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A Thesis
Presented to
The Faculty of the College of Criminal Justice Education
Isabela State University
Cauayan, Isabela


In partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Criminology


June 2019

Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or trauma to another person by way of

bodily contact. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be

victims, as in cases of domestic violence or workplace aggression.[ CITATION Mas19 \l 1033 ]

Physical abuse is caused by many influences, which differ in how they affect the individuals

involved together, they form a multilevel contributory environmental context. Each level of

influence is embedded or “nested” in a broader level, and each has a potential to affect all others.

Reports and news from radios and televisions reveal that parents are most likely to commit

physical abuse of their children due to the attempt of disciplining them.

Why parents abuse their children is confusing. Sometimes it is out of frustration.

Sometimes it is a form and idealistic expectations often abused by parents because of words and

actions and sometimes it is simply and miserably the only way a parent knows to treat their

children, having been raised in an abusive home themselves.

Mash and Wolfe, found that a number of causes of physical abuse against children the most

common is disturbances may cause maltreating parents to misperceive or mislabel their child's


Physical abuse is often difficult to identify not only because of the ethics involved in

doing so but because of the intra-familial issues that may be present; different cultural

acceptances, religion and loyalties to parents and siblings often prevent the open declaration of

the levels of abuse that actually exist. Child maltreatment in all its forms is a global phenomenon

of considerable extent, touching the lives of millions of children. [CITATION Sto14 \l 1033 ]
Youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in

adolescence than those who were not exposed, for those who were abused only and those who

were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth

outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment

to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of

exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence could

lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent—child

attachments in adolescence. [ CITATION Sou10 \l 1033 ]

Other aspects that can contribute to child abuse include parents’ immaturity, lack of

parenting skills, poor childhood experiences and social isolation, as well as common crisis

situations, drug or alcohol problems and domestic violence.

There is little hesitation that child abuse and childhood experience of loss, when no

effective chance is provided for the child to make sense of these experiences, constitutes

unsettled trauma which is likely to obvious itself in some way at a later date.

This study aims to determine the prevalence of physical abuse among children in order to

come up with the appropriate approach parents dealing with children’s misbehavior.

Research Objectives

The general objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of physical abuse

among children, particularly at Cutog Grande Reina Mercedes Isabela.

In particular, it aims to identify the different forms of physical abused and how they are

being committed by parents to their children.

Statement of the Problem

The study will focus on answering the following problems:

1. What are the usual forms of physical abused being committed by parents against their

2. What are the manners which physical abuse is being committed?
3. What are the identified causes or reasons of physical abuse?

Significance of the Study

This study will focus to the prevalence of physical abuse among children at barangay Cutog

Grande Reina Mercedes Isabela.

The outcome of this study is very important to the following:

Barangay Official - in this study being the primer law enforcer in the barangay level this study

would serve as a basis in strengthening child protection.

Community – in this study community are gain an information to know the responsible, and the

limitation of disciplining their children.

Future researcher – this study would serve as reference those who would conduct further study

on prevalence of physical abuse.

Future Parents - in this study said them to being more responsible parents particularly in

dealing with their children.

Law Enforcers- this study would serve as a reference to law enforcers in strengthening the

limitations on how parents disciplining their children.

Parents – in this study parents are gain benefits in the conduct of this study through obtaining

knowledge how to deal with their children’s misbehavior aside from physical treatment.

Scope and Delimitation

This research study is conducted in order to determine the prevalence of physical abuse

among children in Barangay Cutog, Grande Reina Mercedes Isabela. It is delimited to the

residents of the said barangay who have children under their custody.
Conceptual Framework

This study will indicate the prevalence of physical abuse among children of Barangay

Cutog Grande, Reina Mercedes, Isabela.

Physical Abuse
Trauma, Bodily Harm
Physical Sufferings, Injuries
Causes of Physical Abuse

Data Gathering
and Analysis


The paradigm of the study provides for the input which is the physical abuse experienced

by the respondents in the form of trauma, bodily harm, physical sufferings, injuries and also the

causes of physical abuse. It will be processed by data gathering and analyzed to yield results and

conclusions which the study expects to address physical abuse in the community.

Definition of Terms

The following terms were used operationally and conceptually to give better

understanding to the readers.

Abuse- improper or excessive use of treatment.

Bodily harm- is defined as any hurt or injury to a person that interferes with the health or

comfort of the person and that is more than merely transient or trifling in nature.

Children- a young person especially between infancy and youth.

Injury- is damage to the body caused by external force.

Prevalence-the state of happening, being accepted, or being practiced often or over a

wide area.

Physical abuse- it refers to an intentional act causing injury, trauma and other causes.

Physical suffering- it refers to a may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion

associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.

Trauma- it refers to a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a distressing




This Chapter provides the various related studies and literature that have

similarities with this study and were reviewed because there are valuable conclusions which are

essential to support this study

Related Studies


Adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse show greater evidence of sexual

disturbance or dysfunction, homosexual experiences in adolescence or adulthood, depression,

and are more likely than non-abused women to be re-victimized. Anxiety, fear, and suicidal ideas

and behavior have also been associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse but force and

threat of force may be a necessary concomitant. As yet, there is insufficient evidence to confirm

a relation between a history of childhood sexual abuse and a postsexual abuse syndrome and

multiple or borderline personality disorder. Male victims of child sexual abuse show disturbed

adult sexual functioning. The relation between age of onset of abuse and outcome is still

equivocal. Greater long-term harm is associated with abuse involving a father or stepfather and

abuse involving penetration. Longer duration is associated with greater impact, and the use of

force or threat of force is associated with greater harm.[ CITATION Bei12 \l 1033 ]

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes,

including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts.

Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and

emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal

behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. [ CITATION Dar16 \l 1033 ]

Our findings confirm the discrepancy between the expectations of parents and the general

practitioner, and the reality of the findings in specialized centers. Approximately 90% of child
victims of abuse do not show evidence of physical damage. These were found in less than 10%

of abused children. Physical signs of abuse often are difficult to recognize and should not be the

only indicators.[ CITATION Mod12 \l 1033 ]

Victims of Child Sexual Abuse were more at risk of offending than random controls, but

so were their siblings. Only female victims were more likely to offend than their own siblings.

The increased risk for offending was not specifically found for sexual offenses, instead it was

found for various types of offenses. The found difference between female victims and siblings

held true for abuse perpetrated by someone outside the family. We therefore conclude that family

and environmental factors are the most important to explain offending among male Child Sexual

Abuse victims, while these factors alone are not enough to explain the effect of Child Sexual

Abuse on offending for females.[ CITATION deJ17 \l 1033 ]

Emotional abuse, physical abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence were the most

common forms of maltreatment that co-occurred with childhood sexual abuse among males. A

history of childhood sexual abuse only, and childhood sexual abuse co-occurring with other types

of child maltreatment, resulted in higher odds for many mental disorders and suicide attempts

compared to a history of child maltreatment without childhood sexual abuse. Child maltreatment

is associated with increased odds of mental disorders among males. Larger effects were noted for

many mental disorders and suicide attempts for males who experienced childhood sexual abuse

with or without other child maltreatment types compared to those who did not experience

childhood sexual abuse. These results are important for understanding the significant long-term

effects of childhood sexual abuse among males.[ CITATION Tur17 \l 1033 ]

The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on

behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their
victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could

inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda.[ CITATION McK17 \l 1033 ]


What constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents,

and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments

in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses

in this country. There were nine categories of parental verbal abuses namely: (a) Put downs and

shaming, (b) Rejection, (c) Blaming, (d) Fault Exaggerating, (e) Threat, (f) Invoking harm, (g)

Regrets, (h) Unfair comparison, and (i) Negative prediction. [ CITATION Loh10 \l 1033 ]

The greater incidence of child abuse occurred most commonly in female children

between the ages 12 – 18 years old, in families with low socio-economic level and to parents

whose highest educational attainment were high school level. These abuses lasted for 1 – 5 years

before being reported to the proper authorities for intervention. Most perpetrators of the abuses

were the male neighbors followed by the female neighbors and the cohabiting husband; adults

whom the parent/s entrust the care of their children. The study revealed that the most common

form of abuse was physical abuse in the form of hitting, followed by child-rape, spousal abuse in

the presence of the child and verbal assault, respectively. The study concluded that child abuse

damages the child not only physically but also psychologically. The parents’ low socio-economic

status contributed to the stress and trauma of the child.[ CITATION Lap12 \l 1033 ]

The extent and characteristics of child sexual abuse in the Philippines has been identified

in the literature. Ramiro et al. (2010) found in a general population sample, during the first 18

years of life, that 6 per cent of women, and 4.5 per cent of men, have experienced sexual abuse.
In a study of hospital case files of child victims of sexual abuse, the average age of victims was

approximately 10 years, and were 97.3 per cent female. [ CITATION Ram10 \l 1033 ]

In the Philippines, physical discipline influenced children’s anxiety and aggression

according to their mothers. Corporal punishment involves slapping, spanking, hitting, shaking or

beating, and finds the Philippines comparatively high on these measures. [ CITATION Lan10 \l

1033 ]

The tendency of Filipino parents to punish sons more harshly than their daughters could

be explained in relation to how boys and girls are regarded in society. Boys are expected to be

tough and brave. By administering harsher discipline, parents may believe they are molding their

sons to be strong and to prepare them to be future pillars of society. [ CITATION San10 \l 1033 ]

Related Literature


The management of child abuse can be complicated, and often require a multidisciplinary

approach, encompass professionals who will identifying the cause of the abuse or neglect,

treatment of the immediate problems and referral of the child to the relevant child protection

authority for action. Counseling services for the child and the caregivers should form part of the

management regime. In the present case, the objectives were met and the patient got full benefits

of this approach.[ CITATION Kem14 \l 1033 ]

There is extensive evidence that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can have deleterious

consequences for adult psychological and physical functioning. The extent to which CSA

hampers victims in the fulfillment of adult roles such as marriage, employment, and parenting is

less clear. In this review, we investigate the effects of CSA on adult roles in the domain

education, employment, offending, relationships, and parenting.[ CITATION deJ15 \l 1033 ]

Child maltreatment is the abuse and neglect that occurs to children under 18 years of age.

It includes all types of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, negligence

and commercial or other exploitation, which results in actual or potential harm to the child’s

health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or

power. Exposure to intimate partner violence is also sometimes included as a form of child

maltreatment.[ CITATION Wor18 \l 1033 ]

The two main forms of violent discipline are corporal punishment and psychological

violence. According to UNICEF, physical discipline, also known as 'corporal punishment' refers

to any punishment in which physical force is used to cause any degree of pain or discomfort. It

includes, for example, pinching, spanking, hitting children with a hand, or forcing them to ingest

something. Violent psychological discipline involves "the use of verbal aggression, threats,

intimidation, denigration, ridicule, guilt, humiliation, withdrawal of love or emotional

manipulation to control children". Violent discipline is a violation of a child’s right to protection

from all forms of violence while in the care of their parents or other caregivers, as set forth in the

United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child. [ CITATION Ort18 \l 1033 ]

Parents in English-speaking countries are now increasingly likely to be accused of

abusing their children. This mainly affects large proportions of families who are poor, deprived

or socially excluded. [ CITATION Bil18 \l 1033 ]


Are Filipinos children still safe at home? A new study says many of them are not.

According to a new study of the Council for the Welfare of Children (CWC) and the United

Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), most children experience violence where they should feel
safest – in their own homes. The National Baseline Study on Violence against Children launched

on Tuesday, December 6, said that 60% of physical violence suffered by children, and 38% of

psychological violence, happen in their homes. The study was conducted among the 3,866 study

respondents, aged 13 to 24, from 17 regions in the Philippines. Physical violence (66.3%) and

psychological violence (62.8%) are the most common forms of child abuse. Another finding is

that 8 in 10 children experienced a form of abuse. "Eighty percent of the 3,866 respondents aged

13 to 24 years had experienced some form of violence in their lifetime, whether in the home,

school, workplace, community or during dating," the study said. [ CITATION Pat16 \l 1033 ]

Eight in 10 children and young people in the Philippines have experienced some form of

violence in their lifetime that usually begins at home. This is one of the findings of the Council

for the Welfare of Children (CWC) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in their

“National Baseline Study on Violence against Children (VAC),” the first ever national study on

violence against children in the Philippines. The study showed that in the Philippines, “thousands

of children are robbed of their childhood and suffer lifelong developmental challenges as a result

of violence.” “Impacts include mental and physical health disorders, anxiety, depression and

health-risk behaviors including smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse and engagement in high risk

sexual activity,” the study stated. A total of 3,866 children and youth aged 13 to 24 from 172

barangays in 17 regions were randomly selected to participate in the study. A total of 1,979 of

them were males while 1,887 were females, with 2,303 of them belonging to the 13 to 18 age

group. Majority were from the economic middle class while 55.6 percent came from rural areas

and 44.4 percent from urban areas.[ CITATION She18 \l 1033 ]

Physical injuries, rape, and acts of lasciviousness are among the top three abuses

committed against children in Central Visayas during the period of 2015-2017, said the
Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) in Region 7. [CITATION New18 \l

1033 ]

Despite the high prevalence of experiences of violence among both boys and girls,

disclosures are low at 10% overall. Most disclosed to their friends and to some extent, mothers.

They rarely disclosed the violence they experienced to professionals but when they did, teachers

were the most common persons they disclosed to and sought help from. Teachers may be the

ones that children often approach because based on the community stakeholders’ study, schools

conduct seminars on child rights and children spend most of their time in school. However, this

study revealed, that a number of teachers do not have appreciation and understanding of

children’s rights. According to respondents, when children become aware of their rights, “Lalong

tumitigas ang ulo” (they become unrulier) and some children (and parents) would even “threaten

the teachers of being reported to the Department of Social Work and Development (DSWD).”

Statistics from the Women and Child Protection Units also show that teachers report the least

among professionals. [ CITATION UNI16 \l 1033 ]

More children in the Philippines are becoming victims of abuse, violence and

exploitation. In addition, the country lacks a national child protection monitoring and reporting

system to determine the exact number of children in need of special protection, such as victims

of abuse, violence and exploitation. Children affected by armed conflict is also a concern. It is

estimated that 30,000–50,000 children in the Philippines are displaced every year as a result of

armed conflict. Basic services in most conflict-affected communities are often either absent or

severely deficient. This situation has driven some children to become involved with armed

groups.[ CITATION UNI18 \l 1033 ]

This chapter presents the method and procedures used by the researchers in securing
necessary data needed in exploring their study.
Research Method
The study made used of Quantitative Research. According to Allaga and Anderson 2000,
quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed
using mathematically based methods in particular statistics.
The study is a Descriptive research. Descriptive research is a form of planned collection
of data from a population for the purpose of analyzing the relationships between variables
(Oppenheim, 1992).
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the study are the household members of Cutog Grande, Reina
Mercedes Isabela. One hundred respondents will be chosen purposively and will be given a
questionnaire to answer. Set of questions will be used and distributed to the respondents in order
to obtain the responses of the respondents as to the prevalence of physical abuse among children.
Data gathering instrument
In this study, the researchers made used of questionnaires. A questionnaire was
formulated and checked by the adviser for its appropriateness to come up with relative data
which could answer the problems of the study.
The questionnaire consists of three parts. The first part shows the different forms of
physical abused committed by the respondents against their children. The second part displays
the different manners of committing physical abuse, and the third part is the identified causes of
physical abuse.
Informal interview was also conducted to validate the depth of understanding of the
respondents to end in a more concrete answer.
Data gathering procedure
The researchers first asked permission to conduct the study from the Barangay officials.
After obtaining approval, questionnaire was floated personally by the researchers to ensure 100%
retrieval. Moreover, the researchers took close supervision in the administration of the
questionnaire to ensure clarity on items found by the respondents which are highly technical in
Statistical Treatment of Data
The data gathered were tallied, tabulated and interpreted using the following the simple
frequency and percentage count was used in treating the response of the respondents. Weighted
mean was utilized in determining the prevalence of physical abuse committed by the respondents
against their children.

In finding the percentage, the researchers used this formula.

F Where: %= percentage
% = ________ x100 f= frequency
N N= number of the respondents

The researchers used this formula in computing for the weighted mean.

(1) f + (2) f + (3) f + (4) f + (5) f Where: WM = weighted mean

WM = _______________________________ f = frequency
N N = number of respondents

To test the prevalence of physical abused, the weighted mean was interpreted using the
scale below:

Scale Weighted mean Descriptive Interpretation

5 4.21 – 5.00 Strongly Agree
4 3.41 – 4.20 Agree
3 2.61 – 3.40 Disagree
2 1.81 – 2.60 Disagree
1 1.00 – 1.80 Strongly Disagree
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