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# Step 4

## To analyze the waves behavior in guided mediums and radiation

Group 24

Student name
Jose Angel Bossa Diaz
C.C: 1100.399.559
Selected item 4.

Alexis Pedroza
Cc: 67032716
Selected item 2.
Alexis Mina

School of Basic Sciences, Technology and Engineering
Electromagnetic Theory and Waves
2019 8-05
Introduction

In the next document, our group make the analyze of the waves behavior in guided
• Waveguides.
• Electric parameters in transmission lines.

In the daily comings and goings, each of us in one way or another receives or sends
information and as it was customary to do so, we do not ask ourselves how the
transmission of the information works. In this document we will deal a little bit with
the theory of how electromagnetic waves travel through the guided media, which in
essence is how the information comes from our personal computer or other devices, go
to the modem and from there to the transmission antenna . This information is
exposed to resistance known as impedances that limit the free circulation or
transmission of it, in this document we will discuss some exercises and through software
we can define the best circuit for the ideal transmission.
Developed activity (consolidate)

## 1. In the propagation of electromagnetic waves, what are the

"transmission lines"?
Twisted pair cable

## A twisted pair cable is formed by bending ("twisting") two insulated conductors

together. The pairs are often braided in units and the units, in turn, are wired in
the core. These are covered with various types of covers, depending on the use
that will be given. The neighboring pairs are braided with different inclination (the
length of the braid) in order to reduce the interference between the pairs due to
mutual induction. The primary constants of the twisted pair cable are its electrical
parameters (resistance, inductance, capacitance and conductance). Which are
subject to variations with the physical environment such as temperature,
humidity and mechanical stress, and which depend on variations in
manufacturing. Figure 8 shows a twisted pair cable.

## Cable pair protected with armor

To reduce radiation and interference losses, the transmission lines of two parallel
cables are often enclosed in a conductive metal mesh. The mesh is connected to
ground and acts as a protection. The mesh also prevents signals from diffusing
beyond their limits and prevents electromagnetic interference from reaching the
signal conductors. In Figure 8-6d a pair of parallel cables is shown protected. It
consists of two parallel cable conductors separated by a solid dielectric material.
The entire structure is enclosed in a conductive braided tube and then covered
with a protective plastic layer.

## Coaxial or concentric transmission lines

The parallel conductor transmission lines are suitable for low frequency
applications. However, at high frequencies, their radiation losses and dielectric
losses, as well as their susceptibility to external interference, are excessive.
Therefore, coaxial conductors are widely used, for high frequency applications, to
reduce losses and to isolate the transmission paths. The basic coaxial cable
consists of a central conductor surrounded by a concentric outer conductor
(uniform distance from the center). At relatively high operating frequencies, the
external coaxial conductor provides excellent protection against external
interference. However, at lower operating frequencies, the use of protection is
not co-stable. In addition, the external conductor of a coaxial cable is generally
connected to ground, which limits its use to unbalanced applications.
Essentially, there are two types of coaxial cables: rigid lines filled with air and
flexible solid lines. The insulating material is a solid non-conductive polyethylene
material that provides support, as well as electrical insulation between the inner
and outer conductor. The internal conductor is a flexible copper cable that can be
solid or hollow.
Rigid coaxial cables filled with air are relatively expensive to manufacture, and
the air insulation must be relatively free of moisture to minimize losses Solid
coaxial cables have lower losses and are easier to construct, install, and maintain.
Both types of coaxial cables are relatively immune to external radiation, they
radiate very little, and can operate at higher frequencies than their parallel cable
counterparts. The basic disadvantages of coaxial transmission lines are that they
are expensive and have to be used in unbalanced mode.

Balunes
A circuit device that is used to connect a balanced transmission line to an
unbalanced load is called balun (balanced to unbalanced). Or more commonly, an
unbalanced transmission line, such as a coaxial cable, can be connected to a
balanced load, such as an antenna, using a special transformer with an
unbalanced primary and a secondary winding with central connection.
The external conductor (protector) of an unbalanced coaxial transmission line is
usually connected to ground. At relatively low frequencies, an ordinary
transformer is used to isolate the earth from the load, as shown in Figure 8a. The
balun must have an electrostatic protection connected to physical ground to
minimize the effects of capacitance dispersed.
For relatively high frequencies, there are several different types of baluns for
transmission lines.
The most common type is a narrow-band balun, sometimes called balun shock,
shirt, or bakuka balun, as shown in figure 88b. A quarter-wavelength sleeve is
placed around it and connected to the external conductor of a coaxial cable.
Consequently, the impedance that is emitted from the transmission line is formed
by a jacket and the external conductor and is equal to infinity (that is, the external
conductor no longer has an impedance of zero to ground). So, one of the cables
of the

## 2. In a transmission system, what are the appropriate values for the

reflection coefficient and the VSWR?
For reflection coefficient, in theory, the best is it be of 1, which means, no energy
is reflected, and all is transmitted. However, practically, the appropriate values
are values near to 1. If values are near to 0 or below, the energy is more reflected
and lesser transmitted, so it isn’t appropriate for transmission line.
With VSWR is different. Great values of VSWR means more energy is reflected,
so ideally the values of VSWR must be near to or less than 1. Values greater are
inappropriate for transmission system.

## 3. What happens to the coefficient of transmission and reflection when:

the line ends in short circuit and when the line ends in open circuit?

If the line ends in short circuit, the impedance is zero and the reflection coefficient
is unitary negative (-1) because this line absorbs more power. Thus, all energy isn’t
transmitted to load because it is absorbed and reflected in the short circuit zone. It
can be calculated as follows:

𝑍𝐿 − 𝑍0
Γ= = −1
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑍0
lim 𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑗𝑍0 𝑇𝑎𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝐿 →0

## with Total reflection and Transmission 𝑉0 = 0

If the line ends in open circuit the reflection coefficient is unitary positive (1)
because the infinitive output impedance, so in theory all energy is transmitted
but in the zone of open circuit (physically disconnection) the load doesn’t receive
this energy and reflection is equal to input.

## It can be calculated as follows:

𝑍𝐿 − 𝑍0
Γ= = −1
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑍0
lim 𝑍𝑖𝑛 = −𝑗𝑍0 𝐶𝑜𝑡(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝐿 →∞

## 4. What characteristics should be found in a transmission line system to

be considered well coupled?

The proximity defines the coupling between lines. It defines the characteristic
impedance that is one of the most important parameters, because its impedance
defines reflection and transmission characteristics in the line. Other importer
characteristics is the distance between lines. A contact or friction lines means that
energy from one will be induced in the other, so it produces energy losses.
This, for a well couple is necessary that
𝑍𝐿 − 𝑍0
Γ= = 0 (no reflection)
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑍0
𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑍0
5. In the Smith chart, identify a Z_L = α, a Z_L = 0, two resistive loads
and two complex loads. assume the characteristic impedance.
Conclusiones
Exercises (one per student)

## 1. Student name: Vladimir Paredes

A lossless transmission line has a characteristic impedance of 𝑍0 = 75Ω and the load
at the end of the line has an impedance of 𝑍𝐿 = 45 + 𝑗50Ω. Using the Smith Chart,
find:
a. Reflection coefficient Γ (magnitude and phase), and the VSWR.
b. The input impedance if the line is 0.25𝜆 long.
c. The length of the line, necessary to make the input impedance real and the value
of the impedance in this point.

## • Coeficiente de reflexión Γ (magnitud y fase), y el VSWR.

Con el software
De la gráfica anterior podemos sacar la fase de reflexión
𝒁𝑳 − 𝒁𝒐
𝚪=
𝒁𝑳 + 𝒁𝟎

45 + 𝑗50 − 75
Γ=
45 + 𝑗50 + 75

−30 + 𝑗50
Γ=
120 + 𝑗50

## −30 + 𝑗50 120 − 𝑗50

Γ= ∗
120 + 𝑗50 120 − 𝑗50
−3600 + 𝑗1500 + 𝑗6000 − (𝑗 2 2500)
Γ=
(120)2 − (𝑗50)2

Γ=
(120)2 − (𝑗50)2

Γ=
(120)2 − (𝑗50)2

−1100 + 𝑗7500
Γ=
14400 − (−1)2500

−1100 + 𝑗7500
Γ=
14400 + 2500

−1100 + 𝑗7500
Γ=
16900

## Para calcular en coordenadas polares nos queda

𝑟 = √𝑎2 + 𝑏 2

𝑟 = √−0,065082 + 0,44382

𝑟 = √0,0042354 + 0,1969584

𝑟 = √0,201193846

𝒓 = 𝟎, 𝟒𝟒𝟖𝟓
Y el ángulo es

𝑏
𝜃 = tan−1
𝑎

0,4438
𝜃 = tan−1
−0,06508

𝜃 = tan−1 −6,8193

𝜃 = −81,66
Se le suman 180° porque a era negativo
𝜃 = −81,66 + 180

𝜽 = 𝟗𝟖, 𝟑𝟒

Γ = 𝟎, 𝟒𝟒𝟖𝟓〈𝟗𝟖, 𝟑𝟒〉

Nota: la diferencia de los cálculos con respecto a los datos dados por el software
corresponde a la precisión del cursor.

Por último en este punto nos piden el VSWR que con la gráfica nos da
1+Γ
SWR =
1−Γ

1 + 0,4485
SWR =
1 − 0,4485
1,4485
SWR =
0,5515

𝐒𝐖𝐑 = 𝟐, 𝟔𝟐

## Usando el software podemos ver que Si la línea es de 0,25𝜆 la impedancia de entrada

es
𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟓𝟔, 𝟑𝟓 + 𝟔𝟏, 𝟕

Usando la gráfica manual podemos ver que la longitud es de 0,391λ a esta longitud le
sumamos la de la línea indicada en este punto así

𝑙 = 0,391𝜆 + 0,25𝜆
𝑙 = 0,641𝜆

Como 1 vuelta de la carta no tiene sino 0.5λ se le resta esto al valor encontrado
𝑙 = 0,641𝜆 − 0,5𝜆

𝑙 = 0,141𝜆

## 𝑍̂𝑖𝑛 = 0,8 + 0,84𝑗

Este valor se multiplica por la impedancia de la línea para conocer la impedancia real

𝑍̂
𝑖𝑛 = 0,8 + 0,84𝑗 ∗ 75

𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟔𝟎 + 𝟔𝟑𝒋

Nota: la desviación del resultado corresponde a la presión para ubicar los datos en la
tabla manual

## • La longitud de la línea, necesaria para que la impedancia de entrada sea

real y el valor de la impedancia en este punto.

Primer punto
0,3856𝜆

Segundo punto

0,1366𝜆

## Cero imaginarios, 196,53 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙

2. Student name: Alexis Pedroza
A transmission line has the following parameters:, 𝐿 = 30𝑚𝐻/𝑘𝑚, 𝐶 = 55 𝑛𝐹/𝑘𝑚, 𝐺 =
4𝜇𝑆/𝑘𝑚 and 𝑅 = 100Ω/𝑘𝑚. It has a generator supplying 120𝑉 𝑟𝑚𝑠 at 𝜔 = 3 𝑥 105 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠
and in series with a resistance of 300Ω. The load has an impedance of 80Ω. Find the
input voltage and current.

R + jwL
𝒛𝟎 = √
G + jwC

L = 30 mH/ km.
C = 55 nF/km.
G = 4uS / km.
R= 100Ω/𝑘𝑚
W = 3 x 105 rad/s
W = 3 x 105 rad/s =47.75 kHz

𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝐻
wL= (3 ∗ 105 )∗ 30 ∗ 10−3 = 9000 >> R
𝑠 𝑘𝑚
wL= (2 ∗ 𝜋)(47.75 ∗ 103 𝐻𝑧) ∗ (30 ∗
𝐻
10−3 )
𝑘𝑚
= 𝟗𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟔. 𝟔𝟑
𝑯∗𝑯𝒛
𝒌𝒎
= 𝟗𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟔. 𝟔𝟑 (
𝟏
𝒌𝒎
𝟏
) ∗ (Ω ∗ s) ∗ ( )
𝒔
>> R
𝐻 𝑯∗𝑯𝒛 Ω
wL= (2 ∗ 𝜋)(47.75 ∗ 103 𝐻𝑧) ∗ (30 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝑚) = 𝟗𝟎𝟎𝟎, 𝟔𝟔 𝒌𝒎
= 𝟗𝟎𝟎𝟎, 𝟔𝟔 (𝒌𝒎 ) >> R

𝐹 Hz∗F 1 𝑠 1
wC = (2 ∗ 𝜋)(47.75 ∗ 103 𝐻𝑧) ∗ (55 ∗ 10−9 𝑘𝑚) = 0.016501215 Km
= 0.016501215 Km Ω 𝑠
=
𝟏
𝟎. 𝟎𝟏𝟔𝟓𝟎𝟏𝟐𝟏𝟓
𝐊𝐦∗𝛀
MODELO QUE UTILIZAR COMO:

WL>> R y wC << G

Por lo tanto
se desprecia R modelo a utilizar LC con perdida.
𝑳 30x10−3 H 𝐻 Ω∗s
𝒛𝟎 = √ = √ −9
= √545,45 = √545,45 𝑠 = √545,45Ω2 = 738.55 Ω
𝑪 55x10 F 𝐹
Ω

## Con el modelo _ RLCG:

𝑹 + 𝒋𝒘𝑳 𝟏𝟎𝟎Ω/km + 𝒋(𝟒𝟕. 𝟕𝟓 ∗ 𝟏𝟎𝟑 Hz )(𝟑𝟎 ∗ 𝟏𝟎−𝟑 H/km)
𝒁𝟎 = √ = √
𝑮 + 𝑱𝒘𝑪 𝟒 ∗ 𝟏𝟎−𝟔 S/km + 𝑱(𝟒𝟕. 𝟕𝟓 ∗ 𝟏𝟎𝟑 Hz )(𝟓𝟓 ∗ 𝟏𝟎−𝟗 F/km)

## 𝑹 + 𝒋𝒘𝑳 𝟏𝟎𝟎Ω/km + 𝒋(𝟏𝟒𝟑𝟐. 𝟓 Hz ∗ H/km)

𝒁𝟎 = √ = √
𝑮 + 𝑱𝒘𝑪 𝟒 ∗ 𝟏𝟎−𝟔 S/km + 𝑱(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟐𝟔𝟐𝟔𝟐𝟓 Hz ∗ F/km)

## 𝑹 + 𝒋𝒘𝑳 𝟏𝟎𝟎Ω/km + 𝒋(𝟏𝟒𝟑𝟐. 𝟓 Hz ∗ H/km)

𝒁𝟎 = √ = √
𝑮 + 𝑱𝒘𝑪 𝟒 ∗ 𝟏𝟎−𝟔 S/km + 𝑱(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟐𝟔𝟐𝟔𝟐𝟓 Hz ∗ F/km)

𝐙𝟎 = (𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 − 𝟒. 𝟎𝟏𝟑𝟑𝐢 ) Ω
CALCULO DE LAMDA.
2∗π
λ= β = ω√L ∗ C
β

λ= β = 3 ∗ 105 √30 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 55 ∗ 10−9
β 𝑠 𝑘𝑚 𝑘𝑚

λ= β = 3 ∗ 105 √30 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 55 ∗ 10−9
β 𝑠 𝑘𝑚 𝑘𝑚

𝑠
2∗π rad √30 ∗ 10−3 Ω ∗ s Ω
λ= β = 3 ∗ 105 ∗ 55 ∗ 10−9
β 𝑠 𝑘𝑚 𝑘𝑚

λ= β = 3 ∗ 105 √1.65 ∗ 10−9
β 𝑠 𝑘𝑚2

λ= β = 3 ∗ 105 ∗ 4.062 ∗ 10−5
β 𝑠 𝑘𝑚
λ= β = 12.19
β 𝑘𝑚
λ= β = 12.19
12.19
𝑘𝑚
λ= β = 12.19
12.19
𝑘𝑚
λ = 0.515 𝐤𝐦. β = 12.19
𝑘𝑚

LONGITUD ELÉCTRICA:
x
𝒍= 𝑠𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑜 Lf = x = 1 𝑘𝑚
λ
1km
𝒍= 𝑠𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑜 Lf = 1 𝑘𝑚
0.515km
𝒍 = 1.942 𝑠𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑜 Lf = 1 𝑘𝑚

## IMPEDANCIA DE ENTRADA DE LA LINEA:

Según Modelo LC
𝒁𝒐 = 𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 𝒁𝑳 = 𝟖𝟎Ω 𝒍 = 1.942
𝒁𝑳 + 𝒁𝟎 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐𝝅𝒍)
𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝒁𝟎 ( )
𝒁𝟎 + 𝒁𝑳 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐𝝅𝒍)
𝟖𝟎 + 𝒋𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐𝝅(1.942))
𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 ∗ ( )
𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 + 𝒋𝟖𝟎 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐𝝅(1.942))
𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐𝝅(1.942)) = −𝟎. 𝟑𝟖𝟏𝟓

## 𝟖𝟎 + 𝒋𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 ∗ (−𝟎. 𝟑𝟖𝟏𝟓 )

𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 ∗ ( )
𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 + 𝒋𝟖𝟎 ∗ (−𝟎. 𝟑𝟖𝟏𝟓 )
𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟗𝟏. 𝟓 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢

## Con el modelo RLCG:

𝐙𝟎 = (𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 − 𝟒. 𝟎𝟏𝟑𝟑𝐢 ) Ω 𝒁𝑳 = 𝟖𝟎Ω 𝒍 = 1.942

𝒁𝑳 + 𝒁𝟎 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐𝝅𝒍)
𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝒁𝟎 ( )
𝒁𝟎 + 𝒁𝑳 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐𝝅𝒍)
𝟖𝟎 + 𝒋(𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 − 𝟒. 𝟎𝟏𝟑𝟑𝐢 ) 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐𝝅(1.942))
𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 ∗ ( )
(𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 − 𝟒. 𝟎𝟏𝟑𝟑𝐢 ) + 𝒋𝟖𝟎 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐𝝅(1.942))

## 𝟖𝟎 + 𝒋(𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 − 𝟒. 𝟎𝟏𝟑𝟑𝐢 ) ∗ (−𝟎. 𝟑𝟖𝟏𝟓 )

𝒁𝒊𝒏 = (𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 − 𝟒. 𝟎𝟏𝟑𝟑𝐢 ) ∗ ( )
(𝟕𝟑𝟖. 𝟓𝟖 − 𝟒. 𝟎𝟏𝟑𝟑𝐢 ) + 𝒋𝟖𝟎 ∗ (−𝟎. 𝟑𝟖𝟏𝟓 )

𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟗𝟎 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢

Según modelo LC

𝑽𝒈 ∗ 𝒁𝒊𝒏
𝐕𝐢𝐧 =
𝒁𝒈 + 𝒁𝒊𝒏

## 𝟏𝟐𝟎𝐕𝐫𝐦𝐬 ∗ (𝟗𝟏. 𝟓 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢)

𝐕𝐢𝐧 =
(𝟑𝟎𝟎Ω) + (𝟗𝟏. 𝟓 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢)
𝐕𝐢𝐧 = 𝟓𝟗 − 𝟒𝟑. 𝟒𝟏𝒊
Según modelo RLCG

𝑽𝒈 ∗ 𝒁𝒊𝒏
𝐕𝐢𝐧 =
𝒁𝒈 + 𝒁𝒊𝒏

## 𝟏𝟐𝟎𝐕𝐫𝐦𝐬 ∗ (𝟗𝟎 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢)

𝐕𝐢𝐧 =
(𝟑𝟎𝟎Ω) + (𝟗𝟎 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢)

Según modelo LC

## 𝑽𝒊𝒏 = 𝟓𝟗 − 𝟒𝟑. 𝟒𝟏𝐢 𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟗𝟏. 𝟓 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢

𝑽𝒊𝒏
𝑰𝒊𝒏 =
𝒁𝒊𝒏
𝟓𝟗 − 𝟒𝟑. 𝟒𝟏𝐢
𝑰𝒊𝒏 =
𝟗𝟏. 𝟓 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢

𝑰𝒊𝒏 = 𝟎. 𝟐 + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟒𝟓𝒊

## 𝑽𝒊𝒏 = 𝟓𝟖, 𝟖 − 𝟒𝟑. 𝟔𝟒𝐢 𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟗𝟎 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢

𝑽𝒊𝒏
𝑰𝒊𝒏 =
𝒁𝒊𝒏
𝟓𝟖, 𝟖 − 𝟒𝟑. 𝟔𝟒𝐢
𝑰𝒊𝒏 =
𝟗𝟎 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢
𝑰𝒊𝒏 = 𝟎. 𝟐 + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟒𝟓𝒊

PARAMETROS
IMPEDANCIA DE 𝒁𝒊𝒏 = 𝟗𝟏. 𝟓 − 𝟐𝟕𝟖𝐢
VOLTAJE DE 𝐕𝐢𝐧 = 𝟓𝟗 − 𝟒𝟑. 𝟒𝟏𝒊
CORRIENTE DE 𝑰𝒊𝒏 = 𝟎. 𝟐 + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟒𝟓𝒊
3. Student name:
A 50Ω lossless transmission line has a 𝑍𝐿 = 45 − 𝑗75Ω. If it is 22𝑚 long and the
wavelength is 2𝑚. Find and probe with the smith chart:
a. Input impedance.
b. Reflection coefficient.
c. VSWR

## 4. Student name: Jose Angel Bossa

A transmission line of length 𝑙 = 0.25𝜆 has an input impedance 𝑍𝑖 = 45 + 𝑗60Ω. Using
the Smith Chart, find the load impedance if 𝑍0 = 50Ω.
Solution

From the equation of Zin you can clear the value of ZL as follows:

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍0 𝑇𝑎𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑍0
𝑍0 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 𝑇𝑎𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)

Well, then:

𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍0
𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑍0
𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍0 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿
𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ)

𝑗𝑍0 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝐿 +
𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑍0
𝑗𝑍𝐿 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍0 +
𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝐿 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ) + 𝑗𝑍0 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)
𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑍0
𝑍0 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ) + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)
𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝐿 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ) + 𝑗𝑍0 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)
𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑍0
𝑍0 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ) + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)

## 𝑍0 𝑍𝐿 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ) + 𝑗𝑍0 2 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)

𝑍𝑖𝑛 =
𝑍0 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋ℓ) + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋ℓ)

## −𝒁𝟎 𝒁𝒊𝒏 𝑪𝒐𝒔(𝟐𝝅𝓵) + 𝒋𝒁𝟎 𝟐 𝑺𝒆𝒏(𝟐𝝅𝓵)

𝒁𝑳 =
−𝒁𝟎 𝑪𝒐𝒔(𝟐𝝅𝓵) + 𝒋𝒁𝒊𝒏 𝑺𝒆𝒏(𝟐𝝅𝓵)

## Now, replacing the known values, you get it:

−50Ω ∗ (45 + j60Ω) ∗ 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋 ∗ 0.25) + 𝑗50Ω2 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋 ∗ 0.25)
𝑍𝐿 =
−50Ω ∗ 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝜋 ∗ 0.25) + 𝑗 ∗ (45 + j60Ω) ∗ 𝑆𝑒𝑛(2𝜋 ∗ 0.25)

𝟖𝟎
𝒁𝑳 = 𝟐𝟎 − 𝒋 ≈ 𝟐𝟎 − 𝒋𝟐𝟔. 𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟕
𝟑

To contrast the values obtained with Smith's chart, Smith Software V4.1 was used.

## Using the Smith Chart Software to verify

5. Student name: Alexis Mina
A load 𝑍𝐿 = 45 − 𝑗50Ω is connected to a transmission line with 𝑍0 = 50Ω. The line is 𝑙 =
0.30𝜆. Find the input impedance and at least two line lengths where the input
impedance is real. Use the Smith Chart to Solve the exercise.
we calculate the input impedance

( 45 − j50) + 𝑗(50)𝑡𝑎𝑛(2𝜋𝑙)
𝑧𝑖𝑛 = 50Ω
50 + 𝑗( 45 − j50)𝑡𝑎𝑛(2𝜋𝑙)

Replacing 𝑙

( 45 − j50) + 𝑗(50)𝑡𝑎𝑛(2𝜋0.30)
𝑧𝑖𝑛 (0.30λ) = 50
50 + 𝑗( 45 − j50)𝑡𝑎𝑛(2𝜋0.30)

## 𝑧𝑖𝑛 (0.30λ) = 843(0° )

Collaborative Exercises
1. For the following input impedance and load impedance, find the wavelength necessary to
get a real input impedance.

a. 𝑍𝐿 = 35 − 𝑗60Ω 𝑍0 = 75Ω.
b. 𝑍𝐿 = 15 − 𝑗50Ω 𝑍0 = 50Ω.
c. 𝑍𝐿 = 45 − 𝑗65Ω 𝑍0 = 30Ω.
d. 𝑍𝐿 = 50 − 𝑗30Ω 𝑍0 = 75Ω.
Conclusions (one per student)
21/5000
Conclusion 1: Student name
(one per student)
Conclusion 2: Alexis Pedroza
reduced models of distributed parameters: Depending on the relationship between
the electrical parameters of a transmission line, the propagation constants can obtain
simpler waveforms.
the reduced models are very useful in the field work, because they simplify the
calculations by facilitating the applications of the wave equations.

When WL >> R, R is eliminated of the equations. In that situation the model is LC with
losses.

## Conclusion 5: Student name

References (one per student)

## Bibliography 1: Jose Bossa

. Chen, W. (2005). The Electrical Engineering Handbook. Boston: Academic
direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=117152&lang=es&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_513
. Carl Oliver (march 12, 2013). Smith chart basics, part 3: finding reflection
coefficient [Archive in video] Retrived from

## . Hierauf, S. (2011). Understanding Signal Integrity. Boston: Artech House,

Inc. Chapter 6, 7, 11. Retrieved
&AN=345692&lang=es&site=eds-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_49

## Bibliography 2: Alexis Pedroza

Chen, W. (2005). The Electrical Engineering Handbook. Boston: Academic
Press, 525-551. Retrieved