Está en la página 1de 78

10

Science

PY
Teacher’s Guide
Unit 1

O
C
This book was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators
D
from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage
teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback,
comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at
E

action@deped.gov.ph.
EP

We value your feedback and recommendations.


D

Department of Education
Republic of the Philippines

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Science – Grade 10
Teacher’s Guide
First Edition 2015
Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of
the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office
wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such
agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties.
Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,
trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders.
DepEd is represented by the Filipinas Copyright Licensing Society (FILCOLS), Inc. in seeking
permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. All means have been
exhausted in seeking permission to use these materials. The publisher and authors do not
represent nor claim ownership over them.

PY
Only institutions and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS and
only within the agreed framework may copy from this Teacher’s Guide. Those who have not
entered in an agreement with FILCOLS must, if they wish to copy, contact the publishers and
authors directly.
Authors and publishers may email or contact FILCOLS at filcols@gmail.com or (02)
439-2204, respectively.

Published by the Department of Education


Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC
O
Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD
C
Development Team of the Teacher’s Guide
Authors: Herma D. Acosta, Liza A. Alvarez, Dave G. Angeles, Ruby D. Arre,
D
Ma. Pilar P. Carmona, Aurelia S. Garcia, Arlen Gatpo, Judith F. Marcaida,
Ma. Regaele A. Olarte, Marivic S. Rosales and Nilo G. Salazar.
E

Reviewers: Eligio C. Obille Jr., Marlene Ferido, Ma. Helen DH Catalan,


Vic Marie Camacho, Lilia M. Rabago and Cerilina M. Maramag
EP

Illustrators: Joseph V. Bales, Ramon C. Gatpo, Regaele A. Olarte, Marivic


S. Rosales, Ruel C. Quindoy, Antonio I. Basilla, and Jose Leo Vic O. Albaño
DepEd Specialists: Joseph R. Jacob and Maria Amparo R. Ventura
Photo Credits: Herma D. Acosta, Dave G. Angeles, Liza A. Alvarez, Ruby
D

D. Arre, Aurelia S. Garcia, Judith F. Marcaida, Regaele A. Olarte, Jane


Chavarria and Nilo G. Salazar,
Layout Artists: Joselito B. Asi and John Ralph G. Sotto

Printed in the Philippines by: REX Book Store, Inc.

Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS)


Office Address: 5th Floor Mabini Building, DepEd Complex
Meralco Avenue, Pasig City
Philippines 1600
Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072
E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com
ii

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Unit 1: Earth and Space

Introduction .............................................................................................2

Module 1: Plate Tectonics........................................................................3

Overview .......................................................................................... 3

PY
Pre-Assessment ...............................................................................4

What is Plate Tectonics?....................................................................6

Activity 1. Find the Center...........................................................7

O
Activity 2. Let’s Mark the Boundaries........................................10

Activity 3. Head-On Collision.....................................................12


C
Part A. Converging Continental Plant and Oceanic Plate...14

Part B. Convergence of Two Oceanic Plates......................14


D
Part C. Two Continental Plates Converging.....................................15
E

Activity 4. Going Separate Ways...............................................16

Activity 5. Slide and Shake........................................................18


EP

Activity 6. Drop it Like It’s “Hot Spot”.........................................19

Performance Task............................................................................20
D

Summary/Synthesis/Feedback.........................................................22

Glossary of Terms.............................................................................24

References and Links.......................................................................26

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Module 2. The Earth’s Interior...............................................................27

Overview...........................................................................................27

Answers to Pre-assessment............................................................29

Studying the Earth’s Interior.............................................................32

Activity 1. Amazing Waves!........................................................33

The Composition of the Earth’s Interior............................................34

Activity 2. Our Dynamic Earth...................................................36

PY
The Earth’s Mechanism....................................................................37

Activity 3. Let’s Fit it!.................................................................38

Activity 4. Drifted Supercontinent!.............................................38

O
Activity 5. Split and Separate!....................................................40
C
Activity 6. How fast does it go?.................................................41

Plate Tectonic Theory


D
Activity 7. Push me up and aside..............................................42

Performance Task............................................................................43
E

Summary/Synthesis/Feedback........................................................43
EP

Summative Assessment...................................................................46

Glossary of Terms.............................................................................50

References and links........................................................................51


D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 Curriculum Guide
PY
O
SCIENCE
DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue

C
Republic of the Philippines
Department of Education

(Grade 10)

December 2013
Pasig City

E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Science education aims to develop scientific literacy among learners that will prepare them to be informed and participative citizens who are able to make judgments
and decisions regarding applications of scientific knowledge that may have social, health, or environmental impacts.
D
The science curriculum recognizes the place of science and technology in everyday human affairs. It integrates science and technology in the social, economic,
personal and ethical aspects of life. The science curriculum promotes a strong link between science and technology, including indigenous technology, thus preserving our
country’s cultural heritage.
EP
The K to 12 science curriculum will provide learners with a repertoire of competencies important in the world of work and in a knowledge-based society. It envisions
the development of scientifically, technologically, and environmentally literate and productive members of society who are critical problem solvers, responsible stewards of
E
nature, innovative and creative citizens, informed decision makers, and effective communicators. This curriculum is designed around the three domains of learning science:
understanding and applying scientific knowledge in local setting as well as global context whenever possible, performing scientific processes and skills, and developing and
demonstrating scientific attitudes and values. The acquisition of these domains is facilitated using the following approaches: multi/interdisciplinary approach, science-
D
technology-society approach, contextual learning, problem/issue-based learning, and inquiry-based approach. The approaches are based on sound educational pedagogy
namely, constructivism, social cognition learning model, learning style theory, and brain-based learning.
C
Science content and science processes are intertwined in the K to 12 Curriculum. Without the content, learners will have difficulty utilizing science process skills since
these processes are best learned in context. Organizing the curriculum around situations and problems that challenge and arouse learners’ curiosity motivates them to learn
and appreciate science as relevant and useful. Rather than relying solely on textbooks, varied hands-on, minds-on, and hearts-on activities will be used to develop learners’
O
interest and let them become active learners.

As a whole, the K to 12 science curriculum is learner-centered and inquiry-based, emphasizing the use of evidence in constructing explanations. Concepts and skills in
Life Sciences, Physics, Chemistry, and Earth Sciences are presented with increasing levels of complexity from one grade level to another in spiral progression, thus paving the
way to a deeper understanding of core concepts. The integration across science topics and other disciplines will lead to a meaningful understanding of concepts and its
PY
application to real-life situations.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
Brain-based

The Conceptual Framework of Science Education


learning
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

O
Scientific, Technological and
Environmental Literacy

C Demonstrating Scientific
Attitudes and Values
Developing and
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

CORE LEARNING AREA STANDARD: (SCIENCE FOR THE ENTIRE K TO 12)

The learners demonstrate understanding of basic science concepts and application of science-inquiry skills. They exhibit scientific attitudes and values to solve
problems critically, innovate beneficial products, protect the environment and conserve resources, enhance the integrity and wellness of people, make informed
decisions, and engage in discussions of relevant issues that involve science, technology, and environment.
D
KEY STAGE STANDARDS: (STANDARDS FOR SCIENCE LEARNING AREAS FOR K-3, 4-6, 7-10 AND 11-2)

K–3 4–6 7–10 11-12


EP
At the end of Grade 10, the learners should
have developed scientific, technological, and At the end of Grade 12, the learners
At the end of Grade 3, the
At the end of Grade 6, the learners environmental literacyand can make that should have gained skills in obtaining
learners should have acquired
healthful habits and
E
should have developed the essential would lead to rational choices on issues scientific and technological information
skills of scientific inquiry – designing confronting them. Having been exposed to from varied sources about global
havedeveloped curiosity about
simple investigations, using appropriate scientific investigations related to real life, issues that have impact on the
self and their environment
using basic process skills of
D
procedure, materials and tools to gather they should recognize that the central feature country. They should have acquired
evidence, observing patterns, of an investigation is that if one variable is scientific attitudes that will allow them
observing, communicating,
determining relationships,drawing changed (while controlling all others), the to innovate and/or create products
comparing, classifying,
conclusions based on evidence, and effect of the change on another variable can useful to the community or country.
measuring, inferring and
predicting. This curiosity will
communicating ideas in varied ways to
make meaning of the observations
C
be measured. The context of the investigation They should be able to process
information to get relevant data for a
can be problems at the local or national level
help learners value science as
and/or changes that occur in the to allow them to communicate with learners problem at hand. In addition, learners
an important tool in helping
them continue to explore their
environment. The content and skills
learned will be applied to maintain good
O
in other parts of the Philippines or even from
other countries using appropriate technology.
should have made plans related to
their interests and expertise, with
natural and physical
health, ensure the protection and consideration forthe needs of their
environment. This should also The learners should demonstrate an
improvement of the environment, and community and the country — to
include developing scientific understanding of science concepts and apply
practice safety measures. pursue either employment,
knowledge or concepts. science inquiry skills in addressingreal-world entrepreneurship, or higher education.
problems through scientific investigations.
PY

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

GRADE/LEVEL Grade-Level Standards


The learners will demonstrate an emerging understanding of the parts of their body and their general functions; plants, animals and varied

Kindergarten
D
materials in their environment and their observable characteristics; general weather conditions and how these influence what they wear; and
other things in their environment. Understanding of their bodies and what is around them is acquired through exploration, questioning, and
careful observation as they infer patterns, similarities, and differences that will allow them to make sound conclusions.
At the end of Grade 1, learners will use their senses to locate and describe the external parts of their body; to identify, external parts of animals
and plants; to tell the shape, color, texture, taste, and size of things around them; to describe similarities and differences given two objects; to
differentiate sounds produced by animals, vehicles cars, and musical instruments; to illustrate how things move; to, describe the weather and
Grade 1
EP
what to do in different situations; to use appropriate terms or vocabulary to describe these features; to collect, sort, count, draw, take things
apart, or make something out of the things; to practice healthy habits (e.g., washing hands properly, choosing nutritious food) and safety
measures (e.g., helping to clean or pack away toys, asking questions and giving simple answers/ descriptions to probing questions).
E
At the end of Grade 2, learners will use their senses to explore and describe the functions of their senses, compare two or more objects and
using two or more properties , sort things in different ways and give a reason for doing so, describe the kind of weather or certain events in the
Grade 2
D
home or school and express how these are affecting them, do simple measurements of length, tell why some things around them are important ,
decide if what they do is safe or dangerous; give suggestions on how to prevent accidents at home, practice electricity, water, and paper
conservation, help take care of pets or of plants , and tell short stories about what they do, what they have seen, or what they feel.

At the end of Grade 3, learners can describe the functions of the different parts of the body and things that make up their surroundings --- rocks

Grade 3
C
and soil, plants and animals, the Sun, Moon and stars. They can also classify these things as solid, liquid or gas. They can describe how objects
move and what makes them move. They can also identify sources and describe uses of light, heat, sound, and electricity.
Learners can describe changes in the conditions of their surroundings. These would lead learners to become more curious about their
surroundings, appreciate nature, and practice health and safety measures.
O
At the end of Grade 4, learners can investigate changes in some observable properties of materials when mixed with other materials or when
force is applied on them. They can identify materials that do not decay and use this knowledge to help minimize waste at home, school, and in
the community.
Learners can describe the functions of the different internal parts of the body in order to practice ways to maintain good health. They can classify
Grade 4 plants and animals according to where they live and observe interactions among living things and their environment. They can infer that plants
and animals have traits that help them survive in their environment.
PY
Learners can investigate the effects of push or pull on the size, shape, and movement of an object.
Learners can investigate which type of soil is best for certain plants and infer the importance of water in daily activities. They learned about what

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
makes up weather and apply their knowledge of weather conditions in making decisions for the day. They can infer the importance of the Sun to
life on Earth.

electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

GRADE/LEVEL Grade-Level Standards

At the end of Grade 5, learners can decide whether materials are safe and useful by investigating about some of their properties. They can infer
D
that new materials may form when there are changes in properties due to certain conditions.
Learners have developed healthful and hygienic practices related to the reproductive system after describing changes that accompany puberty.
They can compare different modes of reproduction among plant and animal groups and conduct an investigation on pollination. They have
Grade 5 become aware of the importance of estuaries and intertidal zones and help in their preservation.
Learners can describe the movement of objects in terms of distance and time travelled. Learners recognize that different materials react
differently with heat, light, and sound. They can relate these abilities of materials to their specific uses.
EP
Learners can describe the changes that earth materials undergo. They can make emergency plans with their families in preparation for typhoons.
They can observe patterns in the natural events by observing the appearance of the Moon.
E
At the end of Grade 6, learners recognize that when mixed together, materials may not form new ones thus these materials may be recovered
using different separation techniques. They can prepare useful mixtures such as food, drinks and herbal medicines.
D
Learners understand how the different organ systems of the human body work together. They can classify plants based on reproductive
structures, and animals based on the presence or lack of backbone. They can design and conduct an investigation on plant propagation. They
can describe larger ecosystems such as rainforests, coral reefs, and mangrove swamps.
Grade 6
Learners can infer that friction and gravity affect how people and objects move. They have found out that heat, light, sound, electricity, and
motion studied earlier are forms of energy and these undergo transformation.
C
Learners can describe what happens during earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and demonstrate what to do when they occur. They can infer
that the weather follows a pattern in the course of a year. They have learned about the solar system, with emphasis on the motions of the Earth
as prerequisite to the study of seasons in another grade level.
O
PY

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

GRADE/LEVEL D Grade-Level Standards

At the end of Grade 7, learners can distinguish mixtures from substances through semi-guided investigations. They realize the importance of air
testing when conducting investigations. After studying how organ systems work together in plants and animals in the lower grade levels, learners
can use a microscope when observing very small organisms and structures. They recognize that living things are organized into different levels:
Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. These organisms comprise populations and communities, which interact with non-living
things in ecosystems.
Grade 7
Learners can describe the motion of objects in terms of distance and speed, and represent this in tables, graphs, charts, and equations. They can
EP
describe how various forms of energy travel through different mediums.
Learners describe what makes up the Philippines as a whole and the resources found in the archipelago. They can explain the occurrence of
breezes, monsoons, and ITCZ, and how these weather systems affect people. They can explain why seasons change and demonstrate how
eclipses occur.
E
At the end of Grade 8, learners can describe the factors that affect the motion of an object based on the Laws of Motion. They can differentiate
D
the concept of work as used in science and in layman’s language. They know the factors that affect the transfer of energy, such as temperature
difference, and the type (solid, liquid, or gas) of the medium.
Learners can explain how active faults generate earthquakes and how tropical cyclones originate from warm ocean waters. They recognize other
members of the solar system.
Grade 8
Learners can explain the behaviour of matter in terms of the particles it is made of. They recognize that ingredients in food and medical products
C
are made up of these particles and are absorbed by the body in the form of ions.
Learners recognize reproduction as a process of cell division resulting in growth of organisms. They have delved deeper into the process of
digestion as studied in the lower grades, giving emphasis on proper nutrition for overall wellness. They can participate in activities that protect
and conserve economically important species used for food.
O
At the end of Grade 9, learners have gained a a deeper understanding of the digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems to promote overall
health. They have become familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals. Learners
can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may arise from
such rearrangements.
PY
Grade 9
Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen
only at certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

GRADE/LEVEL Grade-Level Standards

At the end of Grade 10, learners realize that volcanoes and earthquakes occur in the same places in the world and that these are related to plate
boundaries. They can demonstrate ways to ensure safety and reduce damage during earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Learners
can explain the factors affecting the balance and stability of an object to help them practice appropriate positions and movements to achieve
efficiency and safety such as in sports and dancing. They can analyze situations in which energy is harnessed for human use whereby heat is
Grade 10
D
released, affecting the physical and biological components of the environment. Learners will have completed the study of the entire organism
with their deeper study of the excretory and reproductive systems. They can explain in greater detail how genetic information is passed from
parents to offspring, and how diversity of species increases the probability of adaptation and survival in changing environments. Learners can
explain the importance of controlling the conditions under which a chemical reaction occurs. They recognize that cells and tissues of the human
body are made up of water, a few kinds of ions, and biomolecules. These biomolecules may also be found in the food they eat.
EP
E SEQUENCE OF DOMAIN/STRANDS PER QUARTER

G3 G4 G5 D G6 G7 G8 G9 G10

Living Things
Force, Motion,&
1st Quarter Matter Matter Matter Matter Matter and Their Earth & Space
Energy
Environment

Living Things Living Things Living Things Living Things Living Things
2nd Quarter and Their and Their and Their
C
and Their and Their Earth & Space Matter
Force, Motion,&
Energy
Environment Environment Environment Environment Environment

3rd Quarter
Force, Motion,& Force, Motion,& Force, Motion &
O
Force, Motion,& Force, Motion,&
Matter Earth & Space
Living Things
and Their
Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy
Environment

Living Things
Force, Motion,&
4th Quarter Earth & Space Earth & Space Earth & Space Earth & Space Earth & Space and Their Matter
Energy
Environment
PY

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

SPIRALLING OF CONCEPTS GRADE 3 – GRADE 10


MATTER D
Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
When learners observe different objects Aside from being grouped into After learning how to read and interpret In Grade 4, the learners have observed the
and materials, they become aware of solids, liquids, or gases, materials product labels, learners can critically decide changes when mixing a solid in a liquid or a
their different characteristics such as may also be grouped according to whether these materials are harmful or not. liquid in another liquid.
shape, weight, definiteness of volume their ability to absorb water, They can also describe ways in which they From these investigations, learners can now
EP
and ease of flow. Using characteristics, ability to float or sink, and can use their knowledge of solids and describe the appearance of mixtures as
objects and materials can be grouped whether they decay or not liquids in making useful materials and uniform or non-uniform and classify them as
into solids, liquids or gases. products. homogeneous or heterogeneous mixtures.
E CHANGES THAT MATTER UNDERGO
Using the characteristics observed Changes in some characteristics In Grade 4, learners investigated changes in Based on the characteristics of the components
among solids, liquids, and gases, of solid materials can be observed materials that take place at certain of a heterogeneous mixture, learners
learners investigate ways in which solid
turns into liquid, solid into gas, liquid
when these are bent, hammered,
pressed, and cut.
D conditions, such as applying force, mixing
materials, and changing the temperature. In
investigate ways of separating these
components from the mixture. They will infer
into gas, and liquid into solid, as Grade 5, they investigate changes that take that the characteristics of each of the
affected by temperature. After investigating the changes in place under the following conditions: components remain the same even when the
some observable characteristics presence or lack of oxygen (in air), and component is part of the mixture.
of materials due to temperature
in Grade 3, learners can now
C
applying heat. They learn that some of
these conditions can result in a new
inquire about changes observed product. Knowing these conditions enable
when a solid is mixed with a them to apply the “5R method” (recycling,
liquid or when a liquid is mixed
with another liquid.
O
reducing, reusing, recovering and repairing)
at home and in school.

Learners learn that some changes


in the characteristics of a product
such as food or medicine may
affect its quality. One way of
finding out is by reading and
PY
interpreting product labels. This

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
information helps them decide
when these products become
harmful.

electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10


PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER
In Grade 6, learners learned how to Using models, learners learn that matter is Using their understanding of atomic Learners investigate how gases behave in
distinguish homogenous from made up of particles, the smallest of which structure learned in Grade 8, learners different conditions based on their
heterogeneous mixtures. In Grade 7, is the atom. These particles are too small to describe how atoms can form units knowledge of the motion of and distances
learners investigate properties of be seen through a microscope. The called molecules. They also learn about between gas particles. Learners then
solutions that are homogeneous
mixtures. They learn how to express
D properties of materials that they have
observed in earlier grades can now be
ions. Further, they explain how atoms
form bonds (ionic and covalent) with
confirm whether their explanations are
consistent with the Kinetic Molecular
concentrations of solutions explained by the type of particles involved other atoms by the transfer or sharing Theory. They also learn the relationships
qualitatively and quantitatively. They and the attraction between these particles. of electrons. between volume, temperature, and
distinguish mixtures from substances pressure using established gas laws.
based on a set of properties. They also learn that the forces holding
metals together are caused by the In Grade 9, learners learned that the
Learners begin to do guided and attraction between flowing electrons bonding characteristics of carbon result in
EP
semi-guided investigations, making and the positively charged metal ions. the formation of large variety of
sure that the experiment they are compounds. In Grade 10, they learn more
conducting is a fair test. Learners explain how covalent bonding about these compounds that include
E in carbon forms a wide variety of
carbon compounds.
biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids,
proteins, and nucleic acids. Further, they
will recognize that the structure of these
Recognizing that matter consists of an compounds comprises repeating units that
D extremely large number of very small are made up of a limited number of
particles, counting these particles is elements such as carbon, hydrogen,
not practical. So, learners are oxygen, and nitrogen.
introduced to the unit—mole.
CHANGES THAT MATTER UNDERGO
Learners recognize that materials Learners learn that particles are always in
C
Learners explain how new compounds In Grade 9, learners described how particles
combine in various ways and through motion. They can now explain that the are formed in terms of the rearrange to form new substances. In
different processes, contributing to changes from solid to liquid, solid to gas, rearrangement of particles. They also Grade 10, they learn that the
the wide variety of materials. Given
this diversity, they recognize the
liquid to solid, and liquid to gas, involve
changes in the motion of and relative
O
recognize that a wide variety of useful
compounds may arise from such
rearrangement of particles happen when
substances undergo chemical reaction. They
importance of a classification system. distances between the particles, as well as rearrangements. further explain that when this
They become familiar with elements the attraction between them. rearrangement happens, the total number
and compounds, metals and non- of atoms and total mass of newly formed
metals, and acids and bases. They also recognize that the same particles substances remain the same. This is the
are involved when these changes occur. In Law of Conservation of Mass. Applying this
Further, learners demonstrate that effect, no new substances are formed. law, learners learn to balance chemical
PY
homogeneous mixtures can be equations and solve simple mole-mole,
separated using various techniques. mole-mass, and mass-mass problems.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT

Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6


D PARTS AND FUNCTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS
In Grade 3, learners observe and In Grade 4, the learners are introduced to After learning in Grade 4 how the major In Grade 6, learners describe the
describe the different parts of living the major organs of the human body. organs of the human body work interactions among parts of the major
things focusing on the sense organs together, the learners now focus on the organs of the human body.
of humans and the more familiar They also learn about some parts that help organs of the reproductive systems of
external parts of animals and plants. plants and animals survive in places where humans, animals, and plants. They also learn how vertebrates and
EP
they live. invertebrates differ and how non-
They also explore and describe flowering plants reproduce,
characteristics of living things that
distinguish them from non-living
E
things.
HEREDITY:INHERITANCE AND VARIATION
Learners learn that living things
D
Learners learn that humans, animals, and Learners learn how flowering plants and Learners learn how non-flowering plants
reproduce and certain traits are plants go through life cycles. Some some non-flowering plants reproduce. (spore-bearing and cone-bearing plants,
passed on to their offspring/s. inherited traits may be affected by the ferns, and mosses) reproduce.
environment at certain stages in their life They are also introduced to the sexual
cycles. and asexual modes of reproduction.
C
BIODIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION
Different kinds of living things are Learners investigate that animals and plants Learners learn that reproductive They learn that plants and animals share
found in different places. live in specific habitats.
O
structures serve as one of the bases for common characteristics which serve as
classifying living things. bases for their classification.

ECOSYSTEMS
Learners learn that living things Learners learn that there are beneficial and Learners are introduced to the Learners are introduced to the
depend on their environment for food, harmful interactions that occur among living interactions among components of interactions among components of
air, and water to survive. things and their environment as they obtain larger habitats such as estuaries and habitats such as tropical rainforests,
PY
their basic needs. intertidal zones, as well as the coral reefs, and mangrove swamps.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
conditions that enable certain
organisms to live.

electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10

PARTS AND FUNCTION: ANIMAL AND PLANTS


In Grade 7, learners are introduced In Grade 8, learners gain knowledge of Learners study the coordinated Learners learn that organisms have
to the levels of organization in the how the body breaks down food into forms functions of the digestive, respiratory, feedback mechanisms that are
human body and other organisms. that can be absorbed through the digestive and circulatory systems. coordinated by the nervous and
They learn that organisms consist of system and transported to cells. endocrine systems. These mechanisms

organ systems that perform


D
cells, most of which are grouped into
Learners learn that gases are exchanged
They also learn that nutrients enter the
bloodstream and combine with oxygen
help the organisms maintain
homeostasis to reproduce and survive.
specialized functions. through the respiratory system. This taken in through the respiratory
provides the oxygen needed by cells to system. Together, they are transported
release the energy stored in food. to the cells where oxygen is used to
release the stored energy.
They also learn that dissolved wastes are
EP
removed through the urinary system while
solid wastes are eliminated through the
excretory system.
E HEREDITY:INHERITANCE AND VARIATION
After learning how flowering and non Learners study the process of cell division Learners study the structure of genes Learners are introduced to the structure
flowering plants reproduce, Grade 7 by mitosis and meiosis. They understand and chromosomes, and the functions of the DNA molecule and its function.
learners are taught that asexual
reproduction results in genetically
D
that meiosis is an early step in sexual
reproduction that leads to variation.
they perform in the transmission of
traits from parents to offspring. They also learn that changes that take
identical offspring whereas sexual place in sex cells are inherited while
reproduction gives rise to variation. changes in body cells are not passed on.
BIODIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION
Learners learn that the cells in similar Learners learn that species refers to a
C
Learners learn that most species that Learners revisit the mechanisms involved
tissues and organs in other animals group of organisms that can mate with one have once existed are now extinct. in the inheritance of traits and the
are similar to those in human beings another to produce fertile offspring. They Species become extinct when they fail to changes that result from these
but differ somewhat from cells found learn that biodiversity is the collective adapt to changes in the environment. mechanisms. Learners explain how
in plants. variety of species living in an ecosystem.
O natural selection has produced a
This serves as an introduction to the topic succession of diverse new species.
on hierarchical taxonomic system. Variation increases the chance of living
things to survive in a changing
environment.
ECOSYSTEMS
Learners learn that interactions occur Learners learn how energy is transformed Learners learn how plants capture Learners investigate the impact of human
PY
among the different levels of and how materials are cycled in energy from the Sun and store energy in activities and other organisms on
organization in ecosystems. ecosystems. sugar molecules (photosynthesis). This ecosystems.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10


Organisms of the same kind interact stored energy is used by cells during
D
with each other to form populations; cellular respiration. These two processes They learn how biodiversity influences the
populations interact with other are related to each other. stability of ecosystems.
populations to form communities.

FORCE, MOTION AND ENERGY


EP
Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6
FORCE AND MOTION
Learners observe and explore and
E
Learners now learn that if force is applied This time, learners begin to accurately Aside from the identified causes of
investigate how things around them on an object, its motion, size, or shape measure the amount of change in the motion in Grade 3, such as people,
move and can be moved. They also can be changed. They will further movement of an object in terms of its animals, wind, and water, learners
identify things in their environment
D
understand that these changes depend distance travelled and time of travel also learn about gravity and friction as
that can cause changes in the on the amount of force applied on it using appropriate tools. other causes or factors that affect the
movement of objects. (qualitative). They also learn that movement of objects.
magnets can exert force on some objects
and may cause changes in their
movements.
C
ENERGY
Learners observe and identify different Learners learn that light, heat, and sound
O
This time, learners explore how different At this grade level, learners are
sources of light, heat, sound, and travel from the source. They perform objects interact with light, heat, sound, introduced to the concept of energy.
electricity in their environment and simple activities that demonstrate how and electricity (e.g., identifying poor and They learn that energy exists in
their uses in everyday life. they travel using various objects. good conductors of electricity using different forms, such as light, heat,
Note: Electricity is not included in Grade simple circuits). sound and electricity, and it can be
4 because the concept of ‘flow of They learn about the relationship transformed from one form to
PY
charges’ is difficult to understand at this between electricity and magnetism by another. They demonstrate how

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
grade level. constructing an electromagnet. energy is transferred using simple
They also learn about the effects of light, machines.
heat, sound, and electricity on people.

electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10


FORCE AND MOTION
From a simple understanding of motion, This time, learners study the concept of To deepen their understanding of motion, From learning the basics of forces in
learners study more scientific ways of force and its relationship to motion. learners use the Law of Conservation of Grade 8, learners extend their
D
describing (in terms of distance, speed, They use Newton’s Laws of Motion to Momentum to further explain the motion understanding of forces by describing
and acceleration) and representing explain why objects move (or do not of objects. how balanced and unbalanced forces,
(using motion diagrams, charts, and move) the way they do (as described in From motion in one dimension in the either by solids or liquids, affect the
graphs) the motion of objects in one Grade 7). They also realize that if force previous grades, they learn at this level movement, balance, and stability of
dimension. is applied on a body, work can be done about motion in two dimensions using objects.
and may cause a change in the energy projectile motion as an example.
EP
of the body.
ENERGY
This time learners recognize that
E
Learners realize that transferred energy Learners explain how conservation of Learners acquire more knowledge about
different forms of energy travel in may cause changes in the properties of mechanical energy is applied in some the properties of light as applied in
different ways—light and sound travel the object. They relate the observable structures, such as roller coasters, and in optical instruments.
through waves, heat travels through
D
changes in temperature, amount of natural environments like waterfalls. They Learners also use the concept of moving
moving or vibrating particles, and current, and speed of sound to the further describe the transformation of charges and magnetic fields in explaining
electrical energy travels through moving changes in energy of the particles. energy that takes place in hydroelectric the principle behind generators and
charges. power plants. motors.
In Grade 5, they learned about the
C
Learners also learn about the relationship
different modes of heat transfer. This between heat and work, and apply this
time, they explain these modes in terms concept to explain how geothermal power
of the movement of particles.
O
plants operate.
After they have learned how electricity is
generated in power plants, learners
further develop their understanding of
transmission of electricity from power
stations to homes.
PY

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

EARTH AND SPACE

Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6


D GEOLOGY
After familiarizing themselves with In this grade level, learners will learn that Learners will learn that aside from weathering
Learners will describe what makes up
the general landscape, learners will our surroundings do not stay the same and erosion, there are other processes that
their environment, beginning with
investigate two components of the forever. For example, rocks undergo may alter the surface of the Earth: earthquakes
the landforms and bodies of water
physical environment in more detail: weathering and soil is carried away by and volcanic eruptions. Only the effects of
found in their community.
soil and water. They will classify soils erosion. Learners will infer that the surface earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are taken
EP
in their community using simple of the Earth changes with the passage of up in this grade level, not their causes (which
criteria. They will identify the time. will be tackled in Grades 8 and 9). Learners
different sources of water in their will also gather and report data on earthquakes
community. They will infer the and volcanic eruptions in their community or
E
importance of water in daily region.
activities and describe ways of using
water wisely.

After making simple descriptions


D METEOROLOGY
Learners will learn that the weather does After learning how to measure the different
Learners will describe the different
about the weather in the previous not stay the same the whole year round. components of weather in Grades 4 and 5,
types of local weather,
grade, learners will now measure the Weather disturbances such as typhoons learners will now collect weather data within
components of weather using simple may occur. Learners will describe the the span of the school year. Learners will
instruments. They will also identify
trends in a simple weather chart.
C
effects of typhoons on the community and
the changes in the weather before, during,
interpret the data and identify the weather
patterns in their community.
and after a typhoon.
ASTRONOMY
Learners will describe the natural
After describing the natural objects
O
After learning about the Sun, learners will
that are seen in the sky, learners will now familiarize themselves with the Moon
In Grade 6, learners will turn their attention to
Earth as another natural object in space (in
objects that they see in the sky.
now focus on the main source of and the stars. They will describe the addition to the Sun, Moon, and stars).
heat and light on Earth: the Sun, its changes in the appearance of the Moon and Learners will learn about the motions of the
role in plant growth and discover that the changes are cyclical, and Earth: rotation and revolution. Learners will
development, and its effect on the that the cycle is related to the length of a also compare the different members that
activities of humans and other month. Learners will identify star patterns make up the Solar System and construct
animals. that can be seen during certain times of the models to help them visualize their relative
PY
year. sizes and distances.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10


GEOLOGY
As a result of being located along the Ring Being located along the Ring of Fire, the Using maps, learners will discover
Learners will explore and locate places
of Fire, the Philippines is prone to Philippines is home to many volcanoes. Using that volcanoes, earthquake
using a coordinate system. They will
earthquakes. Using models, learners will models, learners will explain what happens epicenters, and mountain ranges are
discover that our country’s location
D
near the equator and along the Ring of
explain how quakes are generated by
faults. They will try to identify faults in the
when volcanoes erupt. They will describe the
different types of volcanoes and differentiate
not randomly scattered in different
places but are located in the same
Fire influences elements of up
community and differentiate active faults active volcanoes from inactive ones. They areas. This will lead to an
Philippine environment (e.g., natural
from inactive ones. will also explain how energy from volcanoes appreciation of plate tectonics—a
resources and climate).
may be tapped for human use. theory that binds many geologic
processes such as volcanism and
earthquakes.
EP
METEOROLOGY
Being located beside the Pacific Ocean, the In this grade level, learners will distinguish Note: The theory of plate tectonics
Learners will explain the occurrence of
atmospheric phenomena (breezes,
E
Philippines is prone to typhoons. In Grade between weather and climate. They will is the sole topic in Earth and Space
5, the effects of typhoons were tackled. explain how different factors affect the in Grade 10. This is because the
monsoons, and ITCZ) that are
Here, learners will explain how typhoons climate of an area. They will also be theory binds many of the topics in
commonly experienced in the country
as a result of the Philippines’ location
D
develop, how typhoons are affected by introduced to climatic phenomena that occur previous grade levels, and more
landforms and bodies of water, and why over a wide area (e.g., El Niño and global time is needed to explore
with respect to the equator, and
typhoons follow certain paths as they move warming). connections and deepen learners’
surrounding bodies of water and
within the Philippine Area of Responsibility. understanding.
landmasses.
ASTRONOMY
C
Learners will complete their survey of the Learners will now leave the Solar System and
Learners will explain the occurrence of
Solar System by describing the learn about the stars beyond. They will infer
the seasons and eclipses as a result of
characteristics of asteroids, comets, and
O
the characteristics of stars based on the
the motions of the Earth and the
other members of the Solar System. characteristics of the Sun. Using models,
Moon. Using models, learners will
learners will show that constellations move in
explain that because the Earth revolves
the course of a night because of Earth’s
around the Sun, the seasons change,
rotation, while different constellations are
and because the Moon revolves around
observed in the course of a year because of
the Earth, eclipses sometimes occur.
PY
the Earth’s revolution.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

GRADE 10

PERFORMANCE
CONTENT
D CONTENT STANDARDS
STANDARDS
LEARNING COMPETENCY CODE

Grade 10 – Earth and Space


FIRST QUARTER/FIRST GRADING PERIOD

1. Plate Tectonics The learners demonstrate The learners shall be able The learners should be able
1.1 Distribution an understanding of: to: to…
EP
1.1.1 volcanoes
S9ES –Ia-j-
1.1.2 earthquake epicenters the relationship among the 1. demonstrate ways to 1. describe the distribution of
36.1
1.1.3 mountain ranges locations of volcanoes, ensure disaster active volcanoes, earthquake
1.2 Plate boundaries
Eearthquake epicenters, and preparedness during epicenters, and major
1.3 Processes and landforms along mountain ranges earthquakes, tsunamis, mountain belts;
plate boundaries and volcanic eruptions 2. describe the different types of S9ES –Ia-j-
1.4 Internal structure of the Earth
D plate boundaries; 36.2
1.5 Mechanism (possible causes of 2. suggest ways by which 3. explain the different
movement) he/she can contribute S9ES –Ia-j-
processes that occur along
1.6 Evidence of plate movement to government efforts 36.3
the plate boundaries;
in reducing damage due 4. describe the internal structure S9ES –Ia-j-
C
to earthquakes, of the Earth; 36.4
tsunamis, and volcanic 5. describe the possible causes S9ES –Ia-j-
eruptions of plate movement; and 36.5
O 6. enumerate the lines of
evidence that support plate S9ES –Ia-j-36.6
movement
Grade 10 – Force, Motion and, Energy
SECOND QUARTER/SECOND GRADING PERIOD
The learners demonstrate The learners s The learners should be able
an understanding of: hall be able to: to…
PY

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
1. Electromagnetic Spectrum the different regions of the 1. compare the relative S10FE-IIa-b-47
electromagnetic spectrum wavelengths of different
forms of electromagnetic
waves;

electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

PERFORMANCE
CONTENT CONTENT STANDARDS LEARNING COMPETENCY CODE
STANDARDS

2. cite examples of practical


applications of the different
S10FE-IIc-d-48
regions of EM waves, such
as the use of radio waves in
D telecommunications;
3. explain the effects of EM
radiation on living things and S10FE-IIe-f-49
the environment;
2. Light 4. predict the qualitative
the images formed by the characteristics (orientation,
EP
2.1 Reflection of Light in Mirrors different types of mirrors type, and magnification) of S10FE-IIg-50
2.2 Refraction of Light in Lenses and lenses images formed by plane
and curved mirrors and
E lenses;

5. apply ray diagramming


techniques in describing the
D characteristics and positions
S10FE-IIg-51
of images formed by lenses;

6. identify ways in which the


properties of mirrors and
C lenses determine their use in S10FE-IIh-52
optical instruments (e.g.,
cameras and binoculars);
3. Electricity and Magnetism
the relationship between
O 7. demonstrate the generation
of electricity by movement S10FE-IIi-53
3.1 Electromagnetic effects electricity and magnetism in of a magnet through a coil;
electric motors and and
generators

8. explain the operation of a


simple electric motor and S10FE-IIj-54
PY
generator.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

PERFORMANCE
CONTENT CONTENT STANDARDS LEARNING COMPETENCY CODE
STANDARDS
D
Grade 10 – Living Things and Their Environment
THIRD QUARTER/THIRD GRADING PERIOD
The learners demonstrate The learners should be The learners should be able
an understanding of: able to: to…
1. Coordinated Functions of the
S10LT-IIIa-33
Reproductive, Endocrine, and 1. organisms as having 1. describe the parts of the
Nervous Systems feedback mechanisms, reproductive system and
EP
which are coordinated their functions;
by the nervous and
endocrine systems 2. explain the role of hormones
involved in the female and S10LT-IIIb-34
E
2. how these feedback male reproductive systems;
mechanisms help the
organism maintain
3. describe the feedback
homeostasis to
reproduce
D mechanisms involved in
S10LT-IIIc-35
regulating processes in the
female reproductive system
(e.g., menstrual cycle);
C 4. describe how the nervous
system coordinates and
S10LT-IIIc-36
regulates these feedback
mechanisms to maintain
O homeostasis;
2. Heredity: Inheritance and 1. the information stored in
Variation DNA as being used to 5. explain how protein is made
make proteins using information from S10LT-IIId-37
DNA;
2. how changes in a DNA
PY
molecule may cause
changes in its product 6. explain how mutations may

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
cause changes in the
3. mutations that occur in S10LT-IIIe-38
structure and function of a
sex cells as being protein;
heritable

electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

PERFORMANCE
CONTENT CONTENT STANDARDS LEARNING COMPETENCY CODE
STANDARDS

write an essay on the 7. explain how fossil records,


3. Biodiversity and Evolution how evolution through importance of comparative anatomy, and
natural selection can result adaptation as a S10LT-IIIf-39
genetic information provide
in biodiversity mechanism for the evidence for evolution;
D survival of a species
8. explain the occurrence of
S10LT-IIIg-40
evolution;
4. Ecosystems 9. explain how species
4.1 Flow of Energy and Matter in 1. the influence of diversity increases the
Ecosystems biodiversity on the probability of adaptation S10LT-IIIh-41
4.2 Biodiversity and Stability stability of ecosystems and survival of organisms in
EP
4.3 Population Growth and changing environments;
Carrying Capacity 2. an ecosystem as being
10. explain the relationship
capable of supporting a
between population
limited number of
E
organisms
growth and carrying
S10LT-IIIi-42
capacity; and
11. suggest ways to minimize
D human impact on the
environment.
S10LT-IIIj-43

Grade 10 – Matter
FOURTH QUARTER/FOURTH GRADING PERIOD

1. Gas Laws The learners demonstrate The learners shall be able The learners should be able
an understanding of… to:
C to…

1.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory how gases behave based 1. investigate the relationship
1.2 Volume, pressure, and on the motion and relative between:
temperature relationship distances between gas
O 1.1 volume and pressure at
1.3 Ideal gas law particles constant temperature of S10MT-IVa-b-
a gas; 21
1.2 volume and temperature
at constant pressure of a
gas;
1.3 explains these
PY
relationships using the
kinetic molecular theory;

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

PERFORMANCE
CONTENT CONTENT STANDARDS LEARNING COMPETENCY CODE
D STANDARDS
2. Biomolecules the structure of
biomolecules, which are
2.1 Elements present in biomolecules made up mostly of a limited 2. recognize the major
2.2 Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, number of elements, such categories of biomolecules
EP
and nucleic acids as carbon, hydrogen, such as carbohydrates, S10MT-IVc-d-22
2.2.1 Food Labels oxygen, and nitrogen lipids, proteins, and nucleic
E D acids;

3. Chemical reactions the chemical reactions using any form of media,


associated with biological present chemical 3. apply the principles of
S10MT-IVe-g-
and industrial processes reactions involved in conservation of mass to
23
affecting life and the biological and industrial chemical reactions; and
environment
C
processes affecting life 4. explain how the factors
and the environment
O affecting rates of chemical
reactions are applied in
food preservation and S10MT-IVh-j-24
materials production,
control of fire, pollution,
and corrosion.
PY

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM

CODE BOOK LEGEND

Sample: S8ES-IId-19

LEGEND SAMPLE DOMAIN/ COMPONENT CODE


D
Learning Area and
Strand/ Subject or Science Living things and their Environment LT
Specialization
First Entry S8

Grade Level Grade 8


Force, Motion, and Energy FE
EP
Domain/Content/
Uppercase Letter/s Earth and Space ES
E
Component/ Topic
Earth and Space ES
-

Roman Numeral
Quarter
D
Second Quarter II
*Zero if no specific quarter Matter MT
Lowercase Letter/s
*Put a hyphen (-) in between
letters to indicate more than a
Week Week four
C
d
specific week
-
O
Infer why the Philippines
Arabic Number Competency 19
is prone to typhoons
PY

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
UNIT 1
Earth and Space

PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Unit 1: Earth and Space

Introduction

In your Grade 9 Science, part of the lessons was about volcanoes.


Learners have learned about the position of the Philippines in the Ring of Fire
and its relationship to the presence of active and inactive volcanoes in our
country.

PY
For this quarter, the topics will focus solely on the theory that explains
the existence of volcanoes and other geologic features. The learners will work
on two modules to understand this theory better.

In the first module, learners will use some of the science skills like

O
graphing, measuring, analyzing and interpreting data, and inferring for them to
attain the desired outcomes. C
What are the outcomes that are expected from the learners? First,
learners should identify the types of boundaries created because of lithospheric
movements. Secondly, they must relate the movement of Earth’s lithosphere to
D
the occurrence of different geologic changes. Finally, the learners will explain
the processes that are taking place along the boundaries.
E

In the second module, learners will perform an activity that will allow
them to probe the Earth’s interior by analyzing the behavior of seismic waves
EP

(Primary and Secondary waves).

Learners will also have an opportunity to simulate one of the properties


of the materials present in the mantle.
D

Lastly, included in the module, and the most important part is the series
of activities that will give learners an idea about the driving mechanism behind
the motion of Earth’s lithosphere.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Unit 1 Suggested time allotment: 12 to 16 hours

MODULE

1 Plate Tectonics

PY
Content Standard Performance Standard
The learner demonstrates The learners shall be able to
understanding of the relationship demonstrate ways to ensure disaster
among the locations of volcanoes, preparedness during earthquakes,

O
earthquake epicenter, and mountain tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.
ranges
C
Overview:
In the previous grade level, the students became familiar with the different
D
types of volcanoes. They were also able to determine the factors that give the
distinct conical shapes of volcanoes. Lastly, they understood how energy can
E

be harnessed from volcanic activities.

In this particular module, the activities included will allow the students to
EP

find out what causes volcanism. The learners will also determine the relationship
among the locations of volcanoes, earthquake epicenters, and mountain ranges.
Furthermore, they will have a chance to figure out what causes the formation of
different geologic features such as mountain ranges, volcanic arcs, trenches,
D

mid-ocean ridges, and rift valleys.

Learning Competencies/Objectives
In this Learner’s Material, the learners should be able to:
1. Describe the distribution of active volcanoes, earthquake epicenters,
and major mountain belts.
2. Describe the different types of plate boundaries.
3. Explain the different processes that occur along the plate
boundaries.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Pre-Assessment
A. Choose the letter of the best answer.

PY
For questions 1 and 2, refer to the figure above:

O
1. You were provided with data showing the arrival time of the P and S waves
C
recorded from three seismic stations. Which of these can you possibly
determine?
a. the damage at the focus c. the intensity of the earthquake
D
b. the distance to the earthquake d. the location of the epicenter
Answer: d
E

2. From the seismogram, the distance to the epicenter can be determined by


measuring
a. the arrival time of surface wave
EP

b. the difference in the arrival times of the P and S waves


c. the ratio of the amplitude of the largest P and S waves
d. the speed of the surface wave
Answer: b
D

3. When two tectonic plates collide, the oceanic crust usually subducts
beneath the continental crust because it is
a. denser than continental crust c. thicker than continental crust
b. less dense than continental crust d. thinner than continental crust
Answer: a

4. If you will visit a place in the Pacific known to be along converging plates,
which of these should you not expect to see?
a. active volcanoes c. rift valleys
b. mountain ranges d. volcanic islands
Answer: c

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
5. You are an oceanographer and want to map the ocean floor on the east
coast of the Philippines. As you do your study, you noticed that there is a
portion of the ocean floor which is relatively much deeper than the rest.
What most likely is that deeper part?
a. linear sea c. rift valley
b. oceanic ridge d. trench
Answer: d

6. What do you expect to find at a mid-ocean ridge?


a. relatively young rocks c. thick accumulation of sediments
b. reverse fault d. very ancient rocks
Answer: a

PY
7. Crustal Plate A is moving away from Crustal Plate B. What is the expected
average rate of change in position between A and B?
a. a few centimeters per year c. a few millimeters per century
b. a few meters per month d. a few millimeters per day
Answer: a

O
8. Which plate boundary is formed between the Philippine Plate and the
Eurasian Plate?
C
a. convergent c. reverse fault
b. divergent d. transform fault
Answer: a
D
9. Which of these is false true about crustal plates:
a. have the same thickness everywhere
E

b. include the crust and upper mantle


c. thickest in the mountain region
d. vary in thickness
EP

Answer: a

10. Which of these is not true about the Philippine Islands?


a. Most are part of the Philippine Mobile Belt except for Palawan,
Mindoro, and Zamboanga
D

b. formed because of the convergence of the Philippine Plate and the


Pacific Plate
c. Originated geologically in an oceanic-oceanic convergence
d. Some are products of subduction process
Answer: b

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
What is Plate Tectonics?

Lithosphere consists of crust and the upper portion of the mantle. Figure
1 in the LM shows two types of crust, the continental crust and the oceanic
crust. The continental crust is thicker but less dense than the oceanic crust.
Because of the difference in density, continental crust floats higher than the
oceanic crust.

Continental crust
Oceanic crust

PY
Mantle
O
C
Figure 1. Kinds of crust

The lithosphere is said to be in constant but slow motion. These motions


D
can range widely. The Arctic Ridge has the slowest rate (less than 2.5 cm/yr),
and the East Pacific Rise near Easter Island, in the South Pacific about 3,400
km west of Chile, has the fastest rate (more than 15 cm/yr). This movement of
E

the lithosphere is called tectonics.


EP

Figure 2 in the LM is a map showing the lithosphere of the Earth divided


into segments called plates. But what are the basis of scientists in dividing the
lithosphere in such manner?
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
Figure 2. Map of plate boundaries http://pubs.usgs.gov
C
The next two activities will answer the question posted in previous page.
D

Activity 1
E

Find the Center


EP

Teaching Tips
1. Let the students recall the different types of seismic waves particularly
the body waves (Primary and Secondary waves). Students must
recall also that Primary waves travel faster than Secondary waves.
D

2. Explain to them, that because of this difference in velocity between


P and S waves, the distance of earthquake epicenter from the
recording station can be determined. If they have data from three
recording stations, the exact position of an earthquake epicenter can
be located using the triangulation method.

3. Introduce Activity 1 “Find the Center,” which will allow the students to
use the triangulation method in locating the epicenter of a hypothetical
earthquake.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answers to questions
Td
Using the formula d = ------------ = 100 km
8 seconds

Where: d=distance (km)


Td=time difference of P-wave and S-wave (seconds)

Time difference of
Distance of epicenter
Recording station P-wave and S-wave
from the station (km)
(seconds)
Batangas 44.8 560

PY
Puerto Princesa 32 400
Davao 38.4 480

Since the scale of the Philippine map on page 9 of the LM is 1.5 cm: 200

O
km, set the drawing compass to the following computed distances on the map.

How to compute the Computed distance on


Recording station
C
distance on the map the map (cm)
Batangas 560 km (1.5 cm/200 km) 4.2
Puerto Princesa 400 km (1.5 cm/200 km) 3
D
Davao 480 km (1.5 cm/200km) 3.6
E

Q1. Where is the epicenter of this hypothetical earthquake?


EP

Answer: Since the three circles drawn intersect in Cebu City, it is where the
epicenter is.

Q2. What difficulty will you encounter if you only have data from two recording
stations?
D

Answer: Assuming that the two circles will intersect, the circles will intersect
at two points. Therefore, there will be two locations that could possibly
be the epicenter.

The distance-time graph on page 10 of the LM shows that the S-P interval is
about 10 minutes.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
Q3. What is the distance of the epicenter from the seismic station?

Answer: 9000 km

O
Q4. What do you think is the importance of determining the epicenter of an
earthquake?
C
Possible answer:
* Locating earthquake epicenters will pinpoint which fault lines are active.
D
Usually, the less active fault line stores great amount of potential energy
that could cause major earthquake once released. Therefore, places near
fault lines that remain inactive for a long period of time are due to experience
E

a major earthquake.
EP

Key concepts:
• In order to locate the epicenter of an earthquake, you need to determine
the time interval between the arrival of the P and S waves (the S-P
interval) on the seismograms from at least three different stations. You
have to measure the interval to the closest second and then use a graph
D

(Distance-time graph on page 10 of the LM) to convert the S-P interval


to the epicentral distance.
• Once you have the epicentral distances, you can draw circles to represent
each distance on a map. The radius of each circle corresponds to the
epicentral distance for each seismic recording station. Once you have
drawn all three circles and located the point where all three intersect,
you will have successfully located (triangulated) the epicenter of the
earthquake.

For instructions on how to perform triangulation method you may visit this
website: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBS7BKqHRhs
9

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 2
Let’s Mark the Boundaries

Teaching Tips
1. Let the students look at Figure 2: Map of Plate Boundaries on page
7 and you may ask them the following questions;
a. What is the difference between Figure 1 and a regular World
map?
b. What do you think is the basis of dividing the world in such
manner?

PY
2. Introduce to the learners Activity 2 “Let’s Mark the Boundaries” and
tell them that the next activity will help them confirm their answers to
the last question.

O
Answers to questions:
Q5. How are earthquakes distributed on the map?
C
Answer: The world’s earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the Earth’s
surface. They tend to be concentrated in narrow zones.
D
Q6. Where are they located?
E

Answer: Some are located near the edges of the continents, some are in mid-
continents, while others are in oceans .
EP

But not ALL edges of continents,mid-continents,or oceans can be


places where earthquake might occur.

Q7. Where are places with no earthquakes?


D

Answer: Answers may vary. Some of the possible answers are: large part of
the Pacific ocean, northernmost Asia, majority of Europe, eastern
portion of North and South America and western Africa.

Q8. Why do you think it is important for us to identify areas which are prone to
earthquakes?

Answer: It is important to identify areas which are prone to earthquakes so


that necessary precautions could be done if ever you’re living in one
of those places.

10

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Q9. How are volcanoes distributed?

Answer: Volcanoes are not randomly distributed. Majority of them are found
along the edges of some continents.

Q10. Where are they located?

Answer: Majority are found along the edges of some continents, particularly
in the western coast of North and South America, East and South East
Asia.

Q11. Based on the map, state a country that is unlikely to experience a

PY
volcanic eruption?

Answer: Answers may vary

Q12. Compare the location of majority of earthquake epicenters with the

O
location of volcanoes around the world.

Answer: Earthquake epicenters and volcanoes are both situated at the same
locations.
C
Q13. How will you relate the distribution of mountain ranges with the
D
distribution of earthquake epicenters and volcanoes?

Answer: Mountain ranges are found in places where volcanoes and/or


E

earthquake epicenters are also located.


EP

Q14. What do you think is the basis of scientists in dividing Earth’s lithosphere
into several plates?

Answer: Geologic activities such as seismicity (occurrence of earthquake),


volcanism and mountain formation are the basis of scientists in
D

dividing Earth’s lithosphere.

Key concepts:
• Plates are large pieces of the upper few hundred kilometers of Earth
that move as a single unit as it floats above the mantle.
• The plates are in constant motion. As they interact along their margins,
important geological processes take place, such as the formation of
mountain belts, earthquakes, and volcanoes.

11

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
To view an interactive map that will show the relationship between plate
boundaries and different geologic processes, you may visit; http://ees.as.uky.
edu/sites/default/files/elearning/module04swf.swf

Activity 3
Head-On Collision

Teaching tips:
1. Let the students recall that there are two types of crust, continental
and oceanic. Between the two, the oceanic crust is denser.

PY
2. Introduce to the students that plates could either be a continental
crust-leading plate or an oceanic crust-leading plate.

O
3. Introduce the next activity, Part A “Converging Continental plate and
Oceanic plate.” This activity will allow the students to determine the
effects of colliding oceanic and continental plates.
C
Answers to Questions:
D
Part A: Converging Continental Plate and Oceanic Plate

Q15. What type of plate is Plate A? What about Plate B? Why did you say so?
E

Answer: Plate A is an oceanic plate because it is relatively thinner compared


EP

to plate B. While Plate B is a continental plate because it is thicker and


floats higher than the other plate.

Q16. Describe what happens to Plate A as it collides with Plate B? Why?


D

Answer: Plate A bends downward because Plate A is denser than Plate B.

Tell the students that this sinking of plate beneath the other plate is called
subduction. Point out also to the students that, because of the subduction
process, a depression on the ocean floor called trench is also formed.

Q17. What do you think will happen to the leading edge of Plate A as it continues
to move downward? Why?

Answer: The leading edge of Plate A will start to melt because the temperature
beneath the crust (mantle) is higher.

12

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
You may add the fact that as the plate moves deeper into the mantle, it carries
with it water which also causes the melting of rocks.

Q18. What do you call this molten material?

Answer: This molten material is called magma.

Q19. What is formed on top of Plate B?

Answer: Volcanoes are formed on top of Plate B.

Tell the students that volcanoes are mountains that are built by the accumulation

PY
of their own eruptive products such as lava.

Parallel to the trench, point out in the diagram that volcanoes are formed.

Q20. As the plates continue to grind against each other, what other geologic

O
event could take place?

Answer: Earthquake could take place as the plates continue to grind against
each other.
C
Key concepts:
D
1. During the convergence of an oceanic plate and a continental plate,
the denser oceanic plate slides under the continental plate. This
E

process is called subduction.


EP

2. Geologic events such as formation of volcanoes and trenches as well


as occurrence of earthquake will take place because of this process.

You can end the lesson at this point.


D

An animated diagram of subduction process can be seen on this website;


http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/eoc/teachers/t_tectonics/p_subduction.html

13

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Part B: Convergence of Two Oceanic Plates

Teaching tips:

1. Recall the subduction process and the geologic events that will take
place because of the process.

2. Tell the students that two oceanic plates could also collide because
of plate tectonics.

3. Introduce the next activity. This time the students will use the
knowledge they acquired from the previous activity in predicting what

PY
events could take place due to this type of collision.

4. You may ask the students to draw a diagram showing what they think
would be the outcome of this event.

O
Q21. What are the geologic processes/events that will occur out of this plate
movement? C
Answer: Possible answers are:

• Plate B undergoes subduction process or the sinking of plate


D
towards the mantle.
• Earthquakes can happen since the two plates are grinding against
each other.
E

• Trench/es will form.


• Volcanoes will form at the surface of Plate A.
EP

Q22. What geologic features might form at the surface of Plate A?

Answer: Volcanoes might form at the surface of Plate A.


D

The volcanic deposits pile up until they break through the surface of the ocean
and form an island arc. Examples of island arcs created in this way are the
Aleutians, the Kuriles, Japan, and the Philippines.

Q23. If the edge of Plate A suddenly flicks upward, a large amount of water may
be displaced. What could be formed at the surface of the sea?

Answer: Tsunami is formed at the surface of the sea.

14

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Key concepts:

1. When two oceanic plates converge they also undergo subduction


process. This gives rise to the formation volcanic island arcs, trenches
and generates shallow, intermediate, or deep earthquakes.

2. Strong earthquakes generated at the ocean floor may cause


displacement of large volume of water and launch big waves called
tsunami.

Part C: Two Continental Plates Converging

PY
Teaching tips:

1. You may start the lesson by asking questions such as;


a. What is the highest peak in the Philippines? Mt. Apo about 3144
meters

O
b. How about the highest mountain in the world? Mt. Everest
c. Do you have any idea how tall Mount Everest is? 8848 meters
d. How do you think most of the tall mountains of the world are
formed?
C
2. Just gather all the ideas the students will mention regarding the last
question. After all the ideas had been presented, tell them that they
D
will check their answers after they perform the next activity.

Q24. What happened to the strips of clay as they were pushed from opposite
E

ends?
EP

Answer: The strips of clay buckled upward.

Q25. If the strips of clay represent the Earth’s lithosphere, what do you think
is formed in the lithosphere?

Answer: Mountains are formed in the lithosphere.


D

Q26. What other geologic event could take place with this type of plate
movement aside from your answer in Q25?

Answer: Earthquakes will occur due to the collision of the two plates. (Since
there is no subduction, only shallow earthquakes will happen)

Q27. In terms of the consequences on the Earth’s lithosphere, how will you
differentiate this type of convergent plate boundary with the other two?

Answer: Since the two plates involved are both continental plates there is
no subduction process (because both plates are low in density). As a
result, mountains are formed instead of volcanoes.
15

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Key concept:

1. When two continental plates meet head-on, neither is subducted.


Instead, the crust tends to buckle and be pushed upward causing
formation of mountain ranges and other highlands.

Activity 4

Going Separate Ways

Teaching tips:

PY
1. You may start the lesson by saying this:

“In a convergent plate boundary, the leading plates undergo destruction


process as the crust is consumed in the mantle. But what do you think is
happening on the other end of each plates?” (creation of new crust)

O
(We cannot expect that the students will be able to answer this question
correctly. This will just serve as the springboard for the next lesson.)
C
2. To find out the answer to this question, students will study the next
type of plate boundary-the Divergent plate boundary.
D
3. The next activity “Going Separate Ways,” will require students to
analyze four pictures. The two topmost pictures are rift valleys while
the bottom two are oceanic ridges.
E

Answers to Questions:
EP

Q28 What are common in the four pictures?

Answers: All four pictures show a fissure or a crack between two land masses.

Q29. What do you think is happening to the Earth’s crust in those pictures?
D

Answer: The land masses are moving away from each other.

Q30. If this event continues for millions of years, what do you think will be the
effect on the crust?

Answer: The distance between the land masses will be far greater than what
is shown in the picture.

Q31. Complete the drawing below to illustrate your answer in question number 3.

16

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
After millions of years

O
C
Answer: The illustration of the students should show a wider crack or fissure
between the two land masses.

Key concepts:
D
1. Divergent boundaries occur along spreading centers where plates
are moving apart and new crust is created by magma pushing up
E

from the mantle.


EP

2. Effects that are found at a divergent boundary between oceanic plates


include: a submarine mountain range such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge;
volcanic activity in the form of fissure eruptions; shallow earthquake
activity; creation of new seafloor; and a widening ocean basin.
D

3. If a divergent boundary is between continental plates, the effects are:


rift valley formation which will soon develop into linear sea; shallow
earthquake activities, and numerous normal faults.

17

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 5
Slide and Shake

Teaching tips:
1. The next activity will be a simulation-type activity where students will
simulate how transform-fault boundary is formed.

2. After the activity has been performed, you may ask the following
questions:
a. If the blocks of wood were plates, what kind of plate boundary is
formed between Blocks 1 and 2? between 3 and 4? (divergent)

PY
b. Describe the relative motion of Blocks 2 and 3; Blocks 1 and 3;
Blocks 2 and 4. (Same answer with guide questions 3 and 4)

3. Inform the students that this is another type of plate boundary called
transform-fault boundary.

O
4. Tell students that most transform-fault boundaries are found in the
C
ocean basins. Only few of which are found in the continents. The
best example of transform-fault boundary in a continent is the San
Andreas Fault.
D
5. Ask the students what they think would the consequence be if plates
move horizontally past each other, (Shallow earthquakes).
E

Answers to Questions:
EP

Q32. Were you able to pull the blocks of wood easily? Why or why not?

Answer: No, because of the friction between the edges of the block of wood.
D

Q33. What can you say about the relative motion of Blocks 1 and 2? How
about Blocks 3 and 4?

Answer: Block 2 is moving away from Block 1, while Block 3 is moving away
from Block 4.

Q34. How will you describe the interaction between Blocks 2 and 3 as you pull
each block?

Answer: Blocks 2 and 3 are sliding past each other.

18

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Q35. What is the interaction between Blocks 1 and 3? How about between
Blocks 2 and 4?

Answer: Block 3 is sliding past block 1 while Block 2 is sliding past Block 4.

Key concepts:

1. Transform-fault boundaries are where two plates are sliding


horizontally past one another.

2. Most transform faults are found on the ocean floor. They commonly
offset active spreading ridges, producing zig-zag plate margins, and

PY
are generally defined by shallow earthquakes. 

Activity 6

Drop It Like It’s “Hot Spot”

Teaching tips:
O
C
1. Show the students an aerial picture of the Hawaiian islands.http://
www.aimforawesome.com/media-photos-ebooks-audio-videos/
photos/hawaiian-islands-aerial-satellite-photograph/
D
2. Tell them that the Hawaiian islands are volcanic islands.
3. Let them realize that Hawaii is situated in the middle of Pacific plate
E

and not along the plate boundaries. Ask them what gives rise to
Hawaiian islands.
4. Introduce to them the next activity which is about intraplate activities.
EP

5. The activity will simulate how hot spots give rise to volcanic islands.
6. You can also watch a video clip on this website:http://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=AhSaE0omw9o
D

Answers to questions
Q36. What can you see on the surface of the paper?

Answer: The surface of the paper which is directly in contact with the test tube
became wet.
Q37. Let’s say that the paper represents the Earth’s crust; what do you think is
represented by the water in the test tube?

Answer: Magma from the mantle is represented by the water in the test tube.

19

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Q38. What geologic feature do you think will be formed at the surface of the
crust?
Answer: Volcanoes will be formed.

Q39. Which of the features at the surface of the crust will be the oldest? the
youngest? Label these on your paper.

Answer: The oldest volcano will be the first one that developed while the
youngest volcano is the last one that was formed.

Q40. Which of the features will be the most active? The least active? Label
these on your paper.

PY
Answer: The most active volcano is the youngest one (the one that is
currently on top of the magma source). While the least active
volcano, is the oldest (because it is already cut-off from the source of

O
magma).

Key concepts:
C
1. A “hot spot” is an area in the mantle from which hot materials rise as
a thermal plume.
D
2. High heat and lower pressure at the base of the lithosphere (tectonic
plate) facilitates melting of the rock. This melt, called magma, rises
E

through cracks and erupts to form volcanoes.

3. As the tectonic plate moves over the stationary hot spot, the volcanoes
EP

are rafted away and new ones form in their place. This results in
chains of volcanoes, such as the Hawaiian Islands. 

Performance Task
D

Teaching tips:

1. The students will be asked to prepare an emergency kit for the whole
family that they can use during or after a disaster.

2. This activity will require weeks of preparation on the part of the


students. Assign this activity weeks before the actual lesson.

3. Some items needed in the kit may be costly, but as much as possible
let us encourage the students to do their best to complete their kits.

20

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
4. Let students present their emergency kits in the class and explain
why they think those items must be included in the kit.

5. Encourage debate and discussion.

6. Emphasize that an emergency kit must be prepared ahead of time,


not right before or during an emergency

7. The scoring rubric below can be use in evaluating the emergency kit
of the students.

1 pt. 2 pts. 3 pts. 4 pts.

PY
None of the A few of At least 8 At least
items are the items items are 10 items
necessary are clearly clearly are clearly
Survival Kit
for survival necessary necessary for necessary
Items

O
during or for survival survival during for survival
after a during or after or after a during or after
disaster. .  a disaster.  disaster.  a disaster. 
C
A few of At least 8 At least 10
None of
the items of the items items are
the items
are labeled are labeled labeled
D
are labeled
properly and properly and properly and
properly and
Labels and a reason for a reason for a reason for
there is no
E

Uses each item is each item is each item


reason for
included on included on is stated on
including it in
a separate a separate a separate
EP

the survival
sheet of sheet of sheet of
kit. 
paper.  paper. paper. 

The kit is not The kit is The kit


organized. somewhat The kit is done is neatly
D

It looks like organized well with some organized


the student and it looks organization and labeled
Neatness
threw it like the and labeling. as necessary.
and Effort
together student ran It appears Much time
exerted 
at the last out of time the student and effort
minute or didn’t take worked hard were put into
without care of the on it.  creating this
much care.  project project

21

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Emergency kit checklist source: http://www.redcross.org/

• Water—one gallon per person, per day (3-day supply for evacuation,
2-week supply for home)
• Food—non-perishable, easy-to-prepare items (3-day supply for
evacuation, 2-week supply for home)
• Flashlight
• Battery-powered radio
• Extra batteries
• First aid kit
• Medications (7-day supply) and medical items
• Multi-purpose tool

PY
• Sanitation and personal hygiene items
• Copies of personal documents (medication list and pertinent medical
information, proof of address, deed/lease to home, passports, birth
certificates, insurance policies)
• Cell phone with chargers

O
• Family and emergency contact information
• Extra cash
• Emergency blanket
• Map(s) of the area
C
Summary/Synthesis/Feedback
D

• According to the plate tectonics model, the entire lithosphere of the Earth
E

is broken into numerous segments called plates.


• Each plate is slowly but continuously moving.
EP

• As a result of the motion of the plates, three types of plate boundaries


were formed: Divergent, Convergent, and Transform fault boundaries
• Divergent boundary is formed when plates move apart, creating a zone
of tension.
• Convergent boundary is present when two plates collide.
D

• Transform fault is characterized by plates that are sliding past each


other.
• Plate tectonics give rise to several geologic features and events.

22

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answers to the summative assessment:
1. Any of these three are the possible answers: mountains, volcanoes
or trenches.

2. d

3. b

4. Transform-fault boundary

5. a

PY
6. b

7. d

O
8. a and f

9. b and e
C
10. c and d
E D
EP
D

23

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Glossary of Terms
Continental volcanic arc. Mountains formed in part by igneous activity
associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath a continent.

Convergent boundary. A boundary in which two plates move toward each


other, causing one of the slabs of the lithosphere to subduct beneath an
overriding plate.

Crust. The outer portion of the earth.

Continental Crust. The thick part of the Earth’s crust, not located under the

PY
ocean.

Oceanic Crust. The thin part of the Earth’s crust located under the oceans.

Divergent boundary. A region where the crustal plates are moving apart.

O
Earthquake. Vibration of Earth due to the rapid release of energy.
C
Fault. A break in a rock along which movement has occurred.

Fracture. Any break in a rock in which no significant movement has taken


D
place.

Geology. The science that studies Earth.


E

Hot spot. A concentration of heat in the mantle capable of creating magma.


EP

Magma. A mass of molten rock form from a depth, including dissolved gases
and crystals.

Mid-ocean ridge. A continuous mass of land with long width and height on the
D

ocean floor.

Plate. Rigid sections of the lithosphere that moves as a unit.

Plate tectonics. A theory which suggests that Earth’s crust is made up of plates
that interact in various ways, thus producing earthquakes, mountains,
volcanoes and other geologic features.

Primary (P) wave. The first type of seismic wave to be recorded in a seismic
station.

24

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Rocks. Consolidated mixture of minerals.

Secondary (S) wave. Second type of earthquake wave to be recorded in a


seismic station.

Seismogram. A record made by a seismograph.

Seismograph. A device used to record earthquake waves.

Subduction. An event in which a slab of rock thrusts into the mantle.

Transform fault boundary. A boundary produced when two plates slide past

PY
each other.

Trench. A depression in the seafloor produced by subduction process.

Volcanic Island arc. A chain of volcanoes that develop parallel to a

O
trench.
C
E D
EP
D

25

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
References and Links
Department of Education, Bureau of Secondary Education. Project EASE
Integrated Science 1, Module 12: Inside the Earth.

Department of Education, Bureau of Secondary Education (2013). Science


Grade 8 Learner’s Module. Vibal Publishing House, Inc.

Tarbuck, E.J. et al. (2009). Earth Science 12th ed. Pearson Education
South Asia Pte Ltd.

http://www.skoool.ie/ accessed March 3, 2014

PY
http://earthds.info/ accessed March 3, 2014
http://eqseis.geosc.psu.edu/ accessed March 4, 2014
http://thehistoryofthephilippines.blogspot.com/ accessed March 4, 2014
http://www.platetectonics.com/ accessed March 5, 2014

O
http://geology.com/ accessed March 5, 2014
http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ accessed March 6, 2014
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/ accessed March 6, 2014
C
http://pubs.usgs.gov/ accessed March 6, 2014
http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/tectonic.htm accessed March 7, 2014
D
http://stream2.cma.gov.cn/pub/comet/Environment/TsunamiWarningSystems
accessed March 3 2014
E

http://marc.fournier.free.free.fr accessed July 1, 2014


EP

https://www.bucknell.edu/majors-and-minors/geology/location/geologic-
history-of-central-pennsylvania/plate-tectonics.html accessed July 1, 2014
http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/ accessed July 2, 2014
http://www.wildjunket.com/ accessed July 2, 2014
D

http://www.jnb-birds.com/ accessed July 2, 2014


http://www.geo.hunter.cuny.edu/ accessed July 2, 2014
http://wowlegazpi.com/mayon-volcano-interesting-facts/#sthash.Q3mSKqYG.
dpbs accessed July 2, 2014

26

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Unit 1 Suggested time allotment: 15 to 18 hours

MODULE

2 The Earth’s Interior

PY
Content Standard: Performance Standard:

The learners shall demonstrate an The learners shall be able to:


understanding of:

O
1. demonstrate ways to ensure
The relationship among the disaster
locations of volcanoes, earthquake preparedness during earthquakes,
epicenters, and mountain ranges
C
tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions;
and
D
2. suggest ways by which he/she can
contribute to government efforts in
reducing damage due to
E

earthquakes,
tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.
EP

Overview
The topic on Plate Tectonics and the processes within the Earth’s interior
D

conclude the spiralling concepts in Geology. In fact, Geology is the only strand
discussed in Grade 10 Science because of the topic’s broadness.

In this module, we focus on the Earth’s interior structure and processes.


It is also discussed how these processes could possibly have affected the
Earth’s surface and caused its physical appearance.

There are seven activities in this module which slowly develop the
concept of relating the Earth’s interior processes with the physical structure of
the Earth’s surface.

27

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
After all these activities, a performance task is provided to connect and
conclude the two modules for Earth and Space in this grade. The task is very
important for the learners to understand the nature of our home planet and to
instil in them how they could be part of reducing the risks brought by geologic
phenomena.

In the discussion, it would be best if the teacher focuses and directs the
students towards the development of concepts by answering the following key
questions:

PY
O
C
Learning Competencies
D
In this module, you should be able to:

1. Describe the internal structure of the Earth.


E

2. Discuss the possible causes of plate movement.


3. Enumerate the lines of evidence that support plate movement.
EP
D

28

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answers to Pre-Assessment

Directions:
A. Choose the letter of the correct answer.
For questions 1 and 2, refer to the figure below that shows the cross
section of the Earth as seismic waves travel through it.

PY
O
C
E D
EP

Seismic waves as they travel through the Earth

1. An S-wave shadow zone is formed as seismic waves travel through


D

the Earth’s body. Which of the following statements does this S-wave
shadow zone indicate?
a. The inner core is liquid.
b. The inner core is solid.
c. The mantle is solid.
d. The outer core is liquid.
Answer: D

29

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
2. Why are there no P-waves or S-waves received in the P-wave
shadow zone?
a. P-waves are aboserbed and S-waves are refracted by Earth’s
outer core.
b. P-waves are refracted and S-waves are absorbed by Earth’s
outer core.
c. Both the P-waves and S-waves are refracted by Earth’s outer
core.
d. Both the P-waves and S-waves are absorbed by Earths outer
core.
Answer: B
3. What makes up the lithosphere?

PY
a. Continental crust
b. Crust and the upper mantle
c. Oceanic crust and continental crust
d. Upper mantle

O
Answer: B
4. Miners dig into the Earth in search for precious rocks and minerals.
In which layer is the deepest explorations made by miners?
a. Crust c. Mantle
C
b. Inner core d. Outer core
Answer: A
D
5. How do you compare the densities of the Earth’s crust, mantle and
core?
E

a. The mantle is less dense than the core but denser than the crust.
b. The mantle is less dense than both the core and the crust.
c. The mantle is denser than the core but less dense than the crust.
EP

d. The mantle is denser than both the core and the crust.
Answer: A
6. The movement of the lithospheric plates is facilitated by a soft, weak
and plastic-like layer. Which of the following layers is described in
D

the statement?
a. Asthenosphere c. Lithosphere
b. Atmosphere d. Mantle
Answer: A
7. Alfred Wegener is a German scientist who hypothesized that the
Earth was once made up of a single large landmass called Pangaea.
Which of the following theories did Wegener propose?
a. Continental Drift Theory c. Plate Tectonics
b. Continental Shift Theory d. Seafloor Spreading Theory
Answer: A

30

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
8. If you are a cartographer, what will give you an idea that the continents
were once joined?
a. Ocean depth
b. Position of the south pole
c. Shape of the continents
d. Size of the Atlantic Ocean
Answer: C
9. Which observation was NOT instrumental in formulating the
hypothesis of seafloor spreading?
a. Depth of the ocean
b. Identifying the location of glacial deposits
c. Magnetization of the oceanic crust

PY
d. Thickness of seafloor sediments
Answer: B
10. As a new seafloor is formed at the mid-ocean ridge, the old seafloor
farthest from the ridge is destroyed. Which of the stated processes

O
describes how the oceanic crust plunges into the Earth and destroyed
at the mantle?
a. Convection
b. Construction
C
c. Diversion
d. Subduction
Answer: D
E D
EP
D

31

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
B. Answer briefly the following questions.
1. What are the different layers of the Earth?
Answer: The different layers of the Earth are the crust, the mantle,
and the core. The core is made up of a solid inner core and liquid
outer core.
2. Why is there a need to study the Earth’s layers?
Answer: We need to study the Earth’s layers because the mechanisms
in the inner layers facilitate the slow changes that occur on the Earth’s
surface. Although these changes takes millions of years to shape
the Earth, the tectonic activities that go along with these changes
affect us very much.

PY
3. What proves the existence of the boundary between the crust and
the mantle?
Answer: As seismic waves pass from the crust to the mantle, the
velocity increases. If the velocity of waves changes, it means that the
density of the media where they travel through are different, and thus

O
proves a boundary.
4. What are the characteristics of the asthenosphere?
C
Answer: The asthenosphere is the soft weak layer below the
lithosphere. It has a temperature that facilitates a small amount of
melting that gives it the capability to flow.
D
5. What do the shapes of the continents now tell us about their past?
Answer: The shape of the continents seems like a jigsaw puzzle when
put together. A picture will be formed and indicate that the continents
E

were once together in the past.


EP

Studying the Earth’s Interior

The knowledge about seismic waves is very important in understanding


D

the discovery of the different layers of the Earth as well as in determining


the properties of these layers. If the students are able to understand the
characteristics of seismic waves, they will be able to relate how each layer of
the Earth was discovered.
The following activity will make the learners differentiate the types and
understand the characteristics of seismic waves. It will prepare them in learning
the properties and composition of the different layers of the Earth.
The teacher can make it as an individual activity for fast-paced learners
or as a group activity for those who are more inclined to group discussion.

32

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 1
Amazing Waves!

PY

O
C
E D
EP

In giving points to students’ responses, you may refer to the following:


5 points – a graphic organizer that is complete and comprehensive
4 points – one part of the organizer is not filled but the given ideas are
D

correct
3 points – two parts of the organizer is not filled but the given ideas are
correct
2 points – two parts of the organizer is not filled and some of the given
ideas are not correct
1 point – three parts of the organizer is not filled and some of the given
ideas are not correct
0 point – no effort exerted

33

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answers to questions:

Q1. Differentiate surface waves from body waves.

Surface waves travel only on the Earth’s surface like ripples of water
while body waves travel through the Earth’s body (interior). In addition, surface
waves arrive last at seismic recording stations compared to the body waves.

Q2. Which type of wave do you think were useful to seismologists in their study
of the Earth’s interior? Explain your answer.

The body waves were used by seismologists because they can pass
through the Earth’s interior.

PY
Allow to perform this activity in a way that the students will realize that it
takes different properties (like reflection and refraction properties of waves) and
characteristics to analyze and differentiate the media where they travel through.

O
Discuss the characteristics of the seismic waves and how these characteristics
led to the discovery of each layer of the Earth. C
The Composition of the Earth’s Interior
As the teacher continues to discuss with the layers of the Earth, the
teacher may opt to use a boiled egg that is cut across to represent the Earth
D
and to demonstrate each layer. The teacher may ask the students to tell the
limitations of the model to determine their understanding.
E

In describing the lithosphere and asthenosphere, the teacher may use


the cracked shell to represent the lithosphere and soft butter to represent the
EP

asthenosphere. Have the students slide the shell cracks over the soft butter.
This will give them the idea how the lithosphere ride over the asthenosphere.

The ability of the asthenosphere to flow slowly is termed as plasticity.



D

To further demonstrate the characteristic of the asthenosphere, the teacher


may do Predict-Observe-Explain for the following activity, before the readings
and discussion of the mantle. This is to affirm the correctness of ideas cited and
rectify misconceptions that may arise upon doing the activity.

Post the questions on the board: “How will the mixture of cornstarch and
water react? Will it act as liquid, solid or gas? The teacher writes the answers
of the learners on the board but should not expect that they will give correct
answers. Let the learners observe as the teacher performs the activity. After the
activity is done, the teacher should correct the misconceptions of the students
during the discussion.

34

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Demonstration: Simulating Plasticity
(Adapted)

Materials
• 15 g cornstarch
• 2 small cups
• 20 ml tap water
• medicine dropper
• stirring rod or spoon

Procedure:

PY
1. Put 15 g cornstarch into one of the beakers. Put 10 ml water into the
other beaker.
2. Add one drop full of water to the cornstarch. Stir the mixture.
Ask the students the question:
How does the mixture react like; solid, liquid or gas?

O
3. Continue to add water to the mixture, one drop full at a time. Stir the
mixture after each addition.
4. Stop adding water when the mixture becomes difficult to stir.
5. Pour the mixture into your hand.
C
6. Roll the mixture into a ball and press it.
D
Let the students explain what they have observed. Facilitate the students’
reactions with the following questions:
E

Q1. How does the mixture behave like?


EP

A1: It behaves like solid.

Q2. How is the mixture of cornstarch and water similar to the


Earth’s mantle?
D

A2: The mixture of cornstarch and water behaves like the mantle. It
has the ability to flow slowly..

Q3. How is it different from the Earth’s mantle?

A3: The cornstarch gained mobility due to addition of water while the
mantle’s plasticity is due to partial melting aided by the heat of the
inner layers of the earth.

Q4. How does the plasticity of the Earth’s mantle influence the
movement of the lithospheric plates?

35

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
A4: Since the mantle is capable of flowing slowly, it carries and
facilitates the movement of lithospheric plates above it as it
moves.

Activity 2
Our Dynamic Earth

Activity 2 will test the learners’ understanding on the different


characteristics, properties and composition of the Earth’s layers. If possible,
make it as an individual activity.

Expected Output:

PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

Answers to questions:
Q3. What element is the most abundant in the Earth’s crust?

Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust.

Q4. What elements make up most of the mantle?

The elements silicon, oxygen, iron and magnesium make up the


mantle.

36

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Q5. What is the special feature of the upper mantle?

The upper mantle has with it a soft weak layer called the
asthenosphere, which is capable of flowing. This property facilitates the
movement of the lithospheric plates.

Q6. How did scientists discover that the outer core is liquid?

The scientists were able to show that the outer core is liquid due
to the fact that S- waves cannot travel through this Earth’s layer as proven
by the S-wave shadow zone.

PY
Q7. What materials make up the inner core?

The inner core is mostly made up of iron and nickel.

Q8. Is the inner core solid, liquid or gas? What keeps it in this phase?

O
The inner core is solid. This is due to the very high pressure that keeps
it compacted together even if the temperature is really very high.
C
Q9. Compare the inner core and the outer core.
D
The outer and the inner core are made mostly of iron and nickel.
The outer core reaches a temperature of 2000oC. With this temperature,
the iron and nickel melt thus, this layer is liquid. The inner core has a
E

temperature as high as 5000oC. It is compact despite of the very hot


temperature because of the very great pressure that keeps this layer in the
EP

solid phase.

The Earth’s Mechanism


D

The teacher may introduce the lesson by linking the concept of the
Earth’s interior structure with its interior processes, and then the effects of
these processes.

The teacher may ask this question: “Is the Earth’s interior processes
related with the structure of the Earth’s surface?” Encourage responses from
the students.

37

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 3
Let’s Fit it!

Divide the class into groups of 3 to 4 students and perform the activity as
a group. This will serve as the teacher’s springboard to the next activity. The
students’ reasoning ability will be enhanced. Conduct this activity as quickly as
possible.

Answers to questions:
Q10. What features of the newspaper helped you to connect the pieces
perfectly?

PY
Pictures and words in the newspaper helped us to connect the pieces
perfectly.

Q11. How do the lines of prints or texts in the newspaper help you to confirm

O
that you have reassembled the newspaper/magazine page?
C
The lines of prints make sure that the newspaper is fitted well.
The words written serve as clues in connecting the pieces of newspaper
together. The completed/connected words confirm that the newspaper
has been reassembled.
D

Q12. Show proofs that the newspaper is perfectly reassembled.


E

The answers may vary.


- The picture in the newspaper if completed.
EP

- The broken words were completed/connected.

Activity 4
D

Drifted Supercontinent!

Answers to questions:

Q13. What does the Glossopteris fossils tell us about the early positions of
the continents?
Since it is impossible for Glossopteris fossils found in different
regions or continents to be blown by the wind or carried by ocean waves,
the only possibility is that these regions were once connected.

38

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Q14. If Glossopteris fossils were found in Antarctica, what does this indicate
about the climate of this continent before?
It proves that Antarctica had a tropical climate before.

Q15. If the climate and the position of a place are relative to each other,
where then was the initial location of Antarctica 250 million years ago?
It tells us that Antarctica was nearer to the equator before as
compared to where it is today.

Q16. What does the presence of Mesosaurus fossils tell about the initial

PY
location and position of South America, Africa, and Antarctica?
It tells us that these continents were connected before, since
this kind of animal cannot swim across the vast ocean.
Q17. What clues are useful in reconstructing Pangaea?

O
The edges of the continents are useful in reconstructing Pangaea.
Aside from the fitting of edges of the continents, the presence of
C
evidences found in the same continents made the reconstruction easier.

Q18. Which continents do you think were neighbors before?


D

Possible answers:
Europe and Asia were neighbors in the north.
E

North America, South America and Africa in the middle.


Australia and Antarctica, together with India in the South.
EP

Q19. Will there be a possibility that the current location of a continent would
be different 100 years from now?

Yes, if the continents continue to move. But it will not be very


D

noticeable because it took 200 million years before the continents came
to where they are now, based on the Continental Drift Theory.

Q20. Where do you think was the Philippines located during the time that the
Pangaea existed? Research on how the Philippine islands emerged.

Knowing that the Philippines has or is near trenches, it could


have not existed during the time of Pangaea but borne out of volcanic
eruptions and other tectonic activities.

39

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Q21. If the continents will continue to move, try to predict the Philippines’
location 100 million years from now.

Answers may vary.



For the purpose of facilitating learning and in preparation for the class
discussion, the teacher must perform the activity first before letting the students
do it in the class.

Activity 5

PY
Split and Separate!
(Adapted)

Answers to questions

O
Q22. What do the stripes in the paper represent?
C
The stripes represent the rocks with normal and reverse polarities.

Q23. What does the middle slit represent? What occurs in this region?
D
The middle slit represents the mid-ocean ridge where the actual
seafloor - spreading occurs.
E

Q24. What is the role of the mid–ocean ridge in the movement of lithospheric
plates?
EP

The mid-ocean ridge serves as the origin of lithospheric movement.


It is the place where the force that pushes the lithosphere originates.

Q25. How does the new seafloor form at the mid-ocean ridge?
D

Hot, less dense material below the Earth’s crust rises towards
the mid-ocean ridge. As this material flows sideways, it creates a crack
in the crust where magma will flow out. This magma cools down and
becomes the new seafloor.

Q26. What process/es happen at the side slits?

The side slits serve as subduction zone where the old seafloor
plunges beneath another tectonic plate.

40

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Q27. Is the earth getting larger and wider when plates drift away from each
other? Explain briefly.

The Earth is not getting larger or smaller. If there is the production


of a new seafloor in the mid-ocean ridge, there is a destruction of an old
seafloor at subduction zones.

Activity 6

Adapted (Glencoe Earth Science student edition copyright 2002)

In this activity, students will compute for the rate of seafloor spreading.

PY
After the activity, they will be able to determine the distance a continent moves
for every year. Reiterate to the students that NOT ALL plates move at the same
rate.
How fast does it go?

O
C
E D
EP

Magnetic Polarity Map


Answers to questions
D

Q28. How far do the plates move away from each other every year?

Answer: 2.5 cm per year

Q29. If Africa is approximately 2,400 km away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, how
long ago was it when Africa was directly at or near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

Answer: 96000000 years or 96 million years


After the activity, the teacher must relate the creation of a new seafloor
with the one that causes it. This will pave the way to the concept of convection
current.

41

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Recall the mechanisms of the Earth’s interior structure and properties.
The teacher must make a strong idea about the properties of the mantle and
the process it undergoes. This will lead the learners to connect the Seafloor
Spreading Theory with the convection current that happens in the mantle.

For Activity 7, the teacher must perform the activity first before letting the
students perform so he could facilitate the class. The teacher must constantly
remind the students to be extra careful in handling heating materials.

Activity 7
(Adapted)

PY
Push me up and aside!

Answers to questions

O
Q30. How does the food coloring react?
The food color rises and moves to the sides of the beaker then
sinks. It demonstrates a cyclic motion.
C
Q31. What do you call this behavior?
D
This is called convection current.
E

Q32. Enumerate the factors that cause the formation of a current.


 The difference in density in the molecules is caused by the difference
EP

in temperature.
 The rate of heating at the bottom and the rate of cooling at the top.
 Amount of heat supplied to the substance.
D

Q33. What happens to the blocks? What does this resemble?

The blocks are pushed up to the middle of the boiling water and
then swayed towards the sides of the beaker.
The small, light wood blocks resemble the lithospheric/tectonic
plates that moved about slowly along the tectonic boundaries, pushing,
sliding past and drifting away from each other because of convection
current.

42

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
The teacher should explain that these are the possible causes of tectonic
activities. Again, reiterate that the processes/activities in the Earth’s interior
play a role in the processes along Earth’s surface.

The teacher may opt to end the lesson with a video presentation on the
evolution of the Earth or a video on how magnificent the Earth is if there are
available videos that can be downloaded from the internet.

The teacher should also emphasize that it is impossible to stop these


tectonic activities from happening, but we can do something to mitigate their
effects.

PY
Performance Task

This is the performance task for the students. This activity shows the

O
effects of geologic activities like volcanic eruptions and earthquake. This could
be an individual or a group activity which aims to motivate students to be part
in mitigating the effects of tectonic activities.
C
1. The teacher gives a situation where the students acts as a project
engineer who wants to develop a subdivision, a realtor who sells a house
& lot, a geologist visiting his/her hometown or simply a student seeking
D
to help the government. However, the students are given an option to
choose other characters in the society.
E

2. The performance task must be given at the start of the first grading
period.
EP

3. This should be presented at the end of the grading period.


4. The teacher must set a date for the learners’ to present their outputs in
class.
D

43

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
5. The teacher may consider the following rubric in rating the students.

Criteria 4 3 2 1 Score

Has included 5 Has included Has included


Has included 2
things or more to 4 things to 3 things to
things to remember
Details and remember before, remember before, remember
information
before, during and
during and after during and after before, during
any tectonic any tectonic after any tectonic
and after any
activity. activity. activity.
tectonic activity.

The method of
The method of The method of

PY
presentation The method of
Method of is easy to presentation presentation is presentation is not
Presentation understand, is unique and organized but organized and not
unique and organized. not unique. unique.
outstanding.

O
The presentation/
The presentation
medium includes The presentation
/ medium includes
unusual and / medium include The presentation /
some unusual
interesting
unusual and medium does not
Technique/
Creativity
features and
components
C
and interesting
features that interesting include unusual
interest the features, but they or interesting
that excite the
audience and do not add to its features.
audience about
relate to the meaning.
the topic and add
D
meaning.
to the meaning.

Information
E

Information
contains minimal contains minimal
Information
Information error, none of errors, of which
Accuracy contains many
contains no error. which interferes interferes with
EP

with the clarity of errors.


the clarity of
communication communication

The clientele The clientele


The clientele understood the
understood a
understood well The clientele
purpose.
D

little the purpose


Feedback the purpose and ignored the
and objective
objective was purpose.
was somewhat
attained.
attained.

44

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Summary/Synthesis/Feedback

• The Earth is composed of three main layers: the crust, mantle, and
core which is subdivided into outer core and inner core.
• The crust is the outermost and thinnest layer of the Earth.
• The mantle is the middle layer of the Earth. It makes most of the
Earth’s volume and mass.
• The crust and a part of the upper mantle make up the lithosphere.
The lithosphere is subdivided into portions called lithospheric
plates.
• The asthenosphere is the weak layer of the mantle on which the

PY
lithosphere floats.
• The outer core is made up of molten material. The outer core
accounts for the Earth’s magnetic field.
• The inner core is the deepest layer of the Earth. It is made up of

O
solid nickel and iron. The temperature in the inner core reaches as
high as 5000oC.
C
• The speed, reflection and refraction properties of seismic waves
are used by scientists to study the structure and composition of the
Earth’s interior.
D
• The Continental Drift Theory of Alfred Wegener states that the
continents were once a part of a large landmass called Pangaea
which splits apart and the continents moved away from each other
E

towards their current positions.


• Alfred Wegener based his theory on evidences from fossils
EP

embedded in rocks and rock formations.


• Seafloor spreading is believed to occur as hot magma rises at the
rift in the mid-ocean ridge. This magma cools down and becomes
the new seafloor as it pushes the former.
D

• The old seafloor is destroyed at the subduction zone and melts


inside the mantle.
• The age of rocks and the magnetic stripes in the ocean floor support
the seafloor spreading theory.
• The theory of plate tectonics helps explain the formation and
destruction of the Earth’s crust and its movement over time.
• Scientists believe that the plates’ movement is due to convection
currents in the mantle.

45

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Summative Assessment
A. Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. In 1912, Alfred Wegener proposed a theory that the Earth is once a


single landmass. What is the name of the Mesozoic Supercontinent
that consisted of all of the present continents?

a. Eurasia
b. Laurasia
c. Pangaea
d. Gondwanaland
Answer: C

PY
2. Who were the two scientists who proposed the theory of seafloor
spreading in the early 1960s?

a. Charles Darwin and James Hutton

O
b. Harry Hess and Robert Dietz
c. John Butler and Arthur Smite
d. F. Vine and D. Mathews
Answer: B
C
3. Which of the following diagrams best illustrates the convection
occurring in the mantle?
E D

A. C.
EP
D

B. D.

Answer: A

46

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
4. During the 1960s, scientists were already equipped with gadgets
needed to explore the deep ocean. What discovery about the ocean
floor is associated with the seafloor spreading?

a. Mountains are denser than the mantle.


b. The rotational poles of the Earth have migrated.
c. The crust of the continents is denser than the crust of the ocean.
d. The crust of the ocean is very young relative to the age of the
crust of the continents.
Answer: B
5. If the Atlantic Ocean is widening at a rate of 3 cm per year, how far
(in kilometers) will it spread in a million years?

PY
a. 3 kilometers
b. 30 kilometers
c. 300 kilometers

O
d. 3000 kilometers
Answer: B C
6. Which of the following increases with distance from a mid-ocean
ridge?

a. the age of oceanic lithosphere


D
b. the thickness of the lithosphere
c. the depth to the sea floor
d. all of the above
E

Answer: D
EP

7. Which of the following can you infer from the continuous movement
of the lithospheric plates over the asthenosphere?

a. All the continents will cease to exist.


b. All the volcanoes in the Philippines will become inactive.
D

c. The continents will not be located in the same place as they are
now.
d. The islands of the Philippines will become scattered all over the
world.
Answer: C

47

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
8. If all the inner layers of the Earth are firm solid, what could have
happened to Pangaea?

a. It remained as a supercontinent.
b. It would have become as it is today.
c. It would have slowly disappeared in the ocean.
d. It would have stretched and covered the whole world.
Answer: A
9. Why does the oceanic crust sink beneath the continental crust at the
subduction zone?

a. The oceanic crust has a greater density.

PY
b. The oceanic crust is pulled downward by Earth’s magnetic field.
c. The oceanic crust is pushed from the ridge.
d. The continental crust has a denser composition.
Answer: C

O
10. The lithospheric plates are believed to be moving slowly. What is the
driving force that facilitates this movement?

a. gravitational force of the moon


C
b. magnetic force at the poles
c. convection current in the mantle
D
d. the force of the atmosphere
Answer: C
E
EP
D

48

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
B. Complete the concept map below on continental drift, seafloor spreading,
and plate tectonics.

PY
O
C
E D
EP

Plate Tectonic
Theory
D

49

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Glossary of Terms

Asthenosphere. Soft, weak upper portion of the mantle where the lithospheric
plates float and move around.

Continental Drift Theory. States that all the continents were once one large
landmass that broke apart and where the pieces moved slowly to their
current locations.

Convection current. Current in the mantle due to the heat from the inner layers

PY
of the Earth and is the force that drives the plates to move around.

Lithosphere. The topmost, solid part of the Earth that is composed of several
plates.

O
Lithospheric Plates. The moving, irregularly shaped slabs that fit together to
form the surface of the Earth.
C
Mid-ocean ridge. Area in the middle of the ocean where new ocean floor is
D
formed when lava erupts through the cracks in the Earth’s crust.
E

Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho). The boundary that separates the crust


and the mantle.
EP

Plasticity. The ability of solid to flow.


D

Seafloor spreading. A process by which new ocean floor is formed near the
mid-ocean ridge and moves outward.

Subduction. The process in which the crust plunges back into the Earth.

Tectonics. Branch of Geology that deals with the movements that shape the
Earth’s crust.

50

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
References and links

Borrero, Francisco et al. (2008). Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and
the Universe. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Department of Education, Bureau of Secondary Education. Project EASE


Integrated Science 1, Module 12: Inside the Solid Earth

Department of Education, Bureau of Secondary Education (2013). Science –

PY
Grade 8 Learner’s Module. Vibal Publishing House, Inc.

Feather Jr.,Ralph et al. (2002). Glencoe Earth Science. The McGraw-Hill


Companies, Inc..

O
C
Maton, Anthea et al. (1999). Exploring Earth Science. Prentice Hall.

Tarbuck, E.J. et al. (2009). Earth Science 12th ed. Pearson Education South
D
Asia Pte Ltd.
E
EP
D

51

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Internet

http://www.geomag.bgs.ac.uk/education/reversals.html accessed March 1,


2014

https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Asthenosphere.html
accessed March 1, 2014

http://www.learner.org/courses/essential/earthspace/session3/closer2.htm

PY
accessed March 3, 2014

http://loki.stockton.edu/~hozikm/geol/Courses/The%20Earth/Content%20Web
%20Pages/Bugielski/webpage.htm accessed February 28, 2014

O
http://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/topics/earth/geophysics/Seismic%20Waves%
20Reading.htm accessed March 1, 2014
C
http://rieson.blogspot.com/2013/02/birth-of-earth.html accessed March 1,
D
2014
E

http://www.yourdictionary.com/magnetic-reversal accessed March 31, 2014


EP

http://www.learner.org/courses/essential/earthspace/session3/closer2.htm
accessed March 3, 2014

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/glossary/Contdrift.html
D

accessed March 7, 2014

52

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.