Está en la página 1de 15

Lesson One: Prediction

 Cognados
 Técnica de lectura ‘’Guessing meaning’'. Usar el contexto para adivinar el
significado de las palabras.
 Uso del diccionario.

Lesson Two: Skimming

 Relative pronouns
 Reading technique ‘’Skimming’’

Lesson Three: Scanning

 Identificar el tema o tópico de una lectura

 Identificar la idea principal
 Identificar palabras claves (Ignorar palabras
que no lo son).

Lesson Four: Skimming

 Nombres compuestos y/o frases nominales

 Tema o tópico
 Idea principal

Lesson Five: Resumen

 Aplicación de las técnicas de lectura para realizar resumen

#1 Guessing meaning

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Estas palabras son muy parecidas en nuestro idioma

pero tienen un sentido distinto y en ocasiones con
Uso de cognados sentido opuesto.
Cuántas veces no hemos escuchado, escrito o dicho:
―I actually work and study.‖ queriendo expresar
―Actualmente estudio y trabajo‖… pero ¿estás
seguro que es la traducción correcta?

En inglés existen muchas palabras que suenan y se

escriben casi igual que en español, pero
¡cuidado! —no tienen el mismo significado, son
―falsos amigos‖ o false cognates (falsos cognados).
Se les llama ―false cognates‖ a las palabras en
inglés que por la forma en la que se escriben o se
pronuncian, se parecen mucho a una palabra en
español, pero en realidad el significado es diferente.
Los cognados son palabras que comparten Volviendo a nuestro ejemplo:
significado, ortografía y pronunciación similares en I actually work and study.
dos idiomas. 30% a 40% de todas las palabras en
inglés tienen una palabra relacionada en español.  Actually – Se parece a la palabra actualmente;
Para los hablantes de español, los cognados son un sin embargo, significa in reality o really(en
puente evidente al idioma inglés. realidad o realmente).
Los falsos cognados o falsos amigos reconocen un  Actualmente se traduce como currently.
origen común el latín pero evolucionaron con Por lo que, si quieres expresar: ―Actualmente
significado determinado en inglés y con otro parcial estudio y trabajo.‖ la forma correcta es:
o totalmente diferente en castellano. I currently work and study.

Ejercicio I Ejercicio II
a) Lee el siguiente texto y subraya odas las c) Lee los siguientes enunciados
palabras que son cognados 1. The emergency exit of the restaurant is
next of the parking area.
Recycling 2. Rose’ surprise party was a success, she
never imagined it
Recycling involves processing used materials into 3. I enjoy having dinner with my family.
news products, it helps to reduce the consumption of Sometime we go to a restaurant, but
fresh material, reduce energy usage, reduce air and regularly we have dinner at home.
water contamination. Recyclable materials include, Intenta leerlas de Nuevo con las palabras
glass, paper, metal, textiles, electronics (cell phone, a que se aparecen en español
computers) and plastic. Exit = éxito
b) Vuelve a leer el texto. Extrae cognados los Success = suceso
presentes. Escribe su significado en español Dinner = dinero

emigrate- (v) to move permanently from one's

country to another.
dry goods- (n) clothing, fabric, and other items to
miner- (n) a person who searches for gold,
diamonds, etc.
durable- (adj) last a long time
fabric- (n) material for clothing, curtains, etc.
tailor- (n) a person who sews clothing
rivet- (n) (v) a metal piece that holds 2 thing
together. (You can see the metal on Levi's jeans)
patent- (n) (v) an inventor's right to be the only
one making or selling a product
Levi's Blue Jeans think it over- (v) think about it, decide

Do you enjoy wearing Levi's blue jeans? Blue jeans have become popular all over the
world, but do you know how they got started?
Read on to find out...

Levi Strauss was born in Germany in the mid 1800's and emigrated to the United States as a young man. He
lived in New York City and learned the dry-goods business for several years. In 1853 he took his knowledge
and his dreams to San Francisco (California., USA.) His dream to succeed came true over the next 20 years
as he became a very successful businessman.

Many of Levi Strauss' customers were cowboys and miners. They needed clothing that was strong and
durable. Strauss found a special fabric from France that was comfortable and lasted a long time. It was called
"serge de Nimes," which was later shortened to the word denim.

Another man named Jacob Davis bought large amounts of the denim fabric from Levi Strauss. He was a
tailor who made pants for hard-working men. One of his customers was continually tearing the pockets off
his pants. So Jacob Davis decided to put rivets on certain parts of the pants to make them stronger. The
customer loved the new pants so much that he told all his friends, and soon Jacob Davis was busy making
lots of pants with rivets.

Jacob Davis soon realized that using rivets was a great business idea, and he didn't want anybody to steal that
idea. He decided that he would need to get a patent. But being a poor tailor, he didn't have enough money to
pay for the patent. After thinking it over, he went to the businessman Levi Strauss and told him his idea. He
said, "If you agree to pay for the patent, we will share the profits from the riveted pants." Levi Strauss did
agree, and the new riveted pant business was called Levi Strauss and Company. Today Levi's jeans are more
popular than ever, and Levi's name continues to live on.
#2 Reading technique: Skimming. Skimming is
reading rapidly in
order to get a
general overview of
the material
Let’s read

Skimming is taking the most important information from the page without reading all
the words. (The term comes from the act of skimming milk, when the dairy farmer skims
the cream — the richest material — from the top of the milk before it’s processed.)
Strictly speaking, skimming isn’t a reading technique but rather a scavenging technique.
You hunt for the choicest information and hope important material doesn’t pass you by.
When you speed read, you skim to the extent that you don’t fixate on all the words. In
effect, you weed out some words and focus on the remaining ones. However, skimming
takes the notion of passing by some words to another level. In the act of skimming, you
focus only on the essential ideas and skip over the insignificant, marginal, and
The first step in recognizing the essential ideas when you skim is knowing when to skim.
Some materials and situations practically require skimming:
 Needlessly lengthy white papers and convoluted business reports are almost
impossible not to skim.
 Newspapers, with their ready-made word clumps, are designed for skimming.
 If you’re on a time crunch, you often have to skim because you don’t have enough
time to read the material.
Often, a work’s opening paragraphs and the concluding paragraphs present the author’s
main ideas. Opening paragraphs often outline what the author plans to prove, and
closing paragraphs explain why the author’s proof is justified. Read these paragraphs
closely; don’t skim them.

Exercise 1: Define skimming reading technique. Use your own words. (5 pts.)
Let’s read

Physiotherapists use physical approaches to improve people’s health. This may involve:
 Teaching people exercises to get damaged joints and muscles moving again or reduce pain.
 Giving exercise or fitness classes.
 Teaching people to walk using a walking stick, frame or crutches.
 Giving joint manipulations or massage.
 Using electrotherapy machines such as ultrasound to treat people with injuries.
 Helping people to breathe and cough more effectively.
 Advising and educating people about activity levels or about their condition.
 Advising and discussing patient care with other health professionals.
Those physiotherapists who work in hospitals work either on the wards or in the physiotherapy
department, or both. They go to each ward in turn and discuss new patients with the nurses and
medical staff. They then go around and treat their patients, sometimes on the ward and sometimes
taking them to the physiotherapy department. Other hospital physiotherapists work in the
Physiotherapy department with outpatients. They usually see one patient every half an hour. These
patients have a variety of problems such as back, neck or knee pain, ankle or hand injuries,
fractures, and arthritis. A typical day may involve a mixture of patients from children to the elderly.
Physiotherapy is a "hands on", physical career in every sense. The personal qualities needed for this
rewarding role are tolerance, patience and compassion, you will also need to be levelheaded,
practical and have good communication skills.

Exercise 2: Extract the sentences with relative pronounce. (5 points)

Exercise 3: True/False Statements. For each of the statements. Choose True or False.

1. Physiotherapy and massage are the same thing. TRUE ( ) FALSE ( )

2. Physiotherapy involves more than physical treatment. TRUE ( ) FALSE ( )
3. All physiotherapists work in hospitals. TRUE ( ) FALSE ( )
4. Hospital physiotherapists may treat both inpatients and outpatients. TRUE ( ) FALSE ( )
5. Physiotherapists who deal with children do not treat older people. TRUE ( ) FALSE ( )

Exercise 4: Cloze Complete these definitions with a word from the text. (6 pts)
1. A _________________ is a room in a hospital, usually for a particular type of patient such as
2. _____________ are long sticks with a piece that you put under your arms to help you to walk.
3. An ___________________ machine is one type of electrotherapy machine.
4. An __________________ is a patient who is not hospitalized but attends the hospital for
5. Pain, swelling, and stiffness in a joint may be caused by ____________________
6. A person who is ____________ remains rational and fully in control in difficult situations or
Exercise 5: Multiple Choice Questions. Can you answer the questions in this quiz? (4pts)

1. Which of the following treatments should NOT be given immediately after an injury, for example
an ankle sprain:
a. Protection b. Rest c. Ice d. Heat e. Elevation f. Compression

2. Muscles at the front of your thigh pass over the front of the knee joint and attach to the shinbone
at the front. If these muscles contract what movement will result at the knee joint?
a. The lower leg will bend b. The lower leg will straighten c. The lower leg will turn inward
d. The lower leg will turn outward e. The ankle will move upward

3. What name is given to the group of muscles at the front of your thigh?
a. Pectorals b. Quadriceps c. Hamstrings d. Calf muscles e. Gluteals

4. What type of treatment is NOT used by physiotherapists in the Public Health Service?

a. Weight training b. Muscle stretching c. Joint manipulations d. Reflexology

5. What type of treatment is NOT used by Public Health Service physiotherapists?

a. Breathing exercises b. Crutch walking c. Yoga d Ultrasound

#3 Reading technique: Scanning

The Scanning is reading rapidly Key

topic in order to find specific facts. word


Finding the Main Idea

How Can I Locate the Main Idea?
Once you can find the topic, you are ready to find the main idea. The main idea is the point of the paragraph.
It is the most important thought about the topic.
To figure out the main idea, ask yourself this question: What is being said about the person, thing, or idea
(the topic)?
The author can locate the main idea in different places within a paragraph. The main idea is usually a
sentence, and it is usually the first sentence. The writer then uses the rest of the paragraph to support the
main idea.

Let’s use the paragraph below as an example. First find the topic, and then look for the main idea.

Summer is a wonderful time to spend at West Beach. It is a beach with light- colored, soft sand. The
coastline goes on for a long way and many people enjoy walking along it. Children like to play in the
surf and walk along the rocks that are visible at low tide. This is a fun beach for people of all ages.

In this paragraph:
 the topic is _______________________
 the main idea (what the writer is saying about the topic) is that ___________________________

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common condition that causes pain, numbness, and tingling in the hand
and arm. The condition occurs when one of the major nerves to the hand — the median nerve — is
squeezed or compressed as it travels through the wrist.

 the topic is _______________________

 the main idea (what the writer is saying about the topic) is that ___________________________

A slipped disc occurs when the outer ring becomes weak or torn and allows the inner portion to slip out. This
can happen with age. Certain motions may also cause a slipped disc. A disc can slip out of place while you
are twisting or turning to lift an object.

 the topic is _______________________

 the main idea (what the writer is saying about the topic) is that ___________________________

Measures you can take to relieve the pain of bursitis include: Rest and don'toveruse the affected area.
Apply ice to reduce swelling for the first 48 hours after symptoms occur. Apply dry or moist heat, such as a
heating pad or taking a warm bath.

 the topic is _______________________

 the main idea (what the writer is saying about the topic) is that ___________________________

Multiple Choice: Choose the main idea of the paragraphs. Remember to make sure the main idea is covers the
entire paragraph, not just one sentence.

1. Farmers in Japan have a problem. There is not much land to farm, and there are many people to feed.
Some farmers cut rows in the hillsides and grow crops there. This helps a little, but many kinds of
food are shipped to Japan. They can choose anything they want to eat! (4 points)

a. There is little land to farm in Japan; so many kinds of food are shipped to Japan.
b. Growing food on the hillside in Japan is hard work.
c. The Japanese like getting food from different countries.
2. Babies use both hands. But babies use one hand more than the other. This hand may become the
preferred one. How can you tell? Lay a baby on its back. Notice which side the baby faces. If the baby
looks to the right most of the time, it will probably be right-handed. What does it mean if the baby
faces left more often? The baby will most likely be left-handed. (4 points)
a. how to tell right- from left-handed babies
b. that babies use their hands for many things
c. that there are more left-handed babies
3. Were you born after 1985? If so, how long do you expect to live? Most people born after 1985 can
expect to live more than 70 years. Of course, this is just a guess based on past records. By the way,
females can expect to live about six years longer than males. That’s taken from past records
too! (4 points)
a. why people live to be 70
b. how long you might expect to live
c. about the health of females
4. Goldilocks had nothing to do. Her friends were busy, so she decided to take a walk in the woods
alone. She noticed a house. She knew it was a stranger’s house, but she still entered. There was not
anyone home; therefore, she decided to eat some food and take a nap in the stranger’s home. (4 points)
a. Walking can be an adventure
b. Goldilocks didn't follow safety procedures.
c. It is okay to do the wrong things as long as it isn't hurting anybody
5. Do you ever wonder how you taste things? You owe your sense of taste to your taste buds. We have
nine thousand taste buds just on the tongue alone. There are also taste buds on the roof of your mouth.
You even have taste buds on the back of your throat. (4 points)
a. why we can taste only sweet things
b. that we taste through our nose
c. where taste buds are found
#4 Reading technique: Scanning

Compound nouns Noun phrases

Noun or pronoun, which is called the
head, and any dependent words
before or after the head. which are
sometimes one word like toothpast or two
word joint by a hyphen (sister-in-low)

Let’s read the following text.

Exercise 1 : Extract noun compounds and noun phrases present in the text and translate each of them
Exercise 2: Choose the topic of each paragraphs
Exercise 3: Choose the main idea of each paragraphs

Let’s read

Physical Therapist's Guide to Knee Pain 1. What is Knee Pain?

2. How Does it Feel?
Knee pain can be caused by disease or injury. Among American adults,
3. How Is It Diagnosed?
approximately 25% have experienced knee pain affecting the function of
the knee. The prevalence of knee pain has increased over the past 20 years, 4. How Can a Physical Therapist
with osteoarthritis being the most common cause in individuals over the age
5. How Can a Physical Therapist
of 50. Knee pain that is caused by injury is most often associated with knee
Help Before & After Surgery?
cartilage tears. Knee injuries can occur as the result of a direct blow or
6. Can this Injury or Condition
sudden movement that strains the knee beyond its normal range of
be Prevented?
movement. Knee pain can cause difficulty performing activities such as
7. Real Life Experiences
walking, rising from a chair, climbing stairs, or playing sports. Physical
8. What Kind of Physical
therapists are specially trained to help diagnose and treat knee pain, and
help individuals return to their normal activities without pain or limitation. Therapist Do I Need?

What is Knee Pain?

The knee joint is a hinge joint that connects the tibia (shin bone), and the femur (thigh bone) at the patella
(knee cap). There are 4 main ligaments that support the knee joint. They are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL);
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); medial collateral ligament (MCL); and lateral collateral ligament (LCL). There
are also 2 rings of cartilage that act as shock absorbers in the knee, called the medial and lateral meniscus.
The most common cause of knee pain is osteoarthritis, a condition that occurs when the cartilage that protects
the inside surfaces of the tibia and femur bones called articular cartilage gradually wears away, resulting in pain
and swelling in the knee.
How Does it Feel?
Knee pain can occur suddenly for no apparent reason or develop slowly, as the result of repetitive trauma.
Knee pain occurs in different parts of the knee, depending on what structures in the knee are involved. Below
is a general breakdown of the areas in which knee pain may occur and the structures of the knee that may be

 Anterior knee pain, also referred to as  Pain caused by a ligament tear may result
patellofemoral pain, is pain around the kneecap from a direct blow to the knee, or when twisting
(patella) in front of the knee, caused when the or pivoting the knee while the foot is planted on
kneecap shifts out of position. This condition the ground. Immediate pain and swelling usually
commonly affects younger females, and may be occur, and the knee may feel unstable—like it
due to overuse injury. Pain often occurs when will "give out"—when an individual attempts to
performing activities like squats or stair- put weight on the involved leg.

 Lateral knee pain is pain that occurs on the  Pain caused by osteoarthritis may occur
outside of the knee. It is a type of overuse injury anywhere in the knee where cartilage has broken
that commonly occurs in runners when the down. This type of knee pain may begin as mild
tendon called the iliotibial band (ITB) becomes and progressively worsen. It can become
irritated. Pain is often felt when performing increasingly difficult to walk long distances,
activities such as climbing stairs, or when fully bend and straighten the knee, climb stairs,
walking or running. or squat to sit in a chair. The knee also may
swell intermittently with increased activity.

 Medial knee pain is pain that occurs along the inside of the knee when the MCL or the
medial meniscus become irritated due to direct injury or overuse. Pain is felt when squatting,
walking up or down an incline, or going down stairs.

How Is It Diagnosed?
Your physical therapist will make a diagnosis based on your symptoms, medical history, and a thorough
examination. Your physician may order an X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to complete the

Your physical therapist will perform an evaluation that will start with discussing your medical history and
your symptoms. Your therapist will ask questions to determine where your pain is located, if you sustained
any trauma or injury to the knee, and what functional daily activities are painful or difficult for you to
perform. Your physical therapist will perform tests to find out if you have:

 Limited range of motion in the knee.

 Pain in the knee with certain movements.
 Weakness in the muscles around your hip, knee, or ankle.
 Limited flexibility in your hip, knee, or ankle.
 Difficulty walking.
 Difficulty performing activities, such as rising from a chair or climbing stairs.
 Problems with your balance or coordination.
 Difficulty controlling the knee during certain activities.
 Difficulty performing specific sports activities (for athletes).

How Can a Physical Therapist Help?

Based on the findings of your evaluation, your physical therapist will develop a customized rehabilitation
program to ensure a safe return to your desired activities. Some general treatment techniques may include:

 Pain management. Your physical therapist may provide treatments using different "modalities"
such as ice, heat, ultrasound, or electrical stimulation to help decrease pain and swelling.
 Manual therapy. Your therapist will apply manual (hands-on) therapy to gently guide movement of
the knee area to restore joint and tissue mobility.
 Therapeutic exercises. Your physical therapist will prescribe specific strengthening, flexibility, and
endurance exercises to address your specific needs and goals.
 Functional exercises. You will learn individualized exercises designed to help you return to your
home, work, and sport activities. These also may include balance and coordination exercises.
 Self-care instruction. Your physical therapist will teach you ways to manage your pain at home,
and design a safe and effective home-exercise program based on your specific condition, which you
can continue long after your formal physical therapy sessions have ended. You also will learn how to
avoid placing unnecessary forces on the knee during your daily activities for years to come.

How Can a Physical Therapist Help Before & After Surgery?

Your physical therapist, in consultation with your surgeon, will be able to tell you how much activity you
can do depending on the type of knee surgery (such as total knee replacement) you undergo. Your therapist
and surgeon also might have you participate in physical therapy prior to surgery to increase your strength and
motion. This can sometimes help with recovery after surgery.

Following surgery, your physical therapist will design a personalized rehabilitation program for you and help
you gain the strength, movement, and endurance you need to return to performing the daily activities you did

Can this Injury or Condition be Prevented?

To help reduce knee pain, it is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, perform regular safe exercise, get
adequate rest, and eat healthy foods. Weight management is important for maintaining healthy knee function,
as increased body weight puts extra pressure on all the joints, including the knees. Ideally, individuals of all
ages should regularly perform some form of flexibility, strength, and heart-conditioning exercises.

It also is important for athletes to perform appropriate warm-up exercises and stretches on a daily basis and
before beginning physical activity.

CAUTION: If any exercise or activity provokes knee pain, seek professional help before the symptoms

Real Life Experiences

Monica is a healthy, active, 56-year-old woman who strives to eat right, maintain her weight, and exercise
daily. A few weeks ago when Monica was dismounting from her exercise cycle at home, she lost her balance
and twisted her right knee. She felt a sharp pain along the inside of the knee. The pain increased when she
put weight on her right leg. In what seemed like just a few minutes, she noticed swelling in the knee area.
The next morning, her pain felt worse. She had trouble walking and getting through her workday. She called
her doctor, who recommended that she see her physical therapist.

Monica's physical therapist performed a thorough evaluation of her right knee. She found that Monica had
tenderness over the medial joint line, on the inside of the knee between the femur and tibia. Monica also had
some mild swelling, occasional locking of the knee, and difficulty squatting. Her physical therapist
diagnosed medial knee pain, and conducted special tests that indicated Monica may have torn her medial

To verify the diagnosis, she consulted with Monica’s physician, and X-rays were ordered. Monica was
relieved to learn that the X-rays showed no broken bones. Her physician agreed with the diagnosis,
determined that surgery was not necessary, and recommended a course of physical therapy.

Monica's physical therapist designed an individualized treatment plan that began with manual therapy
techniques to help decrease her knee pain, and reduce any swelling in the area.

She taught Monica how to apply ice to manage her pain and swelling at home. In further sessions, as
Monica's pain lessened, her physical therapist taught her exercises to increase her knee motion and,
eventually, to strengthen the muscles around the knee and hip.
As she continued to improve, Monica learned functional exercises to help her return to her active lifestyle,
including stair-climbing exercises, squats, and lunges. Her physical therapist also taught her a comprehensive
home-exercise program to continue long after her formal treatment was completed.

At her final physical therapy session, Monica reported that she was pain-free, and had resumed all her
activities at home without difficulty. Her physical therapist concluded that her medial meniscus had healed,
and that no further treatment was necessary. Monica noted that she felt even stronger than she had before her
injury, due to the variety of new exercises she was performing.

Just today, Monica began to train for a 5K walk with her friends—something that she had always wanted to

This story was based on a real-life case. Your case may be different. Your physical therapist will tailor a
treatment program to your specific case.

What Kind of Physical Therapist Do I Need?

All physical therapists are prepared through education and experience to treat knee pain. However, you may
want to consider:

 A physical therapist who is experienced in treating people with knee pain. Some physical therapists
have a practice with an orthopedic and sports medicine focus.
 A physical therapist who is a board-certified clinical specialist or who completed a residency or
fellowship in orthopedic, manual, or sports physical therapy. This therapist has advanced knowledge,
experience, and skills that may apply to your condition.
You can find physical therapists who have these and other credentials by using ―Find a PT,‖ the online tool
built by the American Physical Therapy Association to help you search for physical therapists with specific
clinical expertise in your geographic area.
General tips when you're looking for a physical therapist (or any other health care provider):

 Get recommendations from family and friends or from other health care providers.
 When you contact a physical therapy clinic for an appointment, ask about the physical therapists'
experience in helping people who have underlying knee pain.
 During your first visit with the physical therapist, be prepared to describe your symptoms in as much
detail as possible, and say what makes your symptoms worse.
#5 Reading technique: SUMmarize

También podría gustarte