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HEALTH AND ILLNESS  Emotional/physical reaction to stress

Health and Illness are highly individualized DISEASE: STAGES OF ILLNESS


perceptions. 1. Symptom Experience
 transition stage
HEALTH:  3 aspects: physical, cognitive, emotional
 A state of complete physical, mental and social well- 2. Assumption of Sick Role
being. WHO  acceptance
 Health is the ability to maintain homeostasis.  seeks advice, support for decision to give up some
WALTER CANNON activities
 Health is maintained through prevention of disease via 3. Medical Care Contact
environmental health factors. NIGHTINGALE  seeks advice to validate illness, explanation of
 Health is viewed in terms of the individual’s ability to symptom, reassurance of outcome
perform 14 components of nursing care unaided. 4. Dependent Patient Role
HENDERSON  accepts/rejects health professional’s suggestions
 Positive health symbolizes wellness, defined by the  become more passive and accepting
culture or individual. ROGERS 5. Recovery and Rehabilitation
 Health is a state and a process of being and becoming  gives up the sick role and returns to former roles and
an integrated and whole person. ROY functions
 Health is a state that is characterized by soundness or
wholeness of developed human structures. OREM DISEASE: TERMINOLOGIES
 Health is a dynamic state in the life cycle. KING a. Morbidity – condition of being diseased
 Health is reflected by the organization, interaction, b. Morbidity Rate – proportion of health to a disease
interdependence and integration of the subsystems of c. Mortality – condition of being subject to death
the behavioral system. JOHNSON d. Ecology – science of organisms as affected by factors
in their environment
WELLNESS AND WELL-BEING: e. Epidemiology – study of the patterns of health and
 Wellness is well-being. It involves engaging in disease
attitudes and behaviors that enhance the quality of life f. Susceptibility - degree of resistance the potential
and maximize personal potential. ANSPAUGH host has to the pathogen
 Well-being is a subjective perception of balance, g. Etiologic Agent – one that possesses the potential for
harmony and vitality. (LEDDY & PEPPER) producing disease/injury
 Wellness is a choice. h. Virulence – degree of pathogenicity of the invading
 Wellness is a way of life. microorganisms
 Wellness is the integration of body, mind and spirit. i. Symptomology – study of symptoms
 Wellness is the loving acceptance of one’s self. j. Syndrome – set of symptoms
k. Pathology – the branch of medicine that deals with
ILLNESS: the cause, nature and treatment, result of disease
 Illness is a personal state in which the person feels l. Pathogenesis – method and arrangement of origin
unhealthy. and development of a disease
m. Diagnosis – act of determining the nature of the
 Nurses must be more concerned with illness which
disease
may include the disease, but also the effects on
n. Sequela – the consequence that follow a disease
functioning and well-being in all dimensions.
o. Complication – a condition that occurs after an illness
p. Prognosis – prediction of the course and of the
DISEASE:
disease
 An alteration in body functions resulting in reduction of
q. Recovery – implies that a person has no observable
capacities or a shortening of the normal life span.
after effect from the illness
DISEASE: COMMON CAUSES
RISK FACTORS:
 Biologic agents
 Genetic and Physiological
 Inherited genetic defects
 Age
 Developmental defects
 Environment
 Physical agents
 Life Style
 Chemical agents
 Tissue response to irritation/injury CLASSIFICATIONS OF DISEASE (ACC. TO ETIOLOGIC
 Faulty chemical/metabolic process FACTORS):
a. Hereditary (sorry guys SELF EXPLANATORY KUNO) i. Sporadic – disease only occurs in occasional cases
b. Congenital – Effect in the development present at
birth LEVELS OF PREVENTION:
c. Metabolic – due to abnormality in the process of 1. Primary Prevention
metabolism  To encourage optimal health and to increase
d. Deficiency – result from inadequate intake of person’s resistance to illness
essential dietary factors  Health promotion
e. Traumatic – due to injuries  Specific protection
f. Allergic – abnormal response of the body to 2. Secondary Prevention
chemicals  Seeks to identify specific illness at an early stage
g. Neoplastic – abnormal growth of cells  Early diagnosis/detection/screening
h. Idiopathic – cause is unknown  Prompt treatment to limit disability
i. Degenerative – wear and tear, decrease in function 3. Tertiary Prevention
j. Iatrogenic – results from a treatment of a disease  To support client’s achievement of successful
(ginyakan ghap ini ni ma’am not sure kun api ha adaptation to known risks, optimal reconstitution,
classifications) and/or establishment of high-level wellness
k. Recovery- implies that a person has no observable or
 Rehabilitation
known signs and symptoms
l. Complication- condition that occurs after illness
PRECURSORS OF ILLNESS
m. Prognosis- prediction of a course or an end of the
 HEREDITARY
disease
 BEHAVIORAL
n. Sequela-a condition which is the consequence of a
previous disease or injury  ENVIRONMENTAL

CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASE (ACC. TO DURATION AN PRETEST KUNUHAY HAHAHA


OR ONSET): 1. Illness is subjective, while disease is objective in
a. Acute Illness nature.
ANSWER: FALSE. Illness is synonymous to disease.
 Short duration
2. Acute illness has short duration. Chronic illness is
 Symptoms appear abruptly
characterized by these.
 Subside after a short period
ANSWER: FALSE. An acute illness is characterized by
b. Chronic Illness
remissions and exacerbations.
 Ex. Hyperthyroidism 3. The theorist who advocates that health is the ability to
 Last longer than 6 months maintain dynamic equilibrium.
 Fluctuates ANSWER: B. WALTER CANON
Remission – period in which disease is controlled and 4. Health promotion activities are directed to achieve the
symptoms are not obvious following.
Exacerbation – disease becomes more active again  Increase level of wellness.
with pronounce symptoms  Improve quality of life.
c. Sub-Acute – symptoms are more pronounce but not  Rely on health care personnel. to maintain health.
longer than 6 months (ex: endocarditis)  Promote healthy lifestyle.
ANSWER: 1,2,4
OTHERS: 5. Taking ferrous sulfate for anemia.
a. Organic – results from changes in the normal ANSWER: B. SECONDARY PREVENTION
structure 6. Teaching post-stroke client on checking the temp of
b. Functional – results from abnormal responses to water for bathing.
stimuli, no anatomical changes ANSWER: C. TERTIARY PREVENTION
c. Occupational – results from factors associated with 7. Daily walking exercise among office workers.
the occupation ANSWER: A. PRIMARY PREVENTION
d. Familial – occurs individually (haguy wa nanaman ak
kahabol )
e. Venereal – acquired through sexual relation
f. Epidemic – attacks at a large number in communities
at the same time
g. Endemic – present more or less continuously, more
specific
h. Pandemic – epidemic disease that is widespread
involving in countries