + cos γ min ) − 2 I MEAS RC ( RECT )
LIM = EOI (cos γ + cos γ STOP ) − 2 I MEAS RC ( IVERT )
I MEAS I MEAS
( RECTIFIER ) ( INVERTER )

## Available in old BPA IPF software

HVDC
BPA Block Diagram of Simplified Model
PDES PMOD
+ Σ + ( R)

## Vdr 1 VMEAS PDES CONSTANT CONSTANT

I DES = I des
1 + sTv VMEAS POWER CURRENT

I des
I MAX
Id 1 If I MIN < I des < I MAX
I MAX I ord = I des
1 + sTC
I MIN If I MIN ≥ I des , I ord =
I MIN
I d MEAS If I MAX ≤ I des , I ord =
I MAX
VMIN VMEAS
MARGIN
SWITCH
LOGIC
DI I ORD
+
+ I ord r
Σ I ord r Control Scheme
Logic
+
I MOD Vdor cos α 0 − Vdoi cos γ i − 2V0 I DC Id
1 cos α r
Vdor RT iT I DC
1 + sTL cos α i
I ord i
Vdoi I ord i Control Scheme Logic
If: iT ≥ I ordr → CC − CEA Control → I d =I ordr
∆I
DI +
Σ −
(current margin)
=γ i γ o ; Vdor cos=
iT ≥ I ordi → CIA − CC Control → I d =
I ordi
α r Vdoi cos γ o + 2VD + RT I D
I ord + =γ r γ o ; Vdoi cos=
γ i Vdo cos α o − 2VD − RT I D
INV . Controller I ordi < iT < I ordr → CIA − CEA Control → I d =iT
Available in old BPA IPF software = α r α= o; γi γ o
HVDC
BPA Block Diagram of Simplified Model

I MAX
I AC I MOD
s 1 s s 2 + sA + B K
PAC 1 + sTd 1 + sT f s +ε s 2 + sC + D
I MIN
Low Level Modulation

*
PMAX
I AC PMOD
s 1 s s 2 + sA + B K
PAC 1 + sTd 1 + sT f s +ε s 2 + sC + D *
PMIN
High Level Modulation
P= PMAX − PDESIRED
*
MAX P=
*
MIN PMIN − PDESIRED

PMAX
ω1 s + sA1 + B1
PMOD
Σ
s 1 s 2
+
K1
RECT 1 + sTd 1 1 + sT f 1 s + ε1 s 2 + sC1 + D1 PMIN

ω2 s 1 s s 2 + sA2 + B2
K2
INV 1 + sTd 2 1 + sT f 2 s + ε2 s 2 + sC2 + D2

## Available in old BPA IPF software

HVDC
BPA Block Diagram of Simplified Model

Gamma Modulation
γ MAX
γ
VAC A + sT3 B + sT5
Σ Σ
s + +

1 + sT1 1 + sT4 1 + sT6
− +
γ MIN
VREF γ0

## T1 , T3 , T4 , T5 are in secs. Kγ is in degrees/pu volts

γ MAX , γ MIN are in degrees A, B must be 1 or zero
HILO must be 5

## Available in old BPA IPF software

Line Relays DISTR1

## Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch. This end is specified by

the column Device Location which can be set to either From or To. It is
specified on the branch dialog by checking the box Device is at From End
of Line (otherwise at To End). The end specified by the Device Location
is referred to as the "Relay End", while the other is referred to as the "Other
End". When this relay's conditions are met, the entire branch is opened.

There are three zones for the relay which depend on the zone shape
specified. The zone shapes are determined by the Impedance Type
integer. 1 = mho Distance shapes, 2 = impedance distance, and 3 =
reactance distance. In addition to these shapes, two blinders may be Mho Distance Reactance Distance
specified which block all zones. These are described on the next page.

Each zone has a time in cycles associated it. When the apparent
impedance enters the zone, a timer is started. If the impedance stays
inside the zone for the specified number of cycles, then the relay will
send a trip signal to the breaker. The breaker will then trip after the Self
Trip Breaker Time has elapsed. Three additional branches may also be
specified as Transfer Trip Branch 1, 2, and 3. These branches use the

Optionally, after the branches are tripped, the branches may reclose after
a specified number of cycles according to the Self Trip Reclosure Time
or Transfer Trip Reclosure time. This reclosure will happen only once
Impedance Distance
during the simulation.

## Other field results include Other field results include signals

signals associated with a associated with a breaker. For
particular zone which have the breaker signals, the values have
following meanings. the following meanings.
0 : not picked up (not in Zone) 0 : Trip not initiated
1 : Picked up, not timed out 1 : Trip initiated, CB timer running
2 : Picked up, timeout complete 2 : Breaker has tripped

## Model Supported by PSSE

Model Supported by PSSE
Line Relay FACRI_SC

## Fast AC Reactive Insertion for Series Capacitors (FACRI_SC)

Monitored Bus Bus at which the voltage is monitored
volt_high High cut‐in voltage (pu)
volt_low Low cut‐in voltage (pu)
td_high High cut‐in time delay (sec)
td_low Low cut‐in time delay (sec)
Extra Object 1 Line 1
Extra Object 2 Line 2
Extra Object 3 Line 3
Extra Object 4 Line 4
Extra Object 5 Line 5
Extra Object 6 Line 6
Extra Object 7 Line 7
Extra Object 8 Interface 1
Extra Object 1 through 7 can be specified as lines, multi‐section lines, or interfaces.

The following pseudo code describes how the inputs are used to determine series capacitor switching:

SeriesCap = Series capacitor to which this model is assigned
LineSectionsAreOpen = Any line section open for Extra Object 1 to 7
CapBlocked = ((Interface1 MW Flow < ‐50) OR (Interface1 MW Flow > 0)) AND LineSectionsAreOpen

If ((not CapBlocked) and (SeriesCap.Status = Bypassed))
AND
((Monitored Bus Voltage < volt_low for td_low) OR (Monitored Bus Voltage < volt_high for td_high))
Then Begin
SeriesCap.Status = Not Bypassed
End
Line Relays LOCTI

## Time Inverse Over-Current Relay

Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch.  This end is specified by
the column Device Location which can be set to either From or To.  It is
specified on the branch dialog by checking the box Device is at From End
of Line (otherwise at To End).  The end specified by the Device Location is
referred to as the "Relay End", while the other is referred to as the "Other
End".

When this relay's conditions are met, the entire branch is opened.
Relay Operation
The TimeToClose varies according to the piecewise linear function of per unit current as shown to the right and as specified by the input values Threshold,
m1..m5, and t1..t5.  If m1 is greater than 1.0, then an additional point at the Threshold current of 1 hour (3,600 seconds) is added to the curve.

The time at which the relay will close is determined by integrating the following function.  When the function equal 1.0 then the relay will close.

dt
TimeToClose (Threshold,3600*Tdm)
[seconds]
Relay Resetting
When the current drops below the Threshold current, then the relay resets according to
the parameter TReset.  If TReset is zero, then the relay resets to 0 instantaneously.
Otherwise there is a timed reset which occurs by integrating using the function  (m1*Threshold,t1*Tdm)

(m2*Threshold,t2*Tdm)
1 dt
(m3*Threshold,t3*Tdm)
This function means that at zero current, it completely resets in TReset seconds.  (m4*Threshold,t4*Tdm)

Monitor Flag  (m5*Threshold,t5*Tdm)
If the monitor flag is 0, then the relay will create result events to indicate that lines would
have tripped, but will not actually trip any lines.  If monitor flag is not zero, then the relay  Threshold Current
Current
will send a trip signal to the branch when to 1  and the branch will trip after the  [pu]
Breaker Time seconds have elapsed.

## Model Supported by PSLF

Line Relays OOSLEN

## Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch. This end is specified by

the column Device Location which can be set to either From or To. It is
specified on the branch dialog by checking the box Device is at From End
of Line (otherwise at To End). The end specified by the Device Location
is referred to as the "Relay End", while the other is referred to as the "Other
End".

When this relay's conditions are met, only the Relay End of the branch is
opened (determined by Device Location). However, the relay will
determine if the line presently serves a radial system (i.e. the Nfar bus Parameter Meanings Circle Shape [Wt = Rf+Rr]
branch is already open). If a radial system is served, then all devices such Ang = Angle
as load or generation is also opened. Also used when Wt = 0
Wt = Width Total
X [pu]
Rf = RForward
Multiple OOSLEN relays can be assigned to the same end of a branch. In
Rr = RReverse Rf
order to distinguish between them there is an extra key field called Device
(For backward reach
ID which must be specified for the OOSLEN. When loading from an
specify a positive number) Wt
auxiliary file, if this field is omitted, Simulator assumes value of "1".
Ang
Note: In PSLF, the Rr values are
Other field results include Other field results include signals given with the opposite sign for R
signals associated with a associated with a breaker. For OOSLEN and ZLIN1 only. Simulator [pu]
particular zone which have the breach signals, the values have the will flip signs when reading and
Rr
following meanings. following meanings. writing Rr values from DYD files.
0 : not picked up (not in Zone) 0 : Trip not initiated
1 : Picked up, not timed out 1 : Trip initiated, CB timer running Tomato Shape [Wt > Rf+Rr] Lens Shape [Wt < Rf+Rr]
2 : Picked up, timeout complete 2 : Breaker has tripped X [pu] X [pu]

Rf Wt Rf
Wt
Ang Ang
Nf Nt Nfar R [pu] R [pu]

Rr Rr
Model supported by PSLF
Line Relays OOSLNQ
Out-of-step relay with 3 zones OOSLNQ
Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch. This end is specified by the
column Device Location which can be set to either From or To. It is specified
on the branch dialog by checking the box Device is at From End of Line
(otherwise at To End). The end specified by the Device Location is referred
to as the "Relay End", while the other is referred to as the "Other End".

When this relay's conditions are met, only the Relay End of the branch is
opened (determined by Device Location). However, the relay will determine
if the line presently serves a radial system (i.e. the Nfar bus branch is already
open). If a radial system is served, then all devices such as load or generation
is also opened.
Rectangular Shape Circle Shape [Wt = Rf+Rr]
Multiple OOSLNQ relays can be assigned to the same end of a branch. In order
to distinguish between them there is an extra key field called Device ID which X [pu]
Also used when Wt = 0
must be specified for the OOSLEN. When loading from an auxiliary file, if this X [pu]
field is omitted, Simulator assumes value of "1". Rf
Wt Rf
Other field results include signals Parameter Meanings
associated with a particular zone Shape = 1 means Rectangle Ang Wt
which have the following meanings. Ang
0 means Circle,
0 : not picked up (not in Zone)
1 : Picked up, not timed out Lens, or Tomato R [pu]

2 : Picked up, timeout complete Ang = Angle Rr Wr [pu]
Wt = Width Total Rr
Other field results include signals Wr = Width Right
associated with a breaker. For breach Rf = RForward
signals, the values have the following Rr = RReverse (For Tomato Shape [Wt > Rf+Rr] Lens Shape [Wt < Rf+Rr]
meanings. backward reach specify a
0 : Trip not initiated X [pu] X [pu]
positive number)
1 : Trip initiated, CB timer running
2 : Breaker has tripped

Rf Wt Rf
Wt
Ang Ang
Nf Nt Nfar R [pu] R [pu]

Rr Rr
Model supported by PSLF
Line Relays SCMOV

Metal Oxide Varistor and Bypass Protection for a Series Capacitor SCMOV

## Icrated Capacitor Rated rms current in Amps

Icappro Capacitor protective level rms current, p.u. on Icrated base
Ithresh Threshold value for MOV activation
Daccel Decelaration convergence coefficient
Enerlim MOV energy limit in Mjoules
Enerdly Bypass delay associated with Enerlim in seconds
Imovlim MOV rms current limit in p.u. of Icrated
Imovdly Bypass delay associated with Imovlim in seconds
Icaplim Capacitor rms current limit in p.u. of Icrated
Icapdly Bypass delay associated with Icaplim in seconds
Operdly Time delay associated with exernal bypass signal model
Iinsert Insertion current in p.u. of Icrated
Tinsert Insertion time in seconds

## Model supported by PSLF

Line Relay SERIESCAPRELAY

## Tfilter Voltage filter time constant in sec.

tbOn Switching time On in sec.
tbOff Switching time Off in sec.
V1On First voltage threshold for switching series capacitor ON in p.u.
t1On First time delay for switching series capacitor ON in sec.
V2On Second voltage threshold for switching series capacitor ON in p.u.
t2On Second time delay for switching series capacitor ON in sec.
V1Off First voltage threshold for switching series capacitor OFF in p.u.
t1Off First time delay for switching series capacitor OFF in sec.
V2Off Second voltage threshold for switching series capacitor OFF in p.u.
t2Off Second time delay for switching series capacitor OFF in sec.
Line Relays TIOCR1

## Time Inverse Over-Current Relay

Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch.  This end is specified by
the column Device Location which can be set to either From or To.  It is
specified on the branch dialog by checking the box Device is at From End
of Line (otherwise at To End).  The end specified by the Device Location is
referred to as the "Relay End", while the other is referred to as the "Other
End". When this relay's conditions are met, the entire branch is opened.

Relay Operation
The TimeToClose varies according to the piecewise linear function of per unit current as shown to the right and as specified by the input values Threshold,
m1..m5, and t1..t5.  If m1 is greater than 1.0, then an additional point at the Threshold current of 1 hour (3,600 seconds) is added to the curve.

The time at which the relay will close is determined by integrating the following function.  When the function equal 1.0 then the relay will close.

dt
TimeToClose (Threshold,3600*Tdm)
Relay Resetting  [seconds]
When the current drops below the Threshold current, then the relay resets according to
the parameter TReset.  If TReset is zero, then the relay resets to 0 instantaneously.
Otherwise there is a timed reset which occurs by integrating using the function  (m1*Threshold,t1*Tdm)

1 dt  (m2*Threshold,t2*Tdm)
This function means that at zero current, it completely resets in TReset seconds.  (m3*Threshold,t3*Tdm)

Monitor Flag  (m4*Threshold,t4*Tdm)
If the monitor flag is 0, then the relay will create result events to indicate that lines would
(m5*Threshold,t5*Tdm)
have tripped, but will not actually trip any lines.  If monitor flag is not zero, then the relay
will send a trip signal to the branch when to 1  and the branch will trip after the  Threshold Current
Breaker Time seconds have elapsed.  Current [pu]
Transfer Trip
Trip signals for this relay may be sent to three different branches by pointing to branches for Transfer Trip 1, Transfer Trip 2, and Transfer Trip 3.  In addition, a
Transfer Trip Load record may also be pointed to with a corresponding parameter Load Shed % specifying what percentage of the load should be tripped.

## Model Supported by PSSE

Line Relays TIOCRS

## Time Inverse Over-Current Relay Standard

This relay is identical in all respects to the TIOCR1 relay, except for how the TimeToClose time-inverse overcurrent curve is specified. This includes the
treatment of the Monitor Flag, Transfer Trip, and Reset functions. For TIOCRS, instead of using a piece-wise linear curve, a function as described in various
world standards is used. To specify which standard to use, the parameter CurveType must be set to either 1, 2, or 3 which translates to the following
standards.
1. IEEE C37.112-1996 standard
2. IEC 255-4 or British BS142
3. IAC Curves from GE

The TimeToClose functions are specified by the parameters Tdm, p, A, B, C, D, and E depending on the Curve Type. The three standards are shown below.
(Note: The use of the reset time is identical for all standards and is the same as used in TIOCR1 and LOCTI).

## IEEE C37.112-1996 Standard (CurveType = 1)

Using the parameters Threshold, Tdm, p, A, and B, the TimeToClose as a function of per unit current is calculated using the following equations

𝐴
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑇𝑜𝐶𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑒 = 𝑇𝑑𝑚 �𝐵 + �
𝐼𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑝
� � −1
𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑑
IEC 255-4 or British BS142 Standard (CurveType = 2)
Using the parameters Threshold, Tdm, p, and A the TimeToClose as a function of per unit current is calculated using the following equations

𝐴
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑇𝑜𝐶𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑒 = 𝑇𝑑𝑚 � �
𝐼𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑝
� � −1
𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑑
IAC GE Curves (CurveType = 3)
Using the parameters Threshold, Tdm, A, B, C, D, and E the TimeToClose as a function of per unit current is calculated using the fllowing equations

𝐵 𝐷 𝐸
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑇𝑜𝐶𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑒 = 𝑇𝑑𝑚 �𝐴 + + + 3�
𝐼𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐼𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 2
𝐼𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡
� − 𝐶� � − 𝐶� � − 𝐶�
𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑑
Extra note: Any current higher than 30 times the threshold is simply treated as though it is equal to 30 times the threshold in these equations.
Line Relays TLIN1

## Under-voltage or Under-frequency Relay Tripping Line Circuit Breaker(s) TLIN1

Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch. This end The value monitored by this relay is
is specified by the column Device Location which can be determined by the Input parameter.
set to either From or To. It is specified on the branch dialog 0 : means frequency in Hz
by checking the box Device is at From End of Line 1 : means per unit voltage
(otherwise at To End). The end specified by the Device
Location is referred to as the "Relay End", while the other The bus at which this value is monitored is
is referred to as the "Other End". specified by signal bus (SBus). If a signal bus
is not specified, then the Relay End bus will
When this relay's conditions are met, the tripping which be used instead.
occurs depends on the Flag parameter as follows
0 : Only the Relay End of the branch is opened (determined The relay condition is met if the monitored
by Device Location). value falls below the pickup value (V1) at
1 : Both ends of the branch are opened and the far end least the relay definite time settings (T1).
branch is also opened. When the relay is condition is met the trip
2 : Only the Relay End of the branch is opened (determined will occur after the circuit breaker time
by Device Location). However, the relay will delay (Tcb1)
determine if the line presently serves a radial system
system is served, then all devices such as load or
generation is also opened.
An Other Field include a signal which
have the following meanings.
0 : not picked up (not in Zone)
1 : Picked up, not timed out
2 : Picked up, timeout complete
Nf Nt Nfar 3 : Circuit Breaker Trip Complete

## Model supported by PSLF

Line Relays ZDCB
Distance Relay with Directional Comparison Blocking (ZDCB)
Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch. This end is specified
by the column Device Location which can be set to either From or To.
It is specified on the branch dialog by checking the box Device is at
From End of Line (otherwise at To End). The end specified by the
Device Location is referred to as the "Relay End", while the other is
referred to as the "Other End".

For Zone 1, the region is the same for both ends of the branch and each
end trip independently if their Zone 1 conditions are met.

For higher zone tripping to occur, then Zone 2 conditions must be met Rectangular Shape Circle Shape [Wt = Rf+Rr]
at one end while simultaneously the Zone 3 conditions at the other end
are not met. X [pu]
Also used when Wt = 0
X [pu]
Wt Rf
Rf
Other field results include signals Parameter Meanings
associated with a particular zone Shape = 1 means Rectangle Ang Wt
which have the following meanings. Ang
0 means Circle,
0 : not picked up (not in Zone)
1 : Picked up, not timed out Lens, or Tomato R [pu]

2 : Picked up, timeout complete Ang = Angle Rr Wr [pu]
Wt = Width Total Rr
Other field results include signals Wr = Width Right
associated with a breaker. For breach Rf = RForward
signals, the values have the following Rr = RReverse (For Tomato Shape [Wt > Rf+Rr] Lens Shape [Wt < Rf+Rr]
meanings. backward reach specify a
0 : Trip not initiated X [pu] X [pu]
positive number)
1 : Trip initiated, CB timer running
2 : Breaker has tripped

Rf Wt Rf
Wt
Ang Ang
Nf Nt Nfar R [pu] R [pu]

Rr Rr
Model supported by PSLF
Line Relays ZLIN1
Distance Relay with 3 zones (ZLIN1)

## Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch. This end

is specified by the column Device Location which can be
set to either From or To. It is specified on the branch dialog
by checking the box Device is at From End of Line
(otherwise at To End). The end specified by the Device
Location is referred to as the "Relay End", while the other
is referred to as the "Other End".

Parameter Meanings Circle Shape [Wt = Rf+Rr]
When this relay's conditions are met, only the Relay End of Ang = Angle
the branch is opened (determined by Device Location). Also used when Wt = 0
Wt = Width Total
However, the relay will determine if the line presently Rf = RForward
X [pu]

serves a radial system (i.e. the Nfar bus branch is already Rr = RReverse Rf
open). If a radial system is served, then all devices such as (For backward reach
specify a positive number) Wt
load or generation is also opened. Ang
Note: In PSLF, the Rr values are
given with the opposite sign for
Other field results include Other field results include signals R
OOSLEN and ZLIN1 only. Simulator [pu]
signals associated with a associated with a breaker. For will flip signs when reading and
Rr
particular zone which have the breach signals, the values have the writing Rr values from DYD files.
following meanings. following meanings.
0 : not picked up (not in Zone) 0 : Trip not initiated Tomato Shape [Wt > Rf+Rr] Lens Shape [Wt < Rf+Rr]
1 : Picked up, not timed out 1 : Trip initiated, CB timer running
X [pu] X [pu]
2 : Picked up, timeout complete 2 : Breaker has tripped

Rf Wt Rf
Wt
Ang Ang
Nf Nt Nfar R [pu] R [pu]

Rr Rr
Model supported by PSLF
Line Relays ZPOTT
Distance Relay with Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip (ZPOTT)

## Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch. This end is specified

by the column Device Location which can be set to either From or To.
It is specified on the branch dialog by checking the box Device is at
From End of Line (otherwise at To End). The end specified by the
Device Location is referred to as the "Relay End", while the other is
referred to as the "Other End".

For Zone 1, the region is the same for both ends of the branch and each
end trip independently if their Zone 1 conditions are met.

For higher Zone 2 tripping to occur, then Zone 2 conditions must be
Rectangular Shape Circle Shape [Wt = Rf+Rr]
met at the Relay and Other ends simultaneously. X [pu]
Also used when Wt = 0
X [pu]
Wt Rf
Rf
Other field results include signals Parameter Meanings
associated with a particular zone Shape = 1 means Rectangle Ang Wt
which have the following meanings. Ang
0 means Circle,
0 : not picked up (not in Zone)
1 : Picked up, not timed out Lens, or Tomato R [pu]

2 : Picked up, timeout complete Ang = Angle Rr Wr [pu]
Wt = Width Total Rr
Other field results include signals Wr = Width Right
associated with a breaker. For breach Rf = RForward
signals, the values have the following Rr = RReverse (For Tomato Shape [Wt > Rf+Rr] Lens Shape [Wt < Rf+Rr]
meanings. backward reach specify a
0 : Trip not initiated X [pu] X [pu]
positive number)
1 : Trip initiated, CB timer running
2 : Breaker has tripped

Rf Wt Rf
Wt
Ang Ang
Nf Nt Nfar R [pu] R [pu]

Rr Rr
Model supported by PSLF
Line Relays ZQLIN1
Distance Relay with 3 Zones (ZQLIN1)

## Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch. This end is specified

by the column Device Location which can be set to either From or To.
It is specified on the branch dialog by checking the box Device is at
From End of Line (otherwise at To End). The end specified by the
Device Location is referred to as the "Relay End", while the other is
referred to as the "Other End".

When this relay's conditions are met, only the Relay End of the branch
is opened (determined by Device Location). However, the relay will
determine if the line presently serves a radial system (i.e. the Nfar bus Rectangular Shape Circle Shape [Wt = Rf+Rr]
branch is already open). If a radial system is served, then all devices Also used when Wt = 0
such as load or generation is also opened. X [pu]
LINERELAYMOD X [pu]
Wt Rf
EL_ Rf
Other field results include signals Parameter Meanings
associated with a particular zone Shape = 1 means Rectangle Ang Wt
which have the following meanings. Ang
0 means Circle,
0 : not picked up (not in Zone)
1 : Picked up, not timed out Lens, or Tomato R [pu]

2 : Picked up, timeout complete Ang = Angle Rr Wr [pu]
Wt = Width Total Rr
Other field results include signals Wr = Width Right
associated with a breaker. For breach Rf = RForward
signals, the values have the following Rr = RReverse (For Tomato Shape [Wt > Rf+Rr] Lens Shape [Wt < Rf+Rr]
meanings. backward reach specify a
0 : Trip not initiated X [pu] X [pu]
positive number)
1 : Trip initiated, CB timer running
2 : Breaker has tripped

Rf Wt Rf
Wt
Ang Ang
Nf Nt Nfar R [pu] R [pu]

Rr Rr
Model supported by PSLF
Line Relays ZQLIN2
Distance Relay with 3 Zones (ZQLIN2)

## Relays are assigned to a specific end of a branch. This end is specified

by the column Device Location which can be set to either From or To.
It is specified on the branch dialog by checking the box Device is at
From End of Line (otherwise at To End). The end specified by the
Device Location is referred to as the "Relay End", while the other is
referred to as the "Other End".

When this relay's conditions are met, only the Relay End of the branch
is opened (determined by Device Location). However, the relay will
determine if the line presently serves a radial system (i.e. the Nfar bus
branch is already open). If a radial system is served, then all devices
Rectangular Shape Circle Shape [Wt = Rf+Rr]
such as load or generation is also opened. X [pu]
Also used when Wt = 0
X [pu]
Wt Rf
Other field results include signals Parameter Meanings
Rf
associated with a particular zone Shape = 1 means Rectangle
which have the following meanings. Ang Wt
0 means Circle,
0 : not picked up (not in Zone) Ang
1 : Picked up, not timed out Lens, or Tomato R [pu]
2 : Picked up, timeout complete Ang = Angle R
Wt = Width Total Rr Wr [pu]
Rr
Other field results include signals Wr = Width Right
associated with a breaker. For breach Rf = RForward
signals, the values have the following Rr = RReverse (For
meanings. backward reach specify a Tomato Shape [Wt > Rf+Rr] Lens Shape [Wt < Rf+Rr]
0 : Trip not initiated
positive number) X [pu] X [pu]
1 : Trip initiated, CB timer running
2 : Breaker has tripped

Rf Wt Rf
Wt
Ang Ang
Nf Nt Nfar R [pu] R [pu]

Rr Rr
Model supported by PSLF
Load Characteristic BPA INDUCTION MOTOR I

## Load Characteristic BPA Induction MotorI

RS + jX S jX R

MECHANICAL

jX m RR
R= T , EMWS
s

Model Notes:
Mechanical Load Torque, T = ( Aω 2 + Bω + C )TO
where C is calculated by the program such that
Aω 2 + Bω + C =
1.0
ω = 1− ω

## Load Characteristic BPA Type LA

=P P0 ( PV
1
2
2 + P3 + P4 (1 + ∆f * LDP ) )
+ PV

## Load Characteristic BPA Type LB

=P P0 ( PV
1
2
2 + P3 ) (1 + ∆f * LDP )
+ PV

## Model in the public domain, available from BPA

Type 1 Type 2
RA + jX A RA + jX A jX 1

jX 1 jX 2 jX 2
jX m jX m R1
R1 R2 s R2
s s s

## • To model a single cage motor, set R2 = X2 = 0

• When MBASE = 0, motor MVABase = PMULT * MW load. When MBASE > 0, motor MVABase = MBASE
• Load Torque = T(1+∆ω)D. For motor starting T = TNOM. For online motors, T is calculated during initialization
• V1 is the per unit voltage level at which the relay will pickup. The relay must then stay below V1 for a time of T1 (in
cycles) at which point the relay will trip. The motor will then open after the breaker delay TB (in cycles)

## Model supported by PSSE

For the block diagram is used to simulate the dynamics. Note that if (Lp = Lpp) or (Tppo=0), then this represents a single-cage motor
and the state Eppr = Epr and Eppi = Epi.
𝐿𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿 q-axis
𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿
+
1 𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿𝐿
_
∑ ∑ ∑ Eppi
1
+
𝑇𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑠
+
𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿
+
Epi Eki
_ +
𝑇𝑝𝑝 𝑠
𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿𝐿 Lp-Ll
_ (𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿)2 + Tppo ωo SLIP
_
+ ∑ Ls-Lp ∑ +
_ Id
Tpo ωo SLIP π
Saturation
Num |Epp|
÷ �𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2
Den

Tpo ωo SLIP π
_ +
+ + Iq
∑ Ls-Lp ∑
_
_ Tppo ωo SLIP
𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿𝐿
Lp-Ll
(𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿)2
1
_
𝑇𝑝𝑝 𝑠 Epr + + 1 Ekr 𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿𝐿 +
∑ + ∑ ∑ Eppr
_ 𝑇𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑠 𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿
+
𝐿𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿
𝐿𝐿 − 𝐿𝐿 d-axis

To convert from the equivalent circuit model to the block diagram model, you use the following conversions.
Double Cage Type 1 Single Cage Type 1 Double Cage Type 2 Single Cage Type 2
Ls 𝐿𝑎 + 𝐿𝑚 𝐿𝑎 + 𝐿𝑚 𝐿𝑎 + 𝐿𝑚 𝐿𝑎 + 𝐿𝑚
Ll 𝐿𝑎 𝐿𝑎 𝐿𝑎 𝐿𝑎
Lp 1 1 1 1
𝐿𝑎 + 𝐿𝑎 + 𝐿𝑎 + 𝐿𝑎 +
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
𝐿𝑚 + 𝐿1 𝐿𝑚 + 𝐿1 𝐿𝑚 + 𝐿1 𝐿𝑚 + 𝐿1
Lpp 1 1
𝐿𝑎 + 𝐿𝑎 +
1 1 1 0 1 1 0
𝐿𝑚 + 𝐿1 + 𝐿2 𝐿𝑚 + 𝐿1 + 𝐿2
Tpo 𝐿1 + 𝐿𝑚 𝐿1 + 𝐿𝑚 𝐿1 + 𝐿2 + 𝐿𝑚 𝐿1 + 𝐿𝑚
𝜔𝑜 𝑅1 𝜔𝑜 𝑅1 𝜔𝑜 𝑅2 𝜔𝑜 𝑅1
Tppo 𝐿1 ∗ 𝐿𝑚 1
𝐿2 + 𝐿1 + 𝐿𝑚 1 1
0 0
𝜔𝑜 𝑅2 𝐿1 + 𝐿𝑚 + 𝐿2
𝜔𝑜 𝑅1

## • Model is the same as CIM5, except for the load torque.

• Load Torque = T(Aω2 + Bω + C0 + DωE). For motor starting T = TNOM. For online motors, T is calculated during
initialization

## • Model is the same as CIM5, except for the load torque.

• Load Torque = T(Aω2 + Bω + C0 + DωE). This motor can not be used for starting. C0 = 1 - Aω2 - Bω - DωE

P + jQ

Tap

R + jX
PO

## PO = Load MW input on system base

I I Constant P = PRO *V K P
MVA
Q = QRO *V 2
M M V V
Large Small Discharge Transformer Remaining

## Model supported by PSSE

Vsec_measured Vsec_init

Discrete Tap
Change Control

V4 Vsec V3 Pfar + jQfar
r4 x4

Psec + jQsec

## The internal model used by the transient stability numerical

simulation structurally does the following.
1. Creates two buses called Low Side Bus and Load Bus
Transmission Pinit + jQinit 2. Creates a transformer between Transmission Bus and Low
Side Bus
System Bus
3. Creates a capacitor at the Low Side Bus
4. Creates a branch between Low Side Bus and Load Bus
5. Moves the Load from the Transmission Bus to the Load Bus

Xxf
Pinit + jQinit PLS + jQLS Bus Rfdr, Xfdr Bus
Transmission Tap
System Bus DLIGHT Model
Bf1 Bf2
LD1PAC or MOTORX Model A
Fb
Bss
Transformer Control LD1PAC or MOTORX Model B
LTC Tmax Tdel Bf1 = ( Fb )(Bf1+Bf2)
Tfixhs Step Tdelstep Bf2 = (1-Fb)(Bf1+Bf2) LD1PAC or MOTORX Model C
Tfixls Vmin Rcmp
Tmin Vmax Xcmp MVABase
LD1PAC or MOTORX Model D

IEEL Model

## Model supported by PSLF

This represents a load model identical to the CMPLDW model, except that all the parameters related to the Distribution Equivalent
have been removed (the first 17 parameters of CMPLDW and the MVABase).

## Model supported by PowerWorld

This equivalent model and the parameters used for the Load Distribution Equivalent Types are the same as the first 17 parameters of
the CMPLDW load characteristic model, along with an MVA base parameter.

## Real Power Coefficient Real Power Coefficient

Reactive Power Coefficient Reactive Power Coefficient
Breakpoint Voltage Breakpoint Voltage
Extinction Voltage Extinction Voltage

Model supported by PW

Pinitial Qinitial
PMLTMX QMLTMX
+ +

π − Σ
1
Pinitial
KP
s
π − Σ
1
Qinitial
KQ
Pactual PMULT Qactual s QMULT

PMLTMN QMLTMN

States:
1 – PMULT
2 - QMULT

= ( )
P Pload a1v n1 + a2v n2 + a3v n3 (1 + a7 ∆f )
4
n4
)
+ a5v n5 + a6v n6 (1 + a8 ∆f )

## Model supported by PSSE

Pul Fraction of constant power load Vc1off Voltage 1 contactor disconnect load in p.u.
TV Voltage input time in sec. Vc2off Voltage 2 contactor disconnect load in p.u.
Tf Frequency input time constant in sec. Vc1on Voltage 1 contactor re-connect load in p.u.
CompPF Compressor Power Factor Vc2on Voltage 2 contactor re-connect load in p.u.
Vstall Compressor Stalling Voltage in p.u. Tth Compressor heating time constant in sec.
Rstall Compressor Stall resistance in p.u. Th1t Compressor motors begin tripping
Xstall Compressor Stall impedance in p.u. Th2t Compressor motors finished tripping
Tstall Compressor Stall delay time in sec. fuvr Fraction of compressor motors with
factor uvtr1 to uvtr2 Undervoltage pickup level in p.u.
KP1 to KP2 Real power coefficient for running states, ttr1 to ttr2 Undervoltage definite time in sec.
p.u.P/p.u.V
NP1 to NP2 Real power exponent for running states
KQ1 to KQ2 Reactive power coefficient for running
states, p.u.Q/p.u.
NQ1 to NQ2 Reactive power exponent for running states
Vbrk Compressor motor breakdown voltage in
p.u
Frst Restarting motor fraction
Vrst Restart motor voltage in p.u.
Trst Restarting time delay in sec.
CmpKpf Real power frequency sensitivity,
p.u.P/p.u.
CmpKqf Reactive power frequency sensitivity,
p.u.Q/p.u.

m
ω 
P = PO  
 ωO 
n
ω 
Q = QO  
 ωO 
r
ω 
I p = I po  
 ωO 
s
ω 
I q = I qo  
 ωO 

## Model supported by PSSE

The Random Load Model simulates a random load. The user needs to input the Percent of Standard
Deviation to generate a random number; a Time for the filter and the Start time when the random
load will start to be model. Once the random load model start internally it uses a filter and the
generated random number to modify the load.

## Model supported by PSLF

Two-cage or One-cage Induction Machine for Part of a Bus Load Model MOTORW

E'q - + E''q
- 1 1 1 1
�⬚ + + �⬚
+ �⬚
�⬚
𝑇𝑝𝑝 𝑠 𝑇𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑠 d-axis
- - +

ωo SLIP
+ id
�⬚ Ls-Lp
+

## ωo SLIP TPO ωo SLIP

-
1 E'd - E''d
+ 1 1 + 1
�⬚ + �⬚ + �⬚ �⬚
𝑇𝑝𝑝 𝑠 𝑇𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑠 q-axis
- + +

Lp-Lpp

+ Iq
�⬚ Ls-Lp
-

## p1 Constant impedance fraction in p.u.

q1 Constant impedance fraction in p.u.
p2 Constant current fraction in p.u.
q2 Constant current fraction in p.u.
p3 Constant power fraction in p.u.
q3 Constant power fraction in p.u.
p4 Frequency dependent power fraction in p.u.
q4 Frequency dependent power fraction in p.u.
lpd Real power frequency index in p.u.
lqd Reactive power frequency index in p.u.

## f1 to f3 Frequency load shedding point

t1 to t3 Pickup time
Frac1 to frac3 Fraction of load to shed
tb Breaker time
df1 to df3 Rate of frequency shedding point

## Tran Trip Obj Transfer Trip Object

SC Shed Shunts
f1 to f5 Frequency load shedding point
t1 to t5 Pickup time
tb1 to tb5 Breaker time
Frac1 to frac5 Fraction of load to shed
ttb Transfer trip breaker time

## f1 to f3 Frequency load shedding point

t1 to t3 Pickup time
frac1 to frac3 Fraction of load to shed
tb Breaker time

## f1 to f4 Frequency load shedding point

z1 to z4 Nominal operating time
tb Breaker time
frac Fraction of load to shed
freset Reset frequency
tres Resetting time

## Tfilter Input transducer time constant

tres Resetting time
f1 to f3 Frequency load shedding point
t1 to t3 Pickup time
tb1 to tb3 Breaker time
frac1 to frac3 Fraction of load to shed

Shed (p.u.)
Characteristic

## Rem Bus Remote Bus

Voltage Mode Voltage mode: 0 for deviation; 1 for absolute
Tfilter Input transducer time constant
tres Resetting time
v1 to v3 Voltage load shedding point
t1 to t3 Pickup time
tb1 to tb3 Breaker time
frac1 to frac3 Fraction of load to shed

Shed (p.u.)
Characteristic

## Tfilter Input transducer time constant

tres Resetting time
f1 to f3 Frequency load shedding point
t1 to t3 Pickup time
tb1 to tb3 Breaker time
frac1 to frac3 Fraction of load to shed
df1 to df3 Rate of frequency shedding point

Shed (p.u.)
Characteristic

## Tfilter Input transducer time constant

tres Resetting time
f1 to f9 Frequency load shedding point
t1 to t9 Pickup time
tb1 to tb9 Breaker time
frac1 to frac9 Fraction of load to shed

Shed (p.u.)
Characteristic

## FirstTran Trip Obj First Transfer Trip Object

SecondTran Trip Obj First Transfer Trip Object
SC Shed Shunts
v1 to v5 Voltage load shedding point
t1 to t5 Pickup time
tb1 to tb5 Breaker time
Frac1 to frac5 Fraction of load to shed
ttb1 to ttb2 Transfer trip breaker time

## v1 to v3 Voltage load shedding point

t1 to t3 Pickup time
frac1 to frac3 Fraction of load to shed
tb Breaker time

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model BPASVC
No Block Diagram. Old BPA IPF program model.
Machine Model CBEST

## 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐼𝑎𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑎𝑐

+
𝑀𝐵𝑎𝑠𝑒 1 1 𝑃𝑎𝑐 𝑀𝐵𝑎𝑠𝑒
𝑃𝐴𝑈𝑋 ∑ 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝑆𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 + 𝑆𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒

## −𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 −𝐼𝑎𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑎𝑐

𝑂𝑢𝑡𝐸𝑓𝑓
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 > 0 States:
𝑠 + 1 – VLL1
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 4
∑ 𝐸𝑜𝑢𝑡 2 – VLL2
𝐼𝑛𝐸𝑓𝑓 + 3 – IQ
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 < 0 4 – EnergyIn
𝑠 5 5 - EnergyOut

Other Signals
VOTHSG 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑎𝑐
𝐼𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥
+
𝐼𝑞
− (1 + 𝑠𝑇1 )(1 + 𝑠𝑇2 ) 𝐾𝐴𝑉𝑅 𝑀𝐵𝑎𝑠𝑒
𝑉𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝 ∑ π 𝑄𝑜𝑢𝑡
− (1 + 𝑠𝑇3 )(1 + 𝑠𝑇4 ) 𝑠 𝑆𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒
+ 3
1 2

𝑃𝑎𝑐 2
𝐼𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥 � 2
= 𝐼 𝑎𝑐𝑚𝑎𝑥 − � �
𝐷𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑝 𝑉𝑎𝑐

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model CIMTR1

Model CIMTR1

## Tp T' - Transient rotor time constant

Tpp T'' – Sub-transient rotor time constant in sec.
H Inertia constant in sec.
X Synchronous reactance
Xp X' – Transient Reactance
Xpp X'' – Sub-transient Reactance
Xl Stator leakage reactance in p.u.
E1 Field voltage value E1
SE1 Saturation value at E1
E2 Field voltage value E2
SE2 Saturation value at E2
Switch Switch
Ra Stator resistance in p.u.

States:
1 – Epr
2 – Epi
3 – Ekr
4 – Eki
5 – Speed wr

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model CIMTR2

## Tp T' - Transient rotor time constant

Tpp T'' – Sub-transient rotor time constant in sec.
H Inertia constant in sec.
X Synchronous reactance
Xp X' – Transient Reactance
Xpp X'' – Sub-transient Reactance
Xl Stator leakage reactance in p.u.
E1 Field voltage value E1
SE1 Saturation value at E1
E2 Field voltage value E2
SE2 Saturation value at E2
D Damping

States:
1 – Epr
2 – Epi
3 – Ekr
4 – Eki
5 – Speed wr

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model CIMTR3

## Tp T' - Transient rotor time constant

Tpp T'' – Sub-transient rotor time constant in sec.
H Inertia constant in sec.
X Synchronous reactance
Xp X' – Transient Reactance
Xpp X'' – Sub-transient Reactance
Xl Stator leakage reactance in p.u.
E1 Field voltage value E1
SE1 Saturation value at E1
E2 Field voltage value E2
Switch Switch
SYN-POW Mechanical power at synchronous speed (p.u. > 0)

States:
1 – Epr
2 – Epi
3 – Ekr
4 – Eki
5 – Speed wr

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model CIMTR4

## Tp T' - Transient rotor time constant

Tpp T'' – Sub-transient rotor time constant in sec.
H Inertia constant in sec.
X Synchronous reactance
Xp X' – Transient Reactance
Xpp X'' – Sub-transient Reactance
Xl Stator leakage reactance in p.u.
E1 Field voltage value E1
SE1 Saturation value at E1
E2 Field voltage value E2
D Damping
SYN-TOR Synchronous torque (p.u. < 0)

States:
1 – Epr
2 – Epi
3 – Ekr
4 – Eki
5 – Speed wr

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model CSTATT

## 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 𝑀𝑎𝑥 = 𝑉𝑇 + 𝑋𝑇 𝐼𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥0

States:
1 – Regulator 1 where
2 – Regulator 2 𝑖𝑓 (𝑉𝑇 ≥ 𝑉𝑐𝑢𝑡𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝐼𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥0 = 𝐼𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥
3 – Thyristor 𝐼𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑇
𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒 𝐼𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥0 =
𝑉𝑐𝑢𝑡𝑜𝑢𝑡

## Also, 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 𝑀𝑎𝑥 ≤ 𝐸𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡

Other Signals
VOTHSG 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 𝑀𝑎𝑥 𝐸𝑇
− −
− (1 + 𝑠𝑇1 )(1 + 𝑠𝑇2 ) 𝐾 + 1 𝑀𝐵𝑎𝑠𝑒
|𝑉| ∑ ∑
− (1 + 𝑠𝑇3 )(1 + 𝑠𝑇4 ) 𝑠 𝑋𝑡 𝑆𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒
+ 3
1 2

𝐷𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑝

## 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 𝑀𝑖𝑛 = 𝑉𝑇 − 𝑋𝑇 𝐼𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥0

V is on the high-side of the generator step-up if integrated where
transformer step-up is included.
𝑖𝑓 (𝑉𝑇 ≥ 𝑉𝑐𝑢𝑡𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝐼𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥0 = 𝐼𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝐼𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑇
𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒 𝐼𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥0 =
𝑉𝑐𝑢𝑡𝑜𝑢𝑡
Model supported by PSSE
Machine Model CSVGN1

## Machine Model CSVGN1

Static Shunt Compensator CSVGN1

Other Signals
VOTHSG VMAX 1. CBASE / SBASE

− +
K (1 + sT1 )(1 + sT2 ) 1
V +
Σ (1 + sT3 )(1 + sT4 ) 1 + sT5
π −
Σ Y
− 3
1 2
VREF VMIN
RMIN / RBASE
MBASE / SBASE

States:
1 – Regulator1
2 – Regulator2
3 – Thyristor

RBASE = MBASE
Note : V is the voltage magnitude on the high side of generator step-up transformer if present.

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model CSVGN3

## Machine Model CSVGN3

Static Shunt Compensator CSVGN3

Other Signals
VOTHSG VMAX 1. CBASE / SBASE

− +
VERR K (1 + sT1 )(1 + sT2 ) 1
V +
Σ (1 + sT3 )(1 + sT4 ) 1 + sT5 π −
Σ Y
− 3
1 2
VREF VMIN
RMIN / RBASE
MBASE / SBASE

## 1, if VERR > VOV States:

RMIN / RBASE if VERR < −VOV 1 – Regulator1
2 – Regulator2
3 – Thyristor

RBASE = MBASE
Note : V is the voltage magnitude on the high side of generator step-up transformer if present.

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model CSVGN4

## Machine Model CSVGN4

Static Shunt Compensator CSVGN4

Other Signals
VOTHSG VMAX 1. CBASE / SBASE

− +
VERR K (1 + sT1 )(1 + sT2 ) 1
VIB +
Σ (1 + sT3 )(1 + sT4 ) 1 + sT5 π −
Σ Y
− 3
1 2
VREF VMIN
RMIN / RBASE
MBASE / SBASE

## 1, if VERR > VOV

RMIN / RBASE if VERR < −VOV States:
1 – Regulator1
2 – Regulator2
3 – Thyristor

RBASE = MBASE

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model CSVGN5

## Machine Model CSVGN5

Static Var Compensator CSVGN5

VOTHSG ( I ) Regulator
VEMAX 
Filter 1st Stage 2nd Stage
+
1 − + 1 + sTS 2 1 + sTS 4
1 + sTs1 Σ Σ 1 + sTS 3 1 + sTS 5
K SVS
VOLT(IBUS) 1 + 2 3
or
VOLT(ICON(M)) VREF ( I ) −VEMAX

VERR BR BMAX

## If VERR > DVLO : BR' = '

BMAX + K SD (VERR − DV ) 1
4
MBASE ( I )
If DVHI < VERR < DVLO : BR' = BR '
1 + sT6
BR BSVS SBASE
If VERR < DVHI : BR =
' '
BMIN VAR ( L)

## States: Fast Override BMIN

1 – Filter
2 – Regulator1 Thyristor Delay
3 – Regulator2
4 – Thyristor If DV = 0, If DV > 0,
DVLO = BMAX
'
/ K SVS DVLO = DV
DVHI = BMIN
'
/ K SVS DVHI = − DV

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model CSVGN6

## Machine Model CSVGN6

Static Var Compensator CSVGN6
Other
Signals
VOTHSG ( I ) VMAX VEMAX
Filter
+
1 − + 1 + sTS 2 1 + sTS 4 BR
1 + sTs1 Σ Σ 1 + sTS 3 1 + sTS 5
K SVS
VOLT(IBUS)
or
1 + 2 3
VOLT(ICON(M)) VEMIN
VREF VMIN

BIAS
VERR BR BMAX

## If VERR > DVLO : BR' = '

BMAX + K SD (VERR − DV ) 1 4
+
+
States:
1 – Filter
If DVHI < VERR < DVLO : BR' = BR
BR' 1 + sT6 BSVS Σ
2 – Regulator1 If VERR < DVHI : BR =
' '
BMIN +
3 – Regulator2
4 – Thyristor Fast Override BMIN
1 2 BSHUNT
Thyristor Delay
Position 1 is normal (open)
If DV = 0, If DV > 0, If VERR > DV 2, switch will
DVLO = BMAX
'
/ K SVS DVLO = DV close after TDELAY cycles.

DVHI = BMIN
'
/ K SVS DVHI = − DV

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model GEN_BPA_MMG2
No block diagram. 2 state machine model (Angle, Speed, and constant Eqp)

## Machine Model GEN_BPA_MMG3

No block diagram. 3 state machine model (Angle, Speed, Eqp). Similar to GENTRA

## Machine Model GEN_BPA_MMG4

No block diagram. 4 state machine model (Angle, Speed, Eqp, Edp).

## Machine Model GEN_BPA_MMG5

No block diagram, but similar to GENSAL and GENSAE. 5 states (Angle, Speed, Eqp, Eqpp, Edpp).

## Machine Model GEN_BPA_MMG6

No block diagram, but similar to GENROU and GENROE. 6 states (Angle, Speed, Eqp, Eqpp, Edp, Edpp).
Machine Model GENCC

## Machine Model GENCC

Generator represented by uniform inductance ratios rotor
modeling to match WSCC type F

X d − X d'
X d' − X d''

+ −
Eq'
E fd 1 1 Eq'
Σ Σ
States:
1 – Angle − sTdo' + sTdo''
2 – Speed w − −
3 – Eqp
4 – Eqpp
5 – Edp X d − X d'' id
6 - Edpp X d' − X d''
X d' − X d

Se
d axis
E1
π
Xq
Xd

q axis

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model GENCLS_PLAYBACK

## Machine Model GENCLS_PLAYBACK

Synchronous machine represented by “classical” modeling or
Thevenin Voltage Source to play Back known
voltage/frequency signal

Responding
System
Recorded Z ab = 0.03
Voltage on 100 MVA base
A B

States:
1 – Angel Responding
2 – Speed w System
I ppd
gencls
B

Responding
System
I ppd Z ab = 0.03
gencls on 100 MVA base
A B

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model GENDCO

Component GENDCO

## H Inertia constant in sec.

D Damping
Ra Stator resistance in p.u.
Xd Xd – Direct axis synchronous reactance
Xq Xq – Quadrature axis synchronous reactance
Xdp X'd – Direct axis synchronous reactance
Xqp X'q – Quadrature axis synchronous reactance
Xl Stator leakage reactance in p.u.
Tdop T'do – Open circuit direct axis transient time constant
Tqop T'qo – Quadrature axis transient time constant
Tdopp T''do – Open circuit direct axis subtransient time constant
Tqopp T''qo – Quadrature axis subtransient time constant
S(1.0) Saturation factor at 1.0 p.u. flux
S(1.2) Saturation factor at 1.2 p.u. flux
Ta Ta

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model GENIND

## Two Cage or One Cage Induction Generator Model GENIND

ψdr2 ωo SLIP
-
Ψqr2
𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟2 1
+ � �
𝐿𝑙𝑟2 + 𝐿𝑙𝑟2
-

ψdr1 ωo SLIP
- +
Ψqr1 -E''d = ψ'q
𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟1 1
+ � � � L''m sat
𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 𝐿𝑙𝑟1 +
+
States: -
1 – Epr Ψmq iqs
� L''m sat
2 – Epi -
3 – Ekr Se Ksat = 1 + Se(ψm) 1
𝐿′′𝑚 𝑠𝑎𝑡 =
4 – Eki �ψ2𝑚𝑑 + ψ2𝑚𝑞 𝐾𝑠𝑎𝑡 ⁄𝐿𝑚 + 1⁄𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 1⁄𝐿𝑙𝑟2
5 – Speed wr Ψm Ψmd
- L''m sat

Ψqr1 ωo SLIP ids
+ +
Ψdr1
𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟1 1
+ � � � L''m sat
𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + E''q = ψ'd
-
+
𝐿𝑚 = 𝐿𝑠 − 𝐿𝑙
Ψqr2 ωo SLIP 𝐿′𝑚 = 1/(1/𝐿𝑚 + 1/𝐿𝑙𝑟1 ) = 𝐿′ − 𝐿𝑙
+ 𝐿′′𝑚 = 1/(1/𝐿𝑚 + 1/𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 1/𝐿𝑙𝑟2 )
Ψdr2
𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟2 1 = 𝐿′′ − 𝐿𝑙
+ � �
𝐿𝑙𝑟2 + 𝐿𝑙𝑟2 𝑇𝑜 = 𝐿𝑙𝑟1 ∙ 𝐿𝑚 /(𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟1 ∙ 𝐿′𝑚 )

## - = (𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 𝐿𝑚 )/(𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟1 )

𝑇𝑜′′ = 𝐿𝑙𝑟2 ∙ 𝐿′𝑚 /(𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟2 ∙ 𝐿′′𝑚 )
= (𝐿𝑙𝑟2 + 𝐿′𝑚 )/(𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟2 )
Model supported by PSLF
Machine Model GEPWTwoAxis

Model GENPWTwoAxis

## H Inertia constant in sec.

D Damping
Ra Stator resistance in p.u.
Xd Xd – Direct axis synchronous reactance
Xq Xq – Quadrature axis synchronous reactance
Xdp X'd – Direct axis synchronous reactance
Xqp X'q – Quadrature axis synchronous reactance
Tdop T'do – Open circuit direct axis transient time constant
Tqop T'qo – Quadrature axis transient time constant

States:
1 – Angel
2 – Speed w
3 – Eqp
4 – Edp

Model supported by PW
Machine Model GENROE

## Same as the GENROU model, except that an exponential

function is used for saturation

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model GENROU

## Machine Model GENROU

Solid Rotor Generator represented by equal mutual
inductance rotor modeling

X d'' − X l
X d' − X l
Pfd

− Pkd +
1 1 X d' − X d'' Pd''
E fd
+ Σ sTdo' + Σ ''
sTdo X d' − X l + Σ
− −

## X d' − X d'' X d' − X l

( X d' − X l ) **2
+ d − AXIS
+
id
Σ +
X d − X d' Σ +

1 – Angle
2 – Speed w
Pd'' 3 – Eqp
4 – PsiDp
Se P '' 5 – PsiQpp
6 – Edp

Xq − Xl
Pq''
(Xd − Xl )
***q − AXIS identical , swapping d and q substripts

## Model supported by PSSE and PSLF

Machine Model GENSAE
Same as the GENSAL model, except that an exponential function is used for saturation
Machine Model GENSAL

## Machine Model GENSAL

Salient Pole Generator represented by equal mutual
inductance rotor modeling

X d'' − X l
X d' − X l

− +
Pkd Pd''
1 Pfd 1 X d' − X d''
E fd
+ Σ sTdo' + Σ ''
sTdo X d' − X l + Σ
− −

## X d' − X d'' X d' − X l

( X d' − X l ) **2
d − AXIS
Se Pfd
+ +
+
id
Σ +
X d − X d' Σ +

− Pq''
1 Pkd
States:
1 – Angle Σ ''
sTqo
2 – Speed w − q − AXIS
3 – Eqp
iq
4 – PsiDp X q − X q''
5 – PsiQpp

## Model supported by PSSE and PSLF

Machine Model GENTPF

## Generator Represented by Uniform Inductance Ratios Rotor

Modeling to Match WSCC Type F Model GENTPF

𝐿𝑑 − 𝐿′𝑑
Se
𝐿′𝑑 − 𝐿′′𝑑

+ -
Efd E'q E''q φ''d
1 + 1
� ′
Se �
𝑠𝑇𝑑𝑜 𝑠𝑇′′𝑑𝑜
+
- -

## 𝐿𝑑 − 𝐿′′𝑑 𝐿′𝑑 − 𝐿′′𝑑

id
𝐿′𝑑 − 𝐿′′𝑑

𝑆𝑒 = 1 + 𝑆𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝐹𝑢𝑛𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛�𝜓𝑎𝑔 � States:
1 – Angle
Q-Axis Similar except: 2 – Spped w
𝑋𝑞 3 – Eqp
𝑆𝑒 = 1 + 𝑆𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝐹𝑢𝑛𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛�𝜓𝑎𝑔 �
𝑋𝑑 4 – Eqpp
5 – Edp
6 – Edpp

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model GENTPJ
Same as the GENTPF model, except that the saturation function input is modeled with an extra term using the 𝐾𝑖𝑠 value as follows.

## Q-Axis Similar except:

𝑋𝑞
𝑆𝑒 = 1 + 𝑆𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝐹𝑢𝑛𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛�𝜓𝑎𝑔 + 𝐾𝑖𝑠 𝐼𝑡 ∗ 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛(𝐼𝑑 )�
𝑋𝑑
Machine Model GENTRA

## Machine Model GENTRA

Salient Pole Generator without Amortisseur Windings

1
E fd
+ Σ '
sTdo + Σ
− −

Se
X d'

d − AXIS
+
id
Σ +
X d − X d'

States:
1 – Angle
2 – Speed w
3 - Eqp

q − AXIS
iq
Xq

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model GENWRI

## Machine Model GENWRI

Wound-rotor Induction Generator Model with Variable External
Rotor Resistance
PELEC
fS
+

PMECH 1 ωr slip
+ Σ ÷ 2Hs − Σ ω0

R 2Tpo =
( Ls − Ll ) R2Tpo is a constant which is equal to T0' times

## ω0 ( Ls − L' ) the total rotor resistance.

R2 is the internal rotor resistance
R 2Tpo R2ex is the internal rotor resistance
T0' =
( R 2ex + R 2 )
eq = ωsϕ d' − Li' d − Ra iq
ϕ fd =

(
ϕ fd + S d + ( Ls − L ) id
+ ( slip )ϕ fq
'
) −ωsϕ q' + Li' q − Ra id
ed =
'
T0
(ϕ + S + ( L − L ) i ) + ( slip)ϕ (ϕ ) + (ϕ )
2 2
'
=ϕ' '
d
'
q
ϕ fq
fq q s q
=

= f (ϕ )
' fd
T 0 Se '
sat
ϕ = ϕ fd
'

= S (ϕ )
d '
Sd
ϕ = ϕ fq
' States: e d

= S (ϕ )
q 1 – Epr '
2 – Epi Sq e d
3 – Speed wr

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model GEWTG

## Machine Model GEWTG

Generator/converter model for GE wind turbines –
Doubly Fed Asynchronous Generator (DFAG)

## When fcflg = 0, this means a DFAG machine

High Voltage Reactive Current Management
−1 𝐼𝑄
1
𝐸𝑄𝐶𝑀𝐷 ∑
1 + 0.02𝑠 1 𝑗𝐿𝑝𝑝 + Norton
+
𝐼𝑞𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎 Equivalent
Interface to
EXWTGE 𝐼𝑞𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎 is calculated in network equations network
Model if LPVLSW = 0 then ignore this limit solution to enforce high voltage limit equations
LVPL 𝑉𝑇 ≤ 1.2
𝑗𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐
rrpwr
1 𝐼𝑃 + jLpp
𝐼𝑃𝐶𝑀𝐷+ ∑ 𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙
_ 0.02𝑠 2
1

VT π
0.4 0.8

## Lvpl1 Low Voltage Active Current Management

1
1 + 0.02𝑠 VT
V 3
xerox brkpt States:
1 – Eq
2 – Ip
3 – Vmeas

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model GEWTG
Generator/converter model for GE wind turbines –
Full Converter (FC) Models

## When fcflg = 1, this means a Full Converter machine

High Voltage Reactive Current Management
𝐼𝑄
1 -1
𝐸𝑄𝐶𝑀𝐷 ∑
1 + 0.02𝑠 1 +
+ Norton
𝐼𝑞𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎 Equivalent
Interface to
EWTFC 𝐼𝑞𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎 is calculated in network equations network
Model if LPVLSW = 0 then ignore this limit solution to enforce high voltage limit equations
LVPL 𝑉𝑇 ≤ 1.2
𝑗𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐
rrpwr
1 𝐼𝑃 +
𝐼𝑃𝐶𝑀𝐷+ ∑ 𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙
_ 0.02𝑠 2
1

VT π
0.4 0.8

## Lvpl1 Low Voltage Active Current Management

1
1 + 0.02𝑠 VT
V 3
xerox brkpt States:
1 – Eq
2 – Ip
Model supported by PSLF 3 – Vmeas
Machine Model InfiniteBusSignalGen
This model extends the functionality of an infinite bus model. Of course in power system dynamics an infinite bus is
characterized by a fixed voltage magnitude and frequency. This model makes it easy to change both the voltage magnitude
and frequency, hence making it easy to see how other models in the system respond to frequency and voltage disturbances.
Presently the model has the ability to do either unit step changes, ramp changes, or constant frequency sinusoidal changes. Up
to five separate time segments (changes) can be modeled.

The model dialog is shown as follows. It has two general fields (DoRamp and StartTime,Sec) and then five sets of five fields
corresponding to each of the time segments. These fields are described below.
General Options
• DoRamp is an integer option that determines whether the non-sinusoidal changes should be discrete (DoRamp = 0) or
ramping (DoRamp = 1). The default is zero.
• Start Time, Sec is the number of seconds before the first event occurs. The default is zero.

Segment Fields
The next five fields are associated with each time segment.

• Volt Delta(PU) : is the per unit magnitude of the voltage change to simulate.
• Volt Freq(Hz) : is the frequency of the sinusoidal function to apply to the voltage disturbance. If this value is greater
than zero then the voltage disturbance is a sin function with a magnitude of VoltDeltaPU. Set this
field to zero when simulating a unit step or ramp disturbance. The default is zero.
• Speed Delta (Hz) : is the magnitude of the speed (frequency) change to simulate.
• Speed Freq(Hz) : is the frequency of the sinusoidal function to apply to the speed disturbance.
• Duration (Sec) : is the duration of the event in seconds. Both the voltage and frequency events have the same
duration, with the usual expectation that either one or the other will be applied. If the duration
value is negative then this event is ignored. A value of zero indicates the event continues until the
end of the simulation (except when a zero is used with a ramp event the ramp is assumed to be a
unit step).

These fields are then repeated for the next time segment. Up to five segments can be simulated. The changes are cumulative,
so the value assumed at the beginning of the next segment is the value that existed at the end of the previous time segment.
The model used is very similar to the PLAYINGEN model.

As an example, consider four bus system shown in upper-left figure on the following page with the generator at bus 2
represented with an InfiniteBusSignalGen model. The signal generator is set to run flat for 1 seconds (Start Time,Sec = 1),
then ramp the voltage up by 0.1 per unit over two seconds, ramp it back down over two seconds, hold flat for one second, then
start a 0.1 per unit, 2 Hz oscillation until the end. This input data is shown in bottom-left figure on the next page with the
results shown in upper-right. In the results figure the Blue line shows the infinite bus voltage (bus 2), while the red shows the
terminal voltage for the other generator (bus 4). The middle-right figure shows a similar test with the generator frequency
except the frequency of the change is dropped to 0.5 Hz. Again blue shows the generator 2 value, in this case speed, while red
shows the generator 4 speed. When the frequency of the infinite bus speed variation approaches the natural frequency of the
bus 4 generator (about 1.8 Hz, calculated through single machine infinite bus analysis), resonance can be seen to occur. This is
shown in lower-right figure; note now the input frequency has a magnitude of just 0.1 Hz and the simulation has been
extended to twenty seconds.
1.14
1.13

Bus 1 Bus 2
1.12
1.11
1.1

Bus 4
1.09

## Infinite Bus 1.08

1.07
1.06
1.05
slack 1.04
1.03

Bus 3
1.02

11.57 Deg
1.01
1

1.097 pu 0.99
0.98
0.97
0.96
6.58 Deg 4.45 Deg 0.00 Deg 0.95

## 1.048 pu 1.030 pu 1.000 pu

0.94
0.93
0.92
0.91
0.9
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

 Term. PU_Gen Bus 2 #1 

 Term. PU_Gen Bus 4 #1

61.3
61.2
61.1
61
60.9
60.8
60.7
60.6
60.5
60.4
60.3
60.2
60.1
60
59.9
59.8
59.7
59.6
59.5
59.4
59.3
59.2
59.1
59
58.9
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

 Speed, Gen Bus 2 #1 

 Speed, Gen Bus 4 #1

61
60.9
60.8
60.7
60.6
60.5
60.4
60.3
60.2
60.1
60
59.9
59.8
59.7
59.6
59.5
59.4
59.3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

 Speed_Gen Bus 2 #1 

 Speed_Gen Bus 4 #1
Machine Model MOTOR1
Machine Model MOTOR1
“Two-cage” or “one-cage” induction machine
ψ dr 2
ωo SLIP Lm= Ls − Ll
− L'm =
1. / (1. / Lm + 1. / Llr1 ) =
L' − Ll
+
ωo Rr 2 ψ qr 2 1.
States:
1 – Epr
Σ Llr 2 + Σ Llr 2 L''m =
1. / (1. / Lm + 1. / Llr1 + 1. / Llr 2 ) =
L'' − Ll

2 – Epi To' Llr1 Lm / (ωo Rr1 L=
= '
m) ( Llr1 + Lm ) / (ωo Rr1 )
3 – Ekr
4 - Eki ψ dr1 To'' Llr 2 L'm / (ωo Rr 2 L
= =''
m) ( Llr 2 + L'm ) / (ωo Rr 2 )
5 – Speed wr ωo SLIP
+ +
+
ωo Rr1 ψ qr1 1. ψ q''
− Ed'' =
Σ Llr1 + Σ Llr1 + Σ L''
m sat
+
− ψ mq iqs
Σ − L''m sat
Se K sat= 1. + Se (ψ m )
ψ 2
md +ψ 2
mq
ψm ψ md ids
ψ qr1 Σ − L''m sat
ωo SLIP +

+ + ψ dr1
ωo Rr1 1. Eq'' = ψ d''
Σ Llr1 + Σ Llr1 + Σ ''
Lm sat

− +

ψ qr 2 1.
ωo SLIP L''m sat =
K sat / Lm + 1. / Llr1 + 1. / Llr 2
+ + ψ dr 2
ωo Rr 2 1.
Model supported by PSLF
Σ Llr 2 + Σ Llr 2

Machine Model PLAYINGEN

## Playin Signal Generator (PLAYINGEN)

Playin Signals
1.0 Thevenin
_ Equivalent
Interface to
Value[Findex]
1 + 𝑤𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝐷𝑒𝑙𝑡𝑎
∑ network
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝐹𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑠 [radians] equations
1 3
𝑅𝑡ℎ + 𝑗𝑋𝑡ℎ
Playin
Signals 𝑉 𝑒 𝑗𝐷𝑒𝑙𝑡𝑎 +

1 𝑉
Value[Vindex] 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑉𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 2 [𝑝𝑢]

States:
1 – Frequency [per unit]
2 – Voltage [per unit]
Machine Model REGC_A

## Model supported by PowerWorld

Machine Model STCON

## Static Synchronous Condenser Model STCON

Xt Vt∠ ∥θ qset
+
iterm 6
2 𝐾𝑖𝑞 qterm
Vint∠ ∥θ iterm, qterm �
𝑠 -
pterm = 0 3
UMAX = S2
R Kp
2
|iterm| + + UMAX
1 Vint
+ 1 - + VMAX
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓 � � � π
5 Vctr 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑓 UMIN
2 1
2 + + 𝐾𝑖
4
UMIN = S3
𝑠 2
If qterm ≥ 0 Vref Vsig 2
2
+
𝐾𝑖𝑙 5 >I
If S4 VMIN
5 - 2 max
2 �
𝑠
3
2 𝐾𝑖𝑙
𝐾𝑖𝑙 +
+ � If S4
5 < (I - Imxeps) � 4 States:
Vmax 𝑠 2 max 𝑠 2
and Vmin 1 – Vsens
- -
vterm > vthresh 2 – Integrator
3 – Umax
If qterm ≤ 0 4 – Umin
+ 5 – ItermSens
If S4
5 >I 𝐾𝑖𝑙
𝐾𝑖𝑙 2 + � 6 – Qerr
- �
max
𝑠 3
5
2 𝑠
2
Vmax
-
4
2
𝐾𝑖𝑙 If S4
5 < (Imax - Imxeps)
+ � 2
Vmin 𝑠 and
- vterm > vthresh

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model SVCWSC

## Static Var Device Model SVCWSC

Voltage Clamp Logic
If Vbus < V1vd, Kvc = 0.
If Vbus > V2vd for Tdvcl sec., Kvc = 1.

## V1MAX Kvc·V2MAX BMAX

VeMAX
Vbus + 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝐶 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠2 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠4 Fast 1 Bsvs
� - � � KSVS Over
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠1 + 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠3 𝑏 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠5 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠6
- Ride
+ + VeMIN
1 V1MIN 2 3 BMIN
XC 2 Vref
Vscs + Vs 2 Kvc·V2MIN 2 4
2
Vs (from external PSS)

## Input 1 𝐾𝑠1 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠8

1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠7 5 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠9 + VscsMAX
2 6 𝑠𝑇𝑠13
2 � KS3 Vscs
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠14 States:
Input 2 𝐾𝑠2 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠11 + 9 VscsMIN 1 – LLVbus
2 2 – Regulator1
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠10 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠12
8 3 – Regulator2
2 4 – Thyristor
7
2 5 – Transducer1
6 – LL1
7 – Transducer2
8 - LL2
9 – WO13
Model supported by PSLF
Machine Model VWSCC

## Static Var Device Model VWSCC

BMAX
VeMAX
Vbus + 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝐶 𝐴 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠2 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠4 Fast 1 Bsvs
� - � � e-sTd1 KSVS Over
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠1 + 𝐵 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠3 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠5 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑠6
- Ride
+ + VeMIN
1 2 3 BMIN 4
XC 2 Vref Vscs 2 2 2
(from Stabilizer)

States:
1 – LLVBus
2 – Regulator1
3 – Regulator2
4 – Thyristor

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model WT1G

## Generator Model for Generic Type-1 Wind Turbines WT1G

States:
ψdr2 ωo SLIP 1 – Epr
- 2 – Epi
Ψqr2
𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟2 1 3 – Ekr
+ � �
𝐿𝑙𝑟2 + 𝐿𝑙𝑟2 4 – Eki
-

ψdr1 ωo SLIP
- +
Ψqr1 -E''d = ψ'q
𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟1 1
+ � � � L''m sat
𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 𝐿𝑙𝑟1 +
+
-
Ψmq iqs
� L''m sat
-
Se Ksat = 1 + Se(ψm) 1
𝐿′′𝑚 𝑠𝑎𝑡 =
�ψ2𝑚𝑑 + ψ2𝑚𝑞 𝐾𝑠𝑎𝑡 ⁄𝐿𝑚 + 1⁄𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 1⁄𝐿𝑙𝑟2
Ψm Ψmd
- L''m sat

Ψqr1 ωo SLIP ids
+ +
Ψdr1
𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟1 1
+ � � � L''m sat
𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + E''q = ψ'd
-
+
𝐿𝑚 = 𝐿𝑠 − 𝐿𝑙
Ψqr2 ωo SLIP 𝐿′𝑚 = 1/(1/𝐿𝑚 + 1/𝐿𝑙𝑟1 ) = 𝐿′ − 𝐿𝑙
+ 𝐿′′𝑚 = 1/(1/𝐿𝑚 + 1/𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 1/𝐿𝑙𝑟2 )
Ψdr2
𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟2 1 = 𝐿′′ − 𝐿𝑙
+ � �
𝐿𝑙𝑟2 + 𝐿𝑙𝑟2 𝑇𝑜 = 𝐿𝑙𝑟1 ∙ 𝐿𝑚 /(𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟1 ∙ 𝐿′𝑚 )

## - = (𝐿𝑙𝑟1 + 𝐿𝑚 )/(𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟1 )

𝑇𝑜′′ = 𝐿𝑙𝑟2 ∙ 𝐿′𝑚 /(𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟2 ∙ 𝐿′′𝑚 )
= (𝐿𝑙𝑟2 + 𝐿′𝑚 )/(𝜔𝑜 ∙ 𝑅𝑟2 )
Model supported by PSLF
Machine Model WT1G1

## Tpo T' – Open circuit transient rotor time constant

Tppo T'' – Open circuit sub-transient rotor time constant in sec.
Ls Synchronous reactance
Lp L' – Transient Reactance
Lpp L'' – Sub-transient Reactance
Ll Stator leakage reactance (p.u. > 0)
E1 Field voltage value E1
SE1 Saturation value at E1
E2 Field voltage value E2
SE2 Saturation value at E2

States:
1 – Epr
2 – Epi
3 – Ekr
4 – Eki

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model WT2G

Model WT2G

## Ls Synchronous reactance, (p.u. > 0)

Lp Transient reactance, (p.u. > 0)
Ll Stator leakage reactance, (p.u. > 0)
Ra Stator resistance in p.u.
Tpo Transient rotor time constant in sec.
S(1.0) Saturation factor at 1.0 p.u. flux
S(1.2) Saturation factor at 1.2 p.u. flux
spdrot Initial electrical rotor speed, p.u. of system frequency
Accel Factor Acceleration factor

States:
1 – Epr
2 – Epi
3 – Ekr
4 – Eki

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model WT2G1

## Induction Generator with Controlled External Rotor Resistor Type 2

Model WT2G1

Xa Stator reactance
Xm Magnetizing reactance
X1 Rotor reactance
R_Rot_Mach Rotor resistance
R_Rot_Max Sum of R_Rot_Mach and total external resistance
E1 Field voltage value E1
SE1 Saturation value at E1
E2 Field voltage value E2
SE2 Saturation value at E2
Power_Ref1 to Power_Ref_5 Coordinate pairs of the power-slip curve
Slip_1 to Slip_5 Power-Slip

## States: Note: The Power_Ref and Slip values

1 – Epr specified here are actually used in
2 – Epi conjunction with the WT2E1 model
3 – Ekr
4 – Eki

## Model supported by PSSE

Machine Model WT3G

## High Voltage Reactive Current Management

−1 𝐼𝑄
1
𝐸𝑄𝐶𝑀𝐷 ∑
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑑 1 𝑗𝐿𝑝𝑝 + Norton
+
𝐼𝑞𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎 Equivalent
Interface to
WT3E 𝐼𝑞𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎 is calculated in network equations network
Model if LPVLSW = 0 then ignore this limit solution to enforce high voltage limit equations
LVPL 𝑉𝑇 ≤ 𝑉𝑙𝑖𝑚
𝑗𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐
rrpwr
1 𝐼𝑃 + jLpp
𝐼𝑃𝐶𝑀𝐷+ ∑ 𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙
_ 𝑠𝑇𝑑 2
1

VT π
Lvpnt0 Lvpnt1

## Lvpl1 Low Voltage Active Current Management

1
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝐿𝑉𝑃𝐿 VT
V 3
xerox brkpt States:
1 – Eq
2 – Ip
3 – Vmeas

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model WT3G1

## Double-Fed Induction Generator (Type 3) Model WT3G1

Eq ̅
𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑐
Eq cmd 1 −1 IYinj
(efd) 1 + 0.02𝑠 𝑋𝑒𝑞

From 1 T
Converter 2
States:
Control
1 – Eq
2 – Iq IP cmd 1 IP IXinj
3 – Vmeas
1 + 0.02𝑠
4 – PLL1
5 – Delta 2
2 Pllmax Vterm∠ θ

𝐾𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑙 4
2
𝑠
jX''
-Pllmax
+ Pllmax
VY 𝐾𝑝𝑙𝑙 𝜔𝑜 5
2 δ
� 𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚
𝑉 + �
𝑠
T
-1 𝜔𝑜
3
2 -Pllmax
VX

## Notes: 1. 𝑉�𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚 and 𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑐

̅ are complex values on network reference frame.
2. In steady-state, VY = 0, VX = Vterm, and δ = θ.
3. Xeq = Imaginary (ZSOURCE)

## Model supported by PSEE

Machine Model WT3G2

## Double-Fed Induction Generator (Type 3) Model WT3G2

1
High Voltage ̅
𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑐
WEPCMD −1 Reactive Current
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑖𝑞𝑐𝑚𝑑 𝑋𝑒𝑞 Logic
1
2
T
Rip_LVPL LVPL Low Voltage
WIPCMD + 1 Reactive Current

𝑠𝑇𝑖𝑝𝑐𝑚𝑑 Logic
-
2

LVPL
1 VT
GLVPL
1 + 𝑠𝑇_𝐿𝑉𝑃𝐿
LVPL
V
VLVPL1 VLVPL2

PLLMAX

𝐾𝐼𝑃𝐿𝐿 4
2 States:
𝑠 1 – Eq
+ PLLMAX 2 – Iq
VY PLLMIN
𝐾𝑃𝐿𝐿 𝜔𝑜 5
2 3 – Vmeas
VT + � 4 – PLL1
3 -1 𝜔𝑜 𝑠
2 T 5 – Delta
PLLMIN
VX

Angle of VT
Model supported by PSEE If KPLL = 0 and KIPLL = 0
Machine Model WT4G

Model WT4G
Type 4 Wind Turbine with Full Converter Model

## High Voltage Reactive Current Management

𝐼𝑄
1
𝐸𝑄𝐶𝑀𝐷 -1 ∑
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑑 1 +
+ Norton
𝐼𝑞𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎 Equivalent
Interface to
WT4E 𝐼𝑞𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎 is calculated in network equations network
Model if LPVLSW = 0 then ignore this limit solution to enforce high voltage limit equations
LVPL 𝑉𝑇 ≤ 𝑉𝑙𝑖𝑚
𝑗𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐
rrpwr
1 𝐼𝑃 +
𝐼𝑃𝐶𝑀𝐷+ ∑ 𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙
_ 𝑠𝑇𝑑 2
1

VT π
Lvpnt0 Lvpnt1

## Lvpl1 Low Voltage Active Current Management

1
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝐿𝑉𝑃𝐿 VT
V 3
xerox brkpt States:
1 – Eq
2 – Ip
3 – Vmeas

## Model supported by PSLF

Machine Model WT4G1

## Wind Generator Model with Power Converter WT4G1

States:
1 – Eq
2 – Iq
3 – Vmeas 1
High Voltage ̅
𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑐
WEPCMD Reactive Current
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑒𝑞𝑐𝑚𝑑 1 Logic
2

## Rip_LVPL LVPL Low Voltage

WIPCMD + 1 Reactive Current

𝑠𝑇𝑖𝑝𝑐𝑚𝑑 Logic
2
- 2

LVPL
1 VT
GLVPL
1 + 𝑠𝑇_𝐿𝑉𝑃𝐿 3
LVPL 2
V
VLVPL1 VLVPL2

## Model supported by PSEE

Switched Shunt CAPRELAY

## Rem Bus Remote Bus

Tfilter Voltage filter time constant in sec.
tbClose Circuit breaker closing time for switching shunt ON in sec.
tbOpen Circuit breaker closing time for switching shunt OFF in sec.
V1On First voltage threshold for switching shunt capacitor ON in sec.
T1On First time delay for switching shunt capacitor ON in sec.
V2On Second voltage threshold for switching shunt capacitor ON in sec.
T2On Second time delay for switching shunt capacitor ON in sec.
V1Off First voltage threshold for switching shunt capacitor OFF in sec.
T1Off First time delay for switching shunt capacitor OFF in sec.
V2Off Second voltage threshold for switching shunt capacitor OFF in sec.
T2Off Second time delay for switching shunt capacitor OFF in sec.
Switched Shunt CSSCST

## Model supported by PSLF

Switched Shunt FACRI_SS

## Fast AC Reactive Insertion for Switched Shunts (FACRI_SS)

uv1 Switching Group 1 under voltage level 1 (pu)
uv2 Switching Group 1 under voltage level 2 (pu)
uv1td Switching Group 1 time delay level 1 (sec)
uv2td Switching Group 1 time delay level 2 (sec)
inttd Switching Group 1 first switch time delay, initial time delay (sec)
uv3 Voltage at terminal bus that triggers Switching Group 2 switching logic (pu)
uv4 Switching Group 2 under voltage low level (pu)
uv5 Switching Group 2 under voltage high level (pu)
td1 Switching Group 2 time delay for loop 1 (sec)
td2 Switching Group 2 time delay for loop 2 (sec)
td3 Switching Group 2 time delay for loop 3 (sec)
td4 Switching Group 2 time delay for loop checks (sec)
td5 Duration of time that conditions are checked Monitored Bus b while in each loop (sec)
Extra Object 1 Capacitor 1 – Switching Group 1
Extra Object 2 Capacitor 2 – Switching Group 1
Extra Object 3 Reactor 1 – Switching Group 1
Extra Object 4 Reactor 2 – Switching Group 1
Extra Object 5 Reactor 3 – Switching Group 1
Extra Object 6 Capacitor a1 – Switching Group 1
Extra Object 7 Capacitor a2 – Switching Group 1
Extra Object 8 Reactor a1 – Switching Group 1
Extra Object 9 Monitored Bus b – Switching Group 2
Extra Object 10 Reactor b1 – Switching Group 2
Extra Object 11 Capacitor b1 – Switching Group 2
Extra Object 12 Capacitor b2 – Switching Group 2
Switched Shunt FACRI_SS
Fast AC Reactive Insertion for Switched Shunts (FACRI_SS)
The following pseudo code describes how the inputs are used to determine switched shunt operation:

## Switching Group 1 Switching Logic

Each time that voltage and time delay conditions are met for Switching Group 1, the reactors and capacitors are checked in the following
order until a device is found that can be switched. Reactors are tripped and capacitors are closed. Only one device is switched each time
switching is required.
(1) Reactor 1
(2) Reactor a1
(3) Reactor 2
(4) Reactor 3
(5) Capacitor 1
(6) Capacitor a1
(7) Capacitor 2
(8) Capacitor a2

## Switching Group 2 Switching Logic

Each time that voltage and time delay conditions are met for Switching Group 2, if the reactor is online it will be tripped first before any
capacitor switching. Depending on voltage conditions, capacitors may or may not be turned on. When capacitors are switched, they are
checked in the following order until a device is found that can be switched. Only one capacitor is switched each time switching is
required.
(1) Capacitor b1
(2) Capacitor b2
If (Reactor online) Then Begin
Trip Reactor
If (VoltMeasBusb <= uv4) Then Begin
Do capacitor switching
End
End
Else If (not Reactor online) Then Begin
If (VoltMeasBusb <= uv4) or (VoltMeasBusb <= uv5) Then Begin
Do capacitor switching
End
End
Continued on next page
Switched Shunt FACRI_SS
Fast AC Reactive Insertion for Switched Shunts (FACRI_SS)
Continued from previous page

## Initialization at the start of transient stability run

FirstSwitchComplete = False
Initialize Switching Group 2 Loop Trackers

## Operations performed at each time step

VoltMeas = Voltage at the terminal bus of the switched shunt to which this model is assigned
// If voltage falls below specified thresholds, timers are started to record how long the voltages remain below these thresholds.
// The specific timer pseudo code is not shown here.
If (not FirstSwitchComplete) and ( (VoltMeas < uv1 for inttd) or (VoltMeas < uv2 for inttd))
Then Begin
Check Group 1 Switching
FirstSwitchComplete = True
End

## If (FirstSwitchComplete) Then Begin

If (VoltMeas < uv1 for uv1td)
Then Begin
Check Group 1 Switching
Reset Group 1 Timer
End

## If (VoltMeas < uv2 for uv2td)

Then Begin
Check Group 1 Switching
Reset Group 1 Timer
End
End
If (VoltMeas > uv1) Then Begin
Reset Group 1 Timers
FirstSwitchComplete = False
End

## Continued on next page

Switched Shunt FACRI_SS
Fast AC Reactive Insertion for Switched Shunts (FACRI_SS)
Continued from previous page

// The condition of VoltMeas < uv3 triggers the checking of voltages at Monitored Bus b. This latches on for the duration specified by
// td4. The specific timer pseudo code is not shown here, but Group2Timer will be used to keep track of this.

## VoltMeasBusb = Voltage at Monitored Bus b

If (VoltMeas < uv3) and (Group2Timer < td4) Then Begin
If (Group2Timer > td1) and (not Group2Loop1Done) Then Begin
Check Group 2 Switching
Group2Loop1Done = True
// Continue doing Check Group 2 Switching for td5 until some switching done
End
If (Group2Timer > td2) and (not Group2Loop2Done) Then Begin
Check Group 2 Switching
Group2Loop2Done = True
// Continue doing Check Group 2 Switching for td5 until some switching done
End
If (Group2Timer > td3) and (not Group2Loop3Done) Then Begin
Check Group 2 Switching
Group2Loop3Done = True
// Continue doing Check Group 2 Switching for td5 until some switching done
End
End
Else If (Group2Timer > td4) Then Begin
Reset Group 2 Timers
Reset Group 2 Loop Trackers
End
Switched Shunt MSC1

## Tin1 Time 1 for Switching in (sec.)

Vmin1 Voltage lower limit 1 (p.u.)
Tout1 Time 1 for Switching out (sec.)
Vmax1 Voltage upper limit 1 (p.u.)
Tin2 Time 1 for Switching in (sec.)
Vmin2 Voltage lower limit 1 (p.u.)
Tout2 Time 1 for Switching out (sec.)
Vmax2 Voltage upper limit 1 (p.u.)
Tlck Lock out time (sec.)

## Model supported by PSLF

Switched Shunt SVSMO1

## Static Var System Model SVSMO1

Vrmax

Berr
BSVC(MVAr) - 𝐾𝑖𝑖 Vsched Over Voltage Strategy,
�⬚ 𝐾𝑝𝑝 �⬚
Under Voltage Strategy and
𝑠 + +
+ Bref Short-Term Rating
4 Vrefmin
Bref Vrmin 1
B Control Vrefmax
Logic
Vref Bmax
Vcomp Vemax
Vbus 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑐1 Vr 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑐2 𝐾𝑖𝑖 1 Bsvc (p.u.)
-
+ �⬚ �⬚ 𝐾𝑝𝑝
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑏1 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑏2 𝑠 1 + 𝑠𝑇2
+ + Vemin
1 5 Bmin 2 3
1 Vsig
Non-Linear Control
Slope Logic (Optional)

SVC over
ISVC
and under
voltage π
tripping
function
MSS Switching MSS1
Logic Based on B States:
MSS8 1 – Vbus Sensed
2 – Regulated B PI
3 – PI Delay
4 – Regulated Slow B PI
5 – Verr LL
Model supported by PSLF
Switched Shunt SVSMO2

## Static Var System Model SVSMO2

Vrmax

Berr
BSVC(MVAr) - 𝐾𝑖𝑖 Vsched Over Voltage Strategy,
�⬚ 𝐾𝑝𝑝 �⬚
Under Voltage Strategy and
𝑠 + +
+ Bref Short-Term Rating
4 Vrefmin
Bref Vrmin 1
B Control Vrefmax
Logic
Vref Bmax
Vcomp Vemax
Bsvc (p.u.)
Vbus 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑐1 Vr
- -dbe 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑐2 𝐾𝑖𝑖 -dbe Look-up 1
+ �⬚ �⬚ 𝐾𝑝𝑝
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑏1 dbe 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑏2 𝑠 dbe Table 1 + 𝑠𝑇2
+ + Vemin
1 5 Bmin 2 3
1 Vsig 3
Linear or
Non-Linear
Slope Logic

SVC over
ISVC
and under
voltage π
tripping
function
MSS Switching MSS1
Logic Based on B States:
MSS8 1 – Vbus Sensed
2 – Regulated B PI
3 – PI Delay
4 – Regulated Slow B PI
5 – Verr LL
Model supported by PSLF
Switched Shunt SVSMO3

## Static Var System Model SVSMO3

Vrmax
flag1 = 0
- 𝐾𝑖𝑖 0 Vsched
�⬚ 𝐾𝑝𝑝 �⬚
flag1 = 1
𝑠 + +
+ Bref flag1 = 1 I2t Limit
(close)
Idbd 4 Vrefmin
flag1 = 0 Vrmin 1
(open)
Vrefmax
-Idbd
Vsig Vref Imax
dbd > 0: open
Vbus + + Vemax
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑐1 dbd = 0: close Vr 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑐2 𝐾𝑖𝑖 1 It (p.u.)
-
+ �⬚ 𝐾𝑝𝑝
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑏1 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑏2 𝑠 1 + 𝑠𝑇2
- Vemin
1 dbd 5 2 3
Imin
Logic
0 Xco
dbd > 0: open flag2 𝑋𝑋1 𝑖𝑖 𝑉𝑉 ≥ 𝑉1
dbd = 0: close
1 𝑋𝑋 = � 𝑋𝑋2 𝑖𝑖 𝑉2 < 𝑉𝑉 < 𝑉1
STATCOM 𝑋𝑋3 𝑖𝑖 𝑉𝑉 ≤ 𝑉2
over and
under
voltage
tripping
function MSS Switching MSS1
Logic Based on Q States:
MSS8 1 – Vbus Sensed
2 – Regulated I PI
3 – PI Delay
4 – Regulated Slow Control PI
5 – Verr LL
Model supported by PSLF
Switched Shunt SWSHNT

## Switched Shunt SWSHNT

Ib Remote Bus
NS Total number of switches allowed
VIN High voltage limit
PT Pickup time for high voltage in sec.
ST Switch time to close if reactor or switch time to open if capacitor in sec.
VIN Low voltage limit
PT Pickup time for low voltage in sec.
ST Switch time to close if reactor or switch time to open if capacitor in sec.

## Model supported by PSEE

Stabilizer BPA SF, BPA SP, BPA SS, and BPA SG

## Stabilizer BPA SF, BPA SP, BPA SS, and BPA SG

Stabilizer Models

 K QV 2
 VT =VTO − VT
 1+sTQV
 3 4 5 6
 − ' ' '
CHOICE OF  sTQ 1+sT 1+sT 1+sT
INPUT SIGNALS
e ts K QS + Σ 1+sTQ1
Q1 Q2

1+sTQ2
Q3

1+sTQ3
 +
1+sTQ

 SHAFT SLIP, K QS
 ∆ FREQ. OR
 ACCEL. POWER 1+sTQS ∆VT
 1

## If VCUTOFF ≤ 0.0, then VS =VS' VSMAX

If VCUTOFF >0.0, then
VS'
VS =V if ∆VT ≤ VCUTOFF
'
S
VST

## VS =0.0 if ∆VT >VCUTOFF

States ∆VT =VTO − VT VSMIN
1 - K QS ZERO

2 - K QV
3 - TQ
4 - TQ1
5 - TQ2
6 - TQ3
Model in the public domain, available from BPA
Stabilizer BPA SH, BPA SHPLUS, and BPA SI

## Stabilizer BPA SH, BPA SHPLUS, and BPA SI

Stabilizer Models

## No block diagrams have been created

Stabilizer IEE2ST

Stabilizer IEE2ST
IEEE Stabilizing Model with Dual-Input Signals

K1 1
Input Signal #1
1+sT1
3 4 5
+
sT3 1+sT5 1+sT7
Σ 1+sT4 1+sT6 1+sT8
+

K2 2
Input Signal #2
1+sT2
Output Limiter
LSMAX
VS = VSS if (VCU > VCT > VCL )
1+sT9 6
VS = 0 if (VCT < VCL ) VST
1+sT10 VSS
VS = 0 if (VCT > VCU )
LSMIN

States
1 - Transducer1
2 - Transducer2
3 - Washout
4 - LL1
5 - LL2
6 - Unlimited Signal
Model supported by PSSE
Stabilizer IEEEST

Stabilizer IEEEST
IEEE Stabilizing Model

Filter
1+A 5s+A 6s 2 1+sT1 1+sT3
Input Signal
(1+A1s+A 2s 2 )(1+A 3s+A 4s 2 ) 1+sT2 1+sT4
5 6
1 2 3 4

Output Limiter
LSMAX
VS = VSS if (VCU > VCT > VCL )
sT5 7
KS VS = 0 if (VCT < VCL ) VST
1+sT6 VSS
VS = 0 if (VCT > VCU )
LSMIN

States
1 - Filter 1
2 - Filter 2
3 - Filter 3
4 - Filter Out
5 - LL1
6 - LL2
7 - Unlimited Signal
Model supported by PSLF with time delay that is not implemented in Simulator
Model supported by PSSE
Stabilizer PFQRG

Stabilizer PFQRG
Power-Sensitive Stabilizing Unit

Reactive
Power

## J=1 MAX To Voltage

+ 1
Regulator
KI
Σ KP +
s
VST
+
J=0 Supplementary
-MAX Signal
Reference Signal,
Power Reactive power or
Factor Power Factor

States
1 - PI
Model supported by PSLF
Stabilizer PSS1A

Stabilizer PSS1A
Single-Input Stabilizer Model

Filter
1 sT5 1
Input Signal KS
1 + sT6 1+sT6 1 + A1 s+A2 s 2

Output Limiter
LSMAX If (Vcu and (Vct > Vcu))
VST = 0.0
1+sT1 1+sT3 Vllout If (Vcl and (Vct < Vcu)) VST
1+sT2 1+sT4 VST = 0.0
LSMIN Else
VST = Vllout

Model supported by PSLF with time delay that is not implemented in Simulator
Model supported by PSSE
Stabilizer PSS2A

Stabilizer PSS2A
IEEE Dual-Input Stabilizer Model

1 2 3 7 8
Input Signal #1 sTW1 sTW2 1  1+sT8 
N
+ 1+sT1 1+sT3
1+sTW1 1+sTW2 1+sT6
+
Σ  M  Σ K S1
1+sT2 1+sT4
+  (1+sT9 )  −
9 − 18
K S3 K S4 VSTMAX
A+sTA 19
4 5 6
1+sTB VST
Input Signal #2 sTW3 sTW4 K S2
VSTMIN
1+sTW3 1+sTW4 1+sT7

States
1 - WOTW1 11 - RampFilter3
2 - WOTW2 12 - RampFilter4
3 - Transducer1 13 - RampFilter5
4 - WOTW3 14 - RampFilter6
5 - WOTW4 15 - RampFilter7
6 - Transducer2 16 - RampFilter8
7 - LL1 17 - RampFilter9
8 - LL2 18 - RampFilter10
9 - RampFilter1 19 - LLGEOnly
10 - RampFilter2
Model supported by PSLF
Model supported by PSSE without TA ,TB lead/lag block and with K S4 = 1
Stabilizer PSS2B

Stabilizer PSS2B
IEEE Dual-Input Stabilizer Model

1 2 3 7 8 20
VS1MAX
N
VS1 sTW1 sTW2 1 +  1+sT8  + 1+sT1 1+sT3 1+sT10
1+sTW1 Σ  M  Σ K S1
1+sT2 1+sT4 1+sT11
1+sTW2 1+sT6  (1+sT9 )  −
+
VS1MIN 9 − 18
K S3 K S4 VSTMAX
A+sTA 19
VS2MAX 4 5 6
1+sTB VST
VS2 sTW3 sTW4 K S2
1+sTW3 1+sTW4 1+sT7 VSTMIN
VS2MIN
States
1 - WOTW1 11 - RampFilter3
2 - WOTW2 12 - RampFilter4
3 - Transducer1 13 - RampFilter5
4 - WOTW3 14 - RampFilter6
5 - WOTW4 15 - RampFilter7
6 - Transducer2 16 - RampFilter8
7 - LL1 17 - RampFilter9
8 - LL2 18 - RampFilter10
9 - RampFilter1 19 - LLGEOnly
10 - RampFilter2 20 - LL3
Model supported by PSLF
Model supported by PSSE without TA ,TB lead/lag block and with K S4 = 1
Stabilizer PSS3B

Stabilizer PSS3B
IEEE (2005) Dual-Input Stabilizer Model

33
Input 1 1 𝑠𝑇𝑤1
Ks1
13 1 + 𝑠𝑇2 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑤1

+ Vstma
𝑠𝑇𝑤3 1 + 𝐴1 𝑠 + 𝐴2 𝑠 2
1 + 𝐴1 𝑠 + 𝐴2 𝑠 2 Vs

1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑤3 1 + 𝐴3 𝑠 + 𝐴4 𝑠 2 1 + 𝐴3 𝑠 + 𝐴4 𝑠 2
+ Vstmi
53
66 73 83
93
Input 2 1 𝑠𝑇𝑤2
Ks2
1 + 𝑠𝑇2 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑤2
23 43

States:
1 – Input 1
2 – Input 2
3 – Washout 1
4 – Washout 2
5 – Washout 3
6 – Filter 1 Internal
7 – Filter 1 Output
8 – Filter 2 Internal
9 – Filter 2 Output

## Model supported by PSLF

Stabilizer PSSSB

Stabilizer PSSSB
IEEE PSS2A Dual-Input Stabilizer Plus Voltage Boost Signal
Transient Stabilizer and Vcutoff

1 2 3 7 8
N +
Input 1 sTW1 sTW2 1 +  1+sT8  1+sT1 1+sT3 ΔVT =VT0 -VT
1+sTW1 1+sTW2 1+sT6 Σ  M  Σ K S1
1+sT2 1+sT4
+  (1+sT9 )  − VSTMAX
9 − 18 ΔVT >Vcutoff
K S3 K S4
0
4 5 6
VSTMIN
+
K S2 ≤0
Σ
Input 2 sTW3 sTW4
VST
1+sTW3 1+sTW4 1+sT7 +
19 20 Vcutoff
Vtl
States
1 sTd2
1 - WOTW1 11 - RampFilter3 1+sTd1 1+sTd2
0
2 - WOTW2 12 - RampFilter4
3 - Transducer1 13 - RampFilter5 0
1
4 - WOTW3 14 - RampFilter6 VK
5 - WOTW4 15 - RampFilter7
Sw1
6 - Transducer2 16 - RampFilter8
7 - LL1 17 - RampFilter9
8 - LL2 18 - RampFilter10
9 - RampFilter1 19 - TransducerTEB
10 - RampFilter2 20 - WOTEB
Model supported by PSLF
Stabilizer PSSSH

Stabilizer PSSSH
Model for Siemens “H Infinity” Stabilizer

Vsmax
� � � � K
+ + + +
Vs
+ + + + Vsmin
Pe 1 K0 K1 K2 K3 K4
1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑑
13 +
- 1 1 1 1

𝑠𝑇1 𝑠𝑇2 𝑠𝑇3 𝑠𝑇4
-
23 + 33 + 43 + 53
+ + +
� � �

States:
1 – Pe
2 – Int1
3 – Int2
4 – Int3
5 – Int4

## Model supported by PSLF

Stabilizer PTIST1

Stabilizer PTIST1
PTI Microprocessor-Based Stabilizer

+ Tap +
Δω +
π
Ms P'M K(1+sT1 )(1+sT3 ) −
1+sTF Σ Σ (1+sT2 )(1 + sT4 )
Selection Σ VST
+ − Table
Et
1
Pe on machine MVA base
1+sTP

## Model supported by PSSE but not yet implemented in Simulator

Stabilizer PTIST3

Stabilizer PTIST3
PTI Microprocessor-Based Stabilizer

## Δω Ms + P'M + K(1+sT1 )(1+sT3 ) 1+sT5 (A 0 +A1s+A 2s 2 )(A 3 +A 4s+A 5s 2 )

1+sTF Σ Σ (1+sT2 )(1 + sT4 ) 1+sT6 (B0 +B1s+B2s 2 )(B3 +B4s+B5s 2 )
+ −

1
Pe on machine MVA base
1+sTP
1 Et
DL
Tap +
Switch = 0
Selection −
Σ π
Table
− DL
Averaging Limit VST
Function Function AL

Switch = 1
− AL

## Model supported by PSSE but not yet implemented in Simulator

Stabilizer ST2CUT

Stabilizer ST2CUT
Stabilizing Model with Dual-Input Signals

1
Input Signal #1 K1
1+sT1
3 4 5 6
+
sT3 1+sT5 1+sT7 1+sT9
Σ 1+sT4 1+sT6 1+sT8 1+sT10
+

Input Signal #2 K2
1+sT2
2 Output Limiter
LSMAX
VS = VSS if (VCU +VTO >VT >VCL +VTO )
VS = 0 if (VT < VTO +VCL ) VST
VSS
LSMIN VS = 0 if (VCT > VTO +VCU )

## VTO = initial terminal voltage

VT = terminal voltage
States
1 - Transducer1
2 - Transducer2
3 - Washout
4 - LL1
5 - LL2
6 - Unlimited Signal
Model supported by PSSE
Stabilizer STAB1

Stabilizer STAB1
Speed-Sensitive Stabilizing Model

H LIM
1 1+sT1 2 1+sT2 3
Ks
Speed (pu) VST
1+sT 1+sT3 1+sT4
-H LIM

States
1 - Washout
Model supported by PSSE
Stabilizer STAB2A

Stabilizer STAB2A
Power-Sensitive Stabilizing Unit

K3 4
1+sT3 H LIM
+ 2
 K5 
3
 K sT 
Pe on machine − 2 2  Σ   VST
MVA base  1+sT2  + 1+sT5 
− -H LIM
1 − 3 K4 5 6

States
1 - Input State 1
2 - Input State 2
3 - Input State 3
4 - T3
5 - Output State 1
6 - Output State 2
Model supported by PSSE
Stabilizer STAB3

Stabilizer STAB3
Power-Sensitive Stabilizing Unit

Pref
VLIM
1 −
1 1 2 -sK X 3
Pe on machine
MVA base 1+sTt +
Σ 1+sTX1 1+sTX2
VST

-VLIM

States
1 - Int Tt
2 - Int TX1
3 - Unlimited Signal
Model supported by PSSE
Stabilizer STAB4

Stabilizer STAB4
Power-Sensitive Stabilizer

Pref 3
2 4 5 6
L2

1 1 sK X 1+sTa 1+sTb 1 1
Pe on machine
MVA base 1+sTt +
Σ 1+sTX2 1+sTX1 1+sTc 1+sTd 1+sTe
VST

L1

States
1 - Input
2 - Reset
3 - LL1
4 - LL2
5 - Td
6 - Unlimited Signal
Model supported by PSSE
Stabilizer STBSVC

Stabilizer STBSVC
WECC Supplementary Signal for Static var Compensator

1 2

## Input Signal #1 K S1 1+sTS8

1+sTS7 1+sTS9
5 VSCS
+
sTS13
Σ K S3
1+sTS14
K S3 VST
+
3 4 -VSCS
Input Signal #2 K S2 1+sTS11
1+sTS10 1+sTS12

States
1 - Transducer1
2 - LL1
3 - Transducer2
4 - LL2
5 - Washout
Model supported by PSSE
Stabilizer WSCCST
Stabilizer WSCCST
WSCC Power System Stabilizer
VT0
States

VT +
K qv 1 1 - Transducer1
Σ 1+sTqv 2 - Transducer2
3 - WashoutTq
+
k 1 sT2 Vs' 4 - LL1
f(U)
1+sT1 1+sT2
+
Σ K qs +
Σ 5 - LL2
+
6 - LL3
Kt
signal j
−−−−−− −
1 2 sT3 s U
speed 1
accpw 2 1+sTqs 1+sT3 1+sT4

Σ
freq 3 +

ΔVT >Vcutoff
VSMAX 0

## sTq 3 1+sTq1' 4 1+sTq2' 5 1+sTq3' 6

+ ≤0
1+sTq 1+sTq1 1+sTq2 1+sTq3 Σ VS
+
VSLOW Vcutoff

0
Vtl
1 1 sTd2
VK
1+sTd1 1+sTd2
Model supported by PSLF Sw1
Blocks in gray have not been implemented in Simulator
Stabilizer WT12A1 and WT1P

## Stabilizer WT12A1 and WT1P

Pseudo Governor Model for Type 1 and Type 2 Wind Turbines

Speed
KP
PI MAX
− + 3 4
ωref + 1 1
Σ Σ 1+sT1 1+sT2
Pmech
+ +
PI MIN
1 1
1 KI
Pgen
1+sTPE − Σ K droop s 2
+

Pref

States
1 - Pgen
2 - KI
3 - T1
4 - Pmech
1
WT12A1 supported by PSSE with K I =
TI
WT1P supported by PSLF
Stabilizer WT1P and WT12A1

## WT1P is the same as WT12A1. See WT12A documentation

Stabilizer WT1P_B

Stabilizer WT2P

## Stabilizer Model WT2P

PI MAX
Pmech
+ − 𝐾𝑖 1 1
ω Σ Kw Σ 𝐾𝑝 +
𝑠 1 + 𝑠𝑇1 1 + 𝑠𝑇2
(sent to
WT2T
− +
model)

ωref PI MIN

1 −
Pgen 1 + 𝑠𝑇𝑝𝑒 Σ Kdroop
+

Pref

## Model supported by PSLF

Stabilizer WT3P and WT3P1

## Stabilizer WT3P and WT3P1

Pitch Control Model for Type 3 Wind Generator

## Theta MAX Theta MAX

RTheta MAX
2 + 1 1
+ +
Σ Σ Σ
K
ω K PP + IP Pitch
s sTP
− + −
-RTheta MAX
ωref Theta MIN Theta MIN

+ K IC 3
PORD Σ K PC +
s

Pset 0

States
1 - Pitch
2 - PitchControl
3 - PitchComp
WT3P supported by PSLF
TP =TPI , Theta MAX =PI MAX , Theta MIN =PI MIN , and RTheta MAX = PI RATE
WT3P1 supported by PSSE with no non-windup limits on pitch control
Stabilizer WTGPT_A